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IWW Presentation on

“Industrial Wastewater Issues & Management�

Resource Conservation and Management Group

Distribution of Freshwater on earth o o o o o

Polar Ice caps and glaciers Ground water and soil moisture Lakes and swamps Atmosphere Streams

77% 22% 0.35% 0.04% 0.01%

 The surface fresh water in the form of lakes, streams and rivers is amounting less than 1% of available fresh water  11% of the total freshwater on earth is Groundwater which can be extracted for use.  overexploitation of Groundwater resources has caused a rapid depletion and deterioration in its quantity and quality both.

Water in India – Existing Scenario Groundwater is the major source of water in our country with 85% of the population dependent on it. Traditionally, India has been endowed with large freshwater reserves, but increasing population and overexploitation of surface and groundwater over the years has resulted in water scarcity in many regions. Sectors dependant on water in India are exhibiting massive growth leading to greater demand for water  Growth of the Indian economy is driving increased water usage across sectors

Water in India – Existing Scenario  It is expected that by around 2020, India will be a ‘water stressed‘ state with per capita availability declining to 1600 cum/person/year. A country is said to be water stressed when the per capita availability of water drops below 1700 cum/person/year.  Due to increasing population and all round development in the country, the per capita average annual freshwater availability has been reducing since 1951 from 5177 m3 to 1869 m3,in 2001 and 1588 m3, in 2010. (Water Technology Centre, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi)

Water in India – Existing Scenario  Per capita Water availability is expected to further reduce to 1341 m3 in 2025 and 1140 m3 in 2050. Hence, there is an urgent need for efficient water resource management through

 Demand side management  Enhanced water use efficiency and  Waste water recycling.  Thus, wastewater/low quality water is emerging as potential source for Recycle & Reuse after essential treatment thereby reducing freshwater requirement.

Wastewater in India- Existing Scenario Wastewater quantity is increasing significantly and with lack of proper treatment and management, the existing Freshwater reserves are being polluted  The discharge of industrial wastewater in the environment makes the useable water resource as unusable.  About 13468 MLD of wastewater is generated by industries of which only 60% is treated major percentage of which includes large scale industries only.  Many industries have been forced to adopt water recycling systems due to the regional scarcity of water

Wastewater in India- Existing Scenario  In case of small scale industries that may not afford cost of waste water treatment plant, Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP) has been set-up for cluster of small scale industries (CPCB, 2005). The treatment methods adapted in these plants are dissolved air floatation, dual media filter, activated carbon filter, sand filtration and tank stabilization, flash mixer, clariflocculator, secondary clarifiers and Sludge drying beds, etc. The conventional wastewater treatment processes are expensive and require complex operations and maintenance.

Industrial Wastewater Management Issues Due to improper design, poor maintenance, frequent electricity break downs and lack of technical man power, the CETP’s constructed to treat wastewater do not function properly and remain closed most of the time (CPCB, 2007b). Performance of CETP’s for treating effluent from small scale industries, is also not complying with prescribed standards  Thus, effluent from such treatment plants, are often, not suitable for household purpose and reuse of the waste water is mostly restricted to agricultural and industrial purposes

Industrial Wastewater Management Issues ď ąThere are higher risk associated to human health and the environment on use of wastewater especially in developing countries, where rarely the wastewater is treated and large volumes of untreated wastewater are being used in agriculture. ď ą Adoption of advanced technology like zero liquid discharge (ZLD) is low when compared to the global scenario. This is mainly because setting up a ZLD system involves high capital investment. ď ą The energy requirement too, is high, leading to increased operational expenses, which deters these sectors installing the ZLD systems

Industrial Wastewater Management Issues Industries mainly MSME Sector are not treating their effluent properly due to:  space constraints

 lack of finance  unaffordable advanced technologies lack of technical know-how  lack of incentives  lack of skilled manpower  lack of awareness about newer technologies Lack of awareness regarding associated hazards

Water & Wastewater Treatment Market in India The Indian Water and Wastewater treatment market is at growth phase and is expected to reflect high growth rate for the next five years. Globally, governments have realized that the supply of clean water and effective treatment of wastewater are crucial for sustainable development. The lack of freshwater resources is becoming a global issue and resulting in the rapid growth of technologies for water reuse and recycling.  Several industries such as power, refineries, and chemicals are adopting efficient and sustainable technology to ensure fresh water supply.

Water & Wastewater Treatment Market in India

New analysis from Frost & Sullivan; Analysis of Indian Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Ma , finds that the market earned revenues of over INR 63.07 billion in 2011 and estimates this to reach INR 102.34 billion in 2016. Industrial sector is growing at a higher rate than that of the municipal sector. Power, food and beverage, pharmaceuticals, refineries and textiles are generating immense opportunities in the water and wastewater treatment equipment market These sector prefer advanced treatment technological systems such as reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for treating

Industrial Wastewater Management Way-Forward Industries should be allowed to take water from downstream and should discharge in the upstream. This will force industries to treat their wastewater effectively.  Industries should be made aware about the latest advancements in wastewater treatment technologies available in the market.  Industries should be given incentives for adopting advanced effective technologies like Desalination, Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration, Membrane Bioreactor, etc.  Industries should get subsidies for recycling & reuse of wastewater.

Industrial Wastewater Management Way-Forward With stringent regulations and legislations in place, the existing scenario can change in coming years.  Gap between wastewater treatment technology providers and industry people should be bridged  Water Metering and Accounting system should be made stringent for industries.  Collection and treatment of domestic wastewater for use by industries.  Water and Wastewater audit should be made mandatory.  E-filing of amount of water used and wastewater discharged should be carried out.

Industrial Wastewater Management Way-Forward  Industrial sites should be chosen considering the least environmental and social impact. For industrial clusters/ industry environmental investigations should be used to assess:  surrounding land usage  local climate factors  site topography  identification of sensitive water resources  surface and groundwater movement, and  the site’s land-use history  Industries should undertake regular environmental & health risk assessments and employ best environmental management practice


Resource Conservation and Management Group

Profile for India Water Week

Industrial Wastewater Issues & Management  

Panel Discussion 8

Industrial Wastewater Issues & Management  

Panel Discussion 8