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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION TERMINOLOGIES HISTORY CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMATERIALS

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BIOCOMPATIBILITY CORROSION RESISTANCE CYTOTOXICITY OF CORROSION PRODUCTS METAL CONTAMINATION BIOFUNCTIONABILITY

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INDIVIDUAL MATERIALS METALS AND ALLOYS CERAMICS AND CARBON POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE POLYMERS

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SURFACE MODIFICATIONS CONCLUSION REFERENCES

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TERMINOLOGIES

Biocompatibility – (Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary) Being harmonious with life and not having toxic or injurious effects on biofunction. Biomaterial – Any substance other than drug that can be used for any period as a part of a system that treats, augments or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body.

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Biotolerant – Material that is not necessarily rejected but are surrounded by fibrous layer in the form of a capsule. Bio inert – Material that allows close apposition of bone on their surface, leading to contact osteogenesis. Bioactive - Materials that allow formation of new bone onto their surface, but ion exchange with host tissue leads to formation of a chemical bond along the interface (bonding osteogenesis). www.indiandentalacademy.com


Osteoconductive – the materials that forms scaffolding that allows the formation of bone. Osteoinducitive – materials that have capacity to induce bone formation de novo. E.g.recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2. (rhBMP-2)

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2500 BC - Ancient Egyptians - gold ligature.

500 BC - Etruscan population - gold bands incorporating pontics.

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500 BC - Phoenician population - gold wire.

300 BC - Phoenician population - Carved Ivory teeth.

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600 AD - Mayan population - implantation of pieces of shell.

1700 - John Hunter transplanting the teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com


1809 - Maggiolo pieces of gold.

1911 - Greenfield iridoplatinum basket soldered with 24 carat gold. www.indiandentalacademy.com


1939 - Strock vitallium screw to provide anchorage for replacement.

1940 - Formiggini spiral implant stainless steel wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com


1943 - Dahl -Subperiosteal type of implant.

1948 - Goldberg and Gershkoff - Extension of frame work. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Early 1960s - Chercheve Double helical Spiral implant of Cobalt Chromium.

Early 1970s - Grenoble Vitreous Carbon implants.

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Early 1980s - Tatum Titanium root form implant

Late 1970s and Early 1980s - Tatum custom blade implants of Titanium alloy

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1970 and 1980 - Weiss and Judy - Titanium Mushroom shaped projection (IMPLANT)

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After 1980s –hollow basket Core vent implant Screw vent implant Screw vent implant with Hydroxyapatite coating implant with titanium plasma spray

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Biological biocompatibility Biotolerant

Bioinert

Bioactive

Metals Gold Cobalt-chromium alloys Stainless steel Zirconium Niobium Tantalum Commercially pure titanium Titanium alloy (Ti6Al-4V)

Chemical composition Ceramics

Polymers

Polyethylene Polyamide Polymethylmethacrylate Polytetrafluoroethylene Polyurethane Aluminum oxide Zirconium oxide

Hydroxyapatite Tricalcium phosphate Calcium pyrophosphate Fluorapatite Carbon:vitreous, pyrolytic Bioglass www.indiandentalacademy.com


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 Corrosion resistance  Cytotoxicity of corrosion products  Metal contamination

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Corrosion - It is defined as loss of metallic ions from the surface of the metal to the surrounding environment. Types of corrosion : General Pitting Crevice corrosion cracking www.indiandentalacademy.com

Galvanic Fretting Stress


General corrosion - When metal is immersed in electrolytic solution the positively charged ions from the metal are transferred to electrolyte and then metal transports the negatively charged electrons.

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Pitting corrosion - Along with general corrosion on the surface there is enhanced corrosion in the pit.

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Crevice corrosion -The local environment around the screw to bone plate interface or implant device. Where in overlay or composite type surface exists on a metallic substrate. They provide opportunities for crevice corrosion.

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Galvanic corrosion – It occurs when two dissimilar metallic materials are in contact in a electrolyte leading to flow of current.

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Fretting corrosion – It occurs when there is a micromotion and rubbing contact within the corrosive environment.

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Stress corrosion cracking – The combination of high mechanical stresses and simultaneous exposure to a corrosive environment results in the failure of metallic materials by cracking where neither condition alone would cause the failure.

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PROTECTION AGAINST CORROSION Passivation Increasing the noble metal content Polishing the surface Avoid dissimilar metal contact

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CYTOTOXICITY OF CORROSION PRODUCTS 

The material should undergo only minimal amount of biochemical changes during service.

The material should have minimal reaction with the surrounding bone and the soft tissue.

Ideally the corrosion products should not produce any toxicity to the local and systemic environment. www.indiandentalacademy.com


METAL CONTAMINATION By contacting dissimilar metals or alloys. The debris from the dissimilar metals can be embedded in the implant surface and corrode to form compounds that cause foreign body reactions in the surrounding tissue.

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Two different metals in the saline solutions or body fluids may result in a localized difference of electrochemical potential and cause galvanic corrosion. So the instruments that contact titanium implant during insertion procedures either be solid titanium, titanium tipped or treated to prevent metallic transfer. During storage, sterilization and surgical set up no other type of metal should contact the implant surface.

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PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

The macroscopic distribution of mechanical stress and strain is predominantly controlled by the shape and form of the implant. The microscopic distribution is controlled by the Basic properties of biomaterials as -Surface chemistry, Microtopography, Modulus of elasticity and Surface attachment to the adjacent tissue. www.indiandentalacademy.com


The dental implant are less affected by alternating stresses than implants of cardiovascular and locomotive systems because of lower number of loading cycles and considerable smaller size of implants. But in cases with Para functional habits the longevity is detrimental.

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The forces exerted on implant consists of compressive tensile and shear. As for the most of the materials compressive force is greater than others. Basic problem lies due to the difference in mechanical strength and deformability of the material and the recipient bone.

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The metals can be modified to achieve the required properties by work hardening or alloying. The ability of the implant to bear the stress decreases as the number of loading cycles increases. Higher the applied load higher the mechanical stress greater the possibility of exceeding the fatigue limit of the material. Many materials are biocompatible but cannot be used as an implant because of their low ultimate strength. www.indiandentalacademy.com


MODULUS OF ELASTICITY It represents elastic response of an implant to the mechanical stress. The forces applied on the implant leads to stresses within the bone. When the applied forces are equal to stresses it acquires the state of static equilibrium.

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When the forces increase, it leads to deformation. The physiologic importance of modulus of elasticity of biomaterial is related to the modulus of elasticity of the bone. The degree of relative movement at the interface determines the health or pathologic state of interface.

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The modulus of elasticity of titanium is very near to bone compared to any other material used. It is almost 6 times more stiff than dense cortical bone. The carbon implants has compatible stiffness with bone but fail to have adequate strength to withstand physiologic load leading to microcracks and finally the failure of implant.

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On the other hand the aluminum oxide ceramic implant has high ultimate strength but the stiffness is 33 times greater than the stiffness of the bone which results in apparent stress shielding of interfacial bone.

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The modulus of elasticity in subperiosteal implants not as important a consideration. The envelopment of the implant in the outer layer of periosteum during healing provides a stable biomechanical situation.

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For bilateral/total subperiosteal implant may cause excessive relative movement due to its rigidity. So cutting these at the midline or providing individual abutment can increase flexibility. For unilateral subperiosteal implant the negative effect of relative movement of metal is minimal.

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Materials Science & Engineering Dept. Research Experience for Undergraduates


Most of the materials used for implants are constructed from metals and their alloys. These includes Titanium, Tantalum, Aluminum, Vanadium, Cobalt, Chromium, Nickel and Molybdenum. These are selected on the basis of their over all strength. Less frequently used are precious metals as Gold and Platinum.

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The evolution of titanium (Ti) applications to medical and dental implants has dramatically increased in the past few years because of titanium’s excellent biocompatibility corrosion resistance and desirable physical and mechanical properties.

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Titanium has become a material of great interest in prosthodontics in recent years. A growing trend involves the use of titanium as an economical and biocompatible replacement for existing alloys.

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The physical and mechanical properties of pure Ti and Ti alloys can be greatly varied with the addition of small traces of other elements such as oxygen, iron, and nitrogen. Commercially pure titanium, is available in four different grades

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ASTM I to 1V - based on the incorporation of small amounts of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, iron, and carbon during purification procedure. ASTM committee on materials for surgical implants recognizes four grades of commercially pure titanium and two titanium alloys. www.indiandentalacademy.com


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The two alloys are Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6A1-4V extra low interstitial (ELI). Commercially pure titanium is also referred to as unalloyed titanium. All six of these materials are commercially available as dental implants. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Ti-6A1-4V Several alloys of titanium are used in dentistry. Of these alloys, Ti 6Al-4V is the most widely used. At room temperature, Ti-6A1-4V is a twophase α+β alloy. At approximately 975°C, an allotropic phase transformation takes place, transforming the microstructure to a single phase BCC β-alloy. www.indiandentalacademy.com


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Thermal treatments dictate the relative amounts of the ι and β phases and the phase morphologies and yield a variety of microstructures and a range of mechanical properties.

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PRODUCTION MACHINING AND AUTOCLAVING

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Mechanical Properties The modulus of elasticity of CpTi - 104 Mpa Ti alloy -113 Mpa. The yield strength of CpTi - 860 Mpa Ti alloy – 745 Mpa. The strength of Ti alloy is 2-4 times CpTi. The modulus of elasticity is increased from 104 Mpa to 113 Mpa. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Compared to Bone - modulus of elasticity of CpTi is 5 times and Ti alloy is 5-6 times. Compared to Co-Cr-Mo these are twice strong and ½ the elastic modulus Has poor shear strength and wear resistance so unsuitable for holding bone screws.

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OXIDE COATINGS The Biocompatibility of the Ti and Ti alloy is attributed to the ability of formation of passive tenacious surface oxide. Minimum of 85 to 95% of pure titanium is required to maintain passivity. The pure titanium theoretically may form several oxides as TiO, Ti O2,Ti2O3. The oxides form spontaneously on exposure to Ti to air. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Within a millisecond 10Ă… thick oxide layer will be formed. In a minute the layer will become 100Ă… thick. The repair of the oxide layer is instantaneous if any damage occurs during insertion of Implant. Rate of dissolution is extremely low compared to any implant metals.

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Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum Alloy High modulus (stiffness) and Low ductility. Outstanding resistance to corrosion Excellent biocompatibility Commonly used for fabrication of custom design (e.g. : subperiosteal frames) by casting. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Composition: 63% cobalt 30% Chromium – for passivation 5 % Molybdenum – Strength Traces of carbon , magnesium, and nickel

Precautions: Proper fabrication techniques should be used Poor ductility so bending can be avoided so cannot be used form blade for implants.

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IRON - CHROMIUM - NICKEL BASED ALLOYS Surface is passivated to increase biocorrosion resistance. High strength and ductility. Used in wrought and heat treated condition. Composition (Surgical austentite steel) 18% chromium - for corrosion resistance. 8% nickel - to stabilize austentic structure. 0.5% carbon - as hardener. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Precautions Contraindicated in patients sensitive to nickel. Most susceptible to crevice and pitting corrosion, so care to be taken to preserve passivated surface. Has galvanic potential, so avoid contact with dissimilar metal.

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Other Metals and Alloys Gold, Platinum, Iridium and alloys of these metals are being used. Have low strength that limits the implant design. High cost and High density. Due to its nobility and availability gold is continued to be used as surgical Implant materials.

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Ceramics and Carbon as implant Materials

CERAMICS These are non organic, non metallic, non polymeric materials manufactured by compacting and sintering at elevated temperatures.

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These are bio compatible high strength insulators. Have low ductility and inherent brittleness are their limitations. Classified into : Bio active -Ca3(PO4), Hydroxyapatite Bio non-reactive - Oxides of Aluminum, Titanium, Zirconium

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ALUMINUM, TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM OXIDES 

Used for Endosteal root form, plate form implants

Have clear white cream or light grey color so used for anterior root form

Minimal biodegradation High modulus of elasticity Low fracture resistance Exhibit direct interface with bone

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THE TÜBINGEN IM PLANT OF ALUM INUM OXIDE HAS SPECIFIC M ICRO-IRREGULARITIES ON THE SURFACE, CLAIMED TO ALLOW BONE INGROWTH.

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DISADVANTAGES Exposure to steam sterilization results in measurable decrease in strength of some ceramics. So dry heat sterilization is recommended. Scratches or notches may induce fracture initiating sites. Although initial testing showed adequate mechanical strengths, long term clinical results clearly demonstrate a functional design and material related limitations. www.indiandentalacademy.com


BIOACTIVE AND BIODEGRADABLE CERAMICS Calcium Phosphate Ceramics The compositions was relatively similar to bone Ca5(PO4)3OH Color similar to bone. Shows good bonding with bone so it can be used when structural support is required under high magnitude loading.

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Mixtures with collagen, active organic compounds as bone morphogenetic proteins and with drugs have increased the range of its applications. It is used as a coating over the metallic implants. Modulus of elasticity is very near to bone.

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DISADVANTAGES Low mechanical tensile and shear strengths under fatigue loading. Low attachment strength on some substrates. Variable solubility depending on the product and their clinical applications.

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HYDROXYAPATITE

When the calcium and phosphorus in the ratio of 1.5 to 1.7 are sintered in water containing atmosphere at 1200ยบC to 1300ยบC a crystallographic end product will be obtained that is Hydroxyapatite. This has osseoconductive effect when comes in contact with bone.

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Hydroxyapatite is non porous with angular or spherical shape particles that are examples of crystalline high pure Hydroxyapatite. Their compressive strength is 500 Mpa and tensile strength is 50-70 Mpa.

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PROPERTIES OF BIOACTIVE CERAMICS

Dense polycrystalline ceramics with small crystallites have higher mechanical strength. These ceramics are widely used as coatings on metallic implant substrates.

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Calcium phosphate ceramics have become a routine use by plasma spray technique. This technique increases the surface area which in turn increases the osseointegration.

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Density, Conductivity and Solubility Density of the material increases as the percentage of crystallinity increases. As the density / crystallinity increases the solubility decreases. The solubility also depends on the surface area.

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The amorphous products are more soluble because they have less organized atomic structure. These are susceptible to enzyme or cell mediated breakdown in the same way that of living bone. These are non conductors of heat and electricity.

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TISSUE RESPONSE

The Ceramic implant surface responds to the local pH changes by releasing Na, Ca, P and Si ions in exchange for H2 ions. Si reacts with O2 to form Silica gel. As the concentration of phosphorus and calcium increases at the surface they combine to form calcium phosphate rich layer and the collagen fibers become incorporated into it. www.indiandentalacademy.com


This way the functional integration with bone occurs with the help of natural bone cementing substance so the bond formed is strong.

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CARBON AND CARBON SILICON COMPOUNDS

Extensive applications for cardiovascular devices. Excellent Biocompatibility profiles and Moduli of elasticity close to that of bone.

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ADVANTAGES Tissue attachment. Thermal and electrical insulation. Color control. Provides opportunities for attachment of active biomolecules.

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LIMITATIONS Poor Mechanical strength. Time dependent changes in the physical characteristics. Biodegradation could adversely affect Stability. Minimal resistance to scratching or scraping.

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POLYMERS AND COMPOSITES

These can be designed to match tissue properties and can be fabricated at relatively low cost. These include polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polypropylene (PP), polysulfone (PSF), silicon rubber (SR)

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PROPERTIES

Polymers have low strengths and elastic moduli and higher elongation to fracture compared with other class of biomaterials. Relatively resistant to biodegradation compared to bone.

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Most uses have been for internal force distribution connectors intended to better simulate biomechanical conditions for normal tooth functions. Some are porous where as others are constituted as solid structural forms.

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DISADVANTAGES Sensitive to sterilization and handling techniques. Display Electrostatic surface properties. Tend to gather dust or other particulate if exposed to semi clean oral environments. Cleaning the contaminated porous polymers is not possible without a laboratory environment. So the talc on the gloves or contact with towel or gauze pad or any such contamination must be avoided. www.indiandentalacademy.com


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SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY Surface topography relates to the degree of roughness of the surface and the orientation of surface irregularities. TYPES OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS 1) Macrosurface Roughness. Screw Hollow basket Core vent

2) Microsurface Roughness. Abraded TiO2 Al203 Acid Etched HCl H2SO4 Coating TPS HA www.indiandentalacademy.com


ADVANTAGES OF INCREASED SURFACE ROUGHNESS

1) Increased surface areas of the implant adjacent to bone. 2) Improved cell attachment to the bone. 3) Increased bone present at implant surface. 4) Increased biomechanical interaction of the implant with bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com


THREADS Threads are used to maximize initial contact, initial stability, increase implant surface area and also favor the dissipation of interfacial stress. 1) Thread depth 2) Thread thickness 3) Thread Pitch 4) Thread face angle 5) Thread Helix angle www.indiandentalacademy.com


SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY Wennerberg and co-workers Smooth - to describe abutments, Minimally rough (0.5 to 1 µm), Intermediately rough (1 to 2 µm), and Rough (2 to 3 µm) be used (apart from porous surfaces for implanted surfaces).

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Literature reports, based on the average surface roughness surfaces with ≤ 1 µm are considered smooth, and those with > 1 µm are described as rough.

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BLASTING Blasting with particles of various diameters is one of the frequently used method of surface alteration. In this approach, the implant surface is bombarded with particles of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) or titanium oxide (TiO2), and by abrasion, a rough surface is produced with irregular pits and depressions.

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Roughness depends on particle size, time of blasting, pressure, and distance from the source of particles to the implant surface.

SAND BLASTED IMPLANT

Blasting a smooth Ti surface with Al2 O3 particles of 25 µm, 75 µm, or 250 µm produces surfaces with roughness values of 1.16 to SAND BLASTED AND ACID 1.20, 1.43, and 1.94 to 2.20, ETCHED IMPLANT respectively. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Laser Induced Surface Roughening Eximer laser – “Used to create roughness” Regularly oriented surface roughness configuration compared to TPS coating and sandblasting

SEM x 70

SEM x 300

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CHEMICAL ETCHING Chemical etching is another process by which surface roughness can be increased. The metallic implant is immersed into an acidic solution, which erodes its surface, creating pits of specific dimensions and shape. Concentration of the acidic solution, time, and temperature are factors determining the result of chemical attack and microstructure of the surface. www.indiandentalacademy.com


IRREGULAR SURFACE MORPHOLOGIES

Sandblasted specimen

Specimen acid etched for 1 min.

Specimen acid etched for 10 mins. Specimen acid etched forwww.indiandentalacademy.com 5 mins.


SANDBLASTED AND ACID ETCHED (SLA)

Recently, a new surface was introduced that was sandblasted with large grit and acid-etched (SLA, Straumann). This surface is produced by a large grit (250 to 500 µm) blasting process, followed by etching with hydrochloric-sulfuric acid. The average ra for the acid-etched surface is 1.3 µm, and the sandblasted and acid-etched surface, ra=2.0 µm.

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Sand blasting Acid etch The objective Sand blasting – surface roughness (substractive method) Acid etching – cleaning Wennerberg et.al. 1996: superior bone fixation and bone adaptation www.indiandentalacademy.com


Lima YG et al (2000), Orsini Z et al (2000). Acid etching with NaOH, Aqueous Nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid. Decrease in contact angle by 100 - better cell attachment. Increase in osseointegration by removal of aluminium particles (cleaning).

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POROUS Porous sintered surfaces are produced when spherical powders of metallic or ceramic material becomes a coherent mass with the metallic core of the implant body. Lack of sharp edges is what distinguishes these from rough surfaces. Porous surfaces are characterized by pore size, pore shape, pore volume, and pore depth, which are affected by the size of spherical particles and the temperature and pressure conditions of the sintering chamber. www.indiandentalacademy.com


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POROUS SURFACE: ADVANTAGES 1. A secure, 3-D interlocking interface with bone. 2. Predictable and minimal crestal bone remodelling. 3. Greater surgical options with shorter implant lengths. 4. Shorter initial healing times 5. Porous coating implants provide the space, volume for cell migration and attachment, thus support contact osteogenesis. www.indiandentalacademy.com


SURFACE OF A POROUS TITANIUM ALLOY IMPLANT

FIBROBLASTS CULTURED FOR 24 HOURS ON THE SURFACE OF A POROUS TITANIUM ALLOY IMPLANT.

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TITANIUM PLASMA SPRAY

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Titanium Plasma Sprayed Coating (TPS)

Roughness Depth profile of about 15Âľm

Steinemann(1988) Tetsch(1991)-----6-10 times increase surface area. www.indiandentalacademy.com


SURFACE OF A TITANIUM PLASMA-SPRAYED IMPLANT. (SEM, MAGNIFICATION 5,000 X). www.indiandentalacademy.com


HYDROXYAPATITE COATINGS Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6OH]2 coating was brought to the dental profession by DeGroot

HA coated implant bioactive surface structure – more rapid osseous healing comparison with smooth surface implant. ↓ Increased initial stability Can be Indicated - Type IV bone . - Fresh extraction sites. - Newly grafted sites. SEM 100X

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ADVANTAGES OF HA-COATINGS 1. HA coating can lower the corrosion rate of the same substrate alloys. 2. HA coatings has been credited with enabling to obtain improved bone to implant attachment compared with machined surface. 3. The bone adjacent to the implant has been reported to be better organized than with other implant materials and with a higher degree of mineralization. www.indiandentalacademy.com


CERAMIC AND CERAMIC COATED IMPLANTS

Ceramic materials are used to coat metallic implants to produce an ionic ceramic surface, which is thermodynamically stable and hydrophilic, thereby producing a high strength attachment to bone and surrounding tissues. These ceramic can either be plasma sprayed or coated on to the metal implant to produce bio-active surface. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is used as the gold standard for ceramic implants because of its inertness with no evidence of ion release or immune reaction in vivo.

THE TĂœBINGEN IMPLANT OF ALUMINUM OXIDE HAS SPECIFIC MICRO-IRREGULARITIES ON THE SURFACE, CLAIMED TO ALLOW BONE INGROWTH.

Zirconia (ZrO2) has also demonstrated a high degree of inertness. www.indiandentalacademy.com


OTHER SURFACE MODIFICATIONS

Surface modification methods include controlled chemical reactions with nitrogen or other elements or surface ion implantation procedures.

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ďƒź

The reaction of nitrogen with titanium alloys at elevated temperatures results in titanium nitride compounds being formed along the surface.

ďƒź

Electrochemically, the titanium nitrides are similar to the oxides (TiO2), and no adverse electrochemical behavior has been noted if the nitride is lost regionally.

ďƒź

The titanium substrate reoxidizes when the surface layer of nitride is removed.

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DOPED SURFACES

Doped surfaces that contain various types of bone growth factors or other bone-stimulating agents that may prove advantageous in compromised bone beds. However, at present clinical documentation of the efficacy of such surfaces is lacking. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Physical characteristic: Physical characteristic refers to the factors such as surface energy and charge. Hypothesis : A surface with high energy →high affinity for adsorption → show stronger osseointegration. Baier RE (1986) – Glow discharge (plasma cleaning) results in high surface energy as well as the implant sterilization, being conductive to tissue integration. www.indiandentalacademy.com


Charge affects the hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristic of the surface. A hydrophilic / easily wettable implant surface : Increases a initial phase of wound healing. Increase surface energy would disappear immediately after implant placement.

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Osseointegration in clinical dentistry – Branemark, Zarb, Albrektsson Osseointegration and occlusal rehabilitation – Sumiya Hobo Contemporary Implant Dentistry – Carl E.Misch Endosseous implants for Maxillofacial reconstruction – Block and Kent Implants in Dentistry –Block and Kent Dental and Maxillofacial Implantology – John. A. Hobkrik, Roger Watson www.indiandentalacademy.com


Principles and practice of implant dentistry -Charles M Weiss, Adam Weiss. Atlas of Oral implantology - A Norman Cranin. Sciences of dental materials - Anusavice. The BRANEMARK system of oral reconstruction - A clinical atlas.

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Endosseous Implant : Scientific and Clinical Aspects – George Watzak Osseointegration in craniofacial reconstructionT. Albrektssson. Osseointegration in dentistry : an introduction : Philip Worthington, Brein. R. Lang, W.E. Lavelle.

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Dental Clinics Of North America 1986 ; 30 (1) 25-47. Dental Clinics Of North America 1992 ; 36, 1-17. Implant Materials, Designs. and Surface Topographies :Their effect on Osseointegration. A Literature Review Nikitas Sykaras et.al. IJOMI 2000 (15) 675-690.

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Schroeder et al.,(1981).The reactions of bone, connective tissue, and epithelium to endosteal implants with titanium-sprayed surfaces. Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery 9,15-25. Zarb & Symington (1983).Osseointegrated dental implants: preliminary report on a replication study. Journal of prosthetic dentistry 50,271-279. Albrektsson et al.,(1986).The long-term efficacy of currently used dental implants: a review and proposed criteria for success. International journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 1,11-25.

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Johansson & Albrektsson. (1987) Integration of screw implants in the rabbit. A 1- year follow-up of removal of titanium implants. International journal of 0ral and Maxillofacial Implants 2,69-75. Albrektsson & Sennerby.(1991) State of the art in Oral implants. Journal of clinical periodontology 18,474-481. Wennerberg & Albrektsson.(1993) Design and Surface Characteristics of 13 commercially available oral implant systems. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 8,622-23

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Biomaterials in dental implants/ dental implant courses by Indian dental academy  

The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide r...