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INDIA WATER WEEK 2013 HYDRO POWER GENERATION- IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN HYDRO POWER PROJECTS R.K.KHANNA Former Chief Engineer Environmental Management Organisation Central Water Commission Government of India New Delhi


Env awareness in India • People in ancient India – alive towards env issues • Five elements of nature treated as Gods • Rivers as mother ; Cutting of trees – a sin • Env awareness in water sector Env & social aspects- major concerns in RVP –R&R of displaced people, Canal bank plantations, Trees along reservoir periphery


LEGAL FRAMEWORK • INDIA-ONE OF FEW COUNTRIES WITH SPECIFIC PROVISIONS FOR ENV PROTECTION • ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT, 1986 • EMPOWERS CENTRAL GOVERNMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND IMPROVEMENT • PENALTY - IMPRISONMENT FOR 5 YEARS OR FINE UPTO RS. 1 LAKH OR BOTH 617


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT NOTIFICATION, 1994 ( UNDER ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT, 1986) •

Envtal clearance mandatory for all new projects, and expansion/ modernisation of existing projects covering 29 disciplines ( i/c HP, major irr and FC projects)

AMENDMENT TO EIA NOTIFICATION 1994 (Issued in 1997) – Public hearing introduced

EIA NOTIFICATION, 2006

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Envtal clearance by Central Govt - Category ‘A’ State level State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) - Category ‘B’ Category A (i) ≥ 50 MW hydroelectric power generation;(ii) ≥ 10,000 ha. of CCA Category B (i) < 50 MW ≥ 25 MW hydroelectric power generation;(ii) < 10,000 ha. of CCA

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ENVIRONMENTAL SAFEGUARDS/CONDITIONS STIPULATED FOR WRD PROJECTS • • • • • • • • • • •

Drawing up a master plan for rehabilitation of the oustees; Compensatory afforestation; Restoration of construction areas; Necessary arrangements for supply of fuelwood by the project authorities to the labour force during the construction period; To identify the critically eroded areas in the catchment for soil conservation work; Mechanism for the movement of fish upstream and downstream of the structure across the river; Setting up of monitoring units for implementing the suggested safeguards; Alternatives in case of adverse effect on flora and fauna, wildlife etc.; Command Area Development (including drainage and antiwaterlogging measures). Envtal monitoring – MOEF ( 6 reg offices & CWC- Env Mon Committee )


Management of major env impacts (EIA & EMP) â&#x20AC;˘ Resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) - R&R a sensitive issue, a human problem -National Policy for RR formulated (2007) -objective of R&R - oustees should enjoy a better quality of life at place of resettlement â&#x20AC;˘ Submergence of forests -compensatory afforestation as per Forest Conservation Act 1980)


Management of major env impacts

(cont) â&#x20AC;˘ Water-logging -Management measures like drainage improvement adopted ( CADP ) â&#x20AC;˘ Sedimentation - Reduction in useful storage - Catchment Area Treatment Plan


Management of major env impacts

(cont) â&#x20AC;˘ Flora and fauna - measures for rehabilitation of unique species - relocating sanctuaries-Dudhganga (Maharashtra) - positive aspect -assured w/s for wild life â&#x20AC;˘ Mineral Deposits, Historical Monuments - -protected by constructing ring bunds or by exploiting resources before inundation. -historical monuments under submergence in Nagarjuna Sagar dam ;excavated before impoundment and shifted to a museum on top of a nearby hill


Management of major env impacts

(cont) • Fish/Aquatic Life -provision of fish ladders -reduction in river fisheries compensated by rearing fish in reservoirs • Health Aspects -Spread water related diseaseMalaria, Typhoid, Diarrhea thru stagnant/slow moving water - a general decline in incidence of diseases (improvement in w/s, sanitaion &economic status) - health mgmt plans – health centres at project cost


Management of major env impacts

(cont) â&#x20AC;˘ Tourism and Sports - Dev of recreation areas around many reservoirs - Brindavan Gardens (Krishnarajsagar) - forests around reservoir created by Periyar dam developed as a wildlife sanctuary wildlife - tourism dev should be eco-friendly â&#x20AC;˘ Minimum Flows - Reduction of flows d/s of dams affecting ecology, pisciculture and human habitations - Release of minimum flows necessary - Guideline under preparation by CWC/WQAA


IMP FUTURE ISSUES •

R&R - no of PAPs - For greater common good(Arundhati Roy)40 m GHG emissions from dams - 19% of India’s global warming emissions from large dams Brazilian study


Conclusions • • • • •

Genuine env impacts to be managed Fake env issues (misconceptions) to be removed Projects need not be held up on minor issues Dev & Env-complimentary, not conflicting 3 Cs - Co-ordination, collaboration, co-operation ; not conflicts, controversies, contentious issues


ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN HYDRO POWER PROJECTS