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DI GI TAL PHOTOGRAPHY www.indiandentalacademy.com


INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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RECENT ADVANCES I N DI AGNOSTI C AI DS

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Dental photography • Patient education • Legal record for facial features before and after dental treatment • Excellent tool for teaching • Excellent tool for communication

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Digital photography • • • • • •

Basics of digital photography Classification of digital cameras Features to consider in digital cameras Conventional versus digital photography Common errors in clinical photography Gold standard in clinical photography

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Basics of digital photography • First used in 1981

• Commercially available since 1991(marketed by auto trader).

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Digital images

• Pixels – picture elements www.indiandentalacademy.com


green red

blue

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• Pixelation evident

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• Resolution – no of pixels in the image. • Increase in pixels – increases the detail of the image.

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Non f ilm cameras IMAGE SENSORS - CCD ( CHARGED COUPLED DEVICE)

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Non f ilm cameras - CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductors)

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HOW THEY WORK

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KNOW YOUR DI GI TAL CAMERA

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Lens Telephoto lens

Macro lens

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Lens • Rotatable

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Shutter speed • Shutter speed – the length of time the shutter is open and light strikes the image sensor • Bright lens and high shutter speed – ideal • Higher shutter speed – grater the image quality • Cameras should have a range of high and low shutter speeds.

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Burst • Sequential shooting • Overcome shutter lag

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White balance • Used to keep color as natural as possible. • Level of one color is more camera adjusts automatically.

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Exposure • Amount of light required to take a photo. • Too much light • Less light.

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Exposure compensation

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Flash • Adjustment for convenience • Ring flash

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Flash Ring flash

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Zoom • Must in any digital camera • Closer to the subject without moving physically closer.

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Focal length • The distance between the rear nodal point of the lens and the focal plane when focus is set at infinity. • Nodal point – where the rays of light appear to have come after passing through the lens.

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• HOW MUCH THE CAMERA SEES ( ANGLE OF VIEW OF THE LENS).

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ZOOM • OPTICAL ZOOM • DIGITAL ZOOM

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Optical zoom • Zoom lens is lens determined so that its focal length can be varied over a predetermined range. • The image is optically modified so that it can show a smaller o larger field of view. • This allows to replace a no of single focal length lenses.

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• Does not change the resolution of the image or the image size, the no of pixels used to describe the image are same.

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Digital zoom • Digital cameras with a single focal length lens. Offers possibility of mimicking a zoomed image.

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• No of pixels used to capture a image are the same as original non zoomed image.

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Dif f erence between optical and digital zoom • Optical zoom – bring object closer ( like a telescope) • Digital zoom is merely a cropping tool.

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Conf usion • for eg- 10 x optical zoom becomes 60 x if 6x digital zoom is tacked on the focal length of the lens.

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• Smart zoom

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Aperture settings • AMOUNT OF LIGHT ENTERING THE CAMERA AND HITTING THE SENSOR.

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Depth of the f ield • THE AREA AHEAD OF AND BEHIND THE AREA IN FOCUS.

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Digital cameras CLASSIFICATION • CONSUMER • PROSUMER • PROFESSIONAL

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• • • • •

Inexpensive Entry level Mid range High end Professional.

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Prosumer • Lies between consumer and professional cameras.

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• Features – macro lens

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• Features – High quality image

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• Features –Lcd with preview facility

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Drawbacks

• FLASH – POINT FLASH. - RING FLASH

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Drawbacks VIEW FINDERS – GALLILEAN TELESCOPE VIEW FINDER - LCD

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Drawbacks FOCUSING SYSTEM – LACK OF IMAGE SHARPNESS

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Prof essional cameras • • • •

Expensive High end features. Ideal for intra oral photography. Fuji fine pix f1 pro – perfect for orthodontic purposes.

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Features to be considered

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• LCD

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MAINS ADAPTOR

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AUTO FOCUS AND PRECI SI ON

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• CCD RESOLUTION AND QUALITY • CUR ( clinically useful resolution)

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• FLASH CAPABILITY

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Exposure parameters • Lens opening

• Shutter speed( lens opening in fraction of a second)

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• SOFTWARE

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• RESOLUTION

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Practical considerations • DOWNLOADING OF IMAGES

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• REPRODUCTION • STORAGE AND FILLING

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• BATTERIES

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ACCESSORI ES • MEMORY CARDS

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• • • •

BAGS AND STRAPS TRIPODS CLEANING KIT CARD READER

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CONVENTI ONAL VERSUS DI GI TAL PHOTOGRAPHY

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NON FI LM CAMERA

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I MAGE STORAGE

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NO RECURRI NG COSTS

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ROOM FOR EXPERI MENTATI ON

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FUNCTI ONALI TY I N A SMALL PACKAGE

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LCD ELI MI NATES GUESS WORK

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DURABI LI TY

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SCALABI LI TY

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SHARI NG

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DRAWBACKS • HIGH INITIAL COST

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• BATTERY LIFE

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• NON STANDARDIZATION • LEARNING CURVE (Technophoia).

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DI GI TAL PHOTOGRAPHY www.indiandentalacademy.com


COMMON ERRORS I N CLI NI CAL PHOTOGRAPHY

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Two groups • Inappropriate choice of equipment. • Errors in recording medium and inappropriate positioning of subjects

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Camera • Macro facility ( 1:1 images)

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Camera • Ring flash

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Camera • Orientation of camera – Extra-oral ( portrait) – Intra oral ( landscape)

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Camera • Lens setting

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Retractors • Two set of double ended retractors

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I NTRA ORAL SHOTS

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BUCCAL SHOTS

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OCCLUSSAL SHOTS

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MI RRORS • LONG HANDLED AND FRONT SILVERD GLASS - IDEAL

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REAR SI LVERED VERSUS FRONT SI LVERED GLASS

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MI RRORS

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APERTURE COMPENSATI ON

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TECHNI CAL PROBLEMS • DEPTH OF FIELD

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• PROSUMER CAMERAS – APERTURE TO BE REDUCED TO F 11.

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• APPROX 1/3 IN FRONT AND 2/3 BEHIND THE FOCAL POINT

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Prof essional cameras

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Auto f ocus problems • Auto focus versus manual focus

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I ntra oral

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• FOCUSSING USING TTL FACILITY. • 20 CM IS A GOOD DISTANCE.

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Extra oral photography

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SHADOW • POINT FLASH

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EXTRA ORAL

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Extra- oral

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Alternatives • Rotating camera through 1800 • Illuminated backdrop screen • Dark non reflective background preferably velvet

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I NTRA ORAL

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Overcoming shadows – 1800 turning

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OCCLUSSAL

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Solution- f ocus away f rom patient

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SYMMETRI CAL I MAGES • GRID LINES

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CARD PROBLEMS

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CCD ROBLEMS

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DI GI TAL I MAGE • FIT FOR PURPOSE

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POSI TI ONI NG ERRORS

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Extra oral photographs • Portrait

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Extra oral photographs • Portrait

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Extra oral photographs • Background

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Extra oral photographs • Background

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Extra oral photographs • Background

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PROFI LE AND THREE QUARTER VI EWS

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POSI TI ONI NG ERRORS

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POSI TI ONI NG ERRORS

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POSI TI ONI NG ERRORS

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POSI TI ONI NG ERRORS

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POSI TI ONI NG ERRORS

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POSI TI ONI NG ERRORS

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I NTRA ORAL PHOTOGRAPHS • LANDSCAPE VIEW

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• Change in cant of occlusal plane

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• Inappropriate selection of cheek retractors. • Saliva not aspirated

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BUCCAL VI EWS

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MI RROR VI EWS • OCCLUSSAL SHOTS

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MI RROR VI EWS • OCCLUSSAL SHOTS

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Just one more photograph

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LCD

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Standardizing dental photography • Natural head position. • Frontal views. • The line from the outer canthus of eye to superior attachment of ear from should be parallel to Frankfort horizontal plane. • The inter pupilary line should be parallel to horizontal plane • The distance from outer canthus of eye to the hair line should be equal on both side

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CAMERA LENS AND POSI TI ON • Focal length of the lens should be the same (100 or 105mm)

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CAMERA LENS AND POSI TI ON • Have consistent subject – camera distances (use of tripod)

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CAMERA LENS AND POSI TI ON • Camera position is one in which a line from middle of lens to eye is parallel to horizontal plane

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GOLD STANDARD I N PHOTOGRAPHY

• Journal of orthodontics june 2002 - j sandler and a murray

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• Survey carried out in angle society. • Seventy questionnaires were used • Following questions were asked. – which intraoral and extraoral photographs they currently take? – when during the treatment the photographs are taken? – which staff member takes the photographs? – what medium is used to record the images?

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Routine use of photography 96% take pre and post treatment photographs.

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Extra oral photographs

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I ntra oral photographs

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mid treatment photographs

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Who takes the photographs?

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Photographic medium

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Gold standard • Nine pretreatment and nine post treatment photographs are a must. • mid treatment photographs at change of every arch wire . • Up to 36 photographs are considered a reasonable number for full photographic documentation of the case.

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Need f or photographs • Extra oral full face view ( lips at rest )

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Need f or photographs • Extra oral – full face view ( smiling)

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Need f or photographs • Extra oral – three quarter view

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Need f or photographs • Extra oral – profile view

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Need f or photographs • Intra oral front intra oral view. buccal intra oral shots. upper and lower buccal shots. overjet view ( optional ).

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Orthodontics current principles and techniques - GRABER AND VANARSDALL

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Orthodontics current principles and techniques - GRABER AND VANARSDALL

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Conclusion

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RECENT ADVANCES I N DI AGNOSTI C AI DS

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www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education

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