Page 1

Cellular Injury & Ageing

www.indiandentalacademy.com


Cell Injury:

INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Disease  

 

Dis + Ease = Disease. “Discomfort due to Structural or functional abnormality” Disease is caused by an agent. Causes (etiology) can be  

External / Environmental. E.g.. Heat, Bacteria. Internal E.g. stress, genes, ageing.

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Cellular Injury & Adaptation: 

 

Normal cell is in a steady state “Homeostasis” Change in Homeostasis due to stimuli Injury Injury - Reversible / Irreversible Adaptation / cell death

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Response to Injury: Adaptations (reversible)

     

Hydropic degeneration Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Atrophy Accumulations - hyaline, fat, etc.

Necrosis (irreversible) – cell death. www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Terminology: 

Necrosis: Morphologic changes seen in dead cells within living tissue. Autolysis: Dissolution of dead cells by the cells own digestive enzymes. (not seen) Apoptosis: Programmed cell death. Physiological, for cell regulation.

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Types of Necrosis:    

Coagulative – Eg. Infarction Liquifactive - Brain, abscess Caseous - Bacterial / Tuberculosis Gangrene - With infection

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Sequels of Necrosis:     

Cell Death Necrosis Autolysis Phagocytosis Organization & fibrous repair.

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Hydropic change in ischemic - kidney

Microvilli

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Cerebral atrophy - Alzheimers:

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Heart hypertrophy in hypertension:

Left Ventricle

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Muscle ischemic atrophy:

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Extensive Caseous necrosis Tuberculosis

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Caseous necrosis - Tuberculosis

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Gangrene - Amputated Diabetic foot

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Gangrene Intestine - Thrombosis.

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Stroke- Liquifactive necrosis

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Liver abscess: Liquifactive necrosis

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Renal Infarction - Coagulative

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Splenic Infarction - Coagulative necrosis

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Infarction - Adrenal gland:

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Ageing

www.indiandentalacademy.com


Cell Injury:

Ageing: “Progressive time related loss of structural and functional capacity of cells leading to death”  

Senescence, Senility, Senile changes. Ageing of a person is intimately related to cellular ageing.

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Factors affecting Ageing:     

Genetic – Clock genes, (fibroblasts) Diet – malnutrition, obesity etc. Social conditions Diseases – Atherosclerosis, diabetes etc. Werner’s syndrome.

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Cellular mechanisms of ageing 

 

 

Cross linking proteins & DNA. Accumulation of toxic byproducts. Ageing genes. Loss of repair mechanism. Free radicle injury Telomerase shortening.

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Telomerase in ageing: Germ Cells

Somatic Cells

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Ageing –changes:       

Gradual atrophy of tissues and organs. Dementia Loss of skin elasticity Greying and Loss of hair BV damage – atherosclerosis/bruising. Loss of Lens elasticity  opacity  vision Lipofuscin pigment deposition – Brown atrophy in vital organs. www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Pathology of elderly

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Factors affecting ageing:     

Stress Infections Diseases Malnutrition Accidents

Diminished stress response. Diminished immune response. Good health.

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

Conclusions: Cellular Injury - Various causes Reversible Injury  Adaptations

   

Irreversible Injury - Necrosis

 

Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Atrophy Accumulations - Hydropic, hyaline, fat.. Coagulative, Liquifactive, Caseous

Ageing - Causes, Changes, Factors www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

"No matter how dark things seem to be or actually are, raise your sights and see the possibilities – always see them, for they're always there.“ – Norman Vincent Peale www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03


Cell Injury:

www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education

www.indiandentalacademy.com

Shashi Mar-03

Ch2/ dental implant courses by Indian dental academy  

The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide r...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you