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Pathology An Introduction‌.

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INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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Man is the Architect of his life‌

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Epidemiology Etiology - Causes Pathogenesis - Evolution Morphology - Structural Changes Clinical Significance – Functional Changes Management Complications Prevention

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Pathology

Study of Disease:


Pathology Study of what is abnormal or wrong or disease…! “Scientific Study of Disease” Normal  Abnormal  Treat

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Pathology “Is the foundation of medical science and practice. Without pathology, the practice of medicine would be reduced to myths and folklore� www.indiandentalacademy.com


Diagnosis What is “Diagnosis”? – The formal name(s) used to describe a patient’s disease – The process of identifying a disease based on the patient’s symptoms, the doctor’s findings, and the results of investigations and laboratory tests

What do you need to make a diagnosis? – A system of classification that supplies the necessary names, definitions, and criteria – The means to ascertain the defining characteristics of a disease in the individual patient www.indiandentalacademy.com


History of Pathology “animism” – Philosophies of Plato – God/devil Magic – Primitive thoughts Humors – Phlegm – excess/deficiency – c300 Abiogenesis – Spontaneous – upto c1800 Environmental – Modern – 1850 to present Genetic – Molecular pathology – 20th century www.indiandentalacademy.com


Past and Present….! In the past, .. people mistook magic for medicine…! Now people mistake medicine for magic….! www.indiandentalacademy.com


Scope of Pathology Experimental Pathology Clinical Pathology

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Subdivisions of clinical Pathology: Histopathology Cytopathology Haematology Microbiology Immunology Chemical Pathology Genetics Toxicology Forensic Pathology

Histopathologist Cytologist Haematologist Microbiologist Biochemist Geneticist Toxicologist Forensic Pathologist Molecular Biologist

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Learning Pathology: General Pathology –Common changes in all tissues. E.g.. Inflammation, cancer, ageing.

Systemic Pathology –Specific changes in organs. E.g.. Goiter, pneumonia, breast cancer. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Study of Disease: (Pathology) Epidemiology Etiology - Causes Pathogenesis - Evolution Morphology - Structural Changes Clinical Significance – Functional Changes Management Complications Prevention www.indiandentalacademy.com


Etiology: Environmental agents: – Physical – Chemical – Nutritional – Infections – Immunological – Psychological

Genetic Factors: – Age – Genes www.indiandentalacademy.com

Multifactorial:


Multifactorial Etiology: Diseases are “caused” due to internal or external factors. Multifactorial: No more “one cause to one disease”

Genetic factors affect acquired diseases and environment has profound effect on genetic diseases. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Classification of Diseases: Developmental – genetic, congenital. Inflammatory – Trauma, infections, immune, etc. Neoplastic – tumors cancers Degenerative – ageing.

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Pathogenesis: “Sequence of events in the response of cells & tissues to a stimulus/pathogen” starting from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of disease.” Gross and microscopic Structure, Function, Chemistry & molecular mechanisms. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Morphology: Structural and associated functional changes in cells, tissues and organs that are characteristic of the disease or condition.

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Clinical Significance: Functional derangements and its clinical manifestations resulting from the morphologic changes. Signs and symptoms, course and prognosis of disease depend on the morphology.

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Techniques in Pathology: Gross Pathology: Light Microscopy Histochemistry, Biochemical Immunohistochemistry Electron Microscopy Cell Cultures, Medical Microbiology Molecular Pathology www.indiandentalacademy.com


Sample Case:

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Clinical Details: 34 year Fijian male Neck swelling, 2-3 months, Fever, weight loss, no other lymphadenopathy Lymphnode biopsy done

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Right neck mass

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Lymphnode Biopsy •Diffuse tumour •Capsule

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Lymphnode Biopsy •Large cells •Mitotic figures

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Histiocytic/Tcell NHL Diffuse pattern – no follicles. Large cells with moderate cytoplasm Plenty of mitotic figures, Nuclei are vesicular prominent nucleoli Features suggest T-cell NHL – malignant lymphoma. Needs further marker studies for typing & management. cancer Chemotherapy. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Pathology Summary: Etiology: – Carcinogenesis. DNA Damage, Mutation.

Pathogenesis: – Uncontrolled cell division, tumor.

Morphology: – Enlarged lymphnodes, liver, spleen, microscopically – lymphoma cells.

Clinical Features: – Fever, Wt loss, tumor-Ln, Liver, Spleen. www.indiandentalacademy.com


"Never does a man portray his character more vividly than when he is proclaiming the character of another." Winston Churchill 1874-1965, Former British Prime Minister www.indiandentalacademy.com


www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education

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