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ith this publication we are coming to the last issue of 2011-12. I have been associated with the IPI journal for the past six years and take pride to be a part of its success and astonishing transformation of the imperial status it enjoys today in the polymer industry. We had experimented many changes, faced many challenges and overcome many hurdles in its journey to excellence. At the end IPI journal could live to the expectations of IPI family and remain as its front runner . The success of any technical publication lies in its potential to deliver the finest to the readers in its technical deliverables. IPI being an organization with galaxy of talents and greatest voyagers of innovations, the Journal still lack the strong knowledge bank - a collection of ready to publish technical articles - that can enrich the masses especially the upcoming talents. Unless this expertise's and knowledge hidden, unexposed within our leaders of industry, in the form of memories by the founders of this industry and commitments on their journey to success is not unearthed and brought to the lime light, the purpose of IPI journal will remain void. In the coming years, I sincerely wish to create such a treasure crest as the back bone of our journal.

A new, versatile flame retardant for olefinic & styrenic polymers Mr. Shamik Shah................................

Sorona polymer - Sustainable polymers Mr. Chandrakant Lende Mr. Ajinkya Khot................................

Application Range of Unsaturated Polyesters Dr. Subhas Chandra Shit..................20

High Performance Polypropylene Grades from Indian Oil

Mr. Abhay Mulay...............................27

Chapter Events..........................30

Our sincere gratitude to all our authors who supported us by writing technical contributions and making each and every issue interesting. I also wish to express our sincere gratitude to all our advertisers whose contributions and whole hearted support made this publication self-supportive. I am sure in the coming years we will drive this journal to unmatched excellence.

Dr. E. Sundaresan Editor

IPI JOURNAL February / March 12 07


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A new, versatile flame retardant for olefinic & styrenic polymers Mr. Shamik Shah VP - Sales & Marketing

Monachem Additives Pvt. Ltd. Vadodara, India.

Subramaniam Narayan and Marshall Moore of Great Lakes Solutions introduce Emerald 1000. Known for its excellent efficiency and versatility as a flame retardant (FR), decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) has been widely used in electronics, wire and cable, insulation, textiles, transportation, and other applications for several decades. It is rapidly being phased out, however, due to a combination of restrictions that have been placed on its use in Europe and the US and voluntary industry initiative to halt the production and sale of the product in the US by major manufacturers.1 Emerald 1000, a newly developed polymeric brominated FR from Great Lakes Solutions, a Chemtura business, has been demonstrated to be effective in a wide variety of resins including high impact polystyrene (HIPS), acrylonitrilebutadiene-styrene (ABS) polypropylene (PP) and polyethylenes (PEs). Introduced at K2010, this new FR is one of first products in the business’ new Emerald product line. The trade name signifies that the new product is an output of Great Lakes Solutions’ ‘Greener Innovation’ strategy, which is focused on designing products that deliver superior performance while having an improved environmental

profile. The new FR is an excellent alternative to decaBDE and provides greater efficiency and performance advantages over other commercial alternatives based on results of studies conducted by Great Lakes Solutions. Emerald 1000 has a high bromine content, compared to other potential alternatives, which implies a higher efficiency as a flame retardant. This is significant because the efficiency of a FR additive is proportional to its bromine content. In addition to being engineered as a more sustainable alternative, Emerald 1000 also offers the advantage of being a ‘drop-in’ replacement. The additive has been designed to be a free-flowing powder with a high bromine content, high thermal stability and excellent compatibility with a variety of plastics and polymer dispersion. Furthermore, it requires little if any changes to formulation or manufacturing processes and is effective in most applications where decaBDE was used. The new FR has specifically been designed to exhibit improved compatibility with many different polymer systems. Unlike decaBDE, which disperses into a polymer as a discrete particle without any softening, Emerald

1000 partially softens during melt compounding at the typical process temperatures of most styrenic and olefinic resins. This characteristic provides improved compatibility and thus improved physical properties. Some other alternative FRs, such as the compound identified as ‘FR3’ in the examples below, melt below the polymer processing temperatures, which results in a plasticising effect, a behaviour commonly referred to as ‘melt blending’. The use of melt blending additives can lead to a depression of the material’s heat deflection temperature (HDT), a measure of heat resistance under load, or adversely affect other properties, such as the impact strength of the resulting blend. Because Emerald 1000 has been designed to have the same effect on physical properties and melt viscosity in a plastic formulation as decaBDE, it is advantageous for compounders, fabricators and end-users who wish to maintain a balance of performance characteristics such as impact strength, tensile properties, heat deflection temperature, and melt flow when developing new formulations. Great Lakes Solutions’ Application Research Laboratory compared the performance of Emerald 1000 to IPI JOURNAL February / March 12 09


DecaBDE (FR1) and three other commercial alternatives - decabromodiphenyl ethane (FR2), tris (tribromophenyl) cyanurate (FR3) and brominated epoxy oligomer (FR4). Whilst the role of these additives is to provide resistance to ignition and to slow the burning of the plastic once ignited, much of the consideration given to the choice of FR concerns its affect on the physical proper ties of the formulation once the target flame performance is achieved. An industry standard screening test for fire resistance in plastics used for electronics applications is Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Test 94, the Standard for Safety of Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices & Appliances. Following this standard, the flammability of a plastic material is assigned one of several flammability ratings depending on its burning behaviour.2 In the studies described below, plastics were formulated with various FR additives and the required corresponding loading of antimony trioxide (ATO) synergist in order to achieve a V0 rating according to the UL 94 standard. The efficiency of each FR was thus determined by the quantity required to achieve this performance. The effect of the additive on the physical properties of the plastics was also compared. Emerald 1000 was found to demonstrate higher efficiency in terms of required bromine content to achieve V0 performance when compared with other commercial FR s. In HIPS, as shown in Table 1, V0 performance was achieved at 12% loading for the new additive, as well as FR1 and FR2. Having demonstrated the efficacy and efficiency of Emerald 1000, a comparison of the resulting physical properties of the FR formulation in these resins was studied. In each case, a battery of standard physical property tests was conducted. As the name implies, impact strength testing evalu10

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ates the resistance to breakage, i.e. the toughness of the plastic. Two tests were employed in these studies. The Notched Izod Impact test (ASTM D256) and the Gardner or Dart impact test (ASTM D5420) provide complimentary testing of impact strength by two different fracture mechanisms. The impact strength comparison is of particular interest because it is a property that is typically more sensitive to the addition of FRs. HDT (ASTM D648) is an important characteristic for plastics used in applications that experience prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures, such as electronics housings or automotive parts. This property can be either positively or negatively affected by various FRs. An alternate method for predicting service temperature is the Vicat softening point (ASTM D1525), in which the temperature at which a plastic softens is determined. Mechanical properties were evaluated as well, including tensile (ASTM D638) and flexural (ASTM D790) properties. Finally, the rheological, or melt viscosity profiles, were also compared. When developing a ‘replacement’ formulation for an existing application, maintaining comparable rheological properties is often critical. A significant change in melt viscosity can result in a need to change conditions or even equipment in the fabrication operation, which can lead to added cost and development time.

HIPS & ABS In HIPS Emerald 1000 offers very good impact resistance, both in the notched Izod impact strength test and in the falling dart, or Gardner impact test (Table 1). As indicated, Emerald 1000, FR1 and FR2 were tested at a loading of 12%. FR3 was tested at a higher loading to compensate for its lower bromine content. All formulations also contained 4% ATO, which is typically used as a synergist with brominated FRs in thermoplastic formulations.

Properties evaluated included the melt flow index (MFI) and Vicat softening point, which is an indication of the temperature at which moulded parts may deform. The MFI results indicates that Emerald 1000 will result in a minimal change in the melt processing conditions as compared to DecaBDE, while the Vicat test indicates that in HIPS formulations, the new additive will have at least the same level of resistance to heat-induced warpage. Similarly in ABS resin, Emerald 1000 exhibited good efficiency in terms of the loading level required to achieve a V0 rating in the UL-94 vertical burn test. It also showed good compatibility with the polymer, leading to good retention of physical properties The properties summarised in Table 2 indicate that Emerald 1000 offers good impact resistance while maintaining a high heat deflection temperature (HDT), strain at break and tensile properties.

PP & PE The flammability and mechanical properties of Emerald 1000 in a PP copolymer are summarised in Table 3. A comparable balance of melt flow, tensile strength, elongation and impact properties are achieved when compared to FR1 and FR2. Emerald 1000 was also found to be equally effective as a FR in talc-filled polyolefins and can be extended to other filled systems. A further test of the efficiency of the new FR was also conducted. PP copolymers containing equal amounts of FR and synergist for three different additives were subjected to the limiting oxygen index test (LOI), which measures the amount of oxygen required to maintain a flame as a sample is burned. A higher percentage of oxygen being required so sustain a flame during the test indicates greater fire resistance. Emerald 1000 was determined to have a slightly higher LOI value (Table 3) than the other FR systems in PP. Therefore, it may be possible to use reduced loadings of the new FR,

depending on the specific formulation. For wire and cable applications where HDPE is widely used, Emerald 1000 has been found to be a good dropin replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (FR1) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (FR2). The basic properties of Emerald 1000 in HDPE are shown in Table 4. It can be clearly seen that the new additive provides equivalent or better performance than the traditional FR s.

Recyclability Recyclability of thermoplastics used for production of injection moulded parts is essential both at the beginning and end of the life-cycle of the parts in order to minimise cost in the manufacturing operation and to manage postconsumer waste. Emerald 1000 exhibits excellent recyclability and good prop-

erty retention after multiple cycling in injection moulded materials. In a study conducted with Emerald 1000, a total of five injection moulding cycles were carried out in which 25% of a moulded HIPS formulation from sprue and gate was ground and added back into the next cycle. Excellent property retention was seen in the UL-94 flammability tests, Notched Izod Impact tests and colour evaluations. The rheological stability of the HIPS formulation containing Emerald 1000 is illustrated in Figure 1. After five cycles, no apparent change in the viscosity to shear rate curve can be seen.

Conclusion As the transition from DecaBDE to alternatives continues over the coming months and years, there will be increasing demand for effective alternatives.

The studies presented in this article demonstrate that Emerald 1000 provides an excellent option for DecaBDE replacement with a better overall match to its physical and rheological properties than other available alternatives. Extensive evaluations of Emerald 1000 are ongoing as Great Lakes Solutions prepares for commercial production. For more information, pl. contact:

Michael Tew

Great Lakes Solutions Chemtura Singapore Pte Ltd 73 Science Park Drive #02-10 CINTECH I Singapore 118254 DID : 65-6770-5119 Fax : 65-6774-5916 HP : 65-9177-5132 Website:

INDIAN PLASTICS INSTITUTE 30, Sarvodaya Industrial Estate, 1st Floor, Off Mahakali Caves Road, Near Paper Box Factory, Andheri (E) Mumbai 400 093. Tel. : 022-6695 0347, 6696 2601 n E-mail : Fax : 022 - 6695 0348 n Website : http: /

PLASTICS TECHNOLOGY - ONE YEAR PART TIME DIPLOMA (DIPI) AND CERTIFICATE COURSES OF INDIAN PLASTICS INSTITUTE IPI Mumbai Chapter invites applications for admission to one year part-time Plastics Technology Diploma (DIPI) and Certificate Courses 2012 - 2013 scheduled to commence from August 2012. This Course is meant for Supervisory & Managerial Positions. Timings : 6.30 pm to 8.30 pm (Monday to Friday), at ICT (Formerly known as UICT) Minimum Educational Qualifications

Experience in Plastics Industry

Diploma / Post Diploma / Degree in Engineering / Technology

Not essential

B. Sc. or Equivalent Qualification with Science

Not essential, but 1 Year experience desirable

12 th Std. Science with PPOT Certificate

Minimum of 2 years

12 th Std. Science or 12 th Std. Science with ITI / NCVT Certificate

Minimum of 3 Years

Syllabus and Prospectus containing Application Form will be available on payment of Rs. 250 / - (+ Rs. 25 for Postage) at the address given above. For further details you may contact IPI Office at the above address. Note : Those who do not have prescribed qualification can be admitted for Refresher Course without being eligible to appear for Examination. IPI JOURNAL February / March 12 11


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Sorona Polymer – Sustainable Polymer Mr. Chandrakant Lende B-Tech (Textiles)

Mr. Ajinkya Khot B-Tech (Textiles) Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai

Abstract: Polyester is one of the great man made fiber discoveries of forties and has been manufactured on industrial scale. They are the first choice for apparels. Modification of polyester is a factor in research of fibers that have new characteristics and enhanced performance. Sorona is considered to be most important fiber after polyester period. In this article we have reveiwed about various sources of raw materials for Sorona which include two chemical and one biological method. Also we have stated various properties, advantages and different applications of sorona fiber.

1. INTRODUCTION: For thousands of years, the use of fibers was limited by the inherent qualities available in the natural world. Cotton wrinkled from wear and washings, silk required delicate handling while wool shrank and was eaten up by moth. Several efforts were taken to remove these defects, out of which introduction of synthetic fiber was one successful attempt. With the continuously growing requirements of human beings, fiber industry evolved by the development of synthetic fiber. Today, in terms of total fibers produced globally, share of synthetic fibers is larger than all natural fibers put together1. But, such fibers increased dependency on crude oil as they are manufactured from fossil oil derivatives. The fact remains that the fibers from such source are nonbiodegradable and process of manufacturing is non-ecofriendly2.

Awareness on environment and ever increasing demand for sustainable textiles has put pressure on researchers to search for eco-friendly options in the fiber world. Especially, in the developed countries demand for organic, green or eco-friendly products were never so large and high growth rates reported by several news and research repor ts. Responding to environmental, sustainability, business and market needs, Du-Pont company has comm-ercialized a new polymer platform, SORONA, based on propanediol (1,3PDO)3 Sorona polymer can easily be transformed into fiber and other articles to offer unique properties and fulfill customer's needs. The elasticity and dyeability of sorona are better than those of fibers belonging to polyester family which makes it useful in engineering plastics, films, carpets and clothing materials. For these reasons, sorona based fibres are considered as the most promising candidates for replacement of PET.

2. SORONA POLYMER : It is polymer created by DuPont, based on 1,3-PDO. Sorona is poly(trimethylene terephthalate) ( PTT or 3GT), a condensation product of 1,3-PDO and terephthalic acid (TPA) or dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). Sorona belongs to poly-ester family among which poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET or 2GT) & poly (butylene terephtha-late)(PBT or 4GT) are important member. Corterra is the trade name for sorona4. Sorona is one of the important new materials for fiber & fabric

produced from it are softer, elastic, antistatic, durable & so on. Synthesis of sorona remained non-commercial for long time for economical reason. One of the starting material i.e. 1, 3-PDO was very expensive which made PTT difficult to be comm-ercialized5. Recently, methods have been established for producing 1,3PDO in commercial quantity from petrochemical sources as well as some renewable sources via biological processes. It has been observed that sorona from the renewable sources has better environmental footprint & has several advantages over other polymers like 1 The overall PTT polymerization process is more energy efficient than other polymers.6 2 Greenhouse gas emission in the manufacture of bio-PDO has been demonstrated to be about 40% less than for petrochemical PDO. 3 Further processing of PTT also saves energy due to lower temperature required for both remelting and dyeing. 4 Recycling of PTT is much easier due to absence of heavy metals in the product & l o w e r p ro c e s s i n g t e m p e - r a t u re s , compared to PET & Nylon7.

3. POLYMER MANUFACTURING : Raw material for PTT manufacturing are 1,3-PDO and DMT or TPA. DMT or TPA can be obtained from petro-chemical sources. PDO can be obtained from petrochemical sources as well as from some renewable sources. PDO obtained from renewable sources is known as BioIPI JOURNAL February / March 12 13

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PDO. Recently, method has been developed for producing Bio-PDO from corn sugar and has been found effective. 3.1 PDO FROM CHEMICAL SOURCES : Initially, PDO was synthesized & marketed by Degussa8 in small quantities as fine chemical. This route first selectively hydrates acrolein, producing intermediates 3-hydroxy propionaldehyde that can be used to produce PDO by catalytic hydro- genation (Scheme 1) SCHEME 1: Synthesis of 1,3-PDO using hydrogenation process H2O












Recently, a widely acceptable route for producing PDO has been introduced by company called Shell. This route produces PDO by hydroformylation of ethylene oxide with synthesis gas (Scheme 2) SCHEME 2: Synthesis of 1,3- PDO using hydroformylation O


CO 2






3.2 PDO FROM BIO-LOGICAL PROCESS: Bio-PDO is the PDO developed from biological sources. Need for bio-PDO developed from several factors like 1 Difficulty & cost of producing “polymer & fiber grade� PDO 2 Sustainability of renewable feedstock vs. non-renewable feedstock. 3 Efficiency of bio-PDO processes showed that they are economically competitive with established processes. First raw material used for producing bio-PDO is corn sugar9, well known as plentiful & inexpensive raw material. Conversion of glucose to PDO was observed to occur in two stages: first by yeast to intermediate product, glycerol, then by bacteria to PDO. Recently, a biocatalyst has also been developed to do both steps in single fermentation stage. 3.3 PTT SYNTHESIS: A schematic diagram of a typical continuous polymerization is shown in figure 110. PDO, DMT, catalyst & additives are fed to the ester exchanger. Reaction by-product, methanol is seperated & 14

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Fig 1 : Schematic diagram for continuous polymerization process (Ref 10)

removed from the transesterification process. Reaction products are fed to flasher where most of the excess PDO is removed & recovered. Next is the prepolymer-isation where - reaction takes place, & more PDO is recovered. Polymer is sent to finisher under vacuum, further increasing the molecular weight of the polymer. Polymer is extruded, water cooled & cut into pellets & packed for shipping. Here, the esterification temperature should be controlled between 215 0C & 235 0C. The polycondensation can be carried out between 250 0C & 270 0C under vacuum. Ethylene glycol titanate can be used as catalyst in esterification reaction while antimony acetate catalyst for polycon-densation reaction11. Synthesis of PTT using TA & 1,3-PDO is also possible in presence of picryl chloride using pyridine as solvent. This reaction is carried out for 15 hours, giving PTT with 85% yield. NO2














+ O


+ O2N


3.4 REMELTING: As with most of the polymers, PTT is also sold in the form of pellets to customers. These pellets are then remelted to molten polymer & cast, spun or processed into intermediates or end use products. Since, remelting & processing of PTT is more sensitive to moisture & other impurities, special efforts are taken to ensure PTT is clean, dry & free of other polymers. Pellets must be dried to <40 ppm moisture before drying, also a nitrogen environ-ment is recommended for drying.

4. POLYMER PROPERTIES: It is linear semicrystalline polymer with a melting temperature of 228 0C and a glass transition temperature of 50 0C. a) Durability/Resilience: Fiber durability, which in carpet applications is measured by the resiliency of the fiber and its ability to recover from compression, is together with stain resistance the most important property that consumers look. This property is inherently better in fibers made from PTT vs. PET, because of PTT's chemistry and molecular design. PET and PTT crystallize into triclinic unit cells during fiber formation. However, the glycol por tion of their chemical chains crystallizes into different conformations. The two methylene units in the glycol portion of PET are arranged Trans to each other, whereas the three methylene units in PTT are arranged in a gauche-gauche conformation12. Because of the methylene diol's conformations, PTT chains are contracted by 24.7% while the PET chain is fully extended. Also the benzene ring of the terephthalic ester groups of PET are oriented parallel to each other in every chemical repeating unit. However, the orientation of PTT's benzene ring in the successive terephthalic ester units is at an angle to each other, thus PTT molecular chain forms a 2/1 helix, which is made up of two repeating units per turn which introduces a zigzag shape to the polymer chain. This difference is illustrated in fig 213 which compares the molecular structures of PET and PTT. As a result of this structure, compressive forces translate at the molecular level to bending and twisting of bonds, rather than just stretching. The molecular structure of PTT is more like a coil spring compared to a straight wire structure in the case of PET polyester. Therefore, PTT fiber can take an additional

Structure of Aromatic Polyester Polymers

Fig 2. Molecular shape of PTT (Ref 13)

level of applied strain and recover completely. Accordingly, when a PET fiber is subjected to compression forces in carpet applications (e.g. when carpet is walked on or subjected to carpet industry tests that simulate foot traffic), the molecular chain structure of PET changes and develops a larger permanent set or crystal deformation which is not completely recoverable. This causes consumer carpet made from PET polyester to develop a crushed appearance where the carpet fibers do not continue to stand up as they did when the PET carpet was new. In the case of PTT, compression forces in carpet applications cause the molecular chain structure to deform. However, the crystalline structure is able to recover without developing a permanent set. The carpet fibers continue to stand up and appear new for a significantly longer period of time.14 b) Softness : Softness is important to the consumer for both carpet and apparel applications. Consumers judge the softness of a residential carpet by touching or walking on the upright twisted fibers or yarns. The ease with which the yarns bend over is a measure of softness. Consumers judge the softness of a fabric by assessing its hand or drape (the ease with which conforms to the shape of the body). The degree of softness in both cases is proportional to the amount of force required to bend the fiber. The laboratory measurement of the amount of force

required to bend a fiber is known as fiber modulus, which can also ascertain the relative softness of the resulting fabric or article. The lower modulus of PTT fibers over PET fibers is explained on a molecular level by the lower crystalline modulus of PTT. The odd number of carbon atoms in the tri-methylene constituent of PTT results in different chain conformations for PTT as compared to PET. PTT conformation is more helical or spring like, whereas PET is straighter like a wire. Naturally, more force is needed to deform a straight wire while very little force is required to deform a coil spring to the same extent, therefore, PTT with coil spring structure has a very low crystal modulus, 2.5 GPa vs. 107 GPa for PTT and PET crystals, respectively15. As a result, the crystals of PTT are relatively weaker and easier to bend compared to PET and the fiber made from this polymer has lower modulus. Evidence of this different crystalline modulus caused by molecular structure differences is apparent also in the higher glass transition temperatures (Tg) and crystalline melting temperatures (Tm) of PET vs. PTT. These higher temperatures generally correspond to stiffer molecular structures. Some of the other properties of PTT are also compared with some polymers in the following table 116. From the above table it is clear that along with excellent stretch recovery PTT also provides other advantages like excellent physical and chemical

properties, dimensional stability, low moisture absorption, easy care, good weather resistance, easy process ability and recyclability.

5. ADVANTAGES OF SORONA POLYMER: 5.1 Spinning: Low melting temperature than PET/ Nylon 6,6 helps in lowering the energy cost. Since melt temperature is similar to nylon 6, PTT can be spun on spinning machines originally built for nylon 6 and polypropylene. Fiber cross sections other than circular can also achieved with PTT to get desired attributes. 5.2 Wind up: Higher stretch and recovery makes winder setup easier for PTT. Standard wind up units used in industry can be used for PTT. 5.3 Dyeing: Effectively disperse dyed fibers can be obtained at atmospheric boil (1000C) without any carriers or pressurization. Once dyed, fabric exhibits deeper shades and superior wash fastness17. 5.4 Films: PTT can be cast into films by optimizing the process conditions used for polypropylene and nylon 6. This optimization is required to eliminate film brittleness of cast films. PTT can be modified (i.e. copolymerized) or blended with other commercially available polymers (2GT and 4GT) to make films with variety of properties.

Table 1 : Comparison of properties of Sorona with other fibers (Ref. 16) Fiber property

Nylon 6,6

Nylon 6





Rayon Cotton Silk

Specific Gravity










Tg (0C)










Tm (0C)











Tenacity (g/d)










Moisture regain (%)










Elastic recovery (5% strain)










Refractive Index










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5.5 Other advantages: PTT is highly resistant to most stains and hence no need for surface treatments with additives or coatings. PTT also resists UV degradation better than other fibres, shows lower pilling, low water absorption and also lower electrostatic charging.

6. APPLICATIONS AND END USES: In the end use performance, sorona polymer show mechanical properties better than nylon. In combination (blend) sorona exhibit chemical properties better than PET. 6.1 Apparel / Carpet: Due to its softness & natural hand, printability, elasticity & easy dyeability, sorona can be significantly used for apparels. Its resistance to chlorine & UV also makes it important in the sports market. It can be blended with some natural or synthetic fibers to improve softness, stretch recovery & other functional attributes. Carpet with variety of colors & styles with good dye uniformity can be obtained with sorona. Its properties like superior bulk, resilience, texture retention, stain resistance, easy dry & softer feed make it beneficial for carpet. 6.2 Films: Sorona, either as in modified or


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blended with other polymers can successfully be used in films to obtain the desired advantages & increased value. A combination of properties of sorona like oxygen & water vapour barrier, printability, heat sealability provides advantages in food packaging applications. 6.2 Nonwovens: Nonwovens are softer, flexible air permeable and have better elastic recovery than PET. Nonwoven application is in filter media. 6.3 Composites: To increase bending strength, tensile strength, glass fiber or natural fiber can be incorporated in sorona18

7. CONCLUSION: Sorona polymer provides functionality and attributes different from other polymeric material in textile world. Since, the production process of bio-PDO has been successfully commercialized, rapid growth in this area is expected. Also, sorona polymerization process is claimed to consume lower energy which makes it a sustainable polymer a competitive substitute for other polymer. Thus Sorona manufacturing is estimated to be competitive with other similar types of commercially available polymers. Finally, it can be said that sorona is well poised to

gain acceptance in the textile market as a speciality polymer that brings unique properties to the end products that are valued by consumers. 8. REFERENCES: 1. V.N. Shirish Kumar, OVERVIEW OF TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF PTT, Textile excellence, October 15-2009 2. Dr. J. Kurian, G. Nagrajan, SORONA POLYMER: SOLUTION FOR GREEN TEXTILES, Textile excellence, October 15-2009 3. Dr. J. Kurian, G. Nagrajan, SORONA POLYMER: SOLUTION FOR GREEN TEXTILES, Textile excellence, October 15-2009 4. N. Anbumani, The Corterra â&#x20AC;&#x201C; High Touch fiber, Synthetic fibers, 31(4)(2002), 13 5. V.N. Shirish Kumar, OVERVIEW OF TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF PTT, Textile excellence, October 15-2009 6. Ben Duh, Solid state polymerization, Journal of applied polymer science, 89(12) (2003) 3188-3189 7. Joseph V. Kurian, A New Polymer Platform for the FutureSorona from Corn Derived 1,3-Propanediol,Journal of Polymers and the Environment, Vol. 13, No. 2, April 2005 DOI: 10.1007/s10924-005-2947-7 8. Dr. J. Kurian, G. Nagrajan, SORONA POLYMER: SOLUTION FOR GREEN TEXTILES, Textile excellence, October 15-2009 9. H. Chuah, Modern polyester, John Schiers, Timothy E.Long, 2004 10. Dr. J. Kurian, G. Nagrajan, SORONA POLYMER: SOLUTION FOR GREEN TEXTILES, Textile excellence, October 15-2009 11. H. Chuah, Modern polyester, John Schiers, Timothy E.Long, 2004 12. I. J. Desborough, I. H. Hall, and J. Z. Neisser, The Structure of Poly(trimethylene terephthalate), Polymer, 20, 545 (1979) 13. N. Anbumani, The Corterra â&#x20AC;&#x201C; High Touch fiber, Synthetic fibers, 31(4)(2002), 14 14. R. Jakeways, I. M. Ward, and M. A. Wildings, Crystal Deformation in Aromatic Polyesters, J. Polym. Sci., Phys. Ed., 12, 799 (1975) 15. I.M. Ward, M.A. Wilding and H. Brody, The Mechanical Properties and Structure of Poly (m-methylene Terephthalate) Fibers, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed., 14, 263 (1976). 16. Dr. J. Kurian, G. Nagrajan, SORONA POLYMER: SOLUTION FOR GREEN TEXTILES, Textile excellence, October 15-2009 17. S.S. Kathiervelu, Dyeing behaviour of PTT, Synthetic fibers, 31(4)(2002) 11-12 18. H. Chuah, Modern polyester, John Schiers, Timothy E. Long,

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STEER (Double Spread) 1


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Application Range of Unsaturated Polyesters Dr. Subhas Chandra Shit Dy. Director, CIPET- Ahmedabad

Abstract Unsaturated Polyesters are of different types. They can be made useable for a suitable applications by changing their constituent molecules. Their properties as varies depending on the characteristics can be exploited in the applications which are discussed in the scope of this study.

Introduction Polyesters formed from phthalic anhydride and glycerol are among the first commercial crosslinked polyesters.1 Linear polyesters seldom are sysnthesized by the direct reaction of acids or acid anhydrides with alcohols because the higher temperatures required for high conversion lead to side reactions, which interfere with obtaining high molecular weight. This consideration is not so important for cross linking systems, since cross linking is achieved at far lower extent of reaction than are needed to obtain high polymer in a linear polymerization. Cross linking is achieved either by use of polycols such as glycerol, as in the case of saturated polyesters (glyptal) or by the use of unsaturated dicarboxylic acids such as anhydride in the case of unsaturated polyester resins. Glyptal which is used mainly as an adhesive or modified with natural or synthetic oils (oil – modified alkyds) for coatings is formed by the reaction of glycerol and pathalic anhydride, as shown in Fig. 1. 20

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consequently resin brittleless. Fumaric acid may be used in place of maleic acid to increase impact resistance.

Fig.1 Formation of glyptal resin by the reaction of phthalic anhydride and glycerol.

The reaction is allowed to continue until a viscous liquid is obtained. The liquid can then be transferred to a mold for further net work development. Unsaturated polyester resins, which are used as the matrix component of glass – fibre composites, may be obtained by co-polymerization saturated acids (e.g. phthalic anhydride ) and unsaturated acids (e.g. maleic anhydride) with a diol such as propylene glycol or diethylene glycol as shown in Fig. 2.

Incorporation of the saturated acid serves to decrease cross link density and

The low- molecular – weight product is soluble in styrene, which can then participate in a cross linking step with the double bonds of the prepolymer during initiation by peroxides. Further, the above mentioned reaction for formation of cross linked polyester can be illustrated through the following reaction scheme Fig. 3

Fig.3 Addition reaction (schematic illustration)

Itacomic acid is also used as the diacid component. Most reaction formulation, involve a mixture of a saturated diacid (iso and terephthalic, adipic) with the unsaturated diacid or anhydride in appropriate proportions to control the density of cross linking (which depends on the carbon carbon double bond content of the prepolymer) for specific applications. Propylene glycol,1,4 – butanediol, neopentyl glycol, diethylene glycol and bisphenol A are also used in place of ethylene glycol as the diol component. Aromatic reactants are used in the formulation to improve the hardness,

rigidity and heat resistance of the cross linked product. Halogenated reactants are used to impart flame resistance2.

Properties of unsaturated polyesters: Unsaturated polyesters have a good combination of resistance to softening and deformation at high temperature, electrical properties, resistance to corrosion, weak alkalies and strong acid and possesses very good weather ability3. Almost all unsaturated polyesters are used with fibrous reinforcements or fillers. More than 80 % of the market consists of structural applications that require the strengthening imparted by fibrous (usually glass fibre) reinforcements. The remainder is used without fibrous reinforcement but with in expensive fillers to lower costs. Thermosetting unsaturated liquid poly-ester resins are used as the basis of two main families of moulding compound. 1. Polyester bulk moulding comp-ounds (BMC) or DMC (Dough moulding compounds). 2. Sheet Moulding Compounds (SMC). In addition,two new types of compounds are also available. Thick moulding compounds (TMC) and Continuously Impregnated Compounds (CIC). The different polyester resins have different characteristic effects on Compounds (Table 1).

- Zero shrinkage grades available - Good for moulding large parts, intricate parts varying section parts. - High rigidity - Good thermal resistance to + 1750C - Excellent electrical properties. - High surface finish with Injection Moulding.

The BMCs contain the following ingredients : - Glass fibre, usually between 3 and 25 mm in length ; - An inert particulate filler, chalk, china clay, alumina and many others are used. - Mould release agent, usually a metallic soap - Pigments. - Flame-retardant additives, various halogenated organic substances, antimony oxide, alumina . - Catalyst, usually an organic peroxide. - Inhibitors, hydroquinone catechol, paraben-zoquinone . - Low profile additives, various thermoplastic polymers. The characteristic Properties of SMC are as follows: - Strength- Very easy flow and low moulding pressure. - Rapid curing

sandwiched between two layers of polyethylene film. Fig. 4.

- Low flammability - Good for insert moulding. - Excellent property / Cost balance. However, it has the weakness in the following regards :

The characteristic properties of SMCs are as follows : - High strength and stiffeness


Handling is not convenient.

- Excellent all round mechanical properties.


Limited shelf life

- Good electrical performance.


Susceptible to localized impact

- Good thermal resistance to 1750C

SMCs are qualitatively similar to bulk moulding compounds. They are based on unsaturated polyester resins with a styrene monomer and are filled with the some types of glass fiber, fillers, catalysts, pigments etc. They differ BMCs in the proportions of these ingredients, the process by which they are manufactured and form in which the materials comes. BMC is compounded very simply in a Z â&#x20AC;&#x201C; bladed mixer. SMC is formed in a machine consisting of a series of rolls that are devised to bring the ingradients together and consolidate them into a shelf

- Outstanding dimensional accuracy and stability. - Zero shrinkage grade available. - High surface finish possible. - Rapid curing . - Ideal for large surface area moulding. - Good performance /cost balance. The weakness of SMCs are : - Restricted to compression type processes. - Limited shelf life - Elimination of surface porosity & internal IPI JOURNAL February / March 12 21

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voids in mouldings sometimes difficult. The compounding phase is more or less identical for both the TMC and C.I.C. Material. Both new materials are manufactured by a continuous mining process which enables high filler and glass loadings to be achieved with fast machine through put. The premixed resin paste is distributed onto two large counter â&#x20AC;&#x201C; rotating mixing rolls. Glass fibre (chopped for TMC and cut roving for C I C ) are then distributed onto the rolls and efficient mixing

and impregnatation takes place as resinglass compound passes through the restriction between the rolls. (Fig. 5). The two processes then differ in the subsequent stages. TMC compound is sandwiched between polyethylene fillers and passed through impregnation rolls to give material in a format very similar to traditional SMC. CIC compound is removed from the mixing rolls by doctor blades & transported by a screw or plunger mechanism into boxes or on drums to give a material with similar physical characteristics to traditional BMC.( Fig.6) A comparison of some of the main physical properties of TMC, BMC, SMC and C I C are given in Table -2.


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The detailed properties of different grade of polyesters are given in Table 3 along with other thermoset resins for comparison purpose.

Table 3 Guide to thermosetting moulding material properties, part 2 Family



General Purpose


High Strength





Polyurethanes PU RIM (H.Modulus)

RRIM (Amine)

RRIM (Polyures)

Wood flour


Mineral & glass

Mineral & glass

Mineral & glass

Mineral & glass

Mineral & glass


Milled glass

Milled glass


Fused silica

Mineral & glass

Density (g/cm )














Water absorption (%) (24h/230c)














Tensile Strength (Mpa) Elongation (%) Flexural strength (Mpa) Flexutral strength(Gpa) 2 Unnotched impact (kj/m ) 2 Notched impact (kJ/m )

40-65 -70-90 9 5-8 1.4-2.0

39-50 -65-90 13-16 5-8 1.5-2.2

75-105 -80-150 12-18 8-12 3-5

20-70 -60-140 7-15 35-110 15-40

40-95 -80-180 8-13 45-150 30-90

45-95 -80-160 8-12 40-100 15-50

30-45 -40-70 6-10 12-25 9-12

25-35 50-80

20-30 100-220

20-35 100-220

0.6-0.9 No fail No fail

0.7-1.5 No fail No fail

1.2-1.7 No fail No fail

45 -95 17 12-25 6-12

36 -50 11 >6 0.5-1.5

90-150 1.5 150-350 12-18 50-150 35-100














(Short term)














Thermal Conductivity (W/m K) Coeff. Of thermal expansion (10-5K-1)





























Polimide SMC

Filler Property 3

Deflection temperature (0C) 2

(1.8N/mm ) 0

Max.operating temp ( c)

Chemical resistance Acids weak R LR strong A(oxidising) A Alkalis weak LR A strong LR A Aliphatic hydrocarbons LR R Aromatic hydrocarbons R LR Ketones R A Alcohols R A Halogenated hydrocarbons R R R = resistant, LR = limited resistance, A = attacked, D = disolved.




Processibility of unsaturated polyesters : The liquid polyester pre polymers are especially easy to fabricate into infusible thermoset objects by casting in open moulds, spray techniques as well as compression, hand lay-up and resin tran-sfer moulding. BMC can be compression transfer or injection moulded. SMCs can be compression moulded for large products. The processing cond-tions are mentioned for BMC and SMC in Table 4.

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Applications of unsaturated polyesters Unsaturated polyesters are used extensively in the construction (tub and shower units, building facades, specially flooring, cultured onyx and marble, chemical storage tanks) transportation (truck, cabs auto body repair), and marine (boat hulls) industries as well as for business machine and electric handtool â&#x20AC;&#x201C; molded paprts). BMCs have great in roads into many applications areas in recent years. Electrical: Meter boxes and lids switch gear, electrical housing, relays, bases. Lighting: Automotive reflectors, street lamp housings, domestic and commercial lighting.


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Building: Cladding panels, flooring panels. Domestic: Microwave cook ware, iron handles, sandwich to cooker trims. Automotive: Heater housing, trim mouldings, electrical components, inlet manifold (using cast metal insert technology). The application areas for SMC are very wide and diverse, covering many uses where high strength and stiffness are prime requirement. SMC have found considerable use in car body parts, truck cabs, fascias, bumper systems. It is used in many electrical components where BMC is not considered sufficiently strong and in housing, for

business machine, building, furniture and the like. Conclusion The application range of unsaturated polyester is wide. They are mainly used in the applications, where resistance to softening deformation at high temperature, better electrical properties, resistance to corrosion, weak alkalies and strong acids are required. References. 1. J.F.Monk, Thermosetting Moulding Materials and Processes, 2nd edition, Longman, London, 1997. 2. J . R . F r i e d , P o l y m e r S c i e n c e a n d Technology, Prentice Hell Inc., New Jersey 1985. 3. G.Odian, Principles of Polymerization, 4th edition, Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 2004.

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High Performance Polypropylene Grades from IndianOil Mr. Abhay Mulay Sr. Manager & Head Product Application & Development Centre,

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Panipat, India.

1.0 Introduction: Indian Oil commissioned its polymer units at Panipat in May 2010. In a short span of 18 months, company has successfully launched & established 38 Polyethylene/Polypropylene grades in the market. All the grades are well received in domestic market as well as they have created footprints in 24 countries in export market. IndianOil has chosen best in class technologies for producing Polyolefins, hence, company always believes that the grades offered should not be of only commodity types but should be differentiated from competition in terms of product performance thereby creating a value for our customers. With this aim, as a path breaking initiative, Indian Oil, Product Application & Development Centre (PADC) developed two new high performance

Polypropylene grades namely 1110MAS & 2120MC. These new grades were launched by Sh. R.S.Butola, Chairman, IndianOil on 03rd Feb. 2012 in New Delhi in a high profile event in the presence of major customers and business partners in the petrochemicals industry. Both the grades have shown processing & product performance far superior than any of the equivalent competing grades available in the market.

2.0 Technical Details & Value creation for the Customers: 2.1 PP 1110MAS â&#x20AC;&#x201C; High Stiffness, High Productivity Grade n 11 MI homo Polypropylene grade produced using Spheripol II Technology. This grade is designed to offer a Higher productivity, High stiffness, Low warpage and Superior gloss. The grade contains Antistatic

Agent. n 1110MAS is recommended for Injection Molded applications like: - Caps & Closure - Household articles - Furniture - Automotive components

Performance benefits of 1110MAS: The grade offers benefits such as reduced cycle time & lower cooling time (thus, energy saving to processor), better opticals and better stiffness. This grade is specially designed to offer solutions to processors who are facing problems related to shrinkage and warpage, productivity, aesthetics, or stiffness/impact balance. 1110MAS was tested at several customers & across different application segments to validate its performance vis-Ă -vis competing grades in the market. The success stories in different

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application segments showing the actual benefits are very well documented. The comparative performance of 1110MAS with conventional 11 MFI homo PP grade 1110MA is shown in the spider chart below (Fig.1). - Injection Stretch blow molded bottles (ISBM) - Caps & Closure - Appliance parts

Performance benefits of 2120MC:

Fig.1 Performance comparison 1110MAS Vs. 1110MA

Value creation for Customers with 1110MAS: - By switching over to 1110MAS from equivalent competitor's grade, customers will realize following benefits - Reduced cycle time (Higher productivity) up to 18%- Higher stiffness & superior impact strength - Good dimensional stability & reduced warpage - Superior product aesthetics & gloss - Possibility of optimizing pigment loading as the 1110MAS gives brighter colour shade at same pigment loading With such exceptionally good processing & product performance, 1110MAS will soon become a new benchmark in PP injection molding sector.

2120MC offers benefits such as reduced processing temperatures, reduced cycle time & lower cooling time (thus, energy saving to processor), better opticals and comparable physical properties. This grade is specially designed to offer solutions to processors who would like to improve aesthetic performance of a part without compromising on physical properties but take an advantage of wider processability. 2120MC was tested at several customers & across different application segments to validate its performance vis-à-vis competing grades in the market. The success stories in different application segments showing the actual benefits are very well documented. The comparative performance of 2120MC vis-a-vis conventional 12 MFI random PP grade of Competitor's is shown in the spider chart below (Fig.2).

2.2 PP 2120MC - High Productivity, Energy Saving Grade 12 MI Random PP grade is n produced using Spheripol II Technology. This grade is designed to offer superior aesthetics & energy saving at processor end. The grade also has a potential to offer higher productivity depending on mold/machine. 2120MC is recommended for Clan rified Injection Molded applications like: - Household articles 28

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Fig.2 Performance comparison 2120MC Vs. Competitor's grade

Value creation for Customers with 2120MC:

By switching over to 2120MC grade customers will realize following benefits - Superior product aesthetics & product with bluish tinge - Customers can reduce/eliminate addition of optical brightener at their end - Broader processing window. Thus possibility of processing at up to 40 oC lower temperature without sacrificing optical properties (Potential opportunity for energy saving up to 10%). - Lower specific energy consumption - Reduced cycle time (Higher productivity) up to 15% (Depending on mold & machine) 2120MC with distinctly superior processing & product performance will open up new oppor tunities for substitution of conventional clear, transparent packaging materials & will further boost the use of clarified polypropylene in various innovative packaging applications.

3. Conclusion: Indian Oil has identified Petrochemicals as a prime driver of future growth. The Corporation has established world scale mega petrochemicals plants – LAB, PX/PTA and Naphtha Cracker at its Refineries - as well as a world class Product Application & Development Centre (PADC). PADC has sophisticated processing as well as testing laboratory & is utilized to renders technical services in the areas of Customer support, New grades development & New application development. Indian Oil is fully committed to offer innovative solutions & superior grades to polymer industry. By launching two high per for mance grades 1110MAS & 2120MC, we are reaffirming our commitment to our valued customers. This is just a beginning….there are few more exciting developments under progress at PADC.

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Chapter Events Report on Kadakia Endowment Lecture hosted by Pune Chapter IPI Pune Chapter organized the Kadakia Endowment Lecture on 3rd March 2012 at the hotel President. The topic of the lecture was “Thermoplastics Elastomers” which was delivered by Mr. Vishal Kadakia, Director Kadakia Plastics Mumbai. This was attended by more than 62 persons from local industries, institutes and research organizations. Amongst the prominent personalities, Mr. Raman Patel Mr. S. Kadakia, Dr. P. Trivedi, Mr. R. M. Telang and others were present. The program was conducted by Mr. Sameer Joshi, Pune Chapter Representative. He gave the introduction to the sponsoring industry and the speaker. In the welcome address, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, Chairman, IPI Pune Chapter gave a brief account of the IPI chapter and the activities organized recently. Dr. Prakash Trivedi, President IPI, described the endowment programs associated with IPI and the importance of forming Students chapter. Mr. Vishal Kadakia presented an excellent seminar covering both basic scientific as well as technological aspects of thermoplastic elastomers. He clearly brought out the differences between TPE, TPV, TPO and TPU. He highlighted the latest developments in this field and current ongoing activities both in India and abroad. The applications of these materials in different areas such as automotive, medical, electrical and other components were described by him. The question answer session was conducted by Dr. Milind Mhalgi, Vice chairman who also proposed the vote of thanks and the event ended with cocktail dinner.

MUMBAI CHAPTER Indian Plastics Institute, Mumbai Chapter organized a one day Conference on “Flexible Packaging” on Wednesday the 22nd Feb, 2012 at InterContinental The Lalit, Andheri (E) Mumbai. Mr. Bipin M. Shah, Vice President of Plastindia Foundation and Past Chairman of IPI was the Chief Guest of the Function. During his address he shared his rich experience and knowledge with the participants. Dr. Prakash Trivedi, Chairman, IPI shared the dais with the Chief Guest and he briefed the Members about IPIs activities and their future programme. The Conference had four Technical Sessions comprising speakers from Reliance Industries Ltd., Lifeline Technologies, Rajoo Engineers Ltd, Raulimex Industries, Windmoeller & Hoelscher, Kris Flexipacks Pvt. Ltd., Paper Products Ltd., Essel Propack Ltd., Rajiv Plastics Industries, Erema / Leevams Incorporated and Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Presentations of all the speakers were quite impressive and informative. The programme was conducted with a professional touch. All the speakers were well received and appreciated by the participants. We express our profound thanks to Reliance Industries Ltd., Lifeline Technologies, Rajoo Engineers Ltd, Kris Flexipacks Pvt. Ltd., and Rajiv Plastics Industries for sponsoring this event & others for their support and guidance.

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Large Tonnage Maxima 2500 T Injection Molding Machine……. Ferromatik Milacron India (FMI) has successfully shipped the Largest India built Injection Molding Machine Maxima 2500 from its Ahmedabad facility on 30th November 2011. This Injection Press is the 1st & Largest Press built by any Manufacturer in the country & is a landmark achievement in the Indian Plastic Machinery Industry. This puts India & FMI on the high ground to further serve the Indian Plastic Injection Molding fraternity by providing Large Tonnage Injection Molding Machines. Maxima 2500 is shipped to a Reputed & International Automotive Tier 1 Manufacturer based in Pune serving the Indian & International customers viz. Volkswagen, Ford, GM, Hyundai, TATA, M&M etc. Maxima Range of High Performance Injection Molding Machines are offered from 500 T to 2500 T. Maxima is a Global Product out of the Milacron Product portfolio developed by the Global Engineering Team comprising of Engineers from US, Germany & India. Maxima is a 2 Platen Robust & Compact Design Machine manufactured to serve various End Application Segment viz. Automotive, Consumable Durables, Large House ware Products, Pallets, Furniture, Industrial Products, Trash Bins, to name a few…….. The salient features of Maxima are : l Energy Efficient l Compact Foot Print l Reduced Platen Deflection l Large Mold Carrying Capacity l High Speed, Precision and Reliability l Reduced Mold Wear & Enhance Mold Life l Central Uniform Locking over the Mold Area l Modular Injection Unit – Shot Wt. 1300 Gms. to 21,757 Gms.l Generous Specification - Tie bar Spacing, Clamp Stroke & Daylight “Ferromatik Milacron India has been a key player in our worldwide growth plan. I am extremely proud and delighted with this achievement of Maxima 2500 which expands our footprint to serve the customers in India, Middle East and Africa. This expanded product portfolio shall further provide impetus to our India Operations Growth in the years ahead…...” says Dave Lawrence, President - Global Injection, Extrusion Machinery & Mold Technologies, Milacron LLC, USA. “We are very enthralled to ship the largest Injection Molding Machine Maxima 2500 to our customer, which helps us to serve on a larger base to the Indian Injection Molding Industry. It gives us a sense of fulfillment and opportunity to grow alongwith the Indian Plastic Industry. The Indian Molders now do not have to look at overseas manufacturers for these machines any more......” says Mahendra Patel, Director - FMI. About Ferromatik Milacron India (FMI) Ferromatik Milacron India (FMI) is part of Milacron LLC, USA, a Global Leader in business areas of Plastics Processing Technologies, metal working fluids and precision machining, has group revenue in excess of US$ 750 Million with over 130 years of manufacturing experience. FMI is the leading manufacturer of Plastics Injection Molding Machines in India serving the entire gamut Plastic Applications within India, SAARC, Middle East & Africa. FMI exports machine to more than 40 countries across the world including USA. Established operation in 1995, FMI offers the full range of Injection Molding Machines from 50 T to 2500 T with a capacity to manufacture 1500 machines per annum, with a PAN India Sales & Service Office in major cities and industrial towns of the country. It is accredited with the Export House Status and is an ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 14001:2004 certified company adhering to World Class Quality Standards. Press Contact : Mr. Anand Shah / Harshad Soni Ferromatik Milacron India Pvt. Ltd. 93/2 & 94/1 Phase – I, GIDC Vatva, Ahmedabad – 382 445 (India) Phone : + 91 79 2589 1033 / 2589 0081 Fax : + 91 79 25891593 Email :

KABRA GLOUCESTER ENGINEERING UNVEILS “KAGE” 3 LAYER FILM PLANT Kabra Gloucester demonstrated their first “KAGE” 3 layer film plant at their factory in Dunetha- Daman, India. “KAGE” is the brand name for film plants manufactured by Kolsite Group utilizing Gloucester Engineering Co. Inc.'s designs and technology. KAGE plants are specifically designed to produce Lamination Film at higher output with excellent quality levels that not just meet but exceed the market requirements. These Plants give enhanced operational efficiency and higher flexibility for plastic manufacturers. Technology and Quality demonstrated at the Open House Kabra Gloucester Engineering welcomed more than 200 invited members of the Flexible packaging Industry from India and abroad for an Open House held at their new inaugurated factory at Dunetha Daman on February 29th and 1st March 2012. The 3 Layer 2200 mm film line has applications in the Lamination films for food packaging, but also other applications like Shrink and Stretch wraps for Bulk packaging, Industrial packaging applications etc. The line's output is upto 600 - 650 kg/hr and it has an installed capacity of 4000 T/year. The machine features contra cool extruders with light groove feed technology, 610 mm self-centering die utilizing encapsulated feedport technology, IBC, Ultracool II dual lip air ring with film thickness control utilizing Kundig capacitance gauge measurement, carbon composite rollers for collapsers, and turret type center winders. Output of 600 kgs/hr on a 40 micron thick lamination film for food packaging applications was demonstrated during the Open House. Mr. Simon Jay, Sales Director, (Europe, Asia, Middle East) of Gloucester Engineering was on site for both the days of the show. Mr. Jay gave a presentation on the distinguishing features of the KAGE range of Blown film lines which stand out with respect to its global competitors in similar range of machinery. About GEC Since its inception in 1961, Gloucester Engineering Company has been a global leader in the plastics extrusion and converting market. GEC offers a range of innovative system and component solutions, for both new lines and retrofits, that provide customers a competitive edge in applications that include bag making, foam and sheet extrusion, blown and cast film extrusion, and extrusion coating. GEC manufactures its equipment from its headquarters in Gloucester, MA, USA and through its joint-venture company in Daman, India. About KAGE: In the Indian Plastic industry, Kabra ExtrusionTechnik Ltd is a name to reckon with. Gloucester Engineering has been a global leader in plastics extrusion and converting market. Together, Kabra Gloucester Engineering has created KAGE, a synergy of competitive edge technology and dedicated service to its customers worldwide. About Kabra ExtrusionTechnik Ltd: Kabra Extrusiontechnik Ltd. (KET) is a part of the Kolsite group, manufacturer of Plastic Extrusion machinery for 5 decades in India. KET is India's leading manufacturer and exporter of Plastic Extrusion Lines and Allied machinery. 34

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Inside Back Cover Right

Back Cover

IPI Journal  

February - March 2012 issue