Issuu on Google+

Studio Air: Procession Way

INDIA MITCHELL Tutored by Daniel and Kirilly

01


Many thanks to my dedicated group members, Tom and Yvon, for helping me survive this subject.

02


CONTENTS CASE FOR INNOVATION_/05 Introducing..._ Architecture as a Discourse_ Computational Architecture_ Parametric Modelling_ Algorithmic Challenges_ Conclusion_ Learning Outcomes_

/06 /08 /16 /18 /26 /28 /29 DESIGN APPROACH_/31

Design Focus_ Design Focus_Precedents_ Design Focus_Design Brief_ Case Study 1_ Case Study 1_Technique: Development_ Case Study 2_ Case Study 2_Technique: Development_ Technique: Prototypes_ Technique: Prototypes_Material Development_ Technique: Prototypes_Material Understanding_ Technique: Prototypes_Material Precedents_ Technique Proposal_ Learnign Outcomes and Objectives_

/32 /34 /40 /42 /44 /46 /52 /54 /57 /64 /66 /70 /77

PROJECT PROPOSAL_/74 Design Concept_ Design Concept_Node Diagram_ Tectonic Elements_ Tectonic Elements_Construction Diagram_ Final Model_ Learning Outcomes and Objectives_

/76 /84 /85 /86 /88 /94

03


04


CASE FOR: INNOVATION

05


Case For Innovation_Introducing..._

INTRODUCING...

the subject Virtual Environments, us-­ LQJ5KLQRGXULQJWKHÀUVW\HDU   of my degree and used the AutoDesk program Revit Architecture to com-­ plete the second year subject, Ar-­ chitecture Design Studio: Water.

My name is India Mitchell, I am twen-­ ty years old and in my third year of studying a Bachelor of Environ-­ ments, majoring in Architecture, at the University of Melbourne. I have lived in country Victoria all my life, in a very small town called Torrum-­ barry, until moving to Melbourne in order to undertake my degree.

Using Rhino and Revit, as well as exploring the use of computer pro-­ grams within architecture through-­ out all of my core subjects, has enabled me to develop a sound, if not broad, understanding of the potential use of digital design within the industry of architecture.

I have some experience with digital design theory and practice, I studied

Right: Figure 1. Own image , developed during virtual environments using Rhino, 2011)

06


Case For Innovation_Introducing..._

07


Case For Innovation_Architecture as a Discourse_

very different, explore some ideas that are entirely parallel, within their discourse.

ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

Both Wright and Gehry have faced criticism that their buildings “out-­shine� the works displayed within them, and both works have strived to develop museums that are at the forefront of architecture of their times, how is it then, that the two buildings show such distinct and seperate qualities?

It is a creedit to both architects that they can create such individual buildings, rather than follow the status quo, estab-­ lished by architects of the past and con-­ tinued by most everyday architects. It is the ideas and concepts established by these architects that make the study of Continually the discourse of architecture discourse so important, and something is changing, and the ideas that an archi-­ WKDW PXVW EH SXUVXHG LQ RUGHU WR GHÀQH tect attempts to convey alter and are establish, and explore what we, as fu-­ manipulated by the evolving and alter-­ ture architects, can offer to the design ing cultures and societies in which they community, and to society as a whole. sit. In today’s globalised world, discourse is developing a technical focus that strives to envelop the beauty and inno-­ vation of technology within architecture. When considering architecture as a discourse -­ that is the ideas and con-­ cepts that are being communicated through an architectural work -­ many architects and works spring to mind.

Frank Lloyd Wright’s Solomon R. Guggen-­ heim Museum, New York City, 1959 and Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum, Bil-­ bao, 1998 present two projects that while

Right: Figure 2. One of Gehry’s famous sketches of his devel-­ opment for the Guggenheim, Bilbao

08


Case For Innovation_Architecture as a Discourse_

09


Case For Innovation_Architecture as a Discourse_

PRECEDENT:

Frank Lloyd Wright, Solo-­ mon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1959.

achieved it, along with another idea. This idea sprung from the unique de-­ sign of the Guggenheim, New York City, a design that in years to come, inspired other architects to attempt to replicate the ingenuity of the spirals and curves that make this work of Wright’s so special.

This building was added to Wright’s amaz-­ LQJOLVWRIVLJQLĂ€FDQWZRUNVLQDQG\HW it is quite separate from most of his earlier works. The personal journey that enabled “No, it is not to subjugate the paint-­ Wright to arrive at the mentality that creat-­ ings to the build-­ ing that I conceived ed his Guggenheim, and the discourse that this plan, on the contrary, it was to developed it, were products of Wright’s life. make the building and the painting a beautiful sym-­ phony such as nev-­ This discourse of Wright’s life-­ er existed in the world of Art before.â€? work became one of advance-­ )UDQN/OR\G:ULJKW 1 ments in architecture and society. :ULJKW¡V LQĂ XHQFH RQ RWKHU DUFKLWHFWV So wrote Wright to Harry Guggenheim changed architecture as we know it, before the completion of the build of even Frank Gehry has admit-­ ted to an in-­ KLV Ă€QDO PDVWHUSLHFH :ULJKW GHVLJQHG Ă XHQFH RI )UDQN /OR\G :ULJKW LQ KLV ZRUN this building as an attempt to create a place in which the abstract works which were to be displayed there, would take on a beauty that they could not pos-­ New York City, the inte-­ sess alone. The discourse of this design Right: Figure 3. Wright’s Guggenheim, rior of the building from the top level was the communication of beauty. The Triumph of Frank Lloyd Wright, 2013. This was the discourse that Wright intended to communicate to us, and he no doubt 1

10


Case For Innovation_Architecture as a Discourse_

11


Case For Innovation_Architecture as a Discourse_

architecture imposed upon the building.

PRECEDENT:

Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, 1998. “Overall, the kind of language I’ve developed, which culminated in Bil-­ bao, comes from a reaction to Post-­ modernism. I was desperate not to go there, I was looking for a way to deal with the humanizing qualities of decoration with-­ out doing it. I got an-­ gry with it—all the historical stuff, the pastiche. I said to myself, If you have to go backward, why not go back PLOOLRQ\HDUVEHIRUHPDQWRĂ€VK"Âľ )UDQN*HKU\ 2 While Gehry’s work can be compared to Wright’s Guggenheim as a more elabo-­ rate and hectic interpretation of Wright’s, Gehry states that, in fact, he was drawing his in-­spiration from a very different source. With this design, Gehry communicates an idea of modernity, abstraction and an at-­ tempt to transform architecture beyond the simplicity that Gehry felt modernist

Gehry’s famous use of abstract sketches to develop his work has enabled the student to observe the uses of technology in archi-­ tecture. Though Gehry makes a strong case for technology in his use of architecture, he also indicates the need to have a hu-­ man sense of creativity in regard to design. Gehry has existed as an architect of the traditional pen and paper draft-­ ing in the past, but he is now seen as a pioneer for dig-­ ital architecture, par-­ ticularly digital and parametric design. Through a discourse of change and new interpretation, Gehry has created a new means of design and communi-­ cation. His use of technology within this project has not only changed Gehry’s future work, but has also encouraged other architects to investigate and ex-­ plore the use of digital architecture and its possibilities in terms of develop-­ ing personal styles and a universal style.

Right: Figure 4. Gehry’s Guggenheim, Bilbao, at sunset 2

Architecture in the Age of Gehry, 2013.

12


Case For Innovation_Architecture as a Discourse_

13


Case For Innovation_Architecture as a Discourse_

In relation to technology, the change in discourse must be noted: technology has changed what it means to create a mu-­ seum, or a monument, and one must be aware of the changes that it may have in the future. Wright and Gehry are strong examples of changes in discourse, but they may only be the beginning. Wright’s In relation to discourse, what makes architectural journey as an example the works of Gehry and Wright particu-­ LQ LWVHOI GHÀQLQJ WKH VXEXUEDQ KRXVH larly special, is the individuality of both can be used to explore what the subur-­ works, within a very similar design breif. ban house might become in the future.

PRECEDENTS COMPARED

Of course, the times had changed be-­ tween the design of the Guggenheim New York and the Guggenheim Bilbao, and of course there is the presence of two different minds capable of two different designs. Still, the truth remains in that both Wright and Gehry attempted to create monuments thorugh their designs. These monuments were developed to house the ÀQHVWZRUNVRIDUWZLWKLQWKHPZKLFKZHUH in their own way, monuments of their own. The changes in technology in those short for-­ W\\HDUVZHUHVLJQLÀFDQWZLWKWKHGHYHORS-­ ment of computer aided design and new materials such as titanium. This warrants are substantially different design approach.

%RWK :ULJKW DQG *HKU\ H[SUHVV D UHà HF-­ tion of nature through their works, Wright through the organic sweeping curve of his building, similar to a shell; and *HKU\ WKURXJK KLV UHIHUHQFH WR WKH ÀVK In the end, the comparison of Wright and Gehry results in one concept: change. We can observe the two Guggenheims as ex-­ amples of a discourse of change and reac-­ tion to past works, and change as a result of developments in technology and society.

Right: Figure 5. Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon R. Guggenheim

14


Case For Innovation_Architecture as a Discourse_

15


Case For Innovation_Computational Architecture_

COMPUTATION-­ AL ARCHITECTURE

sible with traditional methods, and digi-­ tal design creates a great advantage. Human and computer communication is D VLJQLÀFDQW EDUULHU DJDLQVW WKH FUHDWLYH abilities of the designer with computers, however, it is possible to overcome this barrier with an awareness of the issue, and a rethinking of the design process.

In Architecture’s New Media : Princi-­ ples, Theories, and Methods of Com-­ “Digital technologies are changing puter-­Aided Design, Kalay explores the architectural practices in ways that evolution of design, and the ways in few were able to anticipate just a de-­ which computers and people can in-­ cade ago. In the conceptual realm, teract with each other to achieve de-­ computational, digital architecture signs of higher standards than that of topological...algorithms [etc], which a designer cannot achieve alone. are supplanting techno-­ logical architectures.â€? ´,IZHFRXOGĂ€QGDZD\WRWDNHDG-­ %UDQNR.RODUHYLF

vantage of the abilities of comput-­ ers where ours fall short, and use Kolarevic discusses the unpredictable our own abilities where comput-­ changes in architecture as a result of ers’ fall short, we would create a technology3. While many businesses very powerful symbiotic design sys-­ have changed through the use of tech-­ tem: computers will contribute their nology to make certain aspects of work superb rational and search abili-­ PRUHHIĂ€FLHQWWHFKQRORJ\LQDUFKLWHFWXUH ties, and we humans will contrib-­ has revolutionised the way architecture ute all the creativity and intuition is seen today. Changes to architecture needed to solve design problems.“4 will continue to take place in the future. 3

Computational architecture is allowing designers to develop complex projects ZLWK PRUH HDVH DQG  à H[LELOLW\ WKDQ SRV-­

Branko, 2003 4 Kalay, 2003

16


Case For Innovation_Computational Architecture_

Hence the presence of computer-­aided design in society is not one which is based entirely on ease of design, nor aesthet-­ ics. It is an idea that has developed in order to create an architecture that rec-­ ognises the faults of both computers and humans. An awareness of these faults may exist, but there is still much contro-­ versy over the fact that this awareness is not taken into account by designers when using computers to aid them. Those against computer-­aided design discuss the way in which the human presence of creativity is lost in the technology.

Through other criticism, we can see that we must remain aware of tradition and nature when using technology in de-­ sign. Some designs used can be seen to be lacking in connection to site due to the abstraction from the natural land-­ scape. Despite this, there are of course the exceptions, such as Bernard Ts-­ chumi’s Alesia Museum, France, 2012.

In simply observing architecture of recent WLPHV ZH FDQ VHH D VLJQLÀFDQW FKDQJH in style, one that computer design is re-­ sponsible for. Overall, the presence of computation in architecture has meant a Mark Burry explores this in his book on drastic change in style, moving from the scripting cultures, discussing the way uniform buildings that follow horizontal in which some are tempted to use the and vertical axis, to the organic, curved same script in multiple different situations5. DQGà RZLQJVWUXFWXUHVWKDWDUHEHFRPLQJ more prominent in architecture today. It is true that while there are many ways to develop different forms using compu-­ Computer-­aided design has created tational technology, it is easy to come FRQWURYHUV\ LQ DUFKLWHFWXUDO ÀHOGV EXW across similar designs using computers. remains a technique that will no doubt Though it can be considered Gehry’s be more widely used in the future. own style, the similarities between the Guggenheim, Bilbao and his Walt Dis-­ ney Concert Hall are so strong that an uneducated eye can consider the two Burry, 2011 buidlings to be the same, out of context. 5

17


Case For Innovation_Parametric Modelling_

PARAMETRIC MODELLING ´3DUDPHWULFLVPÀQDOO\RIIHUVDFUHGL-­ ble, sustainable answer to the drawn-­ out crisis of modernism that resulted in 25 years of stylistic searching.�  3DWULN6FKXPDFKHU

Paremetric modelling presents a meth-­ od of design that has many advan-­ tages, but also presents strong deisgn issues. The use of parametric design may have existed for hundreds of years, but it only presently becoming a wide-­ spread design practice and focus. 7RGHÀQHSDUDPHWULFPRGHOOLQJLVGLIÀFXOW and many have attempted to do so: my XQGHUVWDQGLQJGHÀQHVSDUDPHWULFPRGHO-­ ling as the manipulation of technology, be it a hanging chain model or a computer program, to develop a form that, based on calculations, follows the laws of math-­ ematics in order to create a function-­ able model, within a set of parameters.

An issue that was clear even during the ini-­ tial construction of Gaudi’s Sagrada Famil-­ ia, is becoming particularly present in cur-­ rent design construction: many parametric PRGHOV DUH GLIÀFXOW DQG FRVWO\ WR EXLOG Robert Woodbury explores the way in which parametric modelling is actu-­ ally developed using computers, and so brings to light the lack of understanding that deisgners have when using prgram-­ ming67KLVGHÀQHVDQLVVXHZKLFKVXJJHVWV the need for anyone using programs such as Rhino, to understand the theory be-­ hind the development of the program. A major argument related to parametri-­ cism arises from Zaha Hadid and Patrik Schumacher. Schumacher treats Had-­ id’s work as if it a style of itself, the style of parametricism. In reality, t is not a ´VW\OH¾WKDWGHÀQHVSDUDPHWULFLVPUDWKHU it is the use of a particular technology. In Schumacher’s opinion, we can only say that he has a very closed opinion of who DQGZKDWGHÀQHVSDUDPHWULFLVP1RRQH can assume that Hadid has the same ideas on parametricism as Schumacher. 6

Woodbury, 2010

18


Case For Innovation_Parametric Modelling_

design as a surface tool. There is much Hadid is used as a prec-­ more potential within the tool of para-­ edent here, as she plays a metric modelling. He goes onto say that VLJQLĂ€FDQW UROH LQ WKH ZRUOG RI SDUD-­ metricism, however, an awareness of “It is about unlocking potential rath-­ the roles of others, architects and those er than guiding conformity to uni-­ responisible for the development of com-­ versally held doctrinal positions...â€?8 puter programs, such as Robert Wood-­ bury. As Daniel Davis explores in his re-­ Parametric design means an exploration sponse to Schumacher’s Let The Style Wars of design rather than a developmen of a Begin, Hadid’s work can be considered VW\OHDQGWKLVLVUHDIĂ€UPHGE\.RODUHYLF¡V to lack the connection to site and cul-­ opinion on computing as a whole9. ture7, though, in my opinion, she strives to make this connection. This can be seen in ´7KH\VHHPWRSUHĂ€JXUHDQHQWLUHO\ the Riverside Museum of Transport, further new way of architectural thinking, discussed via Zaha Hadid as a precedent. one that ignores conventions of style or aesthetics altogether in favour of This issue of a lack of connection is not only continuous experimentation based connected to the works of Zaha Hadid Ar-­ on digital generation and trans-­ chitects: as discussed in relation to com-­ formation of forms that respond to putational architecture, in parametric complete contextual or functional design, it can be considered that there is LQĂ XHQFHVERWKVWDWLFDQGG\QDPLFÂľ more of a focus on experimentation and %UDQNR.RODUHYLF

exploration with technology, rather than on connection to site, culture and society. Despite these issues and arguments, parametric models can enable design Mark Burry in his Scripting Cultures: Ar-­ WKDWLVPRUHHQJDJLQJRUJDQLFà XLGDQG chitectural Design and Programming Daniel Davis, 2010 explores the place that parametric Burry, 2011 design has within architecture. He dis-­ Kolarevic, 2003 cusses the way in which, at this point, architects have only used parametric 7

8

9

19


Case For Innovation_Parametric Modelling_

HYHQ IXQFWLRQDEOH ZKHQ EXLOW  WKDQ designs developed through traditional methods. With developing technolo-­ gies, parametric modelling is also a much PRUH DFFHVVDEOH DQG HIÀFLHQW IRUP RI design development. One might even say thatparametric modelling, when re-­ alised, creates a building that is more human and relatable than any other de-­ sign technique. There is, of course, the issue of developing this ability to cre-­ ate these forms that respond to the in-­ novative abilities of parametric deisgn, while still maintaining a connection to site, culture, society, tradition and nature.

Right: Figure 6. Hadid’s Riverside Museum of Transport, 2011

20


Case For Innovation_Parametric Modelling_

21


Case For Innovation_Parametric Modelling_

PRECEDENT: Heri

& Salli, Landscape Fence, Vienna, 2011

ate a form that is functionable and en-­ hancing of the natural elements about it is something that I would like into focus. It this ability, not only in relation to nature, but in relation to all aspects of design, that will enable great works of architecure to be created using parametric modelling, and enable parametric modelling to be come a technology widely used in architecure.

“In this case architecture is an ac-­ cumulation of possibilities in a de-­ scribed space and creates only the edges for a vast land in between.� +HUL

:KDW PDNHV WKLV SURMHFW VR VLJQLÀFDQW LV the use of the architecture to manipu-­ late and increase the beauty of the natural environment.The design cre-­ ates a balance between the technol-­ ogy used and the site that it is based in. Herri & Salli designed this cocoon-­like This technique has been very appropri-­ structure to act as a fence and cano-­ ate for the project, and has enabled an py about a swimming pool. Made from LQWHQVLÀFDWLRQ DQG IRFXV RQ WKH QDWX-­ steel, the structure is panelised, to join ral and architectural beauty of the site. surfaces that act as furniture within the cocoon. Though it is unclear as to what program was used, the project is clearly parametrically modelled and designed. The use of parametric modelling in this in-­ stance has created a very individual form, and provides an example to coincide with the idea that it is only the way in which archi-­ tects are making use of these techniques, which inhibit the cababilities of paramet-­ ric design and computer-­aided design to develop creative and unusual forms.

Right: Figure 7. Landscape Fence, with a focus on views from the site.

The use of technolgy in this project to cre-­

22


Case For Innovation_Parametric Modelling_

23


Case For Innovation_Parametric Modelling_

PRECEDENT: Zaha

Hadid, Riverside Museum of Transport, Glasgow, 2011.

the extremely complex engineering with-­ in the deisgn of the Riverside Museum of Transport, which coincides with the strong links that the Glasgow area. Perhaps it is the use of parametric and computer aided design that creates this concept of disconnectedness in these designs.

´7KH à XLG GHVLJQ FRQWLQXHV Glasgow’s rich engineering tradi-­ tions; a true demonstration and cel-­ ebration of the skills and passion of local engineers and contractors who helped to bring this building to life.� =DKD+DGLG

The precedent is an example of an em-­ brace of technology to further devel-­ op design, as well as looking to tradi-­ tion and past for inspiration and design intent. In some ways, I would consid-­ er Hadid’s use of the engineering of Glasgow to be a way of addressing in-­ dustrialiastion as Glasgow’s own natu-­ Zaha describes her attempt to create a ral space, and building on this concept. VWUXFWXUHWKDWUHĂ HFWVWKHKLVWRU\RIWKHVLWH through an exploration of extremely com-­ plex engineering. Contractors working on the projectd escribed the con-­ struction as “...BAM, described the building of the mas-­ sive, 2,500 tons steel roof, without any inter-­ nal supporting columns, as the most chal-­ lenging engineering feat in the UK today.â€? Right: Figure 8. The road facing perspective of Hadid’s River-­

Here it can be seen that Hadid as atempt-­ ed to develop a strong connection be-­ tween her work and it’s context through

side Museum of Transport, Glasgow.

24


Case For Innovation_Parametric Modelling_

25


Case For Innovation_Algorithmic Challenges_

ALGORITHMIC CHALLENGES

tion and explore how it can be manipu-­ ODWHG,FKRVHDVLPSOHGHÀQLWLRQDQGH[-­ plored the different qualitis that can be developed through different meshes of simple shapes to create complex forms.

In my Case Studies and Whyndam City Gateway Project, I would like to build on I have found the algorithmic challeng-­ the theory that I have already learnt, and es have not only enhanced my under-­ the skills that I had developed. Through an standing of Grasshopper, Rhino, and exploration of add-­ons such as Kangaroo computer-­based design as a whole, and Weaverbird, I would like to build on but they have given insight as to how I my skills in order to develop forms which might approach my design, and as to are organic and aesthetically pleasing. what factors I might take into account. A focus that I would like to maintain I have chosen the following forms, de-­ throughout the remainder of the subject veloped during the algorithmic chal-­ is on nature. Through my studies, it has lenges, as examples of my explorations. come to my attention that much debate lies about the lack of contextuallity about The AA DRIFTWOOD challenge and its built parametric designs. I would like to strong relation to the texture and qualities explore the ways in which I can create a of timber, along with some of my prece-­ strong connection between site and form dents, has enabled me to developed an through a n ideal of nature and materiality. interest in the functionality and beauty of the combination of the naturality of the material and the technology of the design. Algorithmic Challenge Three, explored KHUH ZDV WR FKRRVH RQH¡V RZQ GHÀQL-­

Right: All images developed by self using Rhino and Grass-­ hoppper, March, 2013

26


Case For Innovation_Algorithmic Challenges_

Above: Figure 9. AA DRIFTWOOD challenge. Below and Left: Figure 10. Algorithmic challenge 3 (Delaunay Mesh) Below and Right: Figure 11. Algorithmic challege 3 (Voroinoi 3d)

27


Case For Innovation_Conclusion_

CONCLUSION

exploration of computer aided design and in particular, parametric model-­ ling. Every aspect of our society is being altered by the presence of technolo-­ gy, and this will continue in the future.

The Case for Innovation explores the place A strong issue in parametric modelling is that computers hold not only within soci-­ the lack of connection to the past, na-­ ety as a whole, but within architecture. ture, and other forms of contextuallity in the forms so far discovered. We must As students of architecture and design, not forget these concepts in our explo-­ we feel the need to delve into the his-­ ration of technology. It is this issue that I tory of our future profession and explore would like to explore, therefore I, with those architects who have inspired us; my group members Yvon and Thomas, but what of the future, and what of the will approach the design task ahead works that will inspire the next generation? with an attempt to explore the recon-­ ciliation of nature and technology with-­ Architecture is not only about build-­ in the Whyndam City Gateway Project. LQJV LW LV D UHà HFWLRQ RI VRFLHW\ DQG today’s society is a technical one. It comes as no surprise to me that there is a movement towards embracing com-­ putational and parametric architecture. This method of design is one that com-­ municates ideas, creates inspiring and beautiful forms, and explores possibilities that have never before been realised. I believe that the future holds a further

28


Case For Innovation_Learning Outcomes_

LEARNING OUT-­ COMES

Using Rhino in conjunction with Grass-­ hopper during my algorithmic challeng-­ es, as well as attending lectures, studios and researching during my own time, has opened my eyes to the greater pos-­ sibilities that parametric design can offer.

Not withstanding the limitations that all methods of design offer, I believe that the The theory and practice of architectural knowledge I have now could have en-­ computation within the course, at this abled me to explore my designs from past stage, has led me to develop a greater studios more effectively, perhaps radi-­ understanding of computer-­aided de-­ cally altering the outcomes I achieved, sign, and particularly parametric design. in regards to the designs I developed. 0\H[SHULHQFHVZLWK5KLQRGXULQJÀUVW\HDU 9LUWXDO(QYLURQPHQWV KDGOHGPHWREH-­ lieve that the forms designed in Rhino, and similar programs, were restricted more to sculptural forms rather than architec-­ tural forms. I found it impractical and dif-­ ÀFXOWZKHQLWFDPHWRIXQFWLRQDOGHVLJP

Overall, I have found my experiences in this studio to be very much eye opening in terms of the ways in which computing can assist and develop design concepts, and I would like to further my knowledge and skills in this area of architectural design.

29


30


DESIGN APPROACH

31


Design Approach_Design Focus_

Design Focus: Material Perfor-­ mance

ist at an intersection; and the design will need to address the greater Wyndham City region. Other issues with the project exist, these are however, the most im-­ PHGLDWH DQG VLJQLÀFDQW 0DWHULDO SUH-­ formance will need to address these issues, and as a result of the strains of patterning and structure that will form After research of the streams from which from the focus of material performance, a design approach might form, the group this will be the ideal means of doing so. has chosen to explore the focus of Mate-­ rial Performance in regards to the design Due to the structure that forms within the of the Wyndham City Gateway Project. material, the project will be viewed in differ-­ Material performance is a very impor-­ ent ways from different distances and an-­ tant aspect of design for me, and I be-­ gles, creating interest for those who see it. lieve that the way in which materiality The design will need to act as a gate-­ FDQDIIHFWDQGLQà XHQFHGHVLJQLVDYHU\ way into the City of Wyndham, mean-­ VLJQLÀFDQWFRQFHSWSDUWLFXODUO\ZKHQXV-­ ing that the irregularity that can result ing complex methods of design such as from the patterning derived from the fo-­ parametric modelling. This interest is one cus on materiality will allow for an emer-­ WKDW VHHPV WR EH UHà HFWHG E\ WKH JURXS gent form that draws on the concept of members, Tom and Yvon, hence it is a movement and 100km/h architecture. very appropriate point of research for us. Overall, for the purposes of the group, When considering the project, some is-­ Material Performance is the ideal focus, sues come to mind: the site is on a free-­ in order to create a successful design for way, meaning that the deisgn will have the Wyndham City Gateway Project. The to enforce the concept of 100km/h archi-­ following precedents will extend on this. tecture; the design will be viewed from many points and distances, as it will ex-­ Right: Figure 9: Site for Wyndham City Gatway Project

32


Design Approach_Design Focus_

33


Design Approach_Design Focus_

PRECEDENT:

IwamotoScott, Voussoir Cloud, Los Ange-­ les, 2009

The different points from which you can view the project affects the way in which it is experienced. Each facet of the vault-­ ed archs is a different setting, and the de-­ sign is percieved in a different way each time. Because of the multiple views the site of the Gateway Project offers, this be-­ comes a very important aspect in our own design, one that this project will present ideas of how to apporach this concept.

“Voussoir Cloud explores the structural paradigm of pure compression coupled with an They way in which light interacts with the ultra-­light material system.â€? form and patterning is another concept we ,ZDPRWR6FRWW would like to engage with in our own design. The use of paremetric design by Iwamoto and Scott in this installation can be re-­ Ă HFWHG EDFN RQ WKH ZRUNV RI +DGLG DQG Heri and Salli. Their works differ in many ways, but the presence of the organic FXUYHV WKDW LV PDQ\ ZD\V GHĂ€QH WKH XVH of parametric modelling in design can-­ not be ignored. This aspect of parametric modelling is another thing that we would Though the project does not exist in a like to focus on. With the use of a natural space where high-­speed viewing be-­ material, perhaps one relevant to the site, comes relevant, the form adresses the we would like to extend on the complex concept of views very strongly. From a relationship between the technical meth-­ distance, the form exists as a whole, od of design within parametric modelling while on closer inspection, we can see and the presence of naturallity within that. the many parts of the thin wood lami-­ Right: Figure 10: Voussoir Cloud nate connecting to form a whole. Voussoir Pavilion is, as stated above, a combination of material perfor-­ mance and structural intergrity. For this project, one could not exist with-­ out the other, and that is what makes WKLV SURMHFW VR VSHFLĂ€F WR WKH LQWHQWLRQV of myself and my group memmbers, as we approach this design project.

34


Design Approach_Design Focus_

35


Design Approach_Design Focus_

PRECEDENT:

University of Stuttgart Student Project, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, Stuttgart, 2010

materials when designing, even with-­ in computation, but it is rarer to see the form of the project to be drawn through the meeting of technology and natu-­ ral material, as is done in this project.

The group considers this to be an im-­ portant concept, particularly within in a place like Wyndham city, which is an area that is built-­up, but still possesses strong aspects of nature, such as beaches and farming areas, and “The computational design model is we would like to apply it to our own based on embedding the relevant design for the Gateway Project. material behavioral features in parametric principles.“ Much like the project my group would 6WXGHQWV like to pursue, this research pavilion

The 2010 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, Stutt-­ gart University is a temporary reserach pavilion designed in conjuction with the University of Stuttgart design students, the ,QVWLWXWH IRU &RPSXWDWLRQDO 'HVLJQ ,&'  and the Institute of Building Structures and 6WUXFWXUDO 'HVLJQ ,7.( 0DGH HQWLUHO\ RI extremely thin, elastically-­bent plywood strips, the project explores the concept of material oriented computer design. The strong design focus of material per-­ fomrmance within parametric modelling is the concept that the group would like to draw from most with this precedent. Of course a designer is always aware of

uses the properties of the materials to determine the form of the design. It also explores the way in which my aes-­ thetic properties of the material used LQIRUP WKH GHVLJQ DQG LQà XHQFH WKH way in which the building is viewed. In a similar way to the Voussoir Cloud, the Research Pavilion of 2010, the ways in which views can evoke differ-­ ent emotions as a result of the mate-­ rial patterning of the stucture. On a different scale, using 100km/h architec-­ ture, my group would like to achieve a similar result with our own design. Right: Figure 11: ICD/ITKE Researh Pavilion, 2010

36


Design Approach_Design Focus_

37


Design Approach_Design Focus_

The main aspect of design that I would like to integrate into my project from this is the use of the programs to explore the Matsys, Shell Star Pavilion, way in which forces exerted on the form result in different results, depending on Hong Kong, 2012 will the material. The use of the program to explore the material’s ability to withstand “...the design emerged out of a desire forces, and to attain an ideal form given to create a spatial vortex whereby the material and the general structure. visitors would feel drawn into the pa-­ vilion center and subsequently drawn For this project, the result has been an ar-­ back out into the larger festival site. “ rangement of connected irregular arches 0DWV\V with a central vault. This is not unlike the form that the group would like to achieve Matsys’ temporary Shell Star Pavilion does and we plan on drawing from the technical not use a natural material,which is some-­ aspects of this design in our own project. thing the group would like to focus on, We would also like to draw from this proj-­ however, the form that emerges from ect, the affect of patterning on light and the exploration of material, computa-­ shade, which Matsys uses in this project. tion, and forces, is similar to something This use of shading will be another aspect that the group would like to acheive. of the design that will capture the observ-­ HUVDWWHQWLRQPDNLQJWKHĂ HHWLQJPRPHQW The project uses Rhino, Grasshopper and in which the project is visible while driving at Kangaroo, as the group plans to do with NPKPRUHVLJQLĂ€FDQWWRWKHREVHUYHU the Wyndham Gateway Project, as well as other add-­ons, those being Lunch-­ Like the Voussoir Cloud, the Shell Star Pa-­ box, Rhinoscript and Python. For the vilion, uses computer generated hanging group’s purposes, we will most likely not FKDLQPRGHOVLQRUGHUWRĂ€QGWKHIRUPRIWKH use these. Rather we will use the add-­on pavilion. And like the ICD/ITKE Research Weaver Bird, however, we cannot rule Pavilion of 2010, the different views from dif-­ out the use of other add-­ons in this proj-­ ferent distances create different perspec-­ ect. Regardless, this use of a the same tives and perceptions within the viewer. program in our projects makes Shell Star Right: Figure 12: Shell Star Pavilion Pavilion extremely relevant to the group.

PRECEDENT:

38


Design Approach_Design Focus_

39


Design Approach_Design Focus_

Design Brief Through a close analysis of the group goals and precedents, we have been able to determine a personal de-­ sign brief, and key considerations that apply to Material Performance. Through exploration with materiality, pat-­ terning and structure, the group aims to develop a landmark design for the Western gateway in Wynhdam City. The Gateway with become an iconic feature within the area, and promote a discourse of pride, positive change and positive di-­

rection, with a connection to the great-­ er region. These inspiring thoughts will be provoked through the meeting of natural material and state-­of-­the-­art technology. Key considerations to be taken into ac-­ count when realising this design will be: -­ close and distant views, -­ patterning and structure drawn from material performance, -­ materiality and material perfor-­ mance, -­ views from different angles, -­ integration with site through rela-­ tion to naturallity, -­ experience of procession through form. Right: Figure 13: Existing Gateway

40


Design Approach_Design Focus_

41


Design Approach_Case Study 1_

KHLJKWGHSWKRIWKHIRUPDOVR ,PDJH

Case Study 1:

IwamotoScott, Voussoir Cloud, Los Ange-­ les, 2009 Voussoir Cloud was chosen as the proj-­ ect for Case Study 1 due to the fact that each of the group members were drawn to the form and the method of design.

The scale slider is also edited in order to achieve different sizes of the columns. The scale slider can sometimes distort the form to create a jagged form that does not FRQQHFWWRWKHFXUYHFRUUHFWO\ ,PDJH  Experimentation continued, using mul-­ tiple point and curve combinations, as well as editing and experimenta-­ tion with the other aspects discussed.

$ VLJQLÀFDQW DVSHFW RI WKH GHÀQLWLRQ After the initial download of the is the for of the mesh. Using Weav-­ Bird, experimentation occured JUDVVKRSSHU DQG UKLQR  ÀOHV ,PDJH er   IURP WKH /06 FXUYHV DQG SRLQW with meshes and mesh patterning. ZHUH VHW WR WKH GHÀQLWLRQ ,PDJH 

Due to the importance of material pat-­ On the boolean toggle, the identity terning, this aspect of design will be-­ ZDV VHW WR IDOVH IURP WUXH ,PDJH   LQ come very important in the future for order to activate the forces that kan-­ the group’s future design exploration. JDURR DSSOLHV WR WKH IRUP ,PDJH 

The matrix shows the way in which the The X, Y and Z sliders of the Vector GHĂ&#x20AC;QLWLRQ FDQ EH DOWHUHG  YLD SDUDP-­ ;<=  FRPSRQHQW DUH HGLWHG WR DO-­ eters or added to with different compo-­ ter the height/depth and left and nents, to create different forms that would ULJKW DVSHFWV RI WKH IRUP ,PDJH  explore different material properties. The Z unit is also edited to alter the

Right: All images developed by Yvon Chen, Thomas Mitton and India Mitchell using Rhino and Grasshoppper, April, 2013

42


Design Approach_Case Study 1_ Image 1

Image 2

Image 3 True

False Image 4

Image 5

Image 6

Image 7

43


Original

7HFKQLTXH'HYHORSPHQW0DWUL[RI'HºQWL

44

1RWH DERYH *UDVVKRSSHU HOHPHQWV DUH XVHG WR LQGLFDWH WKH FKDQJHV PDGH WR WKH GHÀQLWLRQ WKDW LQ WXUQ DIIHFW IRUP DQG XVH WKH GHÀQLWLRQ SURYLGHG &KDQJHV DUH PDGH E\  QR FKDQJHV  :HDYHUELUG·V 6LHUSLQVNL 7ULDQJOHV 6XEGLYLVLRQ LV FRQQ QHFWHG WR WKH ÀQDO PHVK  :HDYHUELUG·V 3LFWXUH )UDPH LV FRQQHFWHG WR WKH ÀQDO PHVK  :HDYHUELUG·V 6WHOODWH&XPXODWLR LVDOWHUHGWRDQHJDWLYHQXPEHU7KH=8QLWHOHPHQWVOLGHULVDOWHUHG7KH6FDOHHOHPHQWVOLGHULVDOWHUHG 7KHVHFKDQJHVLQIRUP


WLRQ,ZDPRWR6FRWW9RXVVRLU&ORXG

45

G SDWWHUQLQJ WKH HOHPHQWV LQGLFDWH WKH FROXPQV ZKLFK VKRZ WKLV DIIHFW 7KH DFWXDO GHÀQWLRQ XVHG LV VKRZQ WR WKH OHIW LQGLFDWLQJ WKDW DOO URZV QHFWHG WR WKH ÀQDO PHVK :HDYHUELUG·V /RRS 6XEGLYLVLRQ LV FRQQHFWHG WR WKH ÀQDO PHVK  :HDYHUELUG·V ,QQHU 3RO\JRQ 6XEGLYLVLRQ LV FRQ-­ RQ LV FRQQHFWHG WR WKH ÀQDO PHVK  :HDYHUELUG·V 0HVK 7KLFNHQ LV FRQQHFWHG WR WKH ÀQDO PHVK  7KH = VOLGHU RI WKH 9HFWRU ;<=  HOHPHQW PDQGSDWWHUQLQJZHUHXVHGLQWKHPDWLU[WRGLVSOD\ÁH[LELOLW\RIGHÀQLWLRQDQGH[SORUHWKHIRFXVRI0DWHULDO3HUIRUPDQFHWKURXJKIRUPDQGSDWWHUQLQJ


Design Approach_Case Study 2_

Case Study 2:

Matsys, Shell Star Pavilion, Hong Kong, 2012 As discussed as a precedent, Shell Star Pavil-­ ion is a temporary installation in Hong Kong. The pavilion was designed as an architec-­ ture that would draw people to the area, and act as a meeting place for people. The design intent was to create a form that would draw people in, and cause leave to leave in a different way from entering. This was achieved through a sail-­like form that connected to the ground at multiple points.

The mesh was then subdivided into VPDOOHU WULDQJOHV ,PDJH   :H XVHG the Weaverbird command â&#x20AC;&#x153;Weav-­ erbirdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Split Polygons Subdivision. $QGVXEGLYLGHGDJDLQLQWRKH[DJRQV ,P-­ DJH   7KH JURXS GHĂ&#x20AC;QLWLRQ XVHG :HDY-­ erbirdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Catmull-­Clark Subdivision. Using a larger amount of subdivisions, thepro-­ gram began to slow, which is why the same amount of hexagons as used in the Shell Star Pavilion, is not shown here. Points on the mesh were then selected, on all H[WHULRUFRUQHUVDQGRQWKHFHQWHU ,PDJH

Force was then affected upon the mesh, using the points set as anchor points. ,PDJH   ,Q WKH RULJLQDO Ă&#x20AC;QDO SURGXFW GLIIHUHQW PHVKHV ZHUH XVHG :HDYHU-­ birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sierpinski Triangles Subdivision and Weaverbirdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Inner Polygonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Subdivi-­ VLRQ  DQG LQFRUUHFW SRLQWV ZHUH FKRVHQ UHVXOWLQJ LQ D GLIIHUHQW IRUP ,PDJH 

The design was produced through cre-­ DWLQJ D PHVK RXW RI WULDQJOHV ,PDJH 

For the groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s purposes, we created the shape of the mesh out of curves us-­ ing rhino, set the curves as 18 individ-­ ual triangular surfaces, and then set those surfaces as meshes and joined 7KH GHĂ&#x20AC;QLWLRQ FDQ EH VHHQ LQ ,PDJH   them. We chose this method, as cre-­ Right: All images developed by Yvon Chen, Thomas Mitton ating a single mesh or surface result-­ and India Mitchell using Rhino and Grasshoppper, April, 2013 HG LQ XQHTXDO WULDQJOH VL]HV ,PDJH 

46


Design Approach_Case Study 2_

Image 1

Image 2

Image 3

Image 5

Image 4

Image 7

Image 6

Image 8

47


Design Approach_Case Study 2_

48


Design Approach_Case Study 2_

49


Design Approach_Case Study 2_

50


Design Approach_Case Study 2_

51


7HFKQLTXH'HYHORSPHQW0DWUL[RI'HºQW

52

1RWH DERYH *UDVVKRSSHU HOHPHQWV DUH XVHG WR LQGLFDWH WKH FKDQJHV PDGH WR WKH GHÃ&#x20AC;QLWLRQ WKDW LQ WXUQ DIIHFW IRU LQJ WKDW DOO URZV XVH WKH GHÃ&#x20AC;QLWLRQ SURYLGHG &KDQJHV DUH PDGH E\  =   =  <   <   ;  QDO PHVK  :HDYHUELUG·V 0HVK :LQGRZ LV FRQQHFWHG WR WKH Ã&#x20AC;QDO PHVK  6LHUSLQVNL 7ULDQJOHV 6XEGLYLVLRQ LV FRQQHFWHG WR 0DWHULDO3HUIRUPDQFHWKURXJKIRUPDQGSDWWHUQLQJWKRXJKWKHGLUHFWLRQRIGHVLJQH[SORUDWLRQKDVDOWHUHGGXHWRPDWHULDOH[SORUD


QWLRQ0DWV\V6KHOO6WDU3DYLOLRQ

53

RUP DQG SDWWHUQLQJ WKH HOHPHQWV LQGLFDWH WKH FROXPQV ZKLFK VKRZ WKLV DIIHFW 7KH DFWXDO GHÀQWLRQ XVHG LV VKRZQ WR WKH OHIW LQGLFDW   ;   :HDYHUELUG·V 6WHOODWH&XPXODWLRQ LV FRQQHFWHG WR WKH ÀQDO PHVK  :HDYHUELUG·V 3LFWXUH )UDPH LV FRQQHFWHG WR WKH À WR WKH ÀQDO PHVK 7KHVH FKDQJHV LQ IRUP DQG SDWWHUQLQJ ZHUH XVHG LQ WKH PDWLU[ WR GLVSOD\ ÁH[LELOLW\ RI GHÀQLWLRQ DQG H[SORUH WKH IRFXV R DWLRQWKHGHÀQWLRQLVDEOHWREHDSSOLHGWRERWKXVHLQDVLPLODUZD\WRWKDWRI0DWV\VDQGLQDVLPLODUZD\WRWKDWZKLFKWKHJURXSLQWHQGVWRSXUVXH


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_

Technique: Prototypes

This means that while our form will still fol-­ low the compressive aspects of kangaroo, LWZLOOEHVWURQJO\LQà XHQFHGE\WKHSURS-­ erties of the matieral. Exploring the mate-­ rial properties of ply-­wood will enable us The group has considered multiple ways to understand the limitations and possibili-­ of approaching the concept of ma-­ ties of the material, and we will be able to teriality within material performance. aply this knowledge within Grasshopper. We have considered using stud-­like tim-­ ber nailed together, thin wood in which the form is manipulated by the prop-­ erties of the material, as well as a ro-­ boticly generated material, as used by the 2012 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion.

Thin wood will also enable patterning, again LQĂ XHQFHGE\WKHPDWHULDOLQWHJUDWLQJWKH aspect of patterning of the solid object above, and the shadowed pattern below.

This technique will follow a similar pro-­ cess to the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion After much deliberation, the group has of 2010. We will continue exploring this decided to use thin wood. This mate-­ technique through modelling protypes. ULDO ZLOO HQDEOH XV WR GHĂ&#x20AC;QH IRUP WKURXJK While this project made use of Birch Ply-­ PDWHULDOLW\ ZKLFK LV D VLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQW DVSHFW wood, we will use Lauan Plywood due to of material preformance. Thin wood will its bending properties, and availabilitry. also allow the natural connection that we intend to develop as connection to site.

54


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Exploration_

Material Exploration

ed for joinery of the plywood to a base. The seperate approach would develop a design in which many pieces come to-­ gether to create the entirety of the de-­ sign. This would not be dissimilar to the ZRUNV RI 6WXWWJDUW 8QLYHUVLW\  3DYLO-­ LRQ 7KHGHVLJQZRXOGJHQHUDWHDSDWWHUQ within its repitition, while the whole ap-­ proach would have applied patterning.

Within our set criteria of a plywood based deisgn, the group intends to ex-­ plore the different ways in which the material can be manipulated and en-­ hanced, using computational design as well as traditional methods of de-­ The composite approach would involve sign such as the bending of wood. several large pieces of plywood to join to-­ gether to become the design in its entire-­ We have seperated the aspects we ty. This approach would mean that cer-­ would like to pursue into three sec-­ tain facets of the design could be treated tions, whole, composite and seperate. in different ways, using applied patterning and generative patterning throughout, in The whole approach would mean that spaces within the design where appropri-­ the group would attempt to design a ate for lighting, weathering, and views. structure for the gateway project that would use as few pieces as possible Our method of design would follow a simi-­ within the design, it would be based on a lar idea to that of IwamotoScott’s Voussoir single, extremely large piece of plywood. Cloud -­ with an understanding of the ma-­ This idea would only be differentiated terial, we will be able to manipulate it using from when the approach was not pos-­ heat and water, with manual construction. sible. For example, with extra parts need-­

55


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Exploration_

Material Exploration

into a particular shape and again, bent further than was previously possible. Other experimentation took place through scoring of the bal-­ sa wood, as well as patterning.

In order to provide proof of the technique, as well as an understanding of our material, In order to increase the permanent curve of we experimented with balsa wood models. the form, clips and pins were used to keep the curves of the wood in place while drying. 7R LQFUHDVH WKH ÁH[LELOLW\ DQG EHQG-­ ing moment of the material, we We also experimented with joints soaked the wood in water overnight. through glueing and pegging.

In order to achieve permanent ,Q RUGHU WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH ÁH[LELOLW\ RI curves, we used multiple processes the material, an experiment with re-­ that invloved steaming and ironing. peated steaming and ironing shows the breaking point of the material. The steaming increased the malleabillity of the material, and allowing it to bend further. Right: All images developed by Yvon Chen, Thomas Mitton Ironing enabled the curve to be set

and India Mitchell, April, 2013

56


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Exploration_

Method of bending the material: Left: Soaking in water, Middle: Ironing, steaming and blowdrying, Right: Clipping.

Testing the bending of 5mm thick balsa wood: Left: 1 steam, Middle: 2 steams, Right: 3 steams.

57


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Exploration_

([SORULQJWKHEHQGLQJRIPDWHULDO ZLWKWKHJUDLQ /HIW6HSHUDWHDSSURDFK HODVWLFEHQGLQJ 0LGGOH/HIW$QJOHG plywood, Middle Right:Angled plywood, Right: Bending in both directions

Scoring and bending balsa wood.

58


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Exploration_

Patterning with gaps, bending and lighting properties.

3DWWHUQLQJZLWKJDSVDVSHU3DYLOLRQ(P7HFK $$ (7+

8VLQJVSHFLÃ&#x20AC;FVKDSHVDQGMRLQLQJWRFUHDWHEHQGLQJDVSHU6WXGLR5HFLSURFLWLHV8QLYHUVLW\RI6WXWWJDUW2OLYHU'DYLG 59 Krieg


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Exploration_

Case Study 2 manipulation with material. The model becomes an entirely different piece despite the parameters set by grasshopper. The use of whole triangles in a composite approach alter the form set by kangaroo as a result of material properties.

Case Study 2, continued.

60


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Exploration_

61


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Exploration_

7KHPRGHOKHUHH[SORUHVWKHHODVWLFLW\RIWKHĂ&#x20AC;QLVKHGPDWHULDOOLWFRQWLXHVWRPRYHZLWKWRXFKDQGZLQGGHVSLWHEH-­ ing set on a base. It also has a very natural presence, along with the technology that has developed it.

Model continued. The image to the Right expresses the proposed procession of the design.

62


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Exploration_

63


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Understanding_

Material Understanding Through the exploration of material, as above, the group now has a strong un-­ derstanding of the possibilities of plywood within parametric design, drawing from our understanding and intentions as de-­ Ă&#x20AC;QHG WKURXJK RXU SUHFHGHQWV WKH JURXS would also like to explore the furniture designs of Ray and Charles Eames, as well as a selected recent work using ply-­ wood, Patkauâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Winnipeg Skating Shelters.

hopper generated concepts, the group can now intergrate these ideas of material into the design. These ideas that the group has prodeu-­ ced are also able to link very strongly to the site upon entering Wyndham. With a procession way as explored in the deisgn EULHIDQGVLWHVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;FYLHZSRLQWVDQGSDW-­ terning, the project will be bale to link with the wider area of Wyndham as well as the VSHFLĂ&#x20AC;F VLWH WKURXJK DQ RYHUDOO WKHPH RI naturallity and technology coming togeth-­ er, representing the state of Wyndham.

This representation will also correspond with Wyndham over a long period of The material has parameters set with-­ time, expressed through the weather-­ in itself when bent, and we would like ing and eventual removal of the design, to manipulate these in order to cre-­ UHà HFWLQJ WKH FRQVWDQW UHSODFHPHQW ate a technology-­built natural design. of technology with newer technology. Using

kangaroo,

and

other

grass-­

64


65


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Precedents_

gy and elegance could come together.

PRECEDENT:

Ray and Charles Eames, Plywood Furniture

Despite the age of their works, and the lack of parametricism invloved in the de-­ signs, the works of the Eameses become very important in this exploration, not only because of the material relevence, but because of the ideas they pursued.

“Their Meyer House combined mod-­ ern design and elegant materials -­-­ The works of the Eameses often used certain hallmarks of Charles and Ray’s own detailing of their materials in order to mould home built in Los Angeles in 1949.” and bend their furniture in particular ways. The group has drawn from these works us-­ The works of Ray and Charles Eames, ing the slits and patterning of materials in famous from the time of the modern-­ a similar way to Ray and Charles Eames. ist movement, and the search for the international style, as stated above, VWURYH WR ÀQG D ZD\ LQ ZKLFK WHFKQROR-­

Figure 14: Chair molds of plywood, 1945-­1947

66


Design Approach_Technique:Prototypes_Material Prototypes_MaterialExploration Precedents_ Case For Innovation_Technique:

67


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Precedents_

PRECEDENT:

plywood can withstand the harsh con-­ ditions of Canadaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s extended winter.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Stress points were relieved by a series of Patkau Architects, Win-­ cuts and openings. The form of the shel-­ is a resultant of this process of stress-­ nepeg Skating Shelters, ter ing/deforming and then releasing stress.â&#x20AC;? 2010-­2011 within the groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own design, and in a way not unlike that of the Eameses also, we intend to split our design into â&#x20AC;&#x153;Together, the shelters create dy-­ several parts in order to reduce pres-­ namic solar and wind relation-­ sure on certain points, while still em-­ ships that shift according to spe-­ bracing the properties of the material. FLĂ&#x20AC;F RULHQWDWLRQ WLPH RI GD\ DQG environmental circumstance.â&#x20AC;? This will coincide with the already explored composite approach that the group es-­ Here, the work of Patkau Architects be-­ tablished as a possible design approach. comes a focus of designing a way in which a relatively fragile material such as Figure 15: Winnepeg Skating Shelters

68


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Material Precedents_

69


Design Approach_Technique Proposal_Material and Technique_

Material and Technique

der to explore new bending and shapes WKDW FDQ EH GHÀQHG ZLWKLQ *UDVVKRS-­ per and then applied to the material.

Tapeworm explorations have been very similar, exploring the curves and shapes With an understanding of material and within Grasshopper in a different way. the way in which it can be applied to the forthcoming design, further exploration Fromt this point, the virtual models will be using Grasshopper and Rhino becomes broken down into irregular parts depend-­ the next step in the design process. ing on compression and tension within the whole model. Certain parts will have vo-­ A further development of the group’ un-­ ronoi or weaverbird patterning applied to derstanding of these technical processes them depending on views and weather. has taken palce in two streams: a contin-­ ued exploration with the Kangaroo add-­ With this technique, there will be a con-­ on for Grasshopper; and a new study trol of views, water and air within the of the Grasshopper script Tapeworm. space that the design covers on site. Kangaroo explorations have taken place mostly using the hinge component in or-­

Right: All images developed by Yvon Chen, Thomas Mitton and India Mitchell using Rhino and Grasshoppper, April, 2013

70


Design Approach_Technique Proposal_

71


Design Approach_Technique Proposal_

Technique Proposal

der to explore new bending and shapes WKDW FDQ EH GHÀQHG ZLWKLQ *UDVVKRS-­ per and then applied to the material.

Tapeworm explorations have been very similar, exploring the curves and shapes With an understanding of material and within Grasshopper in a different way. the way in which it can be applied to the forthcoming design, further exploration Fromt this point, the virtual models will be using Grasshopper and Rhino becomes broken down into irregular parts depend-­ the next step in the design process. ing on compression and tension within the whole model. Certain parts will have vo-­ A further development of the group’ un-­ ronoi or weaverbird patterning applied to derstanding of these technical processes them depending on views and weather. has taken palce in two streams: a contin-­ ued exploration with the Kangaroo add-­ With this technique, there will be a con-­ on for Grasshopper; and a new study trol of views, water and air within the of the Grasshopper script Tapeworm. space that the design covers on site. Kangaroo explorations have taken place mostly using the hinge component in or-­

Right: All images developed by Yvon Chen, Thomas Mitton and India Mitchell using Rhino and Grasshoppper, April, 2013

72


Design Approach_Technique Proposal_

73


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Technique Proposal_

Technique Proposal At this stage, the design attempts to make an equal use of technology and material-­ LW\WRGHĂ&#x20AC;QHWKHJDWHZD\SURMHFW7KHGH-­ sign will use plywood with and against the natural grain of the wood in order to create VLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWDQGVOLJKWFXUYHVDQGWHFKQRO-­ RJ\WRGHĂ&#x20AC;QHWKHH[WHQWRIWKHVHFXUYHV

the bending properties of the material, these become advantageous when used with knowledge and technology, to ma-­ nipulate the properties of an elastic form. The concepts strongly relate to the City of Wyndham through the coming to-­ gether of natural and technical, and EHFRPH LQGLYXDOO\ VSHFLĂ&#x20AC;F WKURXJK WKH focus of views and weathering as de-­ Ă&#x20AC;QHGWKURXJKWKHSDWWHUQLQJRIWKHIRUP Right: Image developed by India Mitchell using Rhino ,Grass-­ hoppper and Photoshop, May, 2013

While there are limitations in regards to

74


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Technique Proposal_

75


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Technique Proposal_

Proposal and Argument

nature and the existing gateway. It will also inspire a feeling of movement to a wider area through patterning, light-­ ing, views, perspectives and procession.

Material performance will be able create Through an exploration of program-­ a positive and affective gateway via: ming, combined with a now strong un-­ derstanding of the properties of our Â&#x2021; IRUPWKURXJKQDWXUDOPDWHULDO WLP-­ material, the group can now focus on EHU  WKH Ă&#x20AC;QDO GHYHORSPHQW RI WKH SURMHFW Â&#x2021; different views from close and afar, Â&#x2021; different perspectives from different Through integrating the concept of ma-­ angles, terial performance into all aspects of de-­ Â&#x2021; Exploration of the combined proper-­ sign, we can create a project that will re-­ ties of natural material with technol-­ late to site, breif, people and technology. ogy baseddesign, Â&#x2021; patterning in particular spaces to in-­ The aim of the project is to develop a troduce lighting, shading, weathering, gateway into the City of Wyndham that Â&#x2021; 100km architecture and, will further the positive development of Â&#x2021; a connection to site through material-­ the area. Our project will do this through ity. linking project to site, particularly through

76


Design Approach_Technique: Prototypes_Technique Proposal_

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

7KH PRVW VLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQW DVSHFW RI WKH GH-­ VLJQ IURP WKLV SRLQW ZLOO EH UHDIĂ&#x20AC;UPLQJ RXU FRQFHSWV ZLWKLQ D Ă&#x20AC;QDO GHVLJQ WDN-­ ing into account Architecture as a Dis-­ course, as well as A Case for Innovation.

Our design presents a strong discourse of change and the link between tech-­ With the knowledge that the group nology and naturallity, as well as pre-­ now possesses, we intend to develop senting a strong case for the use of a technology based natural design parametric design within architecture. that will represent that state of moder-­ nity and rural within Wyndham. The de-­ 0RVW VLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWO\ WKH JURXS QHHGV WR sign will further instill a feeling of growth GHYHORS D Ă&#x20AC;QDO GHVLJQ WKDW EULQJV WKHVH and movement within the region. explorations and theories into a physical design. This will be done through the al-­ This will be achieved through the ready discussed approach of composite many techniques already discussed. design using plywood and Grasshopper.

77


Project Proposal_

PROJECT PROPOSAL

PR O C E S

S

I

O

N -足 W A Y

74


75


Project Proposal_Design Concept_

Gateway Project: Design Concept

The initial model was chosen to be a column and beam based form which would represent the traditional, while WKH Ă&#x20AC;QDO IRUP ZLOO EH D VRSKLVWLFDW-­ ed example of parametric design.

$IWHU PXFK GHOLEHUDWLRQ RI WKH Ă&#x20AC;QDO IRUP WKH Ă&#x20AC;QDO IRUP ZDV FKRVHQ GHYHO-­ The group chose to develop a set of pro-­ oped through tapeworm within grass-­ JUHVVLYHO\UHĂ&#x20AC;QLQJIRUPVWRH[SORUHWKHFXU-­ KRSSHU  GXH WR LW¡V HPRWLYH IRUP LWV H[-­ rent state of Wyndham as an evolving city. pression of sophistication, as well as its exhibition of the properties of plywood.

76


Project Proposal_Design Concept_

Right View Top View

Right View Top View

Final Form

Right View

Top View 77


Project Proposal_Design Concept_

Gateway Project: Design Concept

The group has linked this idea to the con-­ cept of the development of the tradi-­ tional beam and column form to the currently emerging forms which are developed within parametric design.

3DWWHUQLQJ DOVR SOD\V D VLJQLÀFDQW UROH 7KHJURXS·VÀQDOGHVLJQFRQVLVWVRIDVH-­ within the design progression. The ries of 10 individual installations that com-­ pattern progresses from being non-­ bine to form an overall “Procession Way”. existant to a single column of cirlces, to two rows of dodecagons, eventu-­ “Procession Way” exists as an exploration ally progressing to 8 rows of squares. of the progression of the City if Wyndham. Wyndham is developing into a sophisti-­ 7KH ÀQDO GHVLJQ IRUPV D FRQQHF-­ cated community that can be linked to tion to Wyndham City as a whole, as the City of Melbourne, while in the past it well as any people who will encoun-­ has been a slowly developing community. ter the project through this procession.

78


Project Proposal_Design Concept_

79


Project Proposal_Design Concept_

Gateway Project: Design Concept The overall technique of the design can be implemented quite easily in rela-足 tion to site and clientelle. The design will progress along the main road between sites A and B, moving from simple form )250   WR FRPSOH[ IRUP )250  

The overall progression of the forms will be an exploration of the current state within the city of Wyndham, as well as that of the discourse of architecture as a whole. The large scale of the gateway will en-足 sure that the installation is highly noti-足 cable, and will become an icon as an entry point to Wyndham City, and the alignmean of the installation to the road leading to Melbourne will help to create a sense that Wyndham co-足 incides with the progressive thoughts that the city of Melbourne aspires to.

80


Project Proposal_Design Concept_

81


Project Proposal_Design Concept_

Gateway Project: Design Concept

along the length. Form 1 has no patterning. The size of the pattern is dependant upon the amount of curve of the surface it is set to, assisting in bending properties. The larger curves have smaller shapess, while the tightest curves have larger shapes, VSHFLĂ&#x20AC;F WR HDFK LQGLYLGXDO LQVWDOODWLRQ

The patterning, along with the pro-­ Overall, the patterning strangthens the gression of form, become, not only concept of progresion, and assits in WKH PRVW VLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQW DVSHFWV RI WKH GH-­ the bending properties of the wood. sign, but the core parametric aspects. Other patterning was tested and failed, The patterning exists as an altering set of as shown above, and in Section B. parameters that progress from a circle )RUP   WR D VTXDUH )RUP   7KH SDW-­ These concepts of progressive patterning terning also evolves through the amount and form take the traditional concept of of patterns per width and length of ma-­ bending laminated plywood to a mod-­ WUHULDO [PHWUHV )RUPZLWKSDWWHUQ ern level through immersing the concepts per width and 20 along the length, and of form and patterning entirely within Form 10 with 8 patterns per width and 270 the parameters as set by grasshopper.

82


Project Proposal_Design Concept_ FORM 1

PATTERNING

FORM 2

FORM 3

FORM 4

FORM 5

FORM 6

FORM 7

FORM 8

FORM 9

FORM 10

83


Project Proposal_Design Concept_

TAPEWORM CURVE FINDING + LOFT INTO SURFACES

SPLIT SURFACE

This node diagram ex-­ plores the way in which grasshopper nodes were XVHG WR GHYHORS WKH À-­ nal design in a sum-­ marised diagramitic form.

OFFSET CURVE AND LOFT TO SURFACE

SURFACE

TAPEWORM SURFACE CURVE

TWEEN

CREATE POLYGONS WITH THE CETERS ON CENTROID OF EACH PLANE BEST 10 SURFACES

RADIUS

DUPLICATE SURFACE EDGES AND LOFT THE CURVES TO GENERATE MOST SIMPLIFIED SURFACES

EVALUATE SURFACE CURVATURE AT SPECIFIED UV COORDINATES

CREATE PLANES PERPENDICULAR TO THE COORDINATES

TRIM SURFACES WITH A LINE REPRESENTING GROUND LINE

EVALUATE SURFACE PROPERTIES AT UV COORDINATES

EACH SURFACE: DIVIDE SURFACE INTO EQUAL SEGMENTS

84


Project Proposal_Tectonic Elements_

3 x 8 metres

struction will be the joints within these sections, and the joints to the ground.

As per the concept of Material Perfor-­ mance, the core construction element of the project in the material used: plywood. The limitations of the size of plywood sheets within the industry mean that the sheet size of 3 x 8 metres will become the most signif-­ icant construction element of the forms.

The joints between sections will consist RIWLPEHUSLQMRLQWVZKLFKZLOOEHÀ[HGYLD glue appropriate for outdoor conditions.

The ground joints will be immersed in reinforced concrete footings, made stable through horizontal reinforce-­ ment that protrudes through the con-­ 7KH ÀQDO SURMHFW ZLOO FRQVLVW RI D VLQJOH crete-­covered part of the plywood. progression, broken down into 10 indi-­ vidual installiations, which will be further As traditional forms, Forms 1, 2 and 3 seperated into 8 metre long sections. will require structural reinforcement along their lengths, further demonstrat-­ 7KH QH[W VLJQLÀFDQW DVSHFWV RI FRQ-­ LQJ WKH VRSKLVWLFDWLRQ RI WKH ÀQDO IRUP

85


Project Proposal_Tectonic Elements_

Cut Plywood:3 x 8 max. metres, with Length & patterning as per Files

Steam Wood

Apply increasing Compression to bend to correct angle Leave to set

Scaffolding and formwork Ground Joint

Timber Pin Joints Structural supports for forms 1, 2, and 3 Horizontal Reinforcement through Plywood

Outdoor Timber glue and Wooden Pin

Final Form of Built Design

Rienforced concrete footings

86


Project Proposal_Tectonic Elements_

87


Project Proposal_Final Model_

Final Design and Final Models

As one can observe, as the complexity of the individual installations, the patterning becomes for dense and sophisticated. In WKHFRPSOH[IRUPVRIWKHÀQDOSURJUHVVLRQV The size of the pattern is dependant upon 7KH ÀQDO PRGHOV ZHUH D UHVXOW RI the amount of curve along the length of past experiments with the bend-­ the form. The patterning becomes para-­ ing of wood, laser cutting, and the mount for the bending of the material. knowledge and use of Grasshopper. The models act as an example not only The patterning was applied through of constructibility but of the way in which Grasshoppper not only as an ex-­ WKHÀQDOGHVLJQH[LVWVRQO\WKURXJKDFORVH pression of progression but to as-­ relationship with material performance. sist the bending of the wood.

88


Project Proposal_Final Model_

7KH Ă&#x20AC;UVW VWHS RI WKH Ă&#x20AC;QDO PRGHO-­ ling process was to submit balsa wood of different thicknesses, patterns and etch deepness in order to understand the quali-­ ties of laser cut balsa wood. 5LJKW 

After discerning that the most ap-­ propriate thickness was 2.5mm, and the most appropriate etch GHSWK ZDV ÂśGHHS¡ WKH Ă&#x20AC;QDO Ă&#x20AC;OH was cut. After cutting, each in-­ dividual piece was labelled as per its individual installation. %HORZ

89


Project Proposal_Final Model_ Though not all 10 installations are present 7KHPRVWVLJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQWFRQFHSWVWKDWDULVH ZLWKLQWKHĂ&#x20AC;QDOPRGHOVWKHSURJUHVVLRQRI when observing the models, which the forms and patterning can be seen. the group has wished to express are: Light and Shadow The dual visual affect of form and shadow, which will further in-­ still the monument to Wyndham in the minds of those who see it. Nature within Technology 7KHQDWXUDOVRXUFHRIPDWHULDO SO\ZRRG FRPELQHGZLWKPRGHUQWHFKQRORJ\WR devlop a monument for a rural area which also thrives on the technology of the city. Architecture as a Discourse The expression of the current move in architectural discourse from tradition-­ DO SRVW DQG EHDP VWUXFWXUH  WR WHFKQRORJ\ GULYHQ SDUDPHWULF DUFKLWHFWXUH  A Case for Innovation An expression of the need to move forward through the contemporary use of a traditional material and method, as well as through the use of parame-­ tirc architecture in general, visualised through the progression of elements. 100 Kilometre Architecture The use of multiple forms that can be viewed on many scales. As a whole, as a set of 10, as indivual installments, and as individual patterns; creating fur-­ ther interest in a structure that will only be viewed in passing for 3 to 4 seconds.

FORM 1

90


Project Proposal_Final Model_

FORM 2

FORM 3

91


Project Proposal_Final Model_

FORM 4

FORM 8 92


Project Proposal_Final Model_

FORM 9

FORM 10

93


Project Proposal_Learning Objectives and Outcomes_

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

I have found that the method of de-足 sign that I undertook during the course enabled me to explore ideas that I would not have come upon if not for the technology that I made use of. This being said, I was also limited by not being able to achieve certain aspects of design that I hoped to pursue, due to my own limited knowledge of Grasshopper.

As a student exploring the possibili-足 ties of parametric design within the feild of architecture, I have found This method of design also limited my that there are both advantages and ability to relate the design to con-足 limitations to this method of design. text and the reality of the built object.

94


Project Proposal_Learning Objectives and Outcomes_

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Through choosing to focus the design on material performance, the group has been lead to a very focused de-­ sign that has drawn from many prec-­ edents, but is very innovative and new.

The idea of Material Performance and its relationship with the Gateway Project became the basis upon which any oth-­ Overall, the ideas that eventuated into the er concepts of the design were based ÀQDO GHVLJQ WKDW RXU JURXS DUULYHG XSRQ upon and the limitations of the material were very much related to project overall. became the reasons for which the proj-­ HFW ZDV VXFK D VSHFLÀF GHYHORSPHQW Since the beginning of the course, the concepts raised have been broad The material properties provided links to and open, simply presribed to the use nature, site, context and the progression of of parameters within Grasshopper. the form to create a sophisticated design.

95


5()(5(1&(6 $UFKLWHFWXUHDV D'LVFRXUVH

Architecture in the Age of Gehry | Vanity Fair. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.vanityfair.com/cul-­ ture/features/2010/08/architecture-­survey-­201008. [Accessed 15 March 2013]. %XUU\0DUN6FULSWLQJ&XOWXUHV$UFKLWHFWXUDO'HVLJQDQG3URJUDPPLQJ &KLFKHVWHU:LOH\ SS Glasgow Riverside Museum of Transport | Architecture | Zaha Hadid Architects. 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.zaha-­hadid.com/architecture/glasgow-­riverside-­museum-­of-­transport/. [Accessed 21 March 2013]. Heri und Salli. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.heriundsalli.com/. [Accesed 21 March 2013]. .RODUHYLF%UDQNR$UFKLWHFWXUHLQWKH'LJLWDO$JH'HVLJQDQG0DQXIDFWXULQJ 1HZ<RUN/RQGRQ6SRQ 3UHVV SS .RODUHYLF%UDQNR$UFKLWHFWXUHLQWKH'LJLWDO$JH'HVLJQDQG0DQXIDFWXULQJ 1HZ<RUN/RQGRQ6SRQ 3UHVV SS² Patrik Schmacher -­ Parametricism | Digital Morphogenesis | NZ Architecture. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.nzarchitecture.com/blog/index.php/2010/09/25/patrik-­schumacher-­parametricism/. [Accessed 23 March 2013]. Patrik Schumacher on parametricism -­ â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Let the style wars beginâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; | Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Journal. 2012. [ONLINE] Avail-­ able at http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-­critics/patrik-­schumacher-­on-­parametricism-­let-­the-­style-­ wars-­begin/5217211.article. [Accessed 23 March 2013]. The Triumph of Frank Lloyd Wright | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-­archaeology/The-­Triumph-­of-­Frank-­Lloyd-­Wright.html. [Accessed 15 March 2013]. :RRGEXU\5REHUW(OHPHQWVRI3DUDPHWULF'HVLJQ /RQGRQ5RXWOHGJH SS Yehuda E. Kalay. 2004. Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-­Aided 'HVLJQ &DPEULGJH0DVV0,73UHVV SS²

IMAGES: Figure 2: Hà GALO USTED MISMO: Apuntes de Frank Gehry. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://shansbop-­ peaces.blogspot.com.au/2010/06/apuntes-­de-­frank-­gehry.html. [Accessed 04 April 2013]. Figures 3 and 5: The Triumph of Frank Lloyd Wright | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-­archaeology/The-­Triumph-­of-­Frank-­Lloyd-­ Wright.html. [Accessed 15 March 2013]. Figure 4: Architecture in the Age of Gehry | Vanity Fair. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.vanityfair. com/culture/features/2010/08/architecture-­survey-­201008. [Accessed 15 March 2013]. Figures 5 and 8: Glasgow Riverside Museum of Transport | Architecture | Zaha Hadid Architects. 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.zaha-­hadid.com/architecture/glasgow-­riverside-­museum-­of-­transport/. [Accessed 21 March 2013]. Figure 6: Heri und Salli. 2013 [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.heriundsalli.com/. [Accesed 21 March 2013].

78


5()(5(1&(6 'HVLJQ $SSURDFK

Gateway Competition Project|Architecture Design Studio Air|University of Melbourne LMS [ONLINE] Avail-­ able at: http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_5_1&url=%2Fweb apps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_262336_1%26url%3D [Accessed 4 April 2013]. Voussoir Cloud |Projects|IwamotoScott Architecture [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.iwamotoscott.com/ [Accessed 5 April 2013]. Research Pavilion 2010|Institute for Computational Design|Faculty for Architecture and Urban Planning|University of Stuttgart [ONLINE] Available at: http://icd.uni-­stuttgart.de/?p=4458 [Accessed 6 April 2013]. Shellstar Pavilion |Projects|Matsys [ONLINE] Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/2013/02/27/shellstar-­pavil-­ ion/ [Accessed 8 April 2013]. Wyndam City Council [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.wyndham.vic.gov.au/ [Accessed 11 April 2013]. Pavilion/EMTECH-­AA|Archdaily [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/221650/pavilion-­emtech-­ aa-­eth/ [Accessed 23 April 2013] Studio Reciprocities|Oliver David [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.oliverdavid.de/?page_id=213 [Accessed 25 April 2013]. )XUQLWXUH_(DPHV2IÀFH>21/,1(@$YDLODEOHDWKWWSHDPHVRIÀFHFRP>$FFHVVHG$SULO@ Winnepeg Skating Shelters|Projects|Patkau Architects [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.patkau.ca/ [Ac-­ cessed 25 April 2013].

IMAGES: Figure 9: Gateway Competition Project|Architecture Design Studio Air|University of Melbourne LMS [ONLINE] Available at: http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_5_1&url=%2F webapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_262336_1%26url%3D [Ac-­ cessed 4 April 2013]. Figure 10: Voussoir Cloud |Projects|IwamotoScott Architecture [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.iwamo-­ toscott.com/ [Accessed 5 April 2013]. Figure 11: Research Pavilion 2010|Institute for Computational Design|Faculty for Architecture and Urban Planning|University of Stuttgart [ONLINE] Available at: http://icd.uni-­stuttgart.de/?p=4458 [Accessed 6 April 2013]. Figure 12: Shellstar Pavilion |Projects|Matsys [ONLINE] Available at: http://matsysdesign.com/2013/02/27/ shellstar-­pavilion/ [Accessed 8 April 2013]. Figure 13: Wyndam City Council [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.wyndham.vic.gov.au/ [Accessed 11 April 2013]. )LJXUH)XUQLWXUH_(DPHV2IÀFH>21/,1(@$YDLODEOHDWKWWSHDPHVRIÀFHFRP>$FFHVVHG$SULO@ Figure 15: Winnepeg Skating Shelters|Projects|Patkau Architects [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.patkau. ca/ [Accessed 25 April 2013].

79


5()(5(1&(6 3URMHFW 3URSRVDO

Wprthington Industries I http://www.worthingtonindustries.com.au/oversize-足one-足piece-足panels.asp. Accessed 20 May 2013. Lee Vally I Bending Wood i http://www.leevalley.com/us/wood/page.aspx?c=&cat=1,45866,45867&p=45869 #species. Accessed 25 May 2013.

98


India Mitchell, 538166, ADS Air, Journal