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PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING WATER USE EFFICIENCY PARTICIPATORY APPROACH FOR IMPROVING IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY THROUGH MICRO IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY IN KERALA STATEA CASE STUDY

B.SHANMUGASUNDARAM AND CHITRA PARAYIL


FACTS • Water

requirement for human and industrial needs is increasing • Water availability for agriculture will become scarce commodity in future •Kerala-Undulating topography, uneven rainfall, high population density, on the lowest per capita water availability, majority of State river become drier during summer • Kerala falls in the category of having 1-3Mha potentiality of MI systems •Efficiency of MI system in Kerala as reported to be 70-75 %. Solution ? Micro Irrigation Demonstration conducted under the Farmer Participatory Action Research Programme reveal that cluster approach and adoption of modern drip fertigation methods in vegetable production will increase the water and fertilizer use efficiency of crops resulting in higher yield and income for the farmers


General Objectives To demonstrate water use efficiency in Vegetable crop under the Farmer Participatory Action Research Programme through Micro irrigation Specific Objectives To impart training on use and maintenance of Drip fertigation and cultivation of vegetables To develop capacity building in drip fertigation technologies To establish a network between farmers, research institutes,government departments and marketing agencies in upscaling the drip fertigation technology


Description of work Selection of Village: Elavancherry,Palakkad district of Kerala Selection of crop : Bitter gourd and Snake gourd Interventions A)Technological interventions-Soil testing,MIsystems, Fertigation and Plastic Mulching B) Extension Interventions-Group formation,Training,Exposure visit and Review meeting C) Market interventions-Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council of Kerala(VFPCK)


Comparative cost of cultivation Bittergourd and Snake gourd under drip fertigation method of cultivation (per ha per season) Cost of cultivation (Rs)

S.No Operation Bitter gourd 1

Land preparation

22125

Snake Per cent gourd 6.06 22125

2

Planting and Trailing cost

85625

23.46

72625

21.87

3

Fertilizer application cost

152360

41.74

137360

41.38

4

Weeding cost

8750

2.40

8750

2.64

5

Irrigation cost

13125

3.60

13125

3.95

6

Plant protection cost

20000

5.48

15000

4.52

7

Harvesting cost

63000

17.26

63000

18.98

Total cost

364985

100.00 331985

Per cent 6.66

100.00


Yield performance of Bitter gourd and Snake gourd under MI Crop

Bittergourd

Yield (t/ha) Traditional method

Drip fertigation method

Per cent Yield increase(%)

37.5

50

33

60

100

Snake gourd 30

Gains due to Drip fertigation 1. Land

1.

Scope for increasing land area under Micro irrigation

2. Labour

2.

Can be managed with less labour ( family labour)

3. Water

3.

Considerable saving in water and power consumption

4. Seed

4.

Hybrid seeds can be cultivated

5. Income 6. Cost of production

5.

Increase in crop income and yields

6. 7.

Reduction in cost due to input saving In the changing circumstances and eroding resource base, there is overwhelming response from farmers

7. Perception


Comparison of returns in Bitter gourd under Drip fertigation Vs Traditional method Parameter

Method of cultivation Drip fertigation

Traditional

Yield (t/ha)

50

37.5

Establishment of MI system/season

5000

-

Maintenance of MI system

7500

-

Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha)

364985

370125

Total cost of cultivation

377485

370125

Gross income(Rs/ha)

900000

675000

Net income(Rs/ha)

522515

304875

B:C ratio

2.38

1.82


Comparison of returns in Snake gourd under Drip fertigation Vs Traditional method Parameter

Method of cultivation Drip fertigation

Traditional

Yield (t/ha)

60

30

Establishment of MI system/season

5000

-

Maintenance of MI system

7500

-

Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha)

331985

313095

Total cost of cultivation

344485

313095

Gross income(Rs/ha)

720000

360000

Net income(Rs/ha)

375515

46905

B:C ratio

2.09

1.15


Cost economics of Mulching in Bitter gourd Parameter

Method of cultivation Drip fertigation with black LLDPE film

Traditional

Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha)

354985

370125

Cost of mulch film per season

10000

-

Yield of produce(Kg/ha)

50000

37500

Market price(Rs/Kg)

18

18

Revenue(Rs/ha)

900000

675000

Total Expenditure

355985

370125

Net income

544015

304875

B:C ratio

2.53

1.82


Farmer Demonstration plot


Group of farmers on exposure visit to jain irrigation system ,Udumulpet


CONCLUSION

Best Vegetable farmer of the State Facilitative factors Cluster approach Adoption of Hybrid varieties(Maya and Kaumudhi) Assured market support Subsidy for MI system Networking of all stake holders Capacity building programmes-Training,Tours Way forward for Kerala Per capita average holding size is only 0.27 ha so the Technology holds good for the State Considering the labour problem faced in the state MI can be recommended as a financially viable option , where technical feasibility exists.


PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING WATER USE EFFICIENCY  

Seminar Session 4

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