Pathology An Introductionâ€Ś.
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com
Man is the Architect of his lifeâ€Ś
Epidemiology Etiology - Causes Pathogenesis - Evolution Morphology - Structural Changes Clinical Significance â€“ Functional Changes Management Complications Prevention
Study of Disease:
Pathology Study of what is abnormal or wrong or disease…! “Scientific Study of Disease” Normal Abnormal Treat
Pathology â€œIs the foundation of medical science and practice. Without pathology, the practice of medicine would be reduced to myths and folkloreâ€? www.indiandentalacademy.com
Diagnosis What is “Diagnosis”? – The formal name(s) used to describe a patient’s disease – The process of identifying a disease based on the patient’s symptoms, the doctor’s findings, and the results of investigations and laboratory tests
What do you need to make a diagnosis? – A system of classification that supplies the necessary names, definitions, and criteria – The means to ascertain the defining characteristics of a disease in the individual patient www.indiandentalacademy.com
History of Pathology “animism” – Philosophies of Plato – God/devil Magic – Primitive thoughts Humors – Phlegm – excess/deficiency – c300 Abiogenesis – Spontaneous – upto c1800 Environmental – Modern – 1850 to present Genetic – Molecular pathology – 20th century www.indiandentalacademy.com
Past and Present….! In the past, .. people mistook magic for medicine…! Now people mistake medicine for magic….! www.indiandentalacademy.com
Scope of Pathology Experimental Pathology Clinical Pathology
Subdivisions of clinical Pathology: Histopathology Cytopathology Haematology Microbiology Immunology Chemical Pathology Genetics Toxicology Forensic Pathology
Histopathologist Cytologist Haematologist Microbiologist Biochemist Geneticist Toxicologist Forensic Pathologist Molecular Biologist
Learning Pathology: General Pathology â€“Common changes in all tissues. E.g.. Inflammation, cancer, ageing.
Systemic Pathology â€“Specific changes in organs. E.g.. Goiter, pneumonia, breast cancer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
Study of Disease: (Pathology) Epidemiology Etiology - Causes Pathogenesis - Evolution Morphology - Structural Changes Clinical Significance â€“ Functional Changes Management Complications Prevention www.indiandentalacademy.com
Etiology: Environmental agents: – Physical – Chemical – Nutritional – Infections – Immunological – Psychological
Genetic Factors: – Age – Genes www.indiandentalacademy.com
Multifactorial Etiology: Diseases are “caused” due to internal or external factors. Multifactorial: No more “one cause to one disease”
Genetic factors affect acquired diseases and environment has profound effect on genetic diseases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
Classification of Diseases: Developmental – genetic, congenital. Inflammatory – Trauma, infections, immune, etc. Neoplastic – tumors cancers Degenerative – ageing.
Pathogenesis: “Sequence of events in the response of cells & tissues to a stimulus/pathogen” starting from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of disease.” Gross and microscopic Structure, Function, Chemistry & molecular mechanisms. www.indiandentalacademy.com
Morphology: Structural and associated functional changes in cells, tissues and organs that are characteristic of the disease or condition.
Clinical Significance: Functional derangements and its clinical manifestations resulting from the morphologic changes. Signs and symptoms, course and prognosis of disease depend on the morphology.
Techniques in Pathology: Gross Pathology: Light Microscopy Histochemistry, Biochemical Immunohistochemistry Electron Microscopy Cell Cultures, Medical Microbiology Molecular Pathology www.indiandentalacademy.com
Clinical Details: 34 year Fijian male Neck swelling, 2-3 months, Fever, weight loss, no other lymphadenopathy Lymphnode biopsy done
Right neck mass
Lymphnode Biopsy •Diffuse tumour •Capsule
Lymphnode Biopsy •Large cells •Mitotic figures
Histiocytic/Tcell NHL Diffuse pattern â€“ no follicles. Large cells with moderate cytoplasm Plenty of mitotic figures, Nuclei are vesicular prominent nucleoli Features suggest T-cell NHL â€“ malignant lymphoma. Needs further marker studies for typing & management. cancer Chemotherapy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
Pathology Summary: Etiology: – Carcinogenesis. DNA Damage, Mutation.
Pathogenesis: – Uncontrolled cell division, tumor.
Morphology: – Enlarged lymphnodes, liver, spleen, microscopically – lymphoma cells.
Clinical Features: – Fever, Wt loss, tumor-Ln, Liver, Spleen. www.indiandentalacademy.com
"Never does a man portray his character more vividly than when he is proclaiming the character of another." Winston Churchill 1874-1965, Former British Prime Minister www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education
The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide r...