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ACID/BASE BALANCE INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com


ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CAN BE PROTON DONORS OR ACCEPTORS PROTON DONORS ARE ACIDS PROTON ACCEPTORS ARE BASES ACIDS AND BASES REACT TO NEUTRALIZE EACH OTHER FORMING SALTS www.indiandentalacademy.com


ACID/BASE REACTIONS HCl + NaOH

NaCl + H2O

ACID + BASE

SALT + WATER

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ACID/BASE BALANCE AND THE BLOOD [OH -] [H+] Acidic

Alkaline (Basic) Neutral

pH

0

Venous Blood

Acidosis 6.8

7 7.4 Normal 7.35-7.45

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14

Arterial Blood

Alkalosis 8.0


CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS Unbuffered Salt Solution

Na+

Add HCl

Cl-

HCO3H+

H+

Cl-

Na+

Cl-

Protons taken up as Carbonic Acid

H2CO3: HCO3- Buffer H2CO3

All protons are free

H2CO3

Add HCl

HCO3www.indiandentalacademy.com

+

H+


CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS Weak acid/salt systems act as a “sponge” for protons As acidity tends to increase they take protons up As acidity tends to decrease they release protons

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CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS Carbonic acid/Bicarbonate: Primary buffer against non-carbonic acid changes Proteins: Primary ICF buffer, also ECF Hemoglobin: Primary buffer against carbonic acid changes Phosphate: Urinary buffer, also ICF

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ROLE OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN ACID/BASE BALANCE

Alterations in ventilation alter the rate of excretion of carbon dioxide Alterations in the rate of carbon dioxide excretion cause alterations in pH through carbonic acid This way the respiratory system can help control non-respiratory acidosis and alkalosis www.indiandentalacademy.com


Sources of acidosis Metabolic: Severe diarrhea, Diabetes mellitus, strenuous exercise, uremia Respiratory: hypoventilation

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Sources of alkalosis Metabolic: Vomiting, ingestion of alkaline drugs Respiratory: hyperventilation

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Renal regulation of blood acidity Proton excretion Bicarbonate excretion Ammonia secretion

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Thank you

For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com

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