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Volume 51, No. 2 May — July 2011

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l IAFS-II: Enhancing a valuable relationship l NEW HORIZONS: Partnership of resurgence l NEXT GENERATION: Banking on Africa’s youth power A F R I C A

ALSO IN THE ISSUE

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l BIRTH OF SOUTH SUDAN: Unbroken continuity l INTERVIEW: India-Egypt ties set for an upsurge

Indian Council for Cultural Relations Azad Bhavan Indraprastha Estate New Delhi — 110 002 E-mail: africa.quarterly@gmail.com Registered with the Registrar of Newspapers of India Regd No. 14380/61

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Indian Journal of African Affairs Volume 51, No. 2, May — July 2011

INDIAN COUNCIL FOR CULTURAL RELATIONS NEW DELHI


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contents

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ENHANCING PARTNERSHIP The Second Africa-India Forum Summit focused on building capacity in Africa and supporting infrastructure, trade and commerce, says Gurjit Singh

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20 PARTNERSHIP OF RESURGENCE

The Summit helped open new vistas of cooperation while branding India’s engagement with the emerging continent, says Manish Chand

38 BANKING ON YOUTH POWER African youth has a critical role to play in the continent’s integration, sustainable development and its future, says Dr. Jean Ping


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40 BREAKING NEW GROUND A resurgent Africa demands a new cooperation paradigm and India must change the way it engages the continent across the board — politically, economically and socially, says H.H.S. Viswanathan

8 NEWS & EVENTS India offers $5 billion lines of credit to help Africa achieve its development goals

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36 IN CONVERSATION UNBROKEN CONTINUITY India has an array of opportunities in South Sudan, Africa’s newest nation, says Renu Modi

India-Egypt ties set for upsurge, says Khaled El Bakly, Egypt’s Ambassador to India

56 DOING BUSINESS

62 SPEECHES 66 DOCUMENTS

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BRIDGES OF FRIENDSHIP Prime Minister Manmohan Singh hails entrepreneurial spirit of Indo-Tanzanians


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Rates of Subscription Annual Three-year Subscription Subscription Rs. 100.00 Rs. 250.00 US $40.00 US $100.00 £16.0 £40.0 (Including airmail postage) Subscription rates as above payable in advance preferably by bank draft/MO in favour of Indian Council for Cultural Relations, New Delhi. Printed and Published by Suresh K. Goel Director-General Indian Council for Cultural Relations Azad Bhavan, Indraprastha Estate New Delhi — 110002 Editor: Manish Chand ISBN 0001-9828

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The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), founded in 1950 to strengthen cultural ties and promote understanding between India and other countries, functions under the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. As part of its effort, the Council publishes, apart from books, six periodicals in five languages –– English quarterlies (Indian Horizons and Africa Quarterly), Hindi Quarterly (Gagananchal), Arabic Quarterly (Thaqafat-ul-Hind), Spanish bi-annual (Papeles de la India) and French bi-annual (Recontre Avec l’Inde). Africa Quarterly (Indian Journal of African Affairs) is published every three months. The views expressed in the articles included in this journal are those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the ICCR. All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any from or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the permission of the ICCR.

Editorial correspondence and manuscripts, including book reviews, should be addressed to: The Editor Africa Quarterly Indian Council for Cultural Relations Azad Bhavan Indraprastha Estate New Delhi-110 002 E-mail: africa.quarterly@gmail.com

May-July 2011


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■ From the Editor’s Desk

A new era in India-Africa ties

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gainst the backdrop of irreducible Afro-optimism and intensifying global competition for Africa’s resources and markets, India’s second summit with African leaders in Addis Ababa May 24-25, 2011 was yet another milestone in the mutually empowering partnership between two of the fastest growing regions in the world. Building upon the initiatives of the first summit in New Delhi in 2008, the second edition opened new frontiers of bilateral cooperation and reinforced the sturdy three-tiered architecture of partnership — bilateral, regional and continental — that was firmed up in Banjul five years ago. The summit, where India unveiled $5.7 billion in credit and grants for a host of developmental projects and over 100 capacity-building institutions in Africa, lived up to its mastertheme: “Enhancing Partnership and Shared Vision”. The stage has been, therefore, set for a new era in bilateral relations that has been encapsulated in the Addis Ababa Declaration and the Africa-India Framework for Enhanced Cooperation. The two documents outline a road map for the next phase of the partnership, stretching bilateral ties beyond the three Ts — trade, training and technology transfers — to an overarching global strategic partnership that includes closer cooperation on global issues and mutual support for each other’s rightful place in an expanded UN Security Council. With emerging powers like BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) giving stiff competition to traditionally entrenched powers in the continent, the summit also succeeded in effectively branding India’s engagement with Africa by putting the focus on human resources development and capacity building. India’s plan to set up 80 new training institutes across Africa will augment the 21 institutions it had announced at the first summit in New Delhi. When these institutes are set up, India will top the list of countries that has pledged resources on this scale to help spur what is being widely seen as Africa’s continuing resurgence. Underlining India’s resolve to fashion a partnership of equals to deepen and widen Africa’s renewal, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh set the tone for the summit by describing Africa as “a major growth pole of the world in the 21st century”. “We will work with Africa to realise its potential,” he said. In his perceptive analysis of the summit’s outcomes, Gurjit Singh, India’s additional secretary (in charge of East and South Africa) focuses on the growing depth and diversity of India’s engagement with Africa. The new pan-African institutions to be set up by India, he says, would “significantly contribute not only to the development of human resources but also physical resources for Africa’s value-added production which would cater both to the growing market and exports”. In her article on ‘The Way Forward’, South African analyst Hayley Herman points out that the value-added potential

created through these training institutions could also encourage the development of intra-African trade. She also pitches for a bigger role for Indian companies in Africa’s burgeoning infrastructure needs, estimated at $93 billion by the World Bank. Herman says the second summit showed “signs of a maturing approach in the Indian government’s official policy and its engagement with Africa”. The summit effortlessly dovetailed into the pervasive sentiment of African resurgence with the IMF predicting a 6.2 percent annual growth for Sub-Saharan Africa. India shares this optimism, but feels that if this growth trajectory is not sustained by massive investment by Africa’s ruling elites in capacity building, education and health, the African renaissance may prove a mirage. A resurgent Africa demands a new cooperation paradigm, argues H.H.S. Viswanathan, India’s former high commissioner to Nigeria. Barely weeks after the summit, South Sudan formally celebrated its birth as Africa’s 54th nation at a ceremony that was attended by several world leaders. Vice-President Hamid Ansari represented India at the inaugural ceremony and pledged all-round support to assist in nation building. In her article, Renu Modi of the University of Mumbai points out a vast array of opportunities for Indian companies, both public and private, in the unfolding transition of Africa’s newest nation as it packages itself as an attractive hub for investment. Above all, India has moulded its diplomacy to the larger shift of economic power from the West to the rest and seeks to buttress democratic transition in the continent. At the summit, India and Africa agreed “to enhance cooperation by sharing of experiences and capacity building, where necessary, among Election Commissions, the institutions of parliamentary democracy and media organisations”. The summit also focused on Africa’s youth. In a stirring speech, Dr. Jean Ping, Chairperson of the African Union Commission, focused on the youth as “indispensable stakeholders” in the continent’s development and renaissance. The African Union believes the continent’s “future hinges on your youth and courage”, he said. What makes the India-Africa partnership model unique? “The similarity of our developmental experiences and circumstances has made India-Africa cooperation a genuine two-way street. This is its true strength and its distinctive feature,” Manmohan Singh said. This “genuine two-way street”, rather than the moralising diktats of traditional Western actors in Africa on the one hand and China’s resource-focused diplomacy on the other, is the way forward for India and Africa to forge “a contemporary and modern partnership”, that will enable them to unlock over two billion dreams of their people. — Manish Chand

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India-Africa Virtual University begins to take shape he Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) announced details of a virtual university for Africa, a day after Prime Minister Manmohan Singh promised such an institution at a summit in Addis Ababa. The proposal to establish the IndiaAfrica Virtual University (IAVU) was initiated by the Ministry of External Affairs and IGNOU was mandated with formulating a proposal in consultation with the Ministry of Human Resource Development. “The mission of IAVU is to create conditions that ensure special priority to furthering Indo-African relations by establishing an educational link,” said IGNOU Vice-Chancellor V.N. Rajasekharan Pillai on May 27. IAVU, he explained, would ensure that Africa-oriented educational programmes were developed effectively in areas such as health sciences, vocational education, food and nutritional security, and women empowerment. “IAVU will also augment the overall participation of African nations in the global educational development process and strengthen inter-regional cooperation between African member nations and India,” Pillai said. The headquarters of the virtual university is proposed to be set up either in Ethiopia or Kenya. The initial cost is estimated at `4.5 billion ($330.4 million), with an annual cost of `1 billion ($220.2 million). IGNOU authorities said Africa offered a huge opportunity as some 7-10 million youth knock on the doors of the labour market every year. “Good quality and relevant education beyond the primary stage needs to turn out the types of skilled graduates and professionals that Africa so urgently needs. Only five percent of

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An induction programme for the January 2011 batch under way at St. Mary’s University College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

its relevant age group has access to university education compared to the world average of 25 per cent,” Pillai said. Following the Prime Minister’s mandate, IGNOU has proposed to put in place a plan of action within a period of one year at the continental level and an appropriate follow-up mechanism to implement the virtual university. “Following the success of the Pan-African E-Network Project, we propose to take the next step and establish an India-Africa Virtual University,” the Prime Minister had said at the India-Africa Forum Summit in the Ethiopian capital.

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“This will help meet some of the demand in Africa for higher studies in Indian institutions. We further propose 10,000 new scholarships under this proposed university. These will be available for African students after its establishment,” he added. The virtual university will formulate academic programmes, promote collaborations for distance education, coordinate special action plans and strengthen the consultation mechanisms on education between India and the African nations. Popularly called the ‘People’s University’, IGNOU currently offers over 350 study programmes through more than 3,500 courses to a cumulative student strength of over three million. In Africa, IGNOU already has partnerships with several countries, including Ghana, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, Botswana, Namibia, Nigeria, Malawi, Côte d’Ivoire, Eritrea, Egypt, Mauritius, Rwanda, Zambia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Benin and Madagascar. n


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Celebrating the spirit of Nelson Mandela he Indian capital had a brush with the spirit of Nelson Mandela as it celebrated the Nelson Mandela International Day on July 18. Singing by students and celebratory chants blended with reminiscences of the living icon, narrated by Ahmed Kathrada, the veteran anti-apartheid activist who had spent several years with Mandela in South Africa’s infamous Robben Island prison. “Mandela is a fearless person; he has immense leadership qualities. Even when we were sure of death sentence, he was adamant on continuing the struggle,” Kathrada, a person of Indian origin who has known the South African leader for over six decades, said during the celebrations held to mark the International Nelson Mandela Day in New Delhi. “He insisted on being treated as an ordinary prisoner. He did not want any preferential treatment,” said the 82-year-old Kathrada who was invited by The Aspen Institute, a think tank, to deliver the ‘Nelson Mandela Day Commemorative Lecture’ on the occasion of Mandela’s 93rd birth anniversary. The lecture was organised in collaboration with the High Commission of South Africa. Recalling his days with Mandela, Kathrada provided a rare up-close portrait of the South African leader who shepherded his country’s transition to a democratic non-racial rainbow nation. Giving a new insight into the armed struggle launched against apartheid in those days, he said: “It was specifically to demolish the

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Nelson Mandela

buildings and posters that said that black Africans were not allowed. But every time cafe was taken care that there was no danger to no human life in the process.” “Our aim is to build a non-discriminatory Africa under one flag,” he said. Kathrada served as the political adviser to Mandela after the first democratic elections in South Africa in 1994.

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The two are the only surviving persons who were charged in all three of South Africa’s major political trials during the 1950s and 1960s. Kathrada, the author of several books, including A Free Mind: Ahmed Kathrada’s Notebook from Robben Island, lauded India’s role in the struggle against the pernicious system of apartheid. “Till our last day at Robben Island we were sure of death, but I don’t know why we were saved. The common assumption is that it was due to the international pressure put by countries like India and the US that we escaped death,” he said. Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma lauded Kathrada, saying, “He is a man of courage, character, integrity and intellect.” H. Majeke, South Africa’s High Commissioner to India, said: “Mandela is our leader, our inspirer and South Africa will forever be indebted to India for providing us a home away from home.” In the evening, as part of the celebrations, the South African High Commission organised a cycling and walking tour from the embassy to Grand Hotel via Nelson Mandela Marg. India was among the first few countries to impose sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa. The Nelson Mandela Day recognises the dedication of the former South African President and Nobel Peace Prize laureate to humanity, particularly in areas of conflict resolution, human rights promotion and gender equality. In 2009, the United Nations General Assembly declared that July 18 — Mandela’s birthday— would be observed every year as Nelson Mandela International Day. n

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Kenyan election officials enrol in India’s new democracy institute he newly established Indian Institute of Democracy and Election Management (IIDEM) has opened doors to its first batch of students — election officials from Kenya. IIDEM proposes to share with the visitors the experience India has gathered in conducting elections for six decades. Starting June 27, the institute formally opened with a special five-day training programme for the Kenyan officials. Eight Kenyans, including an Election Commissioner (Kenya has eight Election Commissioners), participated in the first training programme in New Delhi. The institute was set up by the Election Commission of India to impart training to election managers and groups associated with the management of elections. It aims to be an advanced resource centre for learning, research, training and extension on participatory democracy and election management. As Chief Election Commissioner S. Y. Quraishi said: “The idea of the institute was conceived when we had to train polling personnel to deliver zero-error service for an 11-million electorate. Also, many countries have been requesting us to train their personnel.” In the past few years, several governments have sought the assis-

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tance of the Election Commission to either train their personnel or help conduct elections in their countries. In April, 2011, Egypt’s interim government requested India’s election panel for assistance in conducting elections in the country. A four-member

India’s Chief Election Commissioner S.Y. Quraishi

delegation led by Quraishi later visited Cairo, the capital of Egypt, for discussions on the matter. The Election Commission had earlier assisted Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Cambodia, South Africa and Nigeria in conducting their elections. When the Kenyan Election Commission made specific requests

for the training programme for its officials. The IIDEM prepared a customised programme for the Kenyans. The programme focusessed on five areas: legal framework of elections, Indian electoral system, conflict resolution systems, voter education programmes and election technology. To put the matter in proper perspective, it must be borne in mind that Kenya has the largest economy in East Africa. Its elections are particularly significant as it is bordered by Somalia on one side and the sensitive West Sudan region on the other. “There has been a very positive response from foreign countries that want to share in our unique electoral experience. The Election Commission feels that it has a responsibility to help other democratic countries,” Akshay Rout, Director General, Election Commission of India, said. “We are making a modest start but will be building upon it in the coming months. We are going to train the trainers. The institute will have a capacity of 150 participants and will eventually have its own campus in New Delhi,” Rout added. IIDEM’s focus areas are training and capacity development; voter education and civic participation; research, innovation and documentation; and global projects and collaboration. n

Indian doctors help Nigerian woman walk again road accident 12 years back had resulted in medical complications for Nigerian national Onyinye Anyichie Jacinta, 26, who could not move around without a walker. However, she is today looking forward to regaining her old life, thanks to the doctors in India. “I had come to

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India with big hope and I am happy that I got the right treatment here. I will return home with a lot of profound memories,” Jacinta said. According to doctors, Jacinta had an unusual hip condition known as ‘coxa valga’, and had difficulty walking as one of her legs began to lengthen.

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“My left hip started developing arthritis and the affected limb was lengthened and I was subjected to bouts of intense pain and limping. Over the years, the pain increased and I consulted many doctors in Nigeria and abroad,” Jacinta said on May 9. “Doctors advised me hip replace-


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Togo confers its highest civilian award on Indian

President of Togolese Republic Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé conferring the Officier de l’Ordre du Mono award on Chander Verma.

ogolese Republic in western Africa has bestowed its highest civilian award on an Indian national, Chander Verma, the country’s former Honorary Consul in India. Togolese President Faure Essozimna Gnassingbé presented the Officier de l’Ordre du Mono award to Verma during the National Day celebrations in the capital city of Lome. The award, which comprises a medal and a citation, is Togo’s highest civilian honour and is given to individuals who show extraordinary merit,

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Onyinye Anyichie Jacinta (sitting left) with Dr. Harinder Batth

irrespective of their nationality. Verma, Chairman of Continental Construction Projects Ltd, was honoured for his “exemplary service to the country as Honorary Consul of the Togolese Republic to India”. He was Honorary Consul for three years till the Togolese government opened a diplomatic mission in India in October 2010 with a resident chargé d’affaires in New Delhi. “It came as a great surprise when the President told me about the award. I was overwhelmed at the honour

ment, but I was unwilling. One of my relatives discussed my case with doctors in India and they suggested a corrective procedure. I had full confidence in Indian doctors, so I packed my bags and came to India for treatment without giving a second thought,” she said. The doctors said the surgery posed unique problems. “Doing the corrective procedure, 12 years after the injury, was a challenging task. We did hip osteotomy surgery last month and she is recovering very fast.

bestowed upon me. The award is something like our Bharat Ratna,” Verma said on June 16. Relations between India and Togo have improved steadily in the past half decade. Togo credits Verma for playing a major role in building the relations since India does not have a resident diplomatic mission in Togo. Trade between the two countries was worth $232 million took place in 2009-10, while India’s exports to Togo increased from $143 million in 2008 to $163 million in 2010. Togo being a francophone country faces difficulties in adjusting with the language of instruction in India, thus it has been slow in taking up Indian technical and economic cooperation programmes. However, in the past two years, 15 students and professionals from Togo attended capacity-building courses at the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade and other Indian institutions. Verma, as Chairman of the Construction Industry Development Council (CIDC) — a body set up by the Planning Commission in collaboration with the construction industry has been involved in initiating moves for a programme of training, testing and certification of workers for the construction industry in Togo. Togo has a small Indian community of 250-300 people. n

She is already mobilised on walker and will recover fully in the next four to six months,” said Harinder Batth, a senior orthopaedic surgeon who operated upon Jacinta at a private hospital in Mohali, in the northern Indian state of Punjab. “By this procedure, she was saved from undergoing hip replacement, which over the years would have required another surgery because of her young age. Now, both her legs are the same length and she will have a normal gait without any limp,” he added.

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Make African Union an ‘effective partner’: India

iting its own example of institutionalising ties with Africa, India has asked the United Nations to heed the views of the African Union (AU) in dealing with the 53-nation continent. This would make AU “a more effective and capable partner of the UN system,” Vinay Kumar, Counsellor at India’s Permanent Mission, said on June 21, at a UN

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Security Council briefing on the UN Office to African Union (UNOAU). “For an effective and enduring cooperation between the UN and the AU, it is necessary that the Council not adopt a selective approach to this cooperation,” he said, asking the Council to pay heed to the views of the African Union in resolving a crisis like the one in Libya. “Conscious of AU’s role in han-

dling African issues concerning not only peace and security but also social and development-related, India has institutionalised its cooperation with the African Union,” Kumar said. Kumar said Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s historic visit to Addis Ababa to participate in second India-Africa Forum Summit signified the importance of India’s relations with African countries. n

Eritrea backs India on UN Security Council seat ailing India’s “re-emergence” as a global power, Eritrea, a country of over five million people in the Horn of Africa, has backed New Delhi’s claim for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council. Eritrean Foreign Minister Osman Saleh was in India where he met Minister of State for External Affairs Preneet Kaur and held discussions on a wide range of bilateral, regional and global issues. He welcomed “India’s reemergence as a major economic, polit-

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S.M. Krishna with Osman Saleh.

ical and technological power.” He was speaking on June 8, in New Delhi. It was the first visit from an African country after the second India-Africa Forum Summit in Addis Ababa. “He also commended India’s insti-

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tutionalised engagement with African partners through the consensual, consultative and responsive mechanism put in place under the rubric of the India-Africa Forum Summit,” the ministry said. Saleh “offered unqualified support for India’s candidature for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council,” the ministry said. At the summit in Addis Ababa, both India and the African Union had declared support for each other’s aspirations in an expanded UN Security Council.


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India pledges full support for Egypt’s reconstruction ndia has pledged full support to Egypt in its reconstruction efforts, including in the process of holding elections, and the two countries have resolved to scale up their trade and investment partnership. External Affairs Minister S.M. Krishna held a wide-ranging talks with his Egyptian counterpart Nabil AlAraby on May 30, over a host of bilateral, regional and international issues, including the intensification of trade and investment, the ongoing democratic ferment in West Asia and North Africa and the Palestine issue. Egypt, which has been taking concrete steps to usher in democracy after a revolution early this year dislodged the three-decade-old Hosni Mubarak regime, sought India’s technical assistance for holding parliamentary elections in September, to be followed by presidential polls. India has agreed to support Egypt in democratic institution-building. “Foreign Minister El Araby informed me of the changes that are taking place in the Arab world, including in Egypt, and the next steps that his government is planning to take. I reiterate that India is ready to extend all possible cooperation,” Krishna said at a joint press conference with AlAraby. An Election Commission of India (ECI) team had visited Egypt in April and familiarised itself with the electoral process and salient aspects of its election management system. The Egyptian side asked for some sample bottles of indelible ink that the ECI uses in India’s elections. Araby was on his first international visit since he took charge as Foreign Minister of Egypt. Krishna, on his part, made a strong

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Minister for External Affairs S.M. Krishna

pitch for scaling up trade and investment between India and Egypt. “We have both agreed that there exists immense potential to enhance our economic relations and that we would jointly work towards it,” he said. India’s bilateral trade with Egypt is estimated to be around $3 billion. There are 45 Indian companies operating in Egypt with an investment of about $2.5 billion. The two ministers discussed issues related to cooperation in the field of information technology, satellite connectivity and tele-medicine. They also discussed a host of regional and international issues, including the Palestinian issue, the Middle East peace process and the Fatah-Hamas reconciliation in which Egypt had played a major role. Krishna conveyed India’s thanks and appreciation to Egypt for the assistance in had offered in evacuating Indians from Libya. “This assistance was vital for ‘safe homecoming’ of more than 16,000 Indians from Libya,” he said. n

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Joining hands with Mozambique to fight piracy ith piracy disrupting sea trade in the Indian Ocean region, India and Mozambique have agreed to jointly fight the menace to ensure the safety and security of maritime commerce. The agreement was reached when Mozambique Defence Minister Filipe Jacinto Nyussi met his Indian counterpart A.K. Antony in New Delhi on June 28. “India and Mozambique have agreed to work together on the issue of maritime security so as to make the Indian Ocean a safe region for maritime trade. This was agreed to during the delegation level talks between the two ministers,” a Defence Ministry release said.

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A.K. Antony with Filipe Jacinto Nyussi.

Nyussi thanked India for the help rendered by the Indian Navy in rescuing a Mozambican shipping vessel from pirates off the Mozambican coast last year. “Both sides had a fruitful discussion on various bilateral defence cooperation issues. A number of fresh areas for cooperation were identified to enhance and strengthen the existing bilateral relations between the two countries,” the statement said. The Mozambican Defence Minister also met Admiral Nirmal Verma, General V.K. Singh and the then Vice-Chief of the Air Staff Air Marshal N.A.K. Browne.

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Indian investors upbeat about Ethiopian agriculture group of 30 Indian investors, led by Ramakrishna Karuturi, Founder and Managing Director of Karuturi Global Limited Company, visited Addis Ababa in August this year, to expand India’s foothold in the east African nation’s rapidly growing agricultural sector. According to Subhash Chandra, Second Secretary of the Indian Embassy in Ethiopia, “Indian technology is appropriate, affordable and valuable and can help Ethiopia accelerate its development.” Indian investment in Ethiopia currently stands at $4.5 billion and is dominated mostly by floriculture and agriculture, Chandra added. Ethiopia’s exports to India are mainly in agricultural produce with the bulk constituting pulses and gum. However, the most lucrative of Ethiopia’s exported produce is coffee,

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Ramakrishna Karuturi

while India’s biggest exports to Ethiopia are from construction, education and electronics sectors. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) is working in many sectors in Africa, but its main focus is on the agriculture sec-

tor. As Sheila Sudhakaran, Assistant Secretary-General of FICCI, puts it, “Our fist summit was held in New Delhi in 2008, followed by another one in Mumbai in 2010. We also organised a workshop on contract farming in 2010. Our relationship with Ethiopia is primarily related to agricultural development in the country.” Eyesuswork Zafu, President of the Ethiopian Chamber and Sectoral Associations, said, “If it wasn’t for the period when Ethiopia was under the military junta regime and when India had its period of introspection, business ties between the two countries would have been much larger than it is today.” He added that the chambers of commerce of the two countries have already signed agreements to “enthusiastically renew their commitment”. n — Groum Abate

India to expand oil exploration in Africa ven though Sudan is the only African country where stateowned Indian companies, such as overseas arm of Natural Gas Corp. (ONGC), ONGC Videsh Ltd, have started oil and gas explorations, other countries in the continent are also showing promise, according to India’s Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. According to the ministry, this has been made possible due to India’s investments of `64.8 billion ($14.5 billion) in public sector enterprises for acquisition of oil and natural gas exploration and production assets abroad, including Africa. As a result, state-run firms are expected to strike oil in more African nations, including Libya, Nigeria and

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In terms of Egypt. In Libya, imports, Saudi ONGC Videsh has Arabia has been the a 100 per cent interlargest supplier of est in what is called crude to India, even Block 43. This apart, as the share of the company also African countries has interests in two rose significantly Sudanese blocks and An ONGC Videsh pipeline in Sudan. from 32.91 million a pipeline there. ONGC Videsh also has interests tonnes in 2009-10 to 34.12 million in two blocks in Nigeria ranging from tonnes the next year, according to the ministry. 23 to 32 per cent. Nigeria emerged as the fourth Besides ONGC, Oil India Ltd has interests in three blocks in Libya, two largest supplier of crude oil to India in Egypt and one in Nigeria, while with 15.81 million tonnes in the last Bharat Petro Resources has interests fiscal. ONGC Videsh has in the past in a block in Mozambique. Hindustan Petroleum, another public sector three financial years produced 2.7 milIndian company, has interests in two lion, 2.4 million and two million tonnes of gas from its assets in Sudan. Egyptian blocks.

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India supports democratic transformation in Africa iving a contemporary and strategic cast to India’s growing relationship with Africa, Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, in the first address by an Indian Prime Minister to the Ethiopian parliament, backed democratic change in the continent and made a strong pitch for a joint fight against piracy and terrorism under the aegis of the United Nations (UN). “The winds of change are blowing in West Asia and North Africa. We believe it is the right of all peoples to determine their own destiny and choose their own path of development,” Dr. Singh said at the joint session of the 547-strong Ethiopian parliament on May 26. He was alluding to pro-change and pro-democracy popular movements that had swept several North African nations recently — a paradigm change that coincides with the continent’s emergence as a growth pole of the world economy. “International actions must be based on the rule of law and be strictly within the framework of United Nations resolutions. We support the efforts of the UN in bringing peace and stability to the region,” Dr. Singh said. “The Horn of Africa is today faced with threats from piracy and terrorism.

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International piracy in the Red Sea and off the coast of Somalia has become a well-organised industry,” he observed. “It is important that the UN takes the lead in developing a comprehensive and effective response to this threat,” he added. “As a littoral state of the Indian Ocean, India is ready to work with Ethiopia and other African countries

“We would like the Indian Ocean to remain a secure link between Asian and Africa through which international maritime trade can take place unhindered...” in this regard. We would like the Indian Ocean to remain a secure link between Asia and Africa through which international maritime trade can take place unhindered,” Dr. Singh said. He also pushed vigorously for the reform of international institutions of governance, including the reform of the UN Security Council. “The changing world order calls for corresponding changes in the

structure of institutions of global governance, whether these are international institutions or the international monetary system or the United Nations Security Council,” the Prime Minister said. “These are issues which have to be tackled and resolved,” he said while thanking Ethiopia for its support for India’s candidature for a permanent seat in the Security Council. At the summit, both India and Africa had backed each other’s claim for a permanent seat in the Security Council. In the 30-minute speech, punctuated by intermittent applause, Dr. Singh described Ethiopia as “the cradle of human civilisation” and exhorted this landlocked country of 85 million people to leverage its credentials to “shape a new vision for Africa’s prosperity and development”. A day after he held bilateral talks with Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and called for scaling up Indian investments in Ethiopia to $10 billion by 2015, the Prime Minister said: “Ethiopia has become one of Africa’s fastest growing economies. Ethiopia is a magnet for foreign investment.” “The voice of Ethiopia is heard with respect. Addis Ababa, the new flower, has become the diplomatic capital of Africa,” he added. n

No land grab by Indian companies: Ethiopian PM midst some misgivings in Ethiopia about Indian companies’ acquisition of vast stretches of land, Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi has rejected charges of land grab as “loose talk” and welcomed Indian investment for development. “There is no land grab and there will be no land grab. Indian companies should not be constrained by this loose

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talk,” Zenawi, the longtime leader of Ethiopia, said at a press conference on May 25. He was responding to a question on reports in sections of the international media about Indian companies acquiring thousands of hectares of land in Ethiopia at subsidised prices. “We have three million hectares of unutilised land. This land is not used by anybody. This land should be devel-

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oped,” Zenawi said, adding that it was difficult for him to accept reports of land grab. A host of Indian companies like Karuturi Global, which grows roses on Ethiopian soil and exports them to Europe, and Ruchi Soya have acquired thousands of hectares of land in Ethiopia that have triggered accusations of land grab. n

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Enhancing a VALUABLE Partnership Taking off from the success of the First India-Africa Forum Summit, the emphasis at its second edition was once again on building capacity and institutions in Africa besides supporting infrastructure, trade and commerce and industry, says Gurjit Singh

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Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh addressing the opening plenary session of the Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa on May 24.

he Second Africa India Forum Summit was held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May 24 to 25, 2011. This followed the first summit held in New Delhi in April 2008 and was held at the seat of the African Union Commission. As per the Banjul Format adopted by the AU, the countries representing Africa were chosen by the African Union and all the invited countries attended, including — Equatorial Guinea as AU Chair, Algeria, Burundi, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Swaziland. The summit was co-chaired by the

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Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh, and the President of Equatorial Guinea, Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, the current Chair of the African Union. The theme of the first Summit had been ‘Dynamic Partnership: Shared Vision’ and in view of the diversity in development of the India-Africa relationship over the past three years, the theme for the second summit was ‘Enhancing Partnership and Shared Vision’. The summit adopted two important documents — the Addis Ababa Declaration to follow the Delhi Declaration of April 2008 and the Framework of Enhanced Cooperation to dovetail into the Framework of Cooperation and its action plan emerging from the first summit.

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A F R I C A Keeping in view the successful model of the first summit, emphasis was once again placed on building capacity and institutions in Africa besides supporting infrastructure, trade and commerce and industry. In fact, the Framework for Enhanced Cooperation focuses on agriculture, trade, industry and investment, small and medium enterprises, finance, regional integration, peace and security, civil society and governance, science and technology, information and communication technology, health, culture, sports, tourism, infrastructure, energy and environment, media and communication. The Prime Minister of India announced that India would provide US$5 billion in credits to support infrastructure and other development in Africa including $300 million for a regional integration project, a new Ethiopia-Djibouti railway. An announcement was also made that $700 million would be provided as grant for capacity building in Africa. These are focused on areas identified by the Framework for Enhanced Cooperation and bring together through India-AU consultation a response by India to African articulation of their requirements by matching them to Indian capabilities. The amount of grant available was also significantly increased from $500 million at IAFS-I to $700 million, thus making a provision of $1.2 billion in grant for Africa for the period 2008-14. A significant proportion of this would go into the establishment of over 100 capacity building institutions in Africa; an increase in scholarships to approximately 22,000 in the three years ahead and the development of institutional linkages.

Institution building The offers made by India include the establishment of approximately 80 new institutions in Africa to augment the 21 institutions already committed at IAFS-I. Taking into account the 3-tiered approach that India has towards Africa, the offers made in the summit clearly define a regional dimension compared to the commitments of IAFS-I. Thus, five new pan-African institutions have been offered to Africa including: n India-Africa Food Processing Cluster; n India-Africa integrated Textile Cluster; n India-Africa Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting; n India-Africa University for Life and Earth Sciences; n India-Africa Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development; These will be discussed with the AU for finding appropriate host countries who could make the best use of such institutions. Some of these institutions would work towards building processing capacities and take African production up the value chain in the field of textiles and food processing. This would significantly contribute not only to the development of human resources but also of physical resources for Africa’s value-added production which would cater both to the growing domestic market and exports.

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At the regional level, India provided a response to its consultation with Regional Economic Committees (RECs) which was brought to fruition in the first ever meeting of India with the RECs of Africa in November 2010. Thus for each of the RECs, 4 different institutions are being offered: n Soil, Water and Tissue Testing Laboratories n Farm Science Centres n Agricultural Seed Production-cum-Demonstration Centres n Material Testing Laboratories for Highways In addition, biomass gassifier systems, and solar charging stations are also envisaged through this tier of cooperation. These will significantly augment the technical support to the development of agriculture among the regional communities as well as provide technical support to the growing development of road infrastructure. Decisions on these locations would be made in consultation with the RECs and the AU so that a coordinated system of locating host countries could be adopted. This will be for the first time that India would provide direct institutional support to the RECs and will enhance the engagement with these important building blocks of African integration. Recognising that there continues to be a significant demand bilaterally for a variety of capacity-building institutions by a large number of African countries, the offers at the second summit included: n Rural Technology Parks n Food Testing Laboratories n Food Processing Business Incubation Centres n Centres on Geo-Informatics Applications and Rural Development n English Language Training Institutes n Entrepreneur Development Institutes n Information technology Centres n Vocational Training Centres n Vocational Training Centres for solar engineer trainees of Barefoot College n ‘Project Arrow’ by Department of Posts The selection of these institutions underlines that India is willing to support the development of human resource for backward integration into the growing industrial and services sector in Africa through institutions like the EDI, VTCs and the like. At the same time, there is an effort to support rural development through institutions like NABARD Consultancy Services, National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD) and SEWA. These could well feed into the pan-African institutes for rural development and governance to be established by NABARD Consultancy in the pan-African context. Scholarships and Training Programmes Under the decisions of IAFS-I, scholarships had been enhanced, special scholarship schemes introduced and special short-term courses for Africa introduced to augment the widespread of the ITEC programmes. The first effort to initiate training programmes to be held in Africa itself had also

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Where scholarships are concerned, the most significant been made. While many of the programmes under the action plan of the Framework of Cooperation of IAFS-I would arrangement envisaged is the establishment of the new continue for their given life of four years, the Framework of India-Africa Virtual University (IAVU) to be managed by Enhanced Cooperation adopted at the second Africa-India Ministry of External Affairs, the Ministry of Human Forum Summit augments those ideas in a significant Resource Development and IGNOU. Building on the manner. Nearly 20 types of specialised trainings have been successful rolling out of the pan-African e-Network Project, identified and would see the creation of new programmes. particularly the tele-education component and keeping in These include sectors like agriculture and food processing; view the high demand for India’s technical and university the promotion of rural development, including micro enter- education, 10,000 scholarships for Africa over the three prises, rural drinking water management; road transport; years after the establishment of IAVU has been proposed. The traditional scholarships for traditional medicine for health and graduate studies offered through the family welfare; managing new and A diverse agenda has Indian Council for Cultural renewable energy including those in been set to enhance Relations that were doubled at the the hydro-power, wind and solar energy sector. In other infrastruc- cooperation between India time of IAFS-I will be further doubled following the Prime tural related areas, training in the oil and Africa. Nearly 500 and natural gas sector, for managing positions for training under Minister’s announcement in Addis The ICCR is now ready to power grids and in areas like marthe special programmes Ababa. provide 3,600 scholarships over a itime education, civil aviation and training of chambers of commerce are likely to be provided to period of four years to African and related bodies are envisaged. augment ITEC programme students wishing to pursue Training in the IT sector as well as whose reach will also be graduate studies in India and these scholarships would now include in good governance, in sports and in enhanced with 900 airfares to travel to India and back at conservation of museum objects and positions the beginning and end of the course. training for women crafts people and The special agricultural scholarartisans as well as in the stock ships that were initiated at the IAFS-I provided 75 positions exchanges is also envisaged. As can be seen from this limited exposition of the plan, a per annum and these would now continue till 2014 under very diverse agenda has been set to enhance cooperation an enhanced allocation made in the context of the Second between India and Africa in a variety of areas. Nearly 500 AIFS. Similarly, the CV Raman fellowship would also conpositions for training under the special programmes per tinue till 2014 bringing these two important initiatives in annum are likely to be provided to augment the ITEC pro- tandem with the timeframe of the three-year Summit. Special fellowships in traditional medicine are also gramme whose reach will also be enhanced by adding nearly envisaged under the new programme and at the request of 900 new positions for Africa.

A scholarship examination organised by NIIT-Nigeria.

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them integrate. Thus, the CII and the Department of Science & Technology would work towards establishing an India Africa Technology Partnership Programme to facilitate the transfer of technology to Africa and build long-term partnerships and capacity in recipient nations. CII will also have training programmes for African Chambers of Commerce in India while FICCI would offer training programmes for African investment promotion agencies, on enhancing capacities in the business sector on water A training session under the aegis of the International Programme on Human Resource Development and audit, clean production and Entrepreneurship Education at the National Institute for Entrepreneurship and Small Business in energy efficiency and conserNew Delhi. The training is organised under the ITEC programme. vation in Africa whereas the the AU, new scholarships for training programmes of a National Institute of Securities Market along with NSE and long-term nature in the shipping and maritime sector would BSE will conduct training programmes to build capacities in the areas of stock exchanges in Africa be introduced at the Indian Maritime Academy. An India-Africa Business Council to increase the engagement among the private sector of India and Africa will be Involvement of civil society The growing depth and diversity of India’s engagement established. The enhancement which emerges from the proposals of with Africa naturally lead to identification of a larger number of implementing agencies. In the preparations of the Framework for Enhanced Cooperation of the Second programmes to be offered following the approval of the Africa India Forum Summit is thus mainly on diversifying Framework of Enhanced Cooperation, India worked with the engagement, finding new areas for cooperation and several civil society and non-governmental organisations taking human resource development and capacity building that were already engaged in its interaction with Africa. and linking them to productivity and value addition with Barefoot College, which has rolled out several training commercial spin-offs for our partners. This approach takes programmes under ITEC for training rural African women into account that Africa has a growing population of young and turning them into solar engineers is to be supported to people whose proportion is rapidly rising, as it is in India. create similar training institutions in select African countries At the same time, there is a slow but steady increase in the where a critical mass has been reached. Similarly, the creation of a middle class that is now estimated to be exemplary work done by SEWA is to be linked with the between 220-250 million people across Africa. Further, a growing demand in Africa for micro finance and women’s steady rise in the growth rates in most African countries, empowerment. With climate change and its agenda, including that in non-oil economies, leads to greater particularly the issue of adaptation being high on the African financial flows of varying accounts into Africa and the develminds, the involvement of TERI which is already a opment of the services and manufacturing sectors which knowledge partner of the Africa Climate Policy Centre highlights the need to also focus on the agriculture sector. within the Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa Keeping these developments in mind, therefore, many of is likely to be utilised for more training programmes these programmes were designed to correlate strong in Africa. TERI, like Barefoot College, has been capacity building and human resource development comconducting ITEC sponsored courses for developing ponent with the developmental goals of our African partners to contribute to their industrialisation and development of countries for some years. Similarly, on the business side, the role of CII and FICCI, the services and agriculture sectors. It is a fond hope that this widespread and deep engageamong others, is to be enhanced so that their vast structure on the ground can be utilised to train Africa’s chamber per- ment will lead to a lasting contribution to the development sonnel and entrepreneurs in model skills necessary to make of Africa. n

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Partnership of RESURGENCE The Second Africa-India Forum Summit helped open new vistas of cooperation while building and branding India’s engagement with the emerging continent, says Manish Chand

Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh with Chairman of the African Union Commission Dr. Jean Ping (second from left) and President of Equatorial Guinea Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (fourth from left) at the opening plenary session of the Second Africa-India Forum Summit at Addis Ababa in Ethiopia on May 24.

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gainst the backdrop of an inescapable African resurgence and an intensified foray by external powers for resources and markets of Africa, India’s second summit with the emerging continent in Addis Ababa May 24-25 remapped the contours of their burgeoning partnership. The summit not only opened new frontiers of cooperation, but also effectively branded India’s engagement with the emerging continent by renewing the focus on human resource development and capacity building, the

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twin areas which are poised to impact the lives of over two billion people living in these fast-growing regions. In Addis Ababa, the seat of the African Union and the diplomatic capital of Africa, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced a $5.7 billion line of credit and grants for a slew of developmental projects and setting up of over 80 training institutes across Africa, underlining New Delhi’s emphasis on developing and empowering African youth, the continent’s most precious resource. When these institutes are set up, India will top the list of countries which has staked resources on this scale to help accelerate Africa’s resurgence. In its latest report, the

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Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with African leaders at the Africa-India Summit in Addis Ababa.

International Monetary Fund (IMF) has predicted over 6.2 chosen training institutes in specific domains that enhance percent annual economic growth for sub-Saharan Africa. Africa’s potential to benefit from the matrix of globalisation India shares this optimism, but feels that if this growth tra- and help expand a new generation of entrepreneurs and an jectory is not sustained by massive investment by Africa’s educated middle class that will form the industrial and manruling elites in capacity building, education and health, the agerial base of the continent. An India-Africa Food Processing Cluster and an India-Africa Integrated Textiles African renaissance may prove a chimera. At the summit, the Indian Prime Minister was unstint- Cluster, announced at the summit, are aimed at bolstering ing in his praise for the Africa growth story and acknowl- industrial capacity and value-addition. An India-Africa edged unequivocally that Africa could be the next growth Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting and an India-Africa Institute for Rural pole of the world economy. The Development are designed to transsummit culminated in the Addis The outcomes of the form agriculture and lead to a green Ababa Declaration and the Africasummit are set to expand revolution in Africa. India Framework for Enhanced Above all, these training instituCooperation, the two defining docbilateral ties beyond the tions are expected to address uments that chart out a roadmap for three Ts — trade, training Africa’s long-term developmental accelerating the vital partnership in the 21st century. The two docu- and technology transfers — needs in priority areas, ranging from agriculture, rural developments pulsated with the message of to an overarching global ment and food processing to inforAfro-optimism. Manmohan Singh strategic partnership mation technology, vocational promised the leaders of 15 counto promote mutual training, and entrepreneurial develtries, who were selected by the AU resurgence opment. They will be in addition to represent the entire continent, to 19 training centres unveiled by that India would do everything posIndia in the action plan it launched sible to enable Africa to realise its potential. “Africa possesses all the prerequisites to become with the AU in March 2010. The outcomes of the summit are set to expand bilateral ties a major growth pole of the world in the 21st century. We will work with Africa to help realise its potential,” said beyond the three Ts — trade, training and technology transManmohan Singh to applause from African leaders. “Africa fers — to an overarching global strategic partnership to prois determined to partner in India’s economic resurgence as mote mutual resurgence. This global strategic partnership is India is committed to being a close partner in Africa’s renais- driven by a growing convergence of positions on global issues, ranging from jointly combating terrorism and piracy to close sance,” said the Addis Ababa Declaration. India also announced $300 million for the development coordination at global fora over UN reforms, climate change of a new Ethiopia-Djibouti railway line, marking New and the Doha Round of WTO negotiations. With the textDelhi’s inroads into large-scale infrastructure projects in based negotiations for the UN reforms gathering momenAfrica that are considered as China’s forte. tum, Africa and India are set to inch closer as they both desire Animated by the quest for mutual resurgence, India has a greater presence in global decision-making bodies. “The

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For India, it is time for Africa

A student in Ethiopia interacts with IGNOU students in India.

current international economic and political system is far from easy, particularly for developing countries. The world faces new challenges in assuring food and energy security,” said Manmohan Singh, adding: “Global institutions of governance are outmoded and under stress.” In Addis Ababa, the two sides not only supported each other’s claim for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council, but also acknowledged “the imperative of urgent and comprehensive reform of the UN system”, and sought “a new spirit of solidarity among developing countries” to remould the global governance architecture. “We believe that a new vision is required for Africa’s development and participation in global affairs,” the Prime Minister said, adding that India was keen to share its experience in nationbuilding with developing countries. Amplifying on of strategic partnership evolving between India and Africa, the President of Equatorial Guinea said: “We value India’s cooperation positively. There is equality in international exchanges. Therefore, the strategic cooperation between India and Africa is in response to imbalances in the world’s economic system.” “We call for the ceasing of hostilities, terrorism, and piracy,” he added. “Africa is paying special attention to developing relations with emerging powers of the South. Our common aim is to promote multilateralism as a paradigm in international relations,” said Jean Ping, chairperson of the African Union Commission, at the plenary of the summit. The initiatives, announced by Manmohan Singh on the opening day of the summit on the Africa Day, found much appreciation from the leadership across the continent. The AU reciprocated, with Equatorial Guinea President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasago, also chairperson of the AU, declaring at a joint press conference that that India can “count on its support” for the UN reforms and declared support for New Delhi’s claim for a permanent seat in the UN Security Council. As Africa and India have over half their population below 35, the second summit focused on the youth as a key driver of bilateral engagement and sought to leverage the demographic dividend that is expected to accrue through closer col-

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Here are the key initiatives unveiled by India at the Second Africa-India Forum Summit: m $5 billion for the next three years under lines of credit for Africa to help meet its development goals; m An additional $700 million to establish new institutions and training programmes; m Support the development of a new EthiopiaDjibouti railway line worth $300 million under the line of credit; m Establish an India-Africa Virtual University to meet the demand in Africa for higher studies in Indian institutions; 10,000 new scholarships will be available to African students at this proposed university; m Establish an India-Africa Food Processing Cluster; m Establish an India-Africa Integrated Textiles Cluster; m Establish an India-Africa Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting; m Establish an India-Africa University for Life and Earth Sciences; m Establish an India-Africa Institute for Agriculture and Rural Development; m Help set up more soil, water and tissue testing laboratories, regional farm science centres, seed production-cum-demonstration centres and material testing laboratories for highways regionally; m More English language training, information technology, entrepreneurship development and vocational training institutes bilaterally; m More scholarships for African students under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) programme, taking the total number of scholarships to 22,000 over the next three years; m Help set up an India-Africa Business Council; m India will contribute $2 million to the African Union Mission in Somalia; and m Increase the access of African airlines to Indian cities.

laboration. India has proposed to set up a Virtual University, with its hubs spread across the continent, and has reserved 10,000 scholarships for African students. India’s total commitment for the next three years by way of scholarships to African students will now stand at more than 22,000. The second summit, therefore, seeks to take the IndiaAfrica relationship into a higher trajectory that will enable both sides to cash in on the larger shift of economic power from the “west to the rest”. This was clear in India’s focus on human resource development and capacity building on the one hand, and the resolve of both sides to invest their relationship with greater economic content. Ahead of the summit, at the Trade Show held in Addis Ababa, the two sought to expand their bilateral trade to $70 billion by

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on one hand and from those of other emerging powers like China. The summit underlined unique and enduring features of India’s involvement that is animated by a response to Africa’s “needs, requests and priorities”. “In accordance with Africa’s own priorities, we have decided to significantly enhance support for institutional capacity building, technical assistance and training programmes for human resource development in Africa,” Manmohan Singh said at the summit. This consultative approach is markedly different from the prescriptive approach of the IMF-World Bank combine. Critics have decried it as slow and ponderous, but this consensual approach has also earned enormous goodwill for India among African leaders as they feel their views and ideas are given equal importance in deciding on key bilateral initiatives. In an important development that Indian consumer brand Bharti Airtel has a presence in 16 African countries following its recent $10.3 billion investment in the continent. could impact democratic transformation of Africa in the long term, India has agreed to assist in 2015, a target that should not be difficult to achieve given democratic institution-building in the continent. India and a new wave of enthusiasm that has swept corporate India Africa have agreed “to enhance cooperation by sharing of towards investing in Africa. An India-Africa Business experiences and capacity building, where necessary, among Council comprising CEOs of major corporations from Election Commissions, the institutions of parliamentary both sides is being planned, and will surely be a big step democracy and media organisations”, said the Addis Ababa forward in galvanising the two-way investment. Besides, Declaration. The focus on human resource development Indian consumer brands like Bharti Airtel, which has a and capacity building will ensure that India stays invested at presence in 16 African countries following its $10.3 billion deeper level in the development of the continent. The pioneering India-aided pan-Africa e-network is investment, Tata Motors, Mahindra Jeep and Maruti are creating an emotional connect with African buyers. They already bringing tele-education and telemedicine to African are also taking care to see that they employ mostly locals people. Addressing young students at Dar es Salaam and are engaged in CSR activities so that Africans have a Institute of Technology a day after attending the summit in stake in their business growth. This private-sector driven Addis Ababa, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said India foray is different from China’s state-driven focus on mas- was “ready to provide all the help we can within our sive infrastructure projects, hydrocarbons, and mineral resources to enable Tanzania to create a pool of world class resources, which is seen by some as a form of mercantilist IT professionals”. The announcement was greeted with thunderous applause as he launched the Indo-Tanzanian neo-colonialism. The second summit put renewed spotlight on the Centre for Excellence in IT, set up by Indian software engiengagement of emerging powers in the African continent neers at a cost of a little over $2 million in August last year. and triggered analyses on how India’s engagement is differ- “If we can produce a steady stream of highly trained scienent from those of others. Ahead of the summit, the Western tists, technologists and engineers, our cooperation would be media was awash with reports of rivalry and competition worthwhile and we would be putting our money to good between India and China for resources and markers of use,” he said. Pointing out that India and Africa were on “the right side Africa. Indian officials were quick to repudiate such attempts at creating a zone of contention, and stressed on coopera- of history”, Manmohan Singh aptly encapsulated this distion rather than rivalry. “We are in no race. All this talk of tinctive trait of the growing India-Africa relationship. “The race is a figment of the imagination,” Vivek Katju, secretary similarity of our development experiences and circum(West) in charge of Africa in India’s external affairs ministry, stances has made India-Africa cooperation a genuine twosaid in Addis Ababa. “We have a direct relationship with way street. This is its true strength and its distinctive feaAfrica that is at the bilateral, regional and continental level. ture,” Manmohan Singh said at the summit held at the AU We are guided by the priorities of Africa and act in response headquarters. This “genuine two-way street”, relationship underpins “a modern and contemporary partnership”, to Africa’s needs and requests,” he stressed. In some ways, India has managed to brand and distin- which could well be India’s winning card in Africa in the guish its engagement with Africa (through the two sum- long term as more African countries embrace democracy mits) from the presumption and diktats of Western powers and join the global value chain on their own terms. n

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IAFS 2011: The Way FORWARD A maturing approach is evident in India’s engagement with Africa with actionable pledges being made at IAFS 2011. However, past challenges need to be kept in mind while implementing the new set of commitments, says Hayley Herman

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Work in progress at the Nyaborango Hydropower Project in Rwanda.

he second India-Africa Forum Summit took place in Addis Ababa recently, bringing with it signs of a maturing approach in the Indian government’s official policy and its engagement with Africa. This was demonstrated not only through the rhetoric of South-South solidarity but also through a series of actionable pledges. These developments follow on from the first India Africa Forum Summit that took place in 2008 and seek to solidify India’s relations with the continent, not only through their traditional areas of engagement, but also signalling a more assertive approach with higher state financial support, corporate involvement, and with focus on a

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needs-based and collaborative strategy. The provision of US$5 billion in lines of credit over three years towards Africa’s development illustrated this, headlining reports on the outcomes of the summit. With the India-Africa Business Conclave taking place at the AU headquarters just before the summit, representatives of Indian and African corporate interests also provided an overview of their current activities and future goals. The Indian private sector has continued to lead India’s footprint in Africa and remains a key driving force for Indian interests on the continent. This was illustrated through the summary of India corporate activities in Africa, with plans to expand further in the areas of agriculture, infrastructure and pharmaceuticals, amongst others. Corporate ties were spurred further with the

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announcement during the proceedings of the creation of the India-Africa Business Council to bring together large corporations from both India and Africa, to discuss areas of common interest. In addition to India’s bilateral ties with African states, the conclusion of the 2011 Forum Summit highlights the importance of the African Union in India’s increasing interaction with the continent. As repeatedly mentioned during the summit proceedings, India’s official approach towards the implementation of the meeting has been collective and regional in nature. This was first advanced through the Banjul IRCON is involved in various railway projects in Algeria and other African countries. Formula that the African Union decided to use in selecting African representation at the summit, Ababa, capital of Ethiopia and home to the African Union headquarters, also resulted in further pledges to the country, including all Regional Economic Communities (RECs). The profile of RECs engagement has grown through the with possible benefits to the surrounding region. The establishment of the Forum Summit. They have played a key commitment of $300 million to support the construction of role not only in providing representation of the diversity and the Ethiopia-Djibouti railway line announced by Prime various needs of African states at the summit, but also in the Minister Singh was one such development. Following the negotiation towards implementing the commitments made at announcement by the Ethiopian government of a national the 2008 Forum. This was noted with the conclusion of the plan for construction of new transport networks it has sought meeting between the Indian government and the RECs in funding for the railway for the Ethiopia-Djibouti railway as India — the first of its kind — in November 2010. The one such important project for the past few years. Several meeting framed the important function of the RECs towards companies had shown initial interest in the venture, ultimate achievement of the 2008 Forum commitments, including those from China. However, with the financial through discussions of the implementation of a Joint Action commitment from India confirmed, this important stretch of Plan towards achievement of the Delhi Framework for rail will provide Ethiopia, a landlocked country, with an Cooperation. The RECs will undoubtedly have a role to play essential link to the coast and stimulate infrastructural investas India implements its pledge of $700 million towards new ment that could facilitate future linkages with neighbouring institutions and training programmes “in consultation with the and similarly landlocked states. Such infrastructural needs have continued to grow in Africa. African Union and its institutions” as one of the outcomes of the 2011 summit. In particular, Prime Minister Manmohan A World Bank report released in 2010 put the continent’s need at an estimated $93 billion per year, Singh listed the following pledges at with a funding gap of $31 billion per continental and regional levels, In addition to India’s year. This was up substantially from during his address at the summit: bilateral ties with African a previous estimate of $20 billion and AT PAN-AFRICAN LEVEL: An states, the conclusion of a funding gap of $10 billion per year in 2008. The infrastructural deficits India-Africa Food Processing the 2011 Forum Summit have also represented a large problem Cluster, India-Africa Integrated highlights the importance in increasing intra-trade on the Textiles Cluster, India-Africa Centre continent. With intra-trade levels for Medium Range Weather of the African Union in currently registering at 10 per cent of Forecasting, India-Africa Institute of India’s increasing trade on the continent, African Agriculture and Rural Development interaction with the governments and policy makers have and a request for an India-Africa continent repeatedly highlighted the need to University of Life and Earth Sciences. support increased trade between African countries, allowing access to AT REGIONAL LEVEL: A Soil, Water and Tissue Testing Laboratories, Regional Farm large untapped markets, and driving industrial development on Sciences Centres, Seed Production-cum-Demonstration the continent. Also, the value-added potential created through Centres, Material Testing Laboratories for Highways. the capacity building institutes mentioned above could encourBilateral meetings between India and Ethiopia in Addis age the development of intra-Africa trade. n

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‘India’s democracy a lesson for Africa’ n a subtle allusion to China’s much talked about thrust into Africa, Ethiopia’s Deputy Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn has vigorously endorsed India’s development model ahead of the second Africa-India Forum Summit and called for taking bilateral ties with New Delhi to new heights. “Africa is paying special attention to India because India has deep-rooted experience which can be transferred to Africa,” Desalegn, who is also Ethiopia’s Foreign Minister, told Africa Quarterly in an interview in his office in the Ethiopian capital. “Usually people believe that development comes from developed nations, but Africans are keen to focus on India’s development, a developing country, and are keen to follow in its footsteps for rapid growth,” he said on May 22. “It is a mutual development agenda. We respect each other. India has no conditionality. India respects the African way of development and Africans respect the Indian way of development,” said Desalegn, who is also Ethiopia’s pointsperson for the second India-Africa Forum summit. “Therefore, the relationship between the two is very important and it is high time that we deepened the relationship with India,” he stressed. Desalegn’s remarks underlining the special relationship between India and Africa set the tone for the summit held against the backdrop of Beijing’s perceived surge in Africa, a cause of anxiety among some sections in India and among Western powers. India has made a rapid economic foray into Africa in recent years, but it still lags far behind with its bilateral trade of around $45 billion, less than half of that of China’s trade with Africa, which is estimated to be close to $108 billion.

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India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh being received by Ethiopian Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on May 23.

Desalegn, however, avoided any overt comparison between Africa’s relations with India and China and speculation about competition and rivalry between the Asian powers in the African continent. “Competition is beneficial for Africa,” is all he would say. Desalegn, however, was unabashed in his admiration for India’s democratic development model. “Africa as a whole has grown by 6 per cent in the last five-six years. Both India and Africa are emerging and have their own advantages. Africa can get technologies suited to its conditions and needs from India,” he said. “India’s development trajectory is very interesting as it is based on the participation of the people and the community. It is very important for Africa to learn from India,” said Desalegn. Another area where India’s experience can be useful to Africa is in the area of managing cultural and ethnic diversity. “Africa also has many co-existent ethnic groups, but there are sometimes clashes amongst them.

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Africa can learn from India as to how to accommodate ethnic groups so that peace and order can be maintained.” Offering land to Indian investors, a contentious issue in some circles in Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Deputy Prime Minister outlined a vibrant partnership between India and Africa in the field of agriculture and food security. “Land can be developed by Indian investors where both India and Africa can benefit. Africa can learn from India the best result of new agriculture technologies like floriculture and horticulture. Africa has ample land that can be utilised to grow pulses.” Desalegn has an emotive connection with India as well and recalls fondly Indian teachers who taught him in school in Ethiopia. He is married to an Ethiopian woman who has been educated in India’s Aligarh Muslim University. “Go to any home in Ethiopia and you will find someone who is educated in India. That’s why when Indians and Ethiopians visit each other’s country or homes, there is no cultural shock.” n — Manish Chand


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India-Africa trade to touch $70 bn by 2015 rade between India and Africa would touch $70 billion by 2015, even as the country had become a leading investor in the continent with an investment of $33 billion, Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma has said. He was leading a 15-member high-level delegation of Indian CEOs in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, as part of the build-up to the second Africa-India Forum Summit, from May 24-25. “We are on our way to achieving a bilateral trade target of $70 billion by 2015,” Sharma said, while inaugurating the India Show at the Millennium Hall in Addis Ababa. The minister said that since the first India-Africa Forum Summit in 2008, trade had increased significantly. What was a meagre $3 billion at the turn of the century had crossed the $46-billion mark last year. The India Show was the second such event to be held in the

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his speech. These investments cover sectors such as oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, IT, fertilisers and infrastructure. The minister said that India would continue to make efforts to expand trade with Africa with steps such as duty-free tariff preference schemes for certain African countries to enable easier imports from them. The trade exhibition in the Ethiopian capital showcased products by more than 80 Indian comSince the first India-Africa panies, ranging from sectors such Forum Summit in 2008, as manufacturing, finance, to IT, automobiles, pharmaceuticals. The trade has increased inauguration was attended by significantly. What was Erastus Mwencha, deputy chair$3 billion at the turn person of the African Union and of the century crossed Bhagwant S. Bishnoi, the Indian Ambassador to Ethiopia. the $46-billion mark Abdurahman Sheik Mohamed, the last year. The India Show Ethiopian Minister of Trade, and in Ethiopia was the Mekonen Manyazwal, the Minister second such event of Industry, and Mwencha also addressed the session. n African continent after the one held in the South African cities of Johannesburg and Durban in August last year. The event comprised a mega trade exhibition, a business seminar and cultural programmes. “India has become a leading investor in African countries, with investments in joint ventures and wholly-owned subsidiaries touching the $33-billion mark,” Sharma said in

Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma inaugurating the Trade Show at Addis Ababa in Ethiopia.

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Showcasing India Inc: A new synergy Infrastructure, manufacturing, power, agro-machinery, floriculture, irrigation, handicrafts, and textile sectors were highlighted at the event

The trade fair at Addis Ababa.

ver 80 Indian firms showcased their products and services at a trade fair organised as part of the second India-Africa Forum Summit. The trade areas exhibited at the Millennium Hall included infrastructure, power, irrigation, floriculture, agro-machinery, manufacturing, handicrafts, and textile. Among the participants was Overseas International Alliance (OIA), which is involved in project development and management with offices in India, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Sudan, and Benin. OIA’s sectors are electricity, agro-based industry solutions, gas distribution, IT, healthcare, and advisory services. “OIA is part of the process

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from conception to installation,” said CEO Udayan Mukherjee on May 23. “In Ethiopia, OIA is involved in two projects — doubling the capacity of Fincha sugar factory, and building a new one for Tendaho sugar factory,” Mukherjee said. “This will be the biggest in the world with 26,000 tonnes of cane being crushed per day. And Ethiopia will have a surplus,” he said. OIA is also involved in an electric power transfer and distribution project with the government of Ethiopia covering areas from Hagere Mariyam to Moyale. Mukherjee said the foundation stone of a charitable eye care centre has been laid at Zewditu Hospital. OIA personnel will operate it for four years before it is transferred to Ethiopia. The

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state-of-the-art centre will have the capacity to accommodate 1,00,000 patients and perform 10,000 surgeries per year. OIA is engaged in other African countries too — rural electrification in Mozambique and a sugar factory in Sudan — and wants to expand. It is focused on Africa because of the potential, said Mukherjee. Vibha Seeds, another Indian company, is engaged in crop improvement research and production and marketing of superior quality seeds. It has the largest seed processing facility with 30 select seeds and over 200 products with over 1,00,000 acres of hybrid seed production. At the moment, Vibha is in the process of preparing a memorandum of


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A special commemorative stamp was released by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in the presence of African leaders at the Second Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa.

understanding with the government of Ethiopia to work on 20 select seeds, said Alemayehu Ali, an official of the company. Vibha Seeds is also training 1,200 farmers on select seeds production and will also be working with small farmers. Besides Ethiopia, Vibha has projects in Tanzania, Sudan, Mozambique, Nigeria and Egypt. It has a select seed processing plant in India installed at a cost of $45,000, making it the first in Asia, Ali said. Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd (JIS) makes drip irrigation systems and has the largest manufacturing plant in the world in the sector, said Satish Joshi, the export marketing manager of the company.

OIA is engaged in rural electrification in Mozambique and a sugar factory in Sudan — and wants to expand. Vibha Seeds is engaged in crop improvement, R&D and marketing of superior quality seeds. It is preparing an MoU with the government of Ethiopia

JIS has businesses worldwide with four plants in the US and two in Israel and a plant each in Australia, Spain, Brazil, Peru, Chile, and Turkey. The company plans to establish a plant in Africa but the location is undecided, said Joshi. India and Africa are determined to come together to renew their commitment towards shared goals and vision, an Indian government official said. With India’s technical and financial resources, and Africa’s raw material and investment potential, the country and the continent are the highway of fruitful cooperation, the official said. Indian firms have offered to invest $4.78 billion in various projects in Ethiopia over the next few years. n

No rivalry with China in Africa: India ndia ruled out any rivalry with China in its diplomatic and business foray into Africa and underlined that the West was trying to pit New Delhi against Beijing by conjuring up an arena of competition between the two Asian countries. “Africa has tremendous economic potential. It is a continent on the move. For us, it is an opportunity and for the rest of the world also it is an opportunity,” said a senior Indian official trav-

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elling with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to Ethiopia for the second Africa-India Forum Summit. “There is enough space for India and what it is good at — skills development, training and capacity building,” the official added. Another official said the West was trying to conjure up a scenario of rivalry. “The West is setting up Africa as a zone of contention. They want to play India against China.”

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They said there was a fundamental difference between the Indian approach and the Chinese towards engagement with Africa. “There is a large Chinese presence in the continent. They are mostly focused on infrastructure, raw materials and extractive industries. Chinese commercial presence is concentrated. Ours on the other hand is a small business presence scattered throughout Africa,” an official said. n

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Crafting a new alliance of artisans Indian and African craftswomen share experiences and discuss the centrality of handicrafts in their communities

Indian and African craftswomen who participated in the crafts meet ‘Handcrafting Hope Gender Empowerment Through Crafts’ in Addis Ababa.

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he atmosphere pulsated with the colours of life when women whose deft hands weave exquisite patterns, came together in Addis Ababa. The occasion was a crafts meet — ‘Handcrafting Hope: Gender Empowerment Through Crafts’ — held on the sidelines of the Second Africa-India Forum Summit that was in progress in Addis Ababa. The meet was inaugurated by Azeb Mesfin, wife of Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi Asres, and Anand Sharma, the Indian Industry Minister. Azeb is known for her work as a women’s rights activist in Ethiopia. The participant craftswomen were from India and 15 countries from Africa. The experiences of these women, whether from India or Africa, found a resonance in each other. The meet discussed the centrality of handicrafts in everyday life of communities across countries and regions. The general consensus among the artisans was that the handicraft business was highly gendered, with women making most of the products.

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They all agreed that though women have been playing a very large role in the production of handcrafted products, their contribution has always been ignored. The women engaged in making these handcrafted products are ordinary women who in their role as artisans make use of traditional skills — passed on from one generation to another — that are perfected through practice. And as artisans, their work is their livelihood. Although in economic planning handicraft is considered as a part-time occupation and classified under tertiary activities, various studies, however, have shown that the revenue generated from handicrafts makes up a substantial portion of the total household income in the artisanal social groups. In a study, it was observed that handicrafts constituted more than 30 per cent of total household income in Indian communities. During the meet, the participants also deliberated upon the traditional skills slowly disappearing from the social fabric. Among the reasons cited were the rapidly changing tastes in the contemporary lifestyle, absence of organised activity for handicrafts, the products not bringing in

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adequate returns, and very little appreciation for the artisan’s interact, share and learn from each other. It also allowed efforts. In such a scenario, the likelihood of an artisan them to understand the important aspects of taking to other means of earning his or her livelihood was market access, product development and micro-finance. On high. It brought out the precariousness of the craftspeople’s the question of the handicrafts sector being a livelihood option, the participants looked into the support provided by life, and thus a need to bolster a support system for them. It was also accepted that the handicraft sector was the local NGOs, governments and financial institutions to marginal and unable to get credit, market access, raw them and felt that there was a need to establish institutionmaterial, technology, information about demand for al linkages for long-term cooperation. The fact that Handicrafting Hope was being held alongside the products and fresh design inputs. It was agreed that challenge to conserve traditional skills Africa-India Summit, helped in bringing to the fore the within the changing socio-cultural environment was conditions of the craftswomen and need for measures immense and required a changed approach in production, required to be taken to help them. To meet these objectives, the National Institute of design and market accessibility. Modernising the production process of handicrafts through quality control of material, Design (Ahmedabad, Gujarat), Mahila Dastakari Haat upgrading equipment, bringing in marketable designs and Samiti (Delhi), Art Smart, Federal Micro and Small managing the process of bringing the product made in the Enterprise Development Agency of Federal Government of homes of the craftswomen to national and global levels is Ethiopia, Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises, Social an important economic aspect of ensuring sustainability of Economy and Handicrafts, Government of the Republic of livelihoods of the women engaged in these activities. Cameroon; Ministry of Gender and Development, Monrovia, Liberia, TARAA Another equally important aspect is Consultants (Delhi) were part of a the appropriate representation of Modernising production workshop. craftsmen and their work. This not ‘Handcrafting Hope’ brought only brings dignity and empower- conditions through quality together 20 Indian craftswomen ment at the socio-cultural level, but control of materials, from different regions of India, also creates awareness and demand upgrading equipment, with varying crafts skills, to meet about their produce. bringing in marketable and interact with 30 craftswomen The purpose of the meet was to empower women practising these designs and managing the from different African countries with similar skills. Of the 30 African crafts by ensuring a movement process of bringing the towards a sustainable livelihood in product made in homes to craftswomen, 10 were from the changing economic situations global level is an important Ethiopia. Textiles, including batik, and by exploring measures needed economic aspect of wax-resistant hand-block printing, to develop traditional skills to their ensuring sustainability of weaving (including ikat), indigo tiefull potential by rejuvenating and modernising them. livelihoods of the women dye, wool-weaving, carpet-weaving, embroidery and applique, basketry The meet sought to give an practitioners and straw mat weaving, beadwork, opportunity to craftswomen from silver jewellery and bone jewellery, India and the African countries to wall-painting, nature products, recycled waste materials, and woodwork were the sector specialisations for the craftswomen from the African countries and India. From Africa, craftswomen from Tanzania, Madagascar, Swaziland, Liberia, Cameroon, Rwanda, Kenya, South Africa, Uganda, Nigeria, Mozambique, Egypt, Botswana, Algeria and Ethiopia participated. The Indian craftswomen were from Odisha, Madhya Industry and Commerce Minister Anand Sharma and Azeb Mesfin, the Ethiopian Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Prime Minister’s wife, at the inauguration of ‘Handicrafting Hope’.

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Bihar, West Bengal, Manipur, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Assam and Delhi. The various exhibitions of handicraft products held during the meet proved to be the main attractions as these also allowed the craftswomen to interact with the visitors. There were also 10 crafts experts invited from across Africa and India to participate in ‘Handcrafting Hope’. They took part in the daily interactive sessions and workshops during the three-day event. The meet also discussed ways to link the local and international markets. In this context, Mahila Dastakari Samiti from Delhi proposed the idea of Dilli Haat as a model establishment and marketplace for supporting crafts enterprises for sustainable livelihoods for women through crafts. The organisers behind the Handcrafting Hope were: Veena Sikri from the Ford Foundation Endowed Chair (Bangladesh Studies Programme) at Academy of Third World Studies in Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi; Jaya Jaitly, founder-president, Dastkari Haat Samiti, New Delhi, Rekha Shankar, executive committee member, Dastkari Haat Samiti, Jyotsna Roy, CEO and director, Taraa Human Development and Facilitation Consultants, and Dr Neeti Sethi-Bose, founder and director, Artsmart. Scholars from the National Institute of Design in Ahmadabad joined the interactive sessions and workshops. Among those who participated in the meet were P. Vyas, NID director, Swasti Singh Ghai, a teacher in textile design and coordinator for Design Foundation Studies, and C.S. Sushant, a furniture and interior design teacher, coordinator of Design for Retail Experience and head of Centre for Bamboo Initiative. At the exhibition, the display of handicrafts was attractive and colourful. An international bazaar was set up where women worked on their craft, displayed prod-

Partners l African Union l Federal Micro and Small Enterprise Development

Agency of the Federal Government of Ethiopia l Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises, Social

Economy and Handicrafts, Government of the Republic of Cameroon l Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, and Confederation of Indian Industry

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Indian craftswomen at work.

handicraft business Priorities l l l l l l l

Upgrading equipment and skills Upgrading product and design Diversifying sources for raw materials Accessing finance and market Exchange and learning trips to India Including handicrafts in economic development plans Making policies and giving resources to promote handicrafts l Making such meets a regular feature in high-profile events for visibility l The partners are now preparing projects for a follow up on the momentum created by ‘Handcrafting Hope’.

ucts and demonstrated skills to those eager to learn. Language was no barrier and communication flowed freely between craftswomen and the visitors. An Ethiopian coffee ceremony in one corner of the bazaar beckoned the visitors to spend a few moments savouring the colours of the displayed products while they sipped coffee and had bokolo (popcorn) and kolo (barley and peanut munchies). The exhibition was open to the general public from 11 am to 6 pm on each of the three days— May 20, 21 and 22. Interactive workshops were conducted everyday between 11 am and 1 pm. There were 20 craftswomen along with five coordinators and resource persons from India, while Africa was represented by 30 craftswomen and five resource persons. The event was supported by Joint Secretary, Public Diplomacy Division of Ministry of External Affairs and received guidance from Secretary, Africa (West) and Additional Secretary (Africa). n — Jyotsna Roy

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Bollywood unbound ollywood fever swept through Africa’s political capital Addis Ababa during the week-long festival of 14 films, including blockbusters like Sholay and 3 Idiots. The films were screened at The National Theatre in downtown Addis Ababa. The Indian Film Festival, being advertised through the catchline ‘Come, fall in love with the magic of Bollywood’, kicked off with a screening of 3 Idiots on May 20. The film had powerful resonance with Ethiopians as the film is about the failure of a regimented education system. “I just loved it. We could identify with the story as everybody has a stake in the education system. The music was great too,” said Mathew Tadesse, a high school teacher. Most Ethiopians remember being taught by Indian teachers and their love for Indian music and dance goes back to their childhood days. Language is no bar as the movies are being shown with subtitles. There was a mini stampede when Sholay, the all-time Bollywood hit

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action thriller made in 1975, was screened at the 1,200-capacity hall. “I loved the dialogues and dishumdishum (fighting),” said Ellene Medhin, a 20-something student who has been sold on the charms of Bollywood since her teens. “There was a virtual stampede at the screening of Sholay,” said Navdeep Suri, Joint Secretary in-charge of public diplomacy division in India’s External Affairs Ministry, who con-

ceived the festival. Two shows were held every day. Romantic song-and-dance extravaganzas are as popular with Africans as action thrillers. The selection of films was an eclectic one, including acclaimed films like Taare Zameen Par and Iqbal, blockbusters such as Gadar and Koi Mil Gaya, as well as those that did not do too well back home in India — Yaadein and Paheli, for instance. The films struck an emotive chord with the audience that included teenagers as well as the nostalgic elderly who had seen classics like Mera Naam Joker. In fact, Bollywood is an old weakness Ethiopians readily confess to, an affair that cuts across national boundaries in Africa. From Marrakesh to Maputo and from Dakar to Durban, Indian films and music are a rage. Legends like Amitabh Bachchan and Dilip Kumar to contemporary icons like Shah Rukh Khan and Aishwarya Rai are equally popular not only in Ethiopia but across Africa. n — Manish Chand

Call for stronger media ties with Africa ndia has made a strong pitch for greater media exchanges to bridge the knowledge gap and underlined that the two sides should strengthen its partnership to combat the common challenge of poverty. “There has been a long tradition of direct interaction between the leaderships of India and Africa. However, there has been a paucity of such contact in many other areas including academics and the world of the media,” said Vivek Katju, then Secretary (West) in India’s External Affairs Ministry, while inaugurating the India-Africa Media Symposium. “This has led to a certain element of our knowledge of each other coming to us through third quarters. This must

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change,” said Katju said on May 21. “I feel that this symposium will help to establish direct contacts between our media leading to partnerships which will significantly contribute to the addition in our knowledge of each other in all dimensions,” he said. Underlining the unique nature of India-Africa partnership, Katju said India and Africa, which jointly defeated colonialism, were now “engaged in an equally important struggle, the struggle to eliminate poverty and uplift our people”. “The real challenge before our societies, economies and polities is to make our peoples fully equipped to deal with the demands of the modern postindustrial world so that they are able to

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live lives of dignity, respect and prosperity in the knowledge age,” he said, adding that the media could play a critical role in this process. “We have an ambitious partnership. Our goals and objectives are high. We are searching for new pathways even while consolidating areas where we have made progress,” he said, while alluding to the May 24-25 summit leading to a blueprint for deepening and diversifying the India-Africa partnership. The media symposium generated a set of recommendations for bolstering media linkages between India and Africa which were presented to the leaders of India and Africa at the end of the summit on May 25. n

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A tank of ideas for bolstering ties In the run-up to the summit, academics and experts held a two-day conclave to map out the contours of the India-Africa partnership

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head of the Second India-Africa Forum Summit, a two-day academic conference was held in Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa by Indian Council for World Affairs (ICWA) in collaboration with Ethiopian International Institute for Peace and Development (EIIPD), and African Union Commission Secretariat from May 11-12. The theme of the first India-Africa Academic Conference was ‘Africa and India: A Partnership for Development and Growth’.

the conference had the following objectives: l To bring together Indian and African academics,

drawn from areas such as strategic affairs, banking, gender issues, finance, policy, education, foreign relations and history, presented papers on issues pertaining to the five thematic areas of the conference. Besides the experts, a large number of academics, policy makers, practitioners, media and civil society contributed to the debate and discussions in the conference. The five thematic areas of focus were (a) India-Africa Partnership for Economic Development and Growth, (b) Capacity Building for Human Resource Development, (c) Women as Agents of Change (d) Diaspora as Resource for India and Africa, and (e) Non-Traditional Security Issues. There were five working sessions preceded by the inaugural session.

researchers, policy makers, industrialists, senior officials from public and corporate sectors, and consultants and recommendations and suggestions share their views and perspectives on issues relating to l African nations may create prospects for investments by Indian public and private sector companies and offer opporIndia-Africa partnerships for development and growth in tunities for participation in the development for Africa. various sectors l To promote collaboration of academic institutions from l There is a need to diversify and expand trade with a large India and Africa to undertake number of African nations. joint projects and research on African nations may create Currently, India-Africa trade is conareas of mutual interest. in only 4-5 countries. prospects for investments centrated The conference was inaugurated l India and African states will find by Indian public and by Demeke Mekonnen, the Minister it useful to negotiate sub-regional and for Education, Government of private sector companies bilateral trade agreements simultaneEthiopia, who was the guest of hon- and offer opportunities for ously. our. Ambassador Berhane Gebre India-Africa Business and participation in the devel- lEntrepreneur Kristos, the State Minster, Ministry Fund should be opment for Africa. Also, of Foreign Affairs, Ethiopia, delivutilised to augment industrial develered the inaugural address. Sebhat there is a need to diversify opment in Africa. Negga Medhanve, Executive and expand trade with a l EXIM Bank of India may Director of EIIPD and Ambassador enhance credits to business to facililarge number of African Sudhir T. Devare, Director General, tate expansion of bilateral trade. Lines nations. Currently, India- of Credit (LoCs) by the EXIM Bank ICWA, New Delhi, gave their welAfrica trade is concentrat- have so far played an important role come and introductory remarks. The keynote address of Jean Ping, in this direction. ed in only 4-5 countries Chaiperson of African Union l India may regard it a priority area Commission, was read out. During to assist African nations to develop the conference, Memoranda of Cooperation were signed their telecommunications infrastructure. between ICWA and three leading institutions from Egypt, l India Africa Technology Fund could support technology Mozambique and Nigeria. to African nations. About 25 experts from India and African countries, l India may host Annual Trade Fairs focused on Africa and

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similar arrangements could be education network to include Africa. made to hold India Business fairs Establishment of an Africa l Equitable development is a chalin African countries. lenge for India and Africa. In fact, the and India Studies success of the development strategies India Brand Equity Fund (IBEF) Centre for enhancing and social stability would largely should be harnessed to promote mutual knowledge and depend on the ability to create incluand create international awareunderstanding will go a sive growth. Both partners must ness of the Made in India Label in therefore undertake research on the African markets. long way in promoting issue and develop a policy frameIndia should share its experience relations. These could be work. Issues of democracy and govof the successes in its Green undertaken by Indian and ernance are prerequisites for any such Revolutions for enhancing food African universities and cooperation for mutual partnership. security in Africa. India and African countries must also by the ICSSR and the l India and African countries must cooperate in renewable energy IGNOU. PhD programmes encourage institutionalised arrangeresources, particularly in the ments for exchange of perspectives focused on Africa and hydropower sector and solar and on gender issues among experts. India may be undertaken l India should share with African wind power. nations its approaches to empowerEstablishment of an Africa and ment of women, greater political parIndia Studies Centre for enhancticipation, enhanced role in governance and decision ing mutual knowledge and understanding will go a long making. way in promoting relations. These could be undertaken by Indian and African universities and also by the Indian l Exchange views on India’s policies on ‘right to education’, Council for Social Science Research (ICSSR) and the particularly for the girl child. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). PhD l Both India and African nations must develop tailored programmes focused on Africa and India may be underhealth programmes for women keeping in mind cultural taken. sensitivities. Academic ‘twinning arrangements’ between Indian and l India should share with African nations its approaches to African universities to boost academic mobility could be empowerment of women, greater political participation initiated. and enhanced role in governance and decision making. Sharing with African nations the best practices of the Indian l Establishment of India-Africa Fund for Women education system, particularly in primary and secondary Entrepreneurs for empowerment of women. education, would be useful. Indian schools may also be l Diaspora is a strategic resource and should be leveraged for opened in Africa. building bilateral relations. Steps may be taken to strengthen the mechanism for a l National policies should meet the expectation of the joint working group on education between countries and respective diaspora, particularly in the context of citizenIndia. An Indo-African University in Africa would be a ship, voting rights, protection identity and respect for good platform for capacity building and would also be usereligion and cultural beliefs. ful for leadership development that could act catalyst for l India should share its policies on its engagement with its change in mindsets. diaspora with African nations. Centres of higher learning such as an Indian Institute of l India and Africa should adopt multilateral approaches to Technology (IIT) in Africa to undertake high technology respond to non-traditional security threats and challenges studies could be considered. given that these are transnational in nature and therefore Providing assistance to Africa in developing its trained pool necessitate greater cooperation of human resource for harnessing information technolo- l Both partners must build robust capacities and develop gy for growth and development could serve as the key to strategies for mitigating NTS threats and challenges, parthe Information Communication Technologies-based ticularly those arising from climate change, food security knowledge economy. and maritime security. Assistance to African nations to establish vocational centres l Identity resources and conduct exercises to respond to for generating a pool of skilled human resource should humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) prove highly useful. operations. Studies should also focus in poverty alleviation, delivering l Enhance maritime security in the Indian Ocean by good health services to masses and modern sanitation syssharing experiences on counter piracy and illegal fishing tems. Information Communication Technologies should operations. be harnessed to provide telemedicine services. l Undertake research on the sociological origin of conflict in Africa. It may be a good idea to expand the existing IGNOU telen

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‘India-Egypt relations set for an UPSURGE’ A new democratic Egypt has opened up new frontiers of bilateral cooperation with India, says Egypt’s ambassador to India Khaled El Bakly gypt is poised for a new phase in its national evolution after the ouster of Hosni Mubarak from power in February 2011 under pressure from mass protests led by SMS-savvy youth. The North African country is now navigating the transition period with much hope and confidence in its destiny. The Egyptian economy has bounced back, with tourism showing a healthy upward trend as the Egyptians vote in the first post-Mubarak elections November 18. In this interview with Manish Chand, Egypt’s Ambassador to India Khaled El Bakly speaks about the prospects of new areas of cooperation between India and Egypt that will move relations beyond governments to include robust trade and enhanced exchanges in fields of electoral training, media, youth and sports. He also shares his impressions about the Arab Spring and the new wave of democratisation sweeping the region.

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(Excerpts) Q: The past few months have seen dramatic changes in the Middle East and the North Africa region. How do you look at India’s relations with Egypt, post-Arab Spring? Has there been a change in the relationship? A: India and Egypt have relations that go back thousands of years. We have people-to-people relations in a way that business is going on even without government intervention. But now the relations have gone beyond institutions. It has become a broad-based people-topeople relationship. There is a framework that has been set by the govern-

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Egypt’s Ambassador to India Khaled El Bakly

ments. But this is one of the elements of the relationship, not the whole thing. We will, therefore, not see a major change in the relationship. The change that would come will be more positive. The two countries have been talking to each other, but maybe

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not in a very forceful manner. Now with the new and young leadership, people in Egypt will open to the whole world. This was clear when the Foreign Minister of Egypt came on his first overseas bilateral visit to India. This shows that Egypt is keen to expand its


A F R I C A relations with India in all spheres. There will be better cooperation and more opportunities with the younger leadership in Egypt. Q: With a new dispensation in Cairo, what are the new areas of cooperation you see developing between India and Egypt? For example, when the Egyptian Foreign Minister came here, he spoke about some assistance from India’s Election Commission in democratic institution building… A: It was only a discussion of operations in the elections. We have our own institutions, which are very good but they have not been working very effectively. India offered its assistance in conducting elections and I discussed this with India’s Chief Election Commissioner. India also offered electronic voting machines and indelible electoral ink. Egypt is considering different offers from different countries in this regard. We have established the national election commission in Egypt and it is independent. It will decide what are the things that we want from other countries. Q: How is the Egyptian economy doing? A: Earlier, the economy was closed with lots of monopolies. It’s now opening up in a different way. Our priority should be to create an environment that would make us more attractive for businesses and foreign investors. The trends are positive. We have got $20 billion FDI over the last six months. Q: Now the economy is opening up, what new sectors open up for trade and investment with India? A: We would be very keen to see Indian companies working in Egypt’s infrastructure sector. There is also a huge potential in areas of agriculture and agro-processing, oil and gas and medical cooperation and lots of other areas. We are a hub of energy. Q: Now that you have a new regime, how much difference does it make in terms of how we communicate with each other? A: It could mean more cooperation in the field of media and among the

youth. In the past the media was controlled by the government. We have had private media outlets, but the robust ones were controlled by the government. So this is one area where we could see greater cooperation. We have a predominantly young population. Sixty-five per cent out of 84 million people in Egypt are below 25 and I believe that India has something similar. These are the new generations that will be cooperating and working together. There could be more youth and student exchanges between India and Egypt. Q: How is the tourism sector doing in Egypt? A: Another area that we are looking from India is tourism. Following the protests in January this year, the tourist

We would be very keen to see Indian companies working in Egypt’s infrastructure sector flow initially went down. But now it’s picking up. We expect to see a boom in the winter season. Sharm el Sheikh has started receiving 15,000 visitors everyday. With so much talk about the Arab Spring in media, people now want to see more of Egypt. Lots of visitor, dignitaries now want to go to Tahrir Square, which has become a tourist destination. Q: When are the two countries going to have their joint commission between the foreign ministers? A: It will take place after the November 18 elections. We are going to take up many issues in the next joint commission. Q: How do you look at a new wave of democratisation sweeping the region? A: People in Egypt are keen to see human rights respected in the region. So what is happening in Libya, what has happened in Syria and other countries, has been by and large welcomed by the Egyptians. People in Egypt are demand-

May-July 2011

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ing respect for the human rights and are in favour of dialogue to resolve the issues. The Egyptian people have already welcomed the change. Q: What are the key issues in the forthcoming Egyptian elections? Some say that the power structure still continues to be military-dominated? A: The November 18 elections will be a crucial landmark in the evolution of Egypt. It will be the first phase of handing over part of the authority, currently being held by the Military Council, to a civilian elected government. A road map has been firmed up for electing a constitutional society to draft a new constitution for the country. We have a technocrat civilian government that is running the day-today lives of the Egyptians. On the political front, we have opposition parties and we expect to see growth in political movements. There is a new generation of political activists and reformers in Egypt. After the elections, a new constitution will be drafted and put to referendum, which will decide whether we are going to continue with the presidential system, or opt for the parliamentary system or choose a mix between the two systems. Immediately after the parliamentary elections and the formation of the new government, the military leadership will hand over the authorities to the newly elected government. The government will be immediately formed after the elections. The parliament will then elect 100 dignitaries from different walks of life in Egypt for drafting the constitution. A national dialogue is already on. So, there is a rethink on the political system Egypt should have. Q: The next few months will decide what kind of Egypt will finally come into being… A: The new Egypt will have a democratic civilian government. A broad democratic system is already there, but the details will come later. Whatever regime or government is in Egypt, the relations with India are poised for a major upsurge.

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Banking on YOUTH power Africa’s founding fathers fought for independence and national sovereignty. To take the task of integration and sustainable development forward, youth has a critical role to play in the continent’s future, says Dr. Jean Ping, Chairperson of the African Union Commission

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s is the custom every year, today, the 25th of May 2011, we are celebrating Africa Day. This anniversary commemorates the birth of the Organisation of African Unity on May 25, 1963. Indeed, by this solemn act, our founding fathers, keen to safeguard and consolidate the independence of our countries, hitherto under the yoke of colonisation, and in a bid to strengthen solidarity across Africa and see through the task of the total liberation of Africa, did not only lay the foundation of our unity through a common African identity, but also triggered the dynamics of actions and efforts towards integration and sustainable development that our continent is today pursuing. Today, about 62 per cent of the overall population of Africa is below 35 years old and more than 20 per cent is in African Union Commission Chairperson Jean Ping with Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh. the 15 to 24-year age bracket. This means In an era of unbridled globalisation, characterised amongst that out of every four persons that we come across on the other things, by new ways of life like the celebrity culture, the streets of Cairo, Nairobi, Brazzaville, Lagos, Malabo or Johannesburg, three are less than twenty. By 2020, more than loss of the value of hard work in favour of the get rich quick 70 per cent of Africa’s youth will be at least 20 years old. With attitude and idleness — many youths not only in Africa, but an average of 5.2 children per woman, Africa registers the also in developing countries mirror their future in what they highest number of births in the world, the annual birth rate often consider as the Eldorado, often Europe and the United being 2.2 per cent. It is, therefore, not surprising that about States. They would stop at nothing to undertake the journey 10 million African youth knock at the doors of the labour to this illusory promised land, even at the peril of their lives; market every year. Many of these young men and women are having the feeling that the only prospects at home are ill-prepared for the job market, owing to the persisting gaps disappointments, discouragement, even a feeling of injustice in our educational systems. The result is that 71 per cent of coupled with revolt: African youth live on less than US$2 a day. l Disappointment for those who on completing their The Arab Spring marked by the groundswell that swept education struggle to find a job matching their qualifications across Tunisia and Egypt, right here on our continent, has l Discouragement for those without certificates, doomed to confirmed the need to address the legitimate concerns and precarious jobs worries of the youth who form the largest component of our l Lastly, the feeling of injustice and revolt for those who are society. They are becoming increasingly poor, discontented deprived of any hope and feel forgotten, ignored, or rejectand more and more radical. ed by society

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Q U A R T E R L Y

Africa is resolved to fight and win the battle to enhance its By deciding to focus on the theme “Accelerating Youth Empowerment for a Sustainable Development” and recalling youth’s competitiveness in the international arena. This will that the 8th Labour and Social Affairs Commission which lead to the establishment of a Pan-African University with was held in Yaoundé in April 2011, dwelt on the theme five regional institutes and affiliated national centres that will “Promoting Youth Employment for Social Cohesion and meet world standards in quality training in research, science Inclusive Growth”, the African Union attests the importance and technology as well as in engineering and mathematics. it attaches to the primordial role and contribution of the youth Three of these institutes shall open in the last quarter of 2011. These are: to the development process. It also confirms the will of African leaders to continue their l The Institute of Earth and Life Sciences in Ibadan, Nigeria efforts for the creation of an enabling environment to better l The Institute of Governance, Social Sciences and address the needs of the youth. For some years now, this has Humanities in Yaoundé, Cameroon been articulated by numerous activities undertaken across the l The Institute of Basic Sciences, Technology and continent at the centre of the development agenda for the Innovation in Nairobi, Kenya youth, who are indispensable stakeholders in the efforts of The Pan-African University is designed to attract and keep supporting Africa’s development. on the continent talented and motivated young people by proThe adoption in 2006 of the African Youth Charter and its viding an enabling environment wherein their research and coming into force in 2009 mark the starting point of a new and studies can blossom. It will also help to rekindle the sense of strong push. As this charter seeks to promote the participation belonging to Africa, considering the fundamental and proven of the youth and their organisations in a wide-ranging role of training institutions, schools, and universities in the inter-generational dialogue on the development of policies building of a common African identity. With regard to the sciand initiatives to ensure that the views and ences, the foundation stone for the African aspirations of young people are given due Observatory of Science, Technology and Young ladies and consideration. Innovation was laid in Malabo on July 8, gentlemen, African during the African Union Heads of State As part of this drive, the celebration of Union believes the and Government Summit. the African Youth Day in 2008, the institutionalisation of November 1 as future hinges on your Equatorial Guinea has offered to host African Youth Day and the Declaration of energy and courage this institution and to provide the start-up 2009-2018 as the Decade for Youth funds. This observatory shall help in Development, have given a new impetus developing the scientific potential of our to the Pan-African Youth Union whose headquarters is in young researchers. The decision to set up this institution was Khartoum, Sudan. taken at the January 2007 Summit of Heads of State and Heeding the call of Heads of States and Government, the Government in Addis Ababa. We all know that the youth, with African Union Commission has embarked on actions, their energy, innovative capacity, as well as their aspirations, programmes and projects aimed at enhancing the capacities of are an asset that no State or society can afford to ignore. young people and improving their participation in social, They are an engine and a critical resource for sustainable political and economic activities on the continent. I will development, both at the national as well as continental illustrate this with a few examples, namely: levels. With their inherent values, the young are also a catalyst for change and transformation of the society. l The creation of the African Union Youth Volunteers Young ladies and gentlemen of Africa, the African Union Corps. In this respect, I am happy to recall that a Second Training Session for 100 young volunteers was held on strongly believes that the future of Africa hinges on your June 13 in the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, in Malabo; dynamism, enthusiasm, energy and courage. You are indeed, the leaders and decision-makers of tomorrow. The foundal The promotion of technical and vocational training which demonstrates the importance of the latter in our countries tion of Africa rests on your ideas and actions. You are the and regions; future, the driving force that will contribute to the emergence of a continent, where life is pleasant, an Africa that l The establishment of a database for African youth organisations. can meet its needs, and that is free from fear. Like our The United Nations had declared August 2010-August founding fathers, who in their prime, fought for ideals such 2011 as the International Year of the Youth. I would like to take as independence and national sovereignty, I entreat you to this opportunity to reiterate that a united Africa will be strong take up the challenge today to rekindle this passion for our and respected. It was thus that a common position for the motherland and demonstrate your confidence for Africa and development of the African youth, presented by all the African its future! Africa is counting on you. youth ministers at the World Youth Conference in Mexico, I wish you a happy Africa Day. Long live Africa and long in July 2010, was adopted by the United Nations General live the youth of Africa! n Assembly in September 2010 and became part of the 2010 (This is the edited text of a speech delivered by Dr. Jean Ping on Agenda for the world’s youth. Africa Day in Addis Ababa on May 25).

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Breaking NEW ground A resurgent Africa demands a new cooperation paradigm and India must change the way it engages the continent across the board — politically, economically and socially, says H.H.S. Viswanathan for everyone to see. Resurgent Africa has become a recurring theme in both political and economic spheres.

Political resurgence

The African Renaissance Monument on top of Collines des Mamelles, outside of Dakar, Senegal. Photo: Laurence Thielemans

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he change in the political and economic landscape of Africa is compelling the rest of the world to change its mindset. For 50 years, Africa has been portrayed as a continent of poverty, diseases, wars and conflicts. All narratives of Africa were by outsiders which re-emphasised the African proverb: “Until the day the lions have their own storyteller, the story of the hunt will glorify the hunter.” Fortunately, all that is history. Africa has changed. The end of the Cold war and globalisation have added a new impetus. The credit goes to African countries which took bold decisions in political, economic and social sectors. The results are there

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A simple comparison between today’s Africa and what existed 20 years ago brings this out clearly. The number of political conflicts, coup d’état and civil wars has come down. A McKinsey report says the number of conflicts in which more than 1,000 people died annually declined to an average of 2.6 a year in the 2000s from 4.8 in the 1990s. As per an Economic Intelligence report, the number of successful coups in Africa were 20 in the 1960s, 70s and 80s, but these came down to 16 in the 90s and to 7 in the 2000s. Over 80 per cent of African nations have embraced multiparty democracy. The election processes may not be perfect and the degree of freedom and fairness may not be on the scales that the Western governments expect. But one has to look at where the African countries have started their journeys. The fact that people are in a position to hold leaders responsible is a positive sign. The above, by no means, implies that Africa has overcome all political turmoil. The crisis in Côte d’Ivoire, which till a decade ago was considered an example of peace , is a reminder that things can deteriorate if the democratic processes are not nurtured. On the other side, we have the example of Niger, a country notorious for coups and counter-coups, which has had a peaceful election and is on its way to an orderly transfer of power. So is the case of Guinea (Conakry). The past two years have seen a spate of democratic processes, the other examples being elections in Rwanda and referendums in Kenya and South Sudan. African leaders are today embarrassed if their fellow leaders indulge in anti-democratic actions. This was evident in the crisis in Côte d’Ivoire and Libya. Also, when there was a coup d’état in Togo in 2006, that country was banned from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Union. This is a shift from the position of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries. Keeping in tune with the international attitudes, African countries have moved from their principle of non-interference to non-indifference. Recent events in North Africa reiterate the new-found confidence of the people in demanding greater democratic rights. These have come as a wake-up call to authoritarian leaders that unless there is greater democratisation, their days are numbered. While on the subject of peer pressure among African leaders, one has to give credit to the unique

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Q U A R T E R L Y

favourable revisions by professional agencies. This has helped them in accessing loans on softer terms. A good part of the credit should go to the countries for some sound macroeconomic policies. It appears that many African countries have crossed the threshold of the take-off stage. What is needed now is the consolidation of these policies. While there is no doubt that globalisation has helped in a big way, care is essential in not blindly following a “one-size-fits-all” model, which has resulted in economic disparities and social tensions in many societies. A sustained and balanced economic The India-Tanzania Centre of Excellence in Information and Communication Technology offers a variety of courses. growth of the continent is a challenge because of the distortions in the economies created by decades of neo-colonialism and mechanism that they have devised called the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) by which a group of experi- exploitation. Market forces by themselves will not be able to enced and retired leaders monitor the quality of governance correct these distortions. Well thought-out policy prescripand transparency in the countries in an objective manner. tions that take into account the peculiarities of the specific Twenty-four African nations have voluntarily offered to be economies are essential. Even more essential is the participation of the people in the development process. Despite the under APRM and many others are on the way to doing so. Africa is going through a new experiment and sustained progress in the democratisation process, economic de action and vigilance are needed to consolidate the gains. centralisation in many countries is weak. Without this element, Democratic organisations and institutions need strengthening. there cannot be any grassroots participation. The result will be Civil society movements need expansion. People’s governance by a group of elites from national capitals. Agriculture is of great importance. With 60 per cent of the involvement in the democratic process with a sense of commitment is crucial. In all these areas, the international com- world’s arable land, Africa could become the global food munity can have productive engagement, not in a patronising basket. But barring a few countries such as South Africa, way but with the realisation that a stable, peaceful and agriculture is not a viable activity. Most of it is on a subsistence scale. The causes are high input costs; little technology growing Africa is vital for global stability and growth. support; no sustainable value-addition chain from farmer to consumer; lack of transport network and no effective microEconomic resurgence The economic resurgence of Africa in the past decade has financing. In many economies, imported food items drive out been even more dramatic than the political one. An IMF report local products because of price advantage. All these issues have said that Sub-Saharan Africa grew at an average of more than to be addressed to give African agriculture the pride of place 5 per cent per year during the period. Some countries like it once enjoyed. Manufacturing is another area that can Angola, Chad and Sudan have had even more spectacular generate employment quickly. Unfortunately, the conditions growths. After the global financial crisis of 2008, Africa has seem to be unfavourable in many countries. Resource-rich been the only other continent, apart from Asia, which countries have the “Dutch disease” by which, thanks to their registered positive growth rates. Total consumer spending in increased exports, their currencies get stronger making their 2008 was $860 billion, more than that of India, a clear sign of manufacturing sector uncompetitive. Added to this is poor how Africa is developing as a market. Since 2000, 316 million infrastructure, particularly in power and transport sectors. Sub-regional and regional integrations of the African people have acquired cellphone connections — which is more countries are of importance to the development of the contithan the population of USA. While the rise in commodity prices has helped, that is not nent. The geography of the continent dictates the criticality of the only favourable factor. A McKinsey report says that com- this aspect. While there are large countries such as Nigeria, modity prices directly accounted for only about a quarter of South Africa, Egypt and Kenya, the continent has 20 countries the increase in the growth in the 2000s. There has been growth with a population of less than 5 million. Another 20-plus in 27 of the 30 largest economies, both resource rich and countries have a GDP of less than $5 billion. There are 60 river resource poor. Those with resources grew at 5.4 per cent while basins shared by many countries. Large infrastructure projects those without them grew at 4.6 per cent. Sovereign in the power, water and transport sectors are not feasible currency ratings of many African countries have also seen without a regional approach. Similarly, enterprises have to

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look for regional markets to make businesses viable. Fortunately, the African continent has achieved a fair amount of success in sub-regional and regional integration. Organisations such as Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Common Market of East and Southern Africa (COMESA) and Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) have achieved considerable progress in moving towards customs unions and common markets. There is already free movement of goods and people in many of these regions. NEPAD (New Partnership for Africa’s Development) established in 2001 is a positive step.

International engagement

journalists, Tanzanian Prime Minister Minzengo Pinda had recently said: “Africa is a large and wealthy continent. We need both India and China because although you are two powerful nations, you are also developing countries and understand us better. We need India and China to capacitate us.”

Mutually beneficial relations This has to be the only viable principle for any sustained engagement with Africa. This engagement has to go beyond economic and mercantilist interests. What most African countries are looking for are economic growth, job creation and enhancement of traditional livelihoods without accentuating the economic disparities. The need for inclusive growth is of utmost importance to the African continent to ensure peace and stability. Since a considerable part of the economic activity will be private sector-led, the importance of corporate social responsibility attains significance. Entrepreneurs and companies should realise that their success depends on the all-round prosperity of the societies that they work in.

The nature of international engagement with Africa has changed over the 60 years. In the first four decades after the independence of the African nations, the engagement was one of neo-colonialism and exploitation on the one hand and a patronising policy of aid and assistance, on the other. With the end of the Cold War, globalisation and the economic resurgence India’s engagement with Africa of Africa, the relations have changed, India has had relations with Africa with mutual benefit being the main dating back to pre-colonial times. driver. In another 20 years, a time will There was a booming trade between The most important come when it will be imperative for all India and the East Coast. element in the India-Africa economies to engage with Africa Colonialism disrupted these relaengagement is mutual because of two main factors: the tions. Later, the British took a large demographic dividend and the size of number of Indians to East Africa to awareness. Practically the market. It is estimated that by non-existent now, media build the railways and work in the 2040, more than 60 per cent of plantations in Mauritius which led on both sides have a very to a substantial Indian population in Africa’s population (roughly 1.1 bilvital role to play here. lion) will be of these places paving the way for more working age while the rest of the people-to-people contacts. After Think tanks and civil world, including China and India, independence of India and African society movements in will have decreasing numbers of relations were renewed India and African countries nations, youth. This could lead to Africa under frameworks of need to demonstrate becoming a manufacturing hub of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) a much greater and world. As regards the market, and G-77. India has never had any increased consumer spending is a political problem or conflict of interdeeper interaction good indicator of the future scenario. ests with any African country. The relations were built on principles of A new scramble for Africa? equality and cooperation. Indian engagement concentrated There is a proliferation of discourse on who dominates on capacity building and human resource development rather Africa. Expressions like “a new scramble for Africa”, “Africa — than on pure trade. There was also involvement in some a new hunting ground”, etc. are used freely. This line of inquiry infrastructure projects such as railways. betrays a colonial mindset implying that at any given point of India’s economic growth in the 1990s led to a decline in time some outside power has to call the shots the level of engagement with Africa. Indian enterprises were in Africa. The reality is that those days are long gone. The busy exploiting the growing Indian market and did not have question of US vs Europe or China vs India, etc. appears the incentive to expand into new areas. This, however, has irrelevant. This contradiction seems to exist only in the minds changed over the past . In their attempts to go global, Indian of outsiders. African leaders and opinion-makers do not suf- companies have placed Africa high on their priority list, fer from this syndrome. For them, cooperation with anyone, thanks to the impressive economic growth in many African provided it is on equal terms and is beneficial to them, is countries. Trade and investment have continued to grow. welcome. They also realise that there is enough potential for Bilateral trade with Africa, which was $7.3 billion in 2000 cooperation for everybody to participate. In a talk with Indian has grown to almost $50 billion by 2010. The aim of both

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A F R I C A sides is to increase it to $100 billion by 2015. Bharti Airtel created a sort of telecom revolution in Africa by bringing down the call rates drastically after it bought over Zain Telecom. Companies such as Tata and Mahindra have had a long presence in Africa. Other Indian corporations, which are active players in Africa, include Ashok Leyland, Videocon, Dabur, Godrej, UB, Cipla, Ranbaxy, NIIT, Kirloskar and Essar. Public sector companies such as ONGCVidesh (OVL) and IOC are also increasing their presence in the fields of oil and gas. Mining is another sector. Agriculture is the new activity that has attracted many. Companies such as Karturi Global have invested in Ethiopia and Kenya to promote horticulture and grain farming. The Kirloskar project in Senegal, initiated under a Line of Credit from the government of India, is going to make that country self-sufficient in rice production and is cited as a shining example of South-South cooperation. Realising the fact that traditionally India’s cooperation has been with the Anglophone countries because of the convenience of language and Commonwealth connections, a major initiative was taken by the Government of India in the late 90s to focus on the Francophone countries of West and Central Africa. The initiative was the Team-9 (India with eight small west and central African states) that identified specific projects in agriculture, small and medium industries, etc. with emphasis on job creation. The engagement with Francophone Africa has changed substantially because of Team-9. India has taken care to formulate its cooperation with Africa at all the three levels: bilateral, regional and continental. India is an observer in many of the regional organisations and is also an important non-regional member of the African Development Bank (ADB). The Pan-African e-Network is a unique project on a continental scale. A brainchild of former Indian president Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, the project won the ‘Hermes Prize for Innovation 2010’. The network links the hospitals and universities in the African countries with their counterparts in India enabling effective e-medicine and e-education. The second phase of the project covering all countries was inaugurated in August 2010. The most important aspect of India’s engagement has been the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) Programme. Under this, thousands of Africans have benefited from the training courses in building successful careers. ITEC also provided for many projects in agriculture and small industries with Lines of Credit by India.

India-Africa Forum Summit This is an effective mechanism instituted by both sides for a renewed engagement. Government of India realised that for a sustained interaction, the African countries have to be involved in a structured fashion right from the concept to the execution of the cooperation agenda. That is why unlike the summits of other countries with Africa where the host nation takes practically all the initiatives, the India-Africa Forum summit ensure the involvement of African countries in a

Q U A R T E R L Y

The Ranbaxy plant in South Africa.

well-defined format. This is a fallout of the decisions taken by the African nations at the Seventh Ordinary Session of the AU Assembly in Banjul (Gambia) in July 2006. The decisions, which came to be known as the Banjul Consensus, covered a whole range of issues including cooperation with the outside world. The consensus clearly spoke of establishment of a mechanism for participation in the summits between Africa and outside countries. It was on this basis that India has worked out the mechanism with AU, by which leaders are invited according to certain criteria laid down by AU like the founding members of NEPAD, Heads of the Seven Regional groupings, AU Troika etc. The mechanism ensures that the decisions taken are accepted by all the African countries, even if some may not have participated in a particular summit.

The Way Forward While summits ensure attention and focus, India-Africa dialogue should be a continuous activity. There is a tendency to slacken the momentum in between summits. The implementation of the decisions has to be improved so that visible progress can be seen. A permanent monitoring system has to be put in place. The most important element in the engagement is the awareness about each other, particularly at the common man’s level. The development of relations is not possible without knowledge about each other. Here, the media on both sides have a vital role. Positive coverage of developments in each other’s areas is lacking. The think tanks and civil society movements in India and African countries need a much greater interaction. Apart from the governments on both sides, the corporate sector, which has substantial business interests, could encourage and support such activities. n (A former High Commissoner of India to Nigeria, H.H.S Viswanathan is a distinguished fellow

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Unbroken CONTINUITY With the birth of South Sudan, India has a vast array of opportunities in Africa’s newest nation even as its investments in undivided Sudan remain safe and secure, says Renu Modi

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A transmission line project in Sudan being set up by Angelique International.

he Republic of South Sudan was born on July 9, 2011, and joined the international comity of nations as the 193rd member of the United Nations. The people of the new state voted with an overwhelming majority of 99 per cent in favour of secession from Sudan. India fully endorsed the successful closure of a referendum that was envisaged in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) of January 2005, designed to end the civil strife between North and South Sudan. India and Sudan have shared an old and established relationship. On the eve of its independence from the British, Sukumar Sen, the then Indian Chief Election Commissioner, conducted the elections in Sudan in 1953. Later, the North African state was included by India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, for participation at the Afro-Asian Relations Conference at Bandung in April 1955 — a year before it gained independence in 1956. India

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extended political support to Sudan and Nehru visited the country in 1957. Since then, there have been several high-level political visits between Sudan and India. On July 9, 2011, a high-level delegation led by the Vice-President of India, Hamid Ansari, represented India on the momentous occasion of South Sudan’s day of independence. India-Sudan relations have been symbiotic and characterised by people-to-people exchanges, trade, commerce and investments and a shared outlook on several global issues within the framework of South-South Cooperation. In the years ahead, India will seek to capitalise on the goodwill built over the years and continue to safeguard her economic engagement, amongst others, in the hydrocarbon sector and explore fresh avenues for investments, both in Sudan and South Sudan.

Protecting Indian investments India will protect her existing investments and loans, currently valued at about $3 billion (Embassy of India in Khartoum, 2010). The bulk of it, amounting to $2.4 billion,

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A F R I C A has been made by ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL), a government of India undertaking. The oil company has invested in acquiring exploration and production assets that straddle both Sudan and South Sudan (Ministry of External Affairs [MEA], April 28, 2011). OVL’s blocks in Sudan give it approximately 2.4 million tonnes of crude oil annually (ONGC, 2011). Of the 160,000 barrels of oil that India sources from Sudan, India receives 100,000 barrels from South Sudan, (MEA, April 28, 2011), where about 80 percent of the total oil-producing asset reserves of undivided Sudan is located. OVL also has a 25 percent stake in the 1,600 km Greater Nile Oil Pipeline that originates in the South and connects the Khartoum refinery in the North to Port Sudan on the Red Sea, the point of exit for Sudanese exports, including oil exports to India. (Business Standard, January 21, 2011). However, the oil assets of the two Sudans will be recalibrated after the referendum on the contested, oil-rich Abyei region that is being claimed by both sides. It is hoped that any solution to such issues will be worked out through negotiations and in a peaceful manner, as the two neighbours are aware of the fact that their destinies are intertwined. Until South Sudan develops her own refineries, she will have to rely on Sudan’s processing facilities and shipment of oil through Port Sudan on the Red Sea. On the other hand, Sudan that has lost all major oil sources to South Sudan. Post-secession it will now depend on revenue payments from the transfer, shipment and refinement of oil through the Red Sea outlet. President Omar Hassan al Bashir’s attendance at the Independence Day celebrations at Juba, the capital city of South Sudan, is evidence of this inter-linked future1. (Sudan Tribune, July 9, 2011). As far as India is concerned, the bifurcation of Sudan into its two constituent units will have no impact, as the contracts pertaining to India will be honoured by South Sudan (MEA, April 28, 2011). Against the above stated backdrop, this study tries to outline India’s present relationship with the nascent state of South Sudan and makes projections for the future, with specific focus on the economic engagement between

Q U A R T E R L Y

the two countries that is based on mutual interests and reciprocity.

India and South Sudan: Current Engagements l India has made a significant contribution to humanitar-

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ian assistance through donations of medicines and grain supplies to control the kala azar epidemic (1983) and towards flood relief (2008) in both North and South Sudan (Embassy of India, Khartoum, undated). Of the total force of about 10,000 uniformed personnel of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) set up to support the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005, a third comprises Indian police officers and military and is led by Lieutenant General Jasbir Singh Lidder of the Indian Army2 (See UNMIS, May 2011; See also UN December 24, 2009; UNMIS undated; MEA, July 14, 2011). l The UNMIS is mandated inter alia to implement the Ceasefire Agreement of 2005 and monitor violations, assist with the disarmament programme, work towards reconciliation and community rebuilding through efforts that include medical and veterinary camps to prevent outbreak of diseases such as East Coast Fever (livestock is the main source of livelihood for the locals), and work towards the promotion of human rights (For details see UNMIS, Mandate). At independence, India was the first Asian nation to recognise the nascent state of South Sudan headed by President Gen. Salva Kiir Mayardit. India’s Vice-President Hamid Ansari represented India at the independence day celebrations in Juba, the capital of South Sudan, where India had established a consulate as early as 2007 — a farsighted step taken to support its energy investments in South Sudan. About 80 percent of the oil resources of Sudan are within the state boundaries of South Sudan where OVL has major investments in the hydrocarbon sector (oil production, oil refinery, multi product oil pipeline). Water and Power Consultancy Services (WAPCOS), part of India’s Ministry of Water Resources, provided

1 President Bashir inaugurated North Sudan’s embassy at Juba on July 9, 2011, and also affirmed his determination to settle unresolved issues such as the position of Abyei, drawing up of new borders, sharing oil revenues and debts 2 Lieutenant General J.S. Lidder was appointed Force Commander of UNMIS, based on his vast experience in conflict resolution and peacekeeping in Darfur and Mozambique. He was later appointed by the UN Secretary General as the special representative for Sudan, to ensure the conduct of a free and fair referendum in 2011. Rajesh Dewan was made Police Commissioner to train, mentor and build capacity among the local police to deal with security procedures and regulations during the referendum

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are conducted at the Vocational Training Centre and the Rural Technology Park at the National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD)5. [For details see NIRD website]. l Seventy-five seats have been earmarked exclusively for South Sudan under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC), a bilateral assistance programme launched by India in 19646. In the past years, in addition to training under the ITEC, scholarships for higher education in sectors such as agriculture, oil exploration and others, Sudanese diplomats have attended professional training courses at India’s Foreign Service Institute. Sudanese defence personnel have also benefited from short-term courses on peacekeeping at the A community tubewell in South Sudan by WAPCOS. United Services Institute (MEA, April 28, 2011). India also plans to extend the telemedicine and consultancy services to the World Bank-funded Sudan tele-education programmes under the Pan-Africa EEmergency Transport and Infrastructure Development Network Project to South Sudan (MEA, July 7, 2011). Project3 (SETIDP) for Southern Sudan (See: World Bank, December 12, 2005). In October 2007, WAPCOS l About 30,000 Sudanese students have graduated from signed a contract for consultancy services with the Indian centres of education and about 5,000 students World Bank and prioritised six state capitals of South (from undivided Sudan) used to enrol for higher studSudan for the implementation of power distribution, ies in India every year (Embassy of Sudan, Khartoum).7 water supply and sanitation sectors and prepared l India’s role in capacity building, training and upgrading of human resources will be its major contribution feasibility studies and tenders documents for the to both North and South Sudan in the years to come. implementation of the above schemes in South Sudan. In return, India expects continued support from such The project cost is estimated at $200,0004 (Pricewaterhouse Coopers (PWC), August 2010). countries in its bid for permanent membership of the WAPCOS is the first Indian government entity to get a UN Security Council and at other international fora. World Bank project in South Sudan. Similarly, the nascent South Sudan would look to India for backing in the international community on issues l India pledged $5 million towards development assissuch as the grant of development aid, writing off debts tance, capacity building and training under the Aid to and related issues, and economic investments to rebuild Africa and India Africa Foreign Summit (IAFS)-II the infrastructure/services deficit country. programmes (MEA July 7, 2011). Training programmes

3 The SETIDP is a multi-sector development project that includes eight infrastructure sub-sectors: (i) roads and bridges; (ii) road traffic and transport; (iii) railways; (iv) inland waterways; (v) ports and maritime; (vi) electricity; (vii) civil aviation; and (viii) urban infrastructure and municipal services. It also covered cross-cutting issues such as implementation arrangements, environment, gender, de-mining and HIV/AIDS. It is funded by multiple donors — the Multi DonorTrust Fund (MDTF) funded by USAID, UNDP and GoSS and individual states) 4 WAPCOS has been contracted project consultancy worth $152,900 and as of June 2010, sixty percent of the above money was disbursed (See: PWC Report of August 2010, the latest available data). 5 The NIRD imparts knowledge and skills about rural technologies that promote growth, such as value-addition food industries, khadi and handlooms, handicrafts & cottage industries, rural housing & sanitation, energy and artisan based technologies. 6 The ITEC shares India’s developmental experiences with its partner countries and has the following components: training (civilian and defence) in India of nominees from ITEC partner countries; projects and project related activities such as feasibility studies and consultancy services; deputation of Indian experts abroad; study tours; donation of equipment at the request of ITEC partner countries; and•aid for disaster relief. 7 They study humanities, sciences, medicine, law, ICT, oil exploration, etc and return to their countries to share their newly-acquired skills. India has thus been able to extend its ‘soft power’ through these Sudanese citizens (also referred to as babujees) (Pers. Comm. Sudanese student).

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Sectors for potential cooperation

the potential to rebuild the power and related sectors in South Sudan. South Sudan is blessed with natural resources such as petroleum, iron ore, coal, gold, silver, copper that it can l Indian Railways Construction Company Ltd (IRCON), a state enterprise, which supplied locomotives to the now use to generate revenue for rebuilding the country. Sudan Railways Corporation in 2005, can help build “Given the many years of civil war, Southern Sudan is railroads linking towns and cities in South Sudan and literally being built from scratch. The road network, housfurther link the country with its neighbouring states of ing, banking sector, insurance, schools and other amenities East Africa. in the huge country, all need urgent attention and the focus is on the donor community, l Rail India Technical the government, and above all, & Economic Services (RITES) commercial investors” Limited, a government of (Government of South Sudan India undertaking that provid[GoSS], 2011a). The new ed engineering, consultancy government in Juba will seek and project management to reduce its dependence on services in the transport earnings from oil and diversify infrastructure, has business its sources of earnings through opportunities in the developinvestments in agriculture, ment of railways, highways, tourism, power, telecom, river ports, waterways and airwater utilities and infrastrucports that need to be built on a ture development sectors. priority basis in South Sudan. Agriculture, in particular, will l The Indian postal be priority sector for investdepartment, with its expertise ments — given the fact that of in delivering mail to remote “the total population of 8.23 areas efficiently, can set up a million (2008 Census), 83 pernetwork of postal services, cent lives in rural areas and 78 perlinking Juba and other key cities cent of households depends on crop with the country’s interiors and its India can certainly farming or animal husbandry as neighbours in East Africa (GoSS, provide the expertise that 2011b). their primary source of livelihood South Sudan needs and 51 percent of the population l South Sudan’s natural beauty, in the agriculture sector. bio-diversity and wildlife parks have (55 percent of the rural populace as compared to 24 percent in the the potential of generating revenues Indian companies urban areas) lives below the poverfrom tourism which can be a major can be partners of ty line” (South Sudan Centre for revenue earner. Several Indian choice for the ‘triple A’ Census Statistics and Evaluation companies from the hospitality (adaptable, affordable [SSCCSE] 2010). sector can play a key role in helping India can certainly provide the rebuild the economy on the basis of and appropriate) expertise that South Sudan needs in reciprocal interests. technologies that they the agriculture sector in addition to l Agriculture will be an imporhave mastered better others. Indian companies can be tant sector for the alleviation of than other nations partners of choice for the ‘triple A’ poverty and generation of liveli(adaptable, affordable and approhood in South Sudan. Agricultural priate) technologies that they have potential in South Sudan is high mastered better than other nations. Indian companies — with about 90 per cent of its total area both in the public sector and private sectors — have busiconsidered suitable for agriculture, 50 per cent of which ness prospects in the new state in the years ahead: is prime agricultural land. Besides, the country also has l The state-owned Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited, curabundant rainfall and access to the Nile (USAID, 2009). rently executing the 500 Mega Watt Kosti Power Project Agro transnational companies such as Bangalore’s in Sudan, financed through an EXIM Bank letter of credKaruturi Global have invested in the neighbouring state it of $350 million, can help develop river cargo and other of Ethiopia, in the Gambela region that borders South projects in the new state. Sudan. Karuturi has acquired “311,000 hectares of land on lease-hold basis in the Baka and Gambela regions in l Angelique International, a private sector enterprise (executing the $41. 90 million Singa Gedarif power transEthiopia to grow cereals (rice, maize) on 70,000 hectares mission project in Sudan with EXIM Bank support) has and oil palm on 20,000 hectares” (Karuturi website,

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N A T I O N Juba) (MEA, 14 July, 2011). Cipla, Ranbaxy, Aurobindo Pharma and others (pharmaceuticals), healthcare (multispecialty hospitals and clinics) have a scope for business and reportedly representatives of Indian hospitals such as, ‘Fortis from Bangalore, MIOT from Chennai have already made presentations and held exploratory talks with healthcare sector authorities in South Sudan’. (MEA, April 28, 2011) The Indian companies can seek support and facilitation through, inter alia, the EXIM Bank that has a long experience in promoting the agenda of infrastructure development and food security on the African continent through the extension of concessionary loans.

undated). The extension of Karuturi’s investments across the border into the new state can potentially provide the much required capital and technology to the neglected agriculture sector of South Sudan that suffers from severe under-capitalisation, in particular low technology and weak knowledge-based agricultural smallholder farm production systems. l A variety of applications developed by Kirloskar Brothers Limited (KBL), such as industrial pumps (sugar plants), heavy-duty compressors (food-processing factories) and irrigation pumps (farmlands) have been in use in Sudan since the early 2000s. Agriculture development in South Sudan offers business opportunities for KBL and Jain Irrigation Systems among other Indian business groups that have a presence in several African countries. They can supply customised and affordable agricultural equipment such as small tractors, drilling machines and irrigation equipment for smallholding farms. l South Sudan offers immense opportunities for India’s banking sector given the fact that only one percent of households in Southern Sudan have a bank account (SSCCSE, 2010). India’s state-owned financial institutions, such as State Bank of India that provide a range of banking products through its vast networks including that in the rural parts of India, can share their experience in the interiors of South Sudan where there is a genuine need for banking infrastructure. Most banks in South Sudan have a presence in the country’s major urban centres alone. The Bank of Baroda that followed the Indian diaspora, mainly Gujaratis, has branches across the borders of South Sudan in neighbouring Kenya and Uganda. There is potential for business for these two government-owned banks and other private sector Indian banks that aim to have a foothold in Africa. l The list of private Indian companies that can engage with South Sudan is long — Larsen & Toubro (technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing company), Overseas Infrastructure Alliance [OIA] (project development and management), Reliance Industries (oil and natural gas sector), Essar (oil, telecommunication), Tata (automobiles, Tata Sudan operates in Sudan, ICT, agriculture equipments), Mahindra & Mahindra (automobiles and agricultural equipments, presence of Mahindra Scorpios in Sudan in partnership with Symex International), Shapoorji Pallonji (construction, power, finance), Kalpataru (power), education, hospitality sector (three Indian-owned hotels are operational in Juba) and retail (one large Indian-owned departmental store exists in

This might be the time for Indian business houses to take up the challenges and business opportunities and take a lead especially over China and the West that will offer stiff competition in the years ahead.8 A decade from now, one can anticipate heavy investments by Chinese companies in the major capital intensive and long-gestation projects such as airports, roads, power projects as a part of their ‘oil for infrastructure’ deals, as they have done in the case of oil-rich Guinea and Nigeria. China sources oil from Sudan (5 percent of its total oil imports) and claims to be a “reliable friend” of both North and South Sudan. China too has played a role along with the international community to bring an end the civil war between the neighbours — Sudan and South Sudan (FOCAC, July 10, 2011; Business, June 30, 2011). The civil strife between North and South Sudan has raged for about four decades now and the war-torn countries will require sustained efforts and massive investments to rebuild their war-ravaged economies. International development and humanitarian assistance programmes funded by multiple donors such as the World Bank, United Nation and individual countries are ongoing for both North and South Sudan. In South Sudan, which is in a state of transition and reconstruction, the United Nations aid has been extended to sustain a food and agricultural industry and builds infrastructure. In fact, South Sudan is the thirteenth largest recipient of official development assistance (ODA) (excluding debt relief) allocated to countries between 2000 and 2009, of which 60.6 percent is humanitarian aid between 2005 and 2009 (Global Humanitarian Assistance report, undated). Though South Sudan maintains access to 80 percent of oil reserves of the former undivided Sudan, the transportation routes through Port Sudan on the Red Sea and refining facilities lie in North Sudan. Until the proposed Juba- Lamu route for the transportation of oil and goods is

8 Both India and China’s investments in the oil sector in Sudan took place during the early 2000s, the period during which the West

imposed sanctions on Sudan and their oil companies withdrew on grounds of violation of human rights by the government of Sudan.

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executed between South Sudan and Kenya, the hydrocar- unfinished agenda with Sudan, inter alia, on issues of bon sector — the major revenue earner for South Sudan — sharing oil revenues, border demarcation, more specificalwill remain hostage to the present regime in Sudan, and the ly in the oil-rich Abyei region, transportation of oil from potential for ongoing conflict over the issues of transporta- South Sudan through the Port of Sudan in the North tion routes for oil exports through the Red Sea and sharing and contestation over the sharing of Nile river waters of oil revenues will undergird the tenuous relationship between the new state of South Sudan and its neighbour the Republic of Sudan. between South Sudan and its neighbour, Sudan. The absence of a significant Indian diaspora that can be Though South Sudan’s proposed incorporation into the five-member East African Community (EAC)9 is a debat- a bridge between investors from India and investments in able issue, given the flip sides of an open-door trade policy South Sudan (an estimated 10,000 people of Indian origin and the future adverse impacts on its embryonic manufac- and non-resident Indians are settled mainly in and around turing sector. Membership to the EAC will be crucial for the Port Sudan, Khartoum and other cities of Sudan) can land-locked country of South Sudan, to gain access to the also be a drawback, mainly for the private sector world through the Indian Ocean ports of Lamu and investors (MEA, April 28, 2011; See also Embassy of Khartoum, undated). Mombasa in Kenya. In the years ahead, South Sudan will have to market itself An alternative outlet to Port Sudan is of essence for South Sudan’s trade and shipment of oil in the years as an attractive destination for investments. The South ahead, as peace between the North and South Sudan is Sudanese government’s message for foreign investors through their official website affirms fragile, though support by the government’s policy of non-disinternational community and At present, South Sudan the crimination and states, “...foreign efforts by both Sudans are ongois open for investment investors are allowed to invest in and ing so that they do not slip back in sectors across the run businesses in any sector in into the quagmire of their conSouthern Sudan and provides guaranflict-ridden past. For the EAC, board. For those with tees against expropriation — South Sudan offers the prospects an appetite for risk Government of South Sudan shall not of increased trade, investments and seeking opportunities nationalise any enterprise. Further, no in mining, quarrying, energy, amidst adversities, investor will be compelled (by law or agriculture, tourism and other sectors (For details, see: this can be an opportune otherwise) to cede any part of investallAfrica.com, April 5, 2011). time to invest and capture ment capital.” (For details, see Information for Investors, undated, Prospects for investments in the market GoSS website). South Sudan are a highly conAt present, South Sudan is open for tested business proposition. The major disincentives for investments in the new state are: an investment in sectors across the board. For those with an underlying potential for political instability due to the renew- appetite for risk and seeking opportunities amidst adversities, al of conflict between South and North Sudan, Sudan’s low this can be an opportune time to invest and capture the marranking on the global corruption index of Transparency ket. The vigilant investors, will wait, watch and assess the International (Sudan Tribune, October 27, 2010), tribal con- security and investment climate before foraying into business flicts within South Sudan, South Sudan’s fledgling regulato- opportunities that the Republic of South Sudan offers. ry frameworks and lack of access to a sea port. *Disclaimer As per UN reports “around 2,368 people were killed in The names of companies listed are not exhaustive but merely 330 violent incidents in various parts of the south from the beginning of the year until the end of June” and on August illustrative (and not confirmation of their investments) but based on 22, 2011, “600 people were killed and hundreds others were areas of convergence of potential requirements by the GoSS and injured in tribal clashes in Jongolei State in South Sudan” what the Indian companies offer at a global level. Finally, econom(Xinhua, August 23, 2011). Thus there is the challenge of ic engagements will always be based on and guided by national intermaintaining political stability within South Sudan, demi- est of the former and profit margins and request for investments, for ning the country and reintegrating the returnees — those the latter. The research assistance offered by Johann Salazar (Centre for who were internally displaced, refugees and others from African Studies, University of Mumbai) and Mohit Nair (Cornell the North. Global investors will also keep a watch over the manner University, intern Gateway House, Mumbai) is acknowledged with in which the Republic of South Sudan works to resolve its gratitude. n

9 The member countries of the EAC are Burundi, Kenya,

Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.

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References 1. Benard Natha, 5 April 2011, allafrica.com Kenya, Uganda Salivating at South Sudan Prospects at <http://allafrica.com/stories/201104051418.html> 2. BBC, July 9 2011, South Sudan’s flag raised at independence ceremony at<http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/worldafrica-14092375> 3. Business, June 30 2011, China vows more Sudan investment at <http://online.wsj.com/article/ SB10001424052702304314404576414832984660302.html> 4. Business Standard, 21 January 2011, Sudan separation to split ONGC assets, at<http://www.business-standard.com/ india/news/sudan-separation-to-split-ongc-assets/422651/> 5. Embassy of India in Khartoum (2010), India and Sudan partners in development, at <http://www.indembsdn.com/ eng/india_sdn_partners.html 6. Export- Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank) at< http://www.eximbankindia.com/loc.asp> 7. Forum on China and Africa (FOCAC), 10 July 2011, China plays unique role in promoting peace, development in North, South Sudan at http://www.focac.org/eng/zxxx/t838264.htm 8. Government of South Sudan (GoSS) undated, Information for investors, at <http://www.goss-online.org/ magnoliaPublic/en/Business-and-Industry.html> 9. Government of South Sudan (GoSS) 2011, South Sudan at < http://www.goss.org/> 10. Government of South Sudan (GoSS) 2011a, Let’s begin building our nation at <http://www.goss.org/> 11. Government of South Sudan (GoSS) 2011b, Tourism, at <http://www.goss.org/> 12. Global Humanitarian Assistance (undated) Aid in transition: South Sudan, at <http://www.globalhumanitarianassistance.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/gha-aid-in-transitionSouth-Sudan.pdf> 13. IANS, 28 April 2011, India’s oil contracts will be honoured in South Sudan at<http://in.finance.yahoo.com/news/Indiaoil-contracts-honoured-ians-1493426358.html?x=0> 14. Karuturi (undated), Agriculture at< http://www.karuturi.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id= 32&Ite mid=90 15. Kirloskar Brothers Limited (KBL 2005) , KBL Analysts Meeting at <kirloskarapps.kirloskar.com/ kirloskar/aboutkirloskar/Meet-290405-Rev2.pdf> 16. MEA (14 Feb 2011), India welcomes successful referendum in Southern Sudan, at http://meaindia.nic.in/ mystart.php?id=100517174 17. MEA (28 April 2011) Briefing by official spokesperson on visits of Envoys from Sudan and South Sudan, at <http://mea.gov.in/mystart.php?id=530317583 18. MEA (7 July 2011), Statement by Secretary (East) on the forthcoming visit of Vice-President to Juba and Kampala, July 07, 2011 at < http://meaindia.nic.in/ mystart.php?id=290017816> 19. MEA (July 2011), India- Sudan relations, at<

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<http://www.meaindia.nic.in/mystart.php?id=50044526> 20. MEA, Technical Cooperation Division (undated) at <http://itec.mea.gov.in/> 21. National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD) at <http://www.nird.org.in/rtp.html> 22. ONGC, 2011, Africa, at <http://www.ongcvidesh.com/ Assets.aspx?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1>,accessed 23 July, 2011 23. Price WaterHouse Coopers ( August 2010), The World Bank report to the Southern Sudan Multi Donor Trust Fund (MDTF-SS) administrator ,at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRMDTF/Resources/MA_Q2_Report_final _report-August_2010.pdf 24. South Sudan Centre for Census Statistics and Evaluation (SSCCSE) Key indicators for Southern Sudan, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTSUDAN/Resources/KeyIndicators-SS.pdf 25. Sudan Tribune 20 October, 2005, Indian RITES despatches three• locomotives• to Sudan• Railway at<http://www.sudantribune.com/Indian-RITES-despatches-three,12177> 26. Sudan Tribune 27 October 2010, Sudan•maintains low ranking on global•corruption index despite marginal improvement, at <http://www.sudantribune.com/Sudan- maintainslow-ranking-on,36745> 27. Sudan Tribune July 9 2011, Sudan’s Bashir inaugurates North’s embassy in South, calls on US to lift sanctions at <http://www.sudantribune.com/Sudan-s-Bashir-inaugurates-North-s, 39482> 28. USAID June 2009, Expanding Agriculture and Food Security Activities in Southern Sudan at <http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADQ841.pdf> 29. UNMIS, May 2011 Facts and figures at <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unmis/facts.s html> 30. UNMIS, Mandate, at< http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unmis/mandate.shtml> UN, 24 December 2009 Secretary General appoints Jasbir Singh Lidder of India Deputy Special Representative for Sudan. at <http://www.un.org/ News/Press/docs//2009/sga1213.doc.htm> 31. UNMIS Undated, Security Council delegation concludes Southern Sudan visit, <http://unmis.unmissions.org/ Default.aspx?tabid=511&ctl=Details&mid=697&ItemID= 10636> 32. World Bank, 12 December 2005, Final project proposal for the proposed Sudan Emergency Transport and Infrastructure Development Project (SETIDP) at <http:// mdtfss.org/htm/Pubs/SETIDF_FPP_Final_12 Dec_05.pdf> 33. Xinhua, 23 August 2011, Tribal clashes kill at least 600 in South Sudan at < http://news.xinhuanet.com/ english2010/world/2011-08/23/c_131067287.htm> 34. (The web sources for this article have been accessed from 15 July – 25 August, 2011)

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The India connection An Indian scholar is helping South Sudan, Africa’s newest nation, in drafting its constitution multi-ethnic, multi-religious, plural societies. Shastri, whose interest in Sudan was kindled way back when he struck friendship with some Sudanese while studying in Afghanistan in the Seventies, said the powers-that-be in South Sudan were looking at the Indian Constitution and the Indian experience, with a special focus on federalism. “Like the Indian Constitution, the interim constitution of South Sudan does not refer to the country as federal even though (like in India) all the features of a typical federal system are enshrined in the constitutional document,” he said. Sandeep Shastri, Pro-Vice Chancellor, Jain University, at a workshop. He pointed out to an intense debate in South Sudan on a feature of their interim constitution that permits the s South Sudan navigates its vided Sudan nearly 60 years ago. The Republic of South Sudan, that president to dismiss the state governdestiny as Africa’s newest nation on July 9, its constitu- came into being after residents of the ments, which is very much similar to tion, in the process of being land-locked country voted overwhelm- Article 356 in the Indian Constitution. With capacity building being a major ingly in a referendum to secede from drafted, will have an Indian hand in it. “South Sudan has watched the the rest of Sudan, officially celebrated thrust of India’s Africa policy, Shastri political and constitutional develop- the founding of the nation on July 9 in plans to offer a two-year MA in Public Administration to officials from African ments in India with a great interest and its capital Juba as Africa’s 54th nation. Vice-President Hamid Ansari rep- countries at Jain University, a deemed believes that there is a lot that South university. Sudan can gain from that experience,” resented India at the celebrations. “Bureaucrats, civil society activists Shastri said he had an intensive diasays Sandeep Shastri, Pro-Viceand young politicians are enthusiastic logue with political parties including Chancellor at Bangalore’s Jain University, who is helping draft the the Sudan People’s Liberation of looking to countries like India as Movement (SPLM), the ruling party in they believe that experience of societies statute of the country. “South Sudan is looking at the South Sudan, on the federal process like India would be very useful to experience of democracies like India,” and underlined that federalism could them,” he said. Some sceptics have voiced doubts be a solution to challenges faced by Shastri told Africa Quarterly. that given formidable developmenAn international consultant with tal challenges, South Sudan, whose the Forum of Federations, a The Republic of South territory is roughly the size of Canada-based think tank, Shastri is Sudan came into being France but lacks basic infratructure, the only Indian involved with pubafter residents of the may not survive for long as an indelic debates being held across South Sudan, a country of over 8 million land-locked country voted pendent nation. But such cynicism is not for people, in the run-up to framing overwhelmingly in a Shastri. “I would prefer to be an the constitution. referendum to secede ‘incorrigible optimist’ on this point Interestingly, India’s first and believe that South Sudan has a Election Commissioner Sukumar from the rest of Sudan great future as a nation,” he said. n Sen conducted elections in undi-

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Building bridges of FRIENDSHIP Prime Minister Manmohan Singh lauds the entrepreneurial spirit of the Indo-Tanzanians and their contribution to the East African country

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Prime Minister Manmohan Singh at the Julius Nyerere International Airport in Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania, on May 26.

or the people of Indian origin in Tanzania, where they number around 40,000, it was a signal event when Prime Minister Manmohan Singh lauded their “entrepreneurial spirit” and said they were “a bridge of friendship” with this east African nation. Dr. Singh was addressing the Indo-Tanzanians who had gathered to hear him at Hotel

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Kempinski Kilimanjaro in Dar es Salaam. The last time an Indian Prime Minister was in their midst was in 1997, 14 years ago, when the then Prime Minister I.K. Gujral visited the country. On May 26, Manmohan Singh arrived in Tanzania to a red-carpet welcome. As he touched down at the Dar es Salaam airport, he was received by Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete. A large troupe of dancers, musicians and drummers, dressed in colourful traditional attire, waved

May-July 2011

Indian and Tanzanian flags to welcome the Indian leader and his delegation. A 19-gun salute boomed in the air as the military band played on. Prime Minister Singh arrived in Tanzania immediately after his trip to Ethiopia where he had attended the second India-Africa Forum Summit in Addis Ababa. Manmohan Singh, whose links with Tanzania go back to his friendship with the late Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, the father of the nation, commenced his two-day visit with an address to a gathering of above 300


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Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and his wife, Gursharan Kaur, interacting with members of Indian community at a reception, organised by India’s High Commissioner to Tanzania K.V. Bhagirath in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, on May 25.

persons of Indian origin (PIOs). “Your achievements are a matter of pride for all Indians. I am confident that each one of you will serve as a bridge of friendship between India and Tanzania,” Manmohan Singh said, with much applause from the Indo-Tanzanians who had gathered to hear him at Hotel Kempinski Kilimanjaro. “Over the decades, the Indian community has earned a reputation for its entrepreneurial spirit, hard work and for making remarkable contributions to the development of this country,” the Prime Minister said. “I congratulate them on their achievements and wish them all success in the service of the people of this country.” Indians, who came to Tanzania, in the 19th century, have now carved a niche for themselves in just about every sphere. Their foray into politics in the October 2010 elections was a milestone when six persons of Indian origin were elected to the parliament for the first time. Manmohan Singh made it a point

Over the decades, the Indian community has earned a reputation for its entrepreneurial spirit, hard work and for making remarkable contributions to the development of this country, said the Prime Minister in his address to specially acknowledge them in his speech: “Their participation in the political institutions of this country is a reflection of the trust and confidence they enjoy among the electorate,” he said. There was visible excitement among Indo-Tanzanians, who straddle

May-July 2011

two distinct, but kindred cultures, effortlessly. “Indians here are doing well in every field,” said Disha Patel, a young businesswoman. Gagan Gupta, an Aurangabad-based businessman and managing director of Kamal Steels, was upbeat about the prospects of the Export Processing Zone he has set up in Bagomoyo, a couple of hours drive from here. “The potential is huge. More Indian companies should come and invest here,” he said. The PIOs in Tanzania are concentrated in major regional cities, including Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Zanzibar, Mwanja, Morogoro, Dodoma and Mbeya. Most of them are from Kutch and Kathiawad in Gujarat, and between them, own and control nearly 75 per cent of Tanzania’s trade. In the last few years, many expatriates, around 10,000, have moved to Tanzania to work with a host of Indian companies like Tata, GAPCO (Reliance), Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Bajaj and Airtel. n

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India offers IT power to Tanzanian students ndia is reaching out to the youth in Africa by offering to make Tanzania a “communication and IT hub of East Africa” and has also opened new possibilities of cooperation in key high-tech areas like space cooperation. Drummers and dancers swayed jauntily, waving flags of India and Tanzania at the entrance to the Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology where hundreds of budding engineers and IT trainees waited for Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to speak on May 27. It was a humid evening in this coastal metropolis, but the torrid weather could not deter the students who sat patiently and clapped spontaneously as Manmohan Singh described them as “the future of Tanzania” and offered to “create a pool of world class professionals” in East Africa’s largest country. “You represent the future of Tanzania, and from what I have seen I can say with confidence that the future of Tanzania is bright,” he said to loud applause before formally launching the Indo-Tanzanian Centre for Excellence in IT which has been set up by Indian software engineers at a cost of a little over $2 million in August last year. “India is ready to provide all the help we can within our resources to enable Tanzania to create a pool of world class IT professionals,” he said. “If we can produce a steady stream of highly trained scientists, technologists and engineers, our cooperation would be worthwhile and we would be putting our money to good use,” he said. This is the first time an Indian prime minister was addressing the youth in an African university, signalling New Delhi’s new vision to forge a contemporary partnership with Africa where over 50 per cent of nearly 1 billion people are in the age group of 18-35. “The scientific and technological empowerment of the youth has a direct

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Prime Minister Manmohan Singh at the Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology.

correlation to a nation’s social and economic progress,” he said. The institute also houses the Param High Speed Super Computer gifted by India to Tanzania in 2009 for use in weather-forecasting and high-speed computation. This has made Tanzania only one of four African countries, others being Ghana, Egypt and South Africa, which has high-tech computing facilities. India has also set up a similar IT centre of excellence in Ghana. Raising the bar for India’s diplomatic thrust in Africa, Manmohan Singh announced India’s readiness to cooperate with Tanzania in space technology and applications and placed it in the larger context of South-South bonding. “Countries of the south have today shown that technology is no longer the preserve of rich countries. We have the capability to build a large industrial and technological base,” he said. Putting education, training and knowledge-based capacity building at the forefront of India’s engagement with Africa, Manmohan Singh said: “We have to constantly innovate and remain open to ideas. We should develop the capacity to remain in the forefront of knowledge based industries.” Capacity building and education were the twin themes throughout his six-day visit to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

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In Addis Ababa, he had announced $5.7 billion for creating 80 training institutes and a host of development projects across Africa, key initiatives that set apart India’s Africa diplomacy from China’s resource-focused foray. IT has emerged as a key component of India’s development-centric partnership, with African countries seeing India as a fellow developing country that has become a formidable knowledge power. “It’s a momentous occasion,” said John W. Kondoro, principal of Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology. “Tanzania and Africa look to harness India’s success in the IT sector. India is an IT power,” he said. Tanzania is also among a few African countries where India’s flagship Pan-African e-Network, that seeks to bridge the digital divide among the African continent, is thriving. India has completed the setting up of three components of the e-Network: the tele-conference facility at the State House, the telemedicine facility at the Dar es Salaam Cancer Institute, and the tele-education facility in the University of Dar es Salaam. In addition, 10 telecentres in various regions of Tanzania have been set up that provide services in tele-education and telemedicine to Tanzanians. n — Manish Chand


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India pledges $191 mn credit line He also announced a fresh ndia pledged $191 milgrant of $10 million for a slew lion in lines of credit and of capacity building projects in grants for a slew of develthe social and educational secopment projects in Tanzania, tors and another $1 million for as the two countries resolved Zanzibar, a semi-autonomous to combat terrorism and piraprovince of Tanzania. cy, during Prime Minister Dr. Seeking to forge an allManmohan Singh’s two-day encompassing partnership visit to the country. with Tanzania, Dr. Singh The leaders of the two An agreement on taxation being signed in the presence of expressed his concerns on countries also signed a double Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, security issues. “Terrorism taxation avoidance agreement the Tanzanian President, in Dar es Salaam, on May 27. and piracy are two major to promote greater investment besides two more pacts in areas of health health care and human resource devel- problems we both face. We have decided to intensify consultations and care and small-scale industries, following opment,” the Prime Minister said. “Indian investment and technology coordination to combat such threats,” talks between Dr. Singh and Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete, in Dar es can help Tanzania to become the indus- he said. The leaders also underlined the need Salaam, on May 27. trial and technological hub of East Africa “India, on its part, is ready to partner and its engine of growth,” the Prime for United Nations reforms, with Tanzania in its nation-building efforts. Minister said while announcing $180 Kikwete reiterating his country’s supWe will focus on areas such as agricul- million lines of credit for water supply port for India’s claim for a permanent seat in the U.N. Security Council. n ture, small and medium industries, projects in Tanzania.

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Apollo to open 300-bed hospital ith more Tanzanians suffering from heart ailments and travelling abroad for treatment, Apollo Hospitals signed a pact to set up a 300-bed super-specialty hospital in Tanzania. Apollo Hospitals Enterprises Dr P.C. Reddy, founder-chairman, Apollo Hospitals Ltd, in the presence of Prime Group, and Blandina S.J. Nyoni, Secretary, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Tanzania, Minister Manmohan Singh and signing an agreement in Dar es Salaam. Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete, signed a joint venture with the country of 42-million people. The hosBoard of Trustees of Tanzania’s pital will be completed in 18 months, National Social Security Fund and the informed Reddy. The agreement Ministry of Health and Social Welfare evoked an enthusiastic response from the Tanzanian president, who made a for setting the hospital on May 27. “We are excited about our new ven- pitch to Apollo for opening five more ture in Tanzania. It should be of great hospitals in the country’s other cities. “We do not have the capacity to treat help to people here,” C. Prathap Reddy, heart diseases, open heart surgery, canchairman of Apollo Hospitals, said. Initially, one hospital will be set up cer, kidney problems and neurosurgery. in Dar es Salaam, with a plan for Apollo Many people have to travel abroad for Hospitals to send their doctors to train treatment. With a hospital here, it will medical personnel in the East African be affordable,” Kikwete said.

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“Tanzanians spend $70-80 million for treatment abroad. Now, they do not have to go out,” he said. Thousands of Tanzanians travel to India for low-cost treatment every year and the number is increasing. “If anyone is going to India, one thinks, he is going there for some serious health problem,” said Bilham, a Tanzanian journalist. Giving a twist to the competition between India and China in Africa, Kikwete said Chinese had built a hospital in Tanzania where Indian doctors were working and giving training. “Now, India is building a hospital here. We can send more doctors and nurses for training to India.” After malaria, heart ailment is the second leading cause of death in Tanzania, claiming 287 lives a day or 104,755 lives a year, according to the Tanzanian Cardiac Hospital Foundation. Tanzanian teenagers are at high risk of heart ailments, which experts say attacks those aged between 12 and 19. n —Manish Chand

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Ghana aims to be West Africa’s IT hub

A computer training class in Ghana.

nspired and aided by India, the Ghanaian government is taking measures to make information technology a key driver of its economy and transform the country into the IT hub of West Africa. To achieve its aim, the government says it is determined to make IT popular among the youth. Communications Minister Haruna Iddrisu said the government was spending $5 million on an ICT project to empower the country’s youth. The project, which begins later this year, will see the offices of the now defunct State Housing Corporation (SHC) transforming into an IT hub. Similar centres will be established in all the 10 regional capitals, beginning with five this year. India has a key role in the development of the IT sector in Ghana; it provided an assistance of $800,000 to that end in March this year. In addition,

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there have been several India-assisted projects to promote IT in the country. Among these is the main training centre, the Ghana-India Kofi Annan Centre of Excellence in ICT (AITIKACE), which came up on Dec 9, 2003, as an outcome of the then President John Kufuor’s discussions with Indian leaders during his trip to India. Ghana provided the infrastructure to house the computer hardware, software and other communication equipment, while India supplied the initial instructors, who helped in drawing up the curriculum. “The centre came into being after the then UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, who was inspired by India’s achievement in the IT industry, decided to find a way of replicating this success across Africa,” its Director General, Dorothy K. Gordon, said. “After just eight years, one can say the IT

industry (in Ghana) has started to take off and the centre has become a hub of IT activities,” she said. In addition to the AITI-KACE, a number of Indian companies have established themselves in the country and are either providing business solutions or helping to train the country’s IT professionals. Among them is the Intercom Programming and Manufacturing Company Ltd Ghana (IPMC Ghana) which has been rated among the Top 10 of Ghana Club’s 100 top businesses. “The company came to Ghana 19 years ago and has become very successful in the business of IT products distribution, IT solutions and training,” its CEO Amardeep Singh Hari said, adding that the company was one of West Africa’s largest IT companies with a 400-plus workforce and a footprint in 19 locations. In the area of IT training, IPMC has been offering work-based training which has enhanced the skills of over 10,000 students every year. “I chose the centre because of its job-oriented IT courses. In addition, the centre also partners with Greenwich University of London for degree programmes in computer science and business studies and it gives me the opportunity to get a British university degree without stepping out of Ghana,” Jacob Addo, a student of the IPMC training centre said. Another Indian IT training centre operating in the country is NIIT Ghana. “From a humble beginning in 2000, the institute has expanded to seven centres within 10 years of operations. More centres are in the pipeline,” managing director Kapil Gupta said. In March this year, its latest centre was inaugurated in Tamale in the northern region. n — Francis Kokutse

Airtel, Ericsson sign deal for Africa operations ndian telecom giant Bharti Airtel has said it has signed a five-year managed services agreement with Ericsson for its Africa operations. “According to the agreement,

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Ericsson will manage and optimise Airtel’s mobile networks in Africa in order to provide a superior customer experience,” the company said in a statement on July 21. The company

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also signed a two-year agreement with Ericsson under which the latter will modernise and upgrade Airtel’s mobile networks in Africa, including its multi standard RBS 6,000 base station.


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Tea producer to invest $6 million he world’s largest tea producer, McLeod Russel India Limited, plans to invest $2 million this fiscal in Uganda to upgrade its factories, and $4 million in Rwanda to enhance capacity in the next two years, a top executive of the company said. “In Africa, we have already invested to upgrade our factories. We will be investing $2 million in Uganda. and another $4 million in Rwanda in the next two years,” McLeod Russel Managing Director Aditya Khaitan said on May 30, in the eastern Indian city of Kolkata. “Our investment in Uganda last year has paid off significantly this year. Uganda has been one of the strong contributors as profit from it was $6.4 million last fiscal. We invested about $5 million to upgrade two factories which did not have the capacity to

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cater to the extra crop,” he said. Once the upgradation of these two factories was over, work on upgrading the third factory would be started, Khaitan said. Borelli Tea Holdings Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of the company, has provisionally taken over

the management control of Gisovu Tea Company in Rwanda after the central African country’s government decided to sell 60 per cent shares of Gisovu to Borelli. “In Gisovu, the investment has been $4.2 million. We have decided to invest about another $4 million in the next two years to enhance the capacity. This year we will be looking at investing at least $2 million,” Khaitan said. At present, Gisovu was producing 1.7 million kg of tea, he said, adding they wanted to make it 2 million kg. n

Coimbatore company set to grow cotton, soya in Ethiopia oimbatore-based start-up venture Sara Cotton Fibres Private Ltd plans to cultivate cotton and soya in Ethiopia and also set up a cotton ginning facility in the African country. “We will grow long staple cotton on the 25,000 acre land leased for 25 years in Ethiopia. The land in a single stretch is along the Omo river there. We have raised $6.4 million through a mix of debt and equity,” Chief Financial Officer K.S. Sundhar Rajan said July 26. He said cultivating cotton on 25,000 acre in a single stretch is something new in Ethiopia. “We will cultivate cotton and soya alternately. We will import the seeds from Israel and farm equipment from the U.S. and India,” Rajan said. He said the start-up company’s equity currently stands at around `30 million. Sara Cotton has raised $6.4 million

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through loans and equity to fund its Ethiopian farm plans. It has raised loans to the extent of $4.5 million from the Development Bank of Ethiopia, a leading government owned bank in Ethiopia, while a combination of overseas and Indian high networth individuals as well as institutional investors have invested $1.9 million for a 14 per cent stake.

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Chennai-based Kalpathi Group has a 58 per cent stake as a strategic investor. According to Sara Cotton, demand for cotton is expected to grow and to keep up with current demand projections fresh cotton production of 20 million bales would be required. Sara Cotton will also set up a ginning facility in Ethiopia and bring the ginned cotton to India. According to Mohammed Saleem, Founder-CEO of Sara Cotton, the Ethiopian government has offered tax exemptions, duty free machinery imports and duty free import of spares up to 15 per cent of the machinery value. The Ethiopian government had also recently announced cotton as a priority sector for the country, he said. n

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Razia Agro to start sugar plantation, mill in Ethiopia n Indian company is planning to set up a new sugar mill in Ethiopia, the east African nation that is attracting a lot of Indian investment and attention. Razia Agro Industry plans to set up a sugar mill in the East Wollega zone of the Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. A company official said that the Indian firm had secured 4,000 hectares of land for the sugarcane plantation and the construction of the mill. “We have been clearing the land and developing the farm,” the official said on July 19. Razia Agro Industry has a registered capital of 131 million birr. A senior executive of the company said the group would start constructing the factory next year. The mill will have an installed capacity of producing 1,200 tonnes of sugar per day. There are already three state-owned factories: Wonji,

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Metehara and Finchaa. The government is also building the largest sugar mill in Ethiopia in Tendaho, in Afar state, at a cost of $725 million with a credit facility provided by the Indian government. India has given a $640 million loan for the Tendaho sugar project. The

India has given a $640 million loan for the Tendaho sugar project. The Ethiopian government hopes to boost sugar production to 2.5 million tonnes from the current 300,000 tonnes within five years

Ethiopian government hopes to boost sugar production to 2.5 million tonnes from the current 300,000 tonnes within five years. Razia’s sister company, Sainik Potash, has been working on a potash development project in the Afar Regional State since 2007. Sainik Potash is a subsidiary of Sainik Coal, a giant coal manufacturing company in India. The investment group, Sainik, is planning to establish another new company which will be engaged in marble production in Ethiopia. India is the leading private sector investor in Ethiopia with investments of $4.35 billion. Over 450 Indian companies are currently operating in Ethiopia. Indian investors are now being engaged in various sectors. From flower market and agriculture sectors they have now moved to manufacturing, agro processing, information technology (IT) and other sectors. The Export-Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) has also entered into an agreement with Ethiopia for extending a $91 million line of credit to finance exports and consultancy services for development of the sugar industry. n — Groum Abate

Indian company to improve irrigation system in Rwanda ain Irrigation Systems Ltd (JISL), the second largest manufacturers of drip irrigation in the world, plans to partner with the Rwandan government for developing irrigation solutions for farmers of that country. The company has been

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Jain Irrigation Systems employees measuring water level in a borewell for a project in Lagos state of Nigeria.

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working with small and marginal farmers of India and is helping them to bring more land under cultivation with less water by using micro-irrigation systems. “The company will offer the same model to Rwanda and Africa as a whole,” JISL said on May 27.


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Air cargo from India to Africa growing steadily every year ndian air cargo to Africa is increasing at a steady rate of about 15-20 per cent per year, with the country exporting approximately 6,000 tonnes of goods and merchandise by airfreight to the continent every month. Most of the cargo is transported on African air carriers and some European airlines for the reason that there are practically no Indian airlines that have direct flights from India to African cities. Almost 55 per cent of the air cargo is flown by Africa-owned air companies while the rest is transported by Middle East and European airlines, with the export consignments transiting through a third country while on their onward journey to Africa, according to trade sources. Earlier, Indian air exports mainly went to South Africa and the East African region, India’s traditional trading partners. But in recent years, as exports have increased, Indian products have penetrated new markets in central and western Africa.

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Pradeep Dixit, Vice-President, International Operations, Allied Aviation International, explained on July 10, “About 35 per cent of Indian exports go to East Africa, 25 per cent is bound for South Africa, another 25 per cent goes to Central Africa and 20 per cent reaches Central Africa.” A large part of the Indian exports by air leave the country from Mumbai and Ahmedabad airports, forming almost 45 per cent of the total air exports to Africa. Exports through the southern cities of Hyderabad and Chennai account for another 45 percent; they are mainly in the form of auto parts, mobiles and pharmaceutical products. A smaller consignment of about 600 tonnes is dispatched from Delhi — these are mainly

vaccines, textile products and some medicines. Extra large consignments are carried on bigger aircraft and are transported by air charter companies or sent through European hubs such as Frankfurt, Brussels and London-Heathrow Airport. Commodities like pharmaceuticals and medicines, steel products, auto parts, engineering goods and spare parts, textiles and chemicals form a major part of Indian exports to Africa. Increasing Indian investment in Africa has led to a growing demand for air cargo. But Indian air companies are looking at air passengers and rarely take air cargo into account when they make their strategic plans, said an exporter to Africa. “Obviously, if there were direct Indian flights to Africa, I would choose to send my cargo consignments through them, instead of routing them through Europe. Going via Europe is a circuitous route, it costs more money and in addition takes a longer time to reach the destination,” he said. n

Mozambique seeks India’s help to harness renewable energy ozambique has sought India’s help to develop its renewable energy sector. Mozambique Education Minister Zeferino Alexandre Martins, who met Farooq Abdullah, Minister for New and Renewable Energy in Delhi, on July 14, expressed his country’s keen interest to rope in India’s expertise in the field. “He thanked India for its assistance and hoped that cooperation between the two countries in the field of renewable energy will increase in future,” the Renewable Energy

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Ministry said in a statement. According to the statement, Martins, during his visit to the solar energy centre at Gurgaon, expressed interest in the research projects on solar cooling, which were being conducted there. On India’s assistance in the field, Abdullah said a number of new projects would be taken up in African countries, including installation of biomass gasifier systems, solar charging stations and electrification of large number of houses.

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India will take up these initiatives in accordance with the bilateral decisions taken recently at the India Africa Summit held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. “He (Abdullah) expressed the hope that Mozambique would benefit from these new initiatives,” said the statement, adding that over 250 training programmes in the area of solar energy, biomass, wind energy and small hydropower would be conducted to help African nations develop and deploy renewable energy systems.

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Tata Motors opens assembly plant in South Africa ndian commercial vehicle major Tata Motors has opened an assembly plant at Rosslyn, in the Gauteng province of South Africa, to roll out medium and heavy commercial vehicles ranging from four to 50 tonnes capacity. The plant with an annual capacity of 3,650 vehicles has been established with an investment of $16.23 million (`110 million), the company said on July 27. To begin with, the company would be assembling two models, the Tata LPT 813 and Tata LPT 1518, which are already popular in South Africa. “With a comprehensive product portfolio, Tata Motors is now at a stage where it can consolidate its international business in its chosen markets. Step by step, we shall expand the footprint of our international business matching markets and products,” said Group Chief Executive and Managing Director, Tata Motors, Carl-Peter Forster. Tata Motors started exports to South Africa in 1998, with commercial vehicles. Exports of passenger vehicles began in 2004. Currently, there are over 20 commercial vehicle models — from pick-ups to 49-tonne prime movers, and

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Tata Motors’ assembly plant at Johannesburg in South Africa.

passenger vehicle from 14-seater buses to luxury coaches and five car models — Tata Indica Vista, Tata Indica, Tata Indigo, Tata Indigo SW and Tata Safari in diesel and petrol variants, meeting the needs of the South African market. Speaking on the occasion, South Africa’s Minister of Trade and Industry Rob Davies said the launch of the plant could be attributed to South Africa’s investment friendly policies. “This will be an opportunity for

further expansion of Tata Motors in South Africa,” said Davies. Tata has an already established stateof-the-art technical training centre in Germiston, Johannesburg, operating since 2006, for skill development of dealer mechanics in South Africa and various other countries in the continent. The company has thus far exported over 32,000 commercial vehicles and 31,000 passenger vehicles to South Africa. n

Indian Corporation Bank to operate in Africa soon he Indian Corporation Bank, which is a public sector bank, will soon be setting foot on African shores in its bid to expand its operations globally, a top bank official said. Addressing a press conference in Mangalore, a port city located in south India, Chairman and Managing Director Ramnath Pradeep said Tanzania was one of the four African

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nations, where the bank was keen on setting up its business. “We have approached the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for a licence to start operations in four African countries. I can name one, Tanzania. The rest of the countries, I cannot disclose at this time,” he said on May 19. “African countries are developing and there are a lot of Indian companies and individuals who are setting up

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businesses there. Because of that fact that there is already a sense of familiarity with the Indian clients and there are good business prospects,” Pradeep said, adding that his bank was in the process of obtaining licences from the African nations for starting operations there. The Corporation Bank has a nationwide network of 5,000 service outlets throughout India.


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India to invest $4.78 bn in Ethiopia ndia has offered to invest $4.78 billion in various projects in Ethiopia over the next few years, of which nearly $1 billion is already on ground and in the pipeline, Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma has said. India is the largest foreign investor in Ethiopia with approved investment of $4.78 billion, Sharma said, after meeting Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi in Addis Ababa on May 21. The Indian minister, who was on a four-day official visit to Ethiopia, emphasised the need to strengthen business and economic ties between the two countries. He also cochaired the India-Africa Trade Ministers Meeting held at the African Union Commission in Addis Ababa. During the meeting, the ministers explored ways to establish trade and

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investment linkages between India and Africa through, among other things, the conclusion of trade cooperation agreements between India and African Regional Economic Communities, said a joint statement released after the trade ministers’ meeting. “We appreciate the establishment of an India-Africa Business Council, a mechanism to strengthen and deepen economic ties between the business communities of India and Africa, facilitate a consultative process to address the issues that stand in the way of enhancing economic and commercial relations between India and Africa, and develop a road map for a business partnership,” the statement added. “We consider that these linkages would lead to enhanced partnerships, especially in the sectors of processing of

basic products and other priority sectors such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, education, health, IT, skills training and infrastructure,” the statement said. The ministers also reviewed the progress of the Doha Round of negotiations of the World Trade Organisation. The two sides also expressed their commitment for an early conclusion of the negotiations. “We emphasise on the development mandate of the Doha Round of negotiations and call for the speedy conclusion of the round and the establishment of a strong multilateral system based on mutually beneficial and balanced outcomes in agriculture, non-agriculture market access (NAMA), services and rules,” according to the statement. n

Pact to avoid double taxation ndia and Ethiopia have signed an agreement to avoid double taxation; it aims at strengthening bilateral economic cooperation and stimulating the flow of investment and technology. “The agreement will provide tax stability to the residents of India and Ethiopia and facilitate mutual economic cooperation as well as stimulate the flow of investment, technology and services between the two countries,” the Finance Ministry said in a statement on May 27. The agreement was signed by External Affairs Minister S.M. Krishna and Ethiopian Finance Minister Sufian Ahmed in the presence of visiting Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his Ethiopian counterpart Meles Zenawi in Addis Ababa May 25. Under the deal, business profits will be taxable in the source state if the activities of an enterprise constitute a permanent establishment, like branch, factory, in the source state.

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India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his Ethiopian counterpart Meles Zenawi look on as External Affairs Minister S.M. Krishna and Ethiopian Minister for Finance and Economic Development, Sufian Ahmed, sign the avoidance of double taxation pact.

“Profits of a construction, assembly or installation projects will be taxed in the state of source if the project continues in that state for more than 183 days,” the statement said. Profits derived by an enterprise from the operation of ships or aircraft

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in international traffic shall be taxable in the country of residence of the enterprise. Dividends, interest, royalties and fees for technical services income will be taxed both in the country of residence and in the country of source, the statement added. n

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‘India will work with Africa to realise its vast potential’ $5 billion lines of credit, $700 million for new institutions

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am delighted to be here today in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia and the Headquarters of the African Union. I bring to Africa fraternal greetings from the people of India. This is a historic gathering. It is the first time that the leaders of India and Africa are meeting on such a scale on African soil. I would specially like to greet those leaders who are participating in the Africa India Forum Summit process for the first time and were not with us in New Delhi in 2008. The India-Africa partnership is unique and owes its origins to history and our common struggle against colonialism, apartheid, poverty, disease, illiteracy and hunger. India will never forget Africa’s role in inspiring our own struggle for national liberation. It was here that Mahatma Gandhi developed his political philosophy and developed the concepts of non-violence and peaceful resistance. At the first India-Africa Forum Summit in 2008 in New Delhi, we decided to make a new beginning. We drew courage from our togetherness and inspiration from our conviction that a robust and contemporary India-Africa partnership is an idea whose time has come. Our officials and ministers have worked hard for our second Summit in Ethiopia. Many events involving a wide cross-section of society, including trade and business, have been held. These events have contributed to making the second Africa-India Forum Summit a people’s movement.

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Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh addressing the opening plenary session of the summit.

I believe we have reason to be satisfied with what we have achieved since 2008. But our people expect much more and we have to work hard to deliver on these expectations. The current international economic and political situation is far from favourable, particularly for developing countries. Even as the global economy is recovering from the economic crisis, fresh political upheavals are taking place. The world faces new challenges in assuring food and energy security. Global institutions of governance are outmoded and under stress. We, therefore, need a new spirit of

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solidarity among developing countries. We must recognise that in this globalised age we all live interconnected lives in a small and fragile planet. We must work together to uplift the lives of our people in a manner that preserves the sustainability of our common air, land and water. There is a new economic growth story emerging from Africa. Africa possesses all the prerequisites to become a major growth pole of the world. There is good news in the struggle against HIV and AIDS, as well as in improving literacy, reducing infant mortality and building institutions of representative government.


A F R I C A India will work with Africa to realise its vast potential. We believe that a new vision is required for Africa’s development and participation in global affairs. We do not have all the answers but we have some experience in nation building, which we are happy to share with our African brothers and sisters. It is in this spirit that I wish to outline some initiatives for the consideration of our African partners. These will enhance our development partnership, which are founded on the pillars of mutual equality and common benefit. We will offer $5 billion for the next three years under lines of credit to help Africa achieve its development goals. We will offer an additional $700 million to establish new institutions and training programmes in consultation with the African Union and its institutions. Under the lines of credit that we offered at the first Summit, we had specifically looked at promoting regional integration through infrastructure development. On the advice of the African Union, I am happy to announce that we would support the development of a new Ethio-Djibouti Railway line to the tune of $300 million. Following the success of the Pan-African E-Network Project we propose to take the next step and establish an India-Africa Virtual University. This we hope will help to meet some of the demand in Africa for higher studies in Indian institutions. We further propose that 10,000 new scholarships under this proposed University would be available for African students after its establishment. We would like to make education in India an enriching experience for each student who comes from Africa. We are substantially raising the number of scholarships and training slots for African students and experts, including under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme. Our total commitment for the next three years by way of scholarships to Africa students will stand at more than 22,000. At the first Summit in 2008, we had focused on capacity building in the human resource development sector.

We believe it would be logical to consolidate this approach. I wish to propose the establishment of the following new institutions at the pan-African level: An India-Africa Food Processing Cluster — This would contribute to value-addition and the creation of regional and export markets; An India-Africa Integrated Textiles Cluster — This will support the cotton industry and its processing and conversion into high value products; An India-Africa Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting — This will harness satellite technology for the agriculture and fisheries sectors as well as contribute towards disaster preparedness and management of natural resources; We have received a request to support the establishment of an India-Africa University for Life and Earth Sciences. We would be happy to support this important venture; and finally,

Today, the people of Africa and India stand at the threshold of a historic opportunity. Our nations span the diversity of the human condition An India-Africa Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development. One of the biggest gaps in our interaction is that of insufficient air connectivity. We should accord this high priority. To begin with, India would be happy to increase the access of African airlines to Indian cities in a significant manner over the next three years. Africa has strong regional organisations, which play an important role in supporting development activities. We will, therefore, work with Regional Economic Communities to establish at the regional level, Soil, Water and Tissue Testing Laboratories, Regional Farm Science Centres, Seed Production-cumDemonstration Centres, and Material Testing Laboratories for Highways. At the bilateral level, we propose to

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establish institutes for English language training, information technology, entrepreneurship development and vocational training. As part of our new initiatives in the social and economic sectors, we will establish Rural Technology Parks, Food Testing Laboratories, Food Processing Business Incubation Centres and Centres on Geo-Informatics Applications and Rural Development. We should encourage trade and investment flows as well as transfer of technology. The private sectors should be fully involved in the efforts to integrate our economies. I propose that we establish an India-Africa Business Council which will bring together business leaders from both sides. India has consistently supported the development of African capacities in the maintenance of peace and security. As a token of our commitment to supporting Africa’s endeavours for seeking African solutions, I am happy to announce that India will contribute $2 million for the African Union Mission in Somalia. Today, the people of Africa and India stand at the threshold of a historic opportunity. Our nations span the diversity of the human condition. We account for the whole range of linguistic, religious and ethnic diversity in the world. Our success in making open, tolerant and rule-based societies flourish in conditions of relative underdevelopment will have a profound effect on the future of the world. Tomorrow, the people of Africa will celebrate Africa Day. I am delighted to be present in Africa on this very auspicious occasion, and extend my heartiest congratulations to this great Continent. In conclusion, I wish to convey my deepest gratitude to the people and government of Ethiopia for hosting us in this beautiful city. I also thank the African Union Commission for the excellent arrangements made for the Summit. n (This is the text of the speech by India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh at the opening plenary session of the second Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa on May 24.)

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India: A strategic partner for Africa ince the launch of this partnership in 2008, we note with satisfaction that this partnership is delivering on the fundamental issues that affect our people. The challenges of globalisation require that we take all necessary measures to support and cooperate within the framework of the South-South Cooperation, to strengthen common objectives in order to effectively combat poverty, achieve sustainable development, as well as enhance peace and security. This is why I am happy that the theme for this Summit is ‘Enhancing Partnership: Shared Vision’. The question is: why should India be a strategic partner for Africa and, conversely, why should Africa be the same to India? The answer is simple: first, India is a rising giant and a significant player in the global economy, which provides a huge market for products from Africa and a source of appropriate technology for Africa. Secondly, returns on investment in Africa remain high and competitive. Africa has abundant natural resources that can be jointly exploited for our mutual benefit. Africa has abundant land for agricultural production and significant mineral resources and opportunities for industrialisation. Investment in these areas will create jobs for our people. Thirdly, the recent global economic crisis has shown that Africa’s traditional development partners have become vulnerable. Consequently, there is registered decline in aid flows, with most developed countries unable to honour their existing aid commitments. Today, we are grappling with issues of aid reliability, aid effectiveness and aid predictability, yet our peoples urgently need more roads, schools, hospitals, jobs and other critical facilities. One way to deal with this challenge is to promote public-rivate partnerships (PPPs) to fill gaps, which countries like India can provide. This will lead to a more vibrant private sector. Lastly, it is important to underscore

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Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh with President of Malawi Bingu wa Mutharika.

that Africa and India have had cordial relations for hundreds of years. Therefore, India and Africa are not discovering each other today. For instance, in the 1900s, India assisted Malawi in developing the rail system to ease mobility and promote commerce. As we develop smart partnership with India, I would like us to continue focusing our energies on agriculture and food security in the context of the ‘African Food Basket’. I am, thus, delighted that within the framework of the Africa-India Cooperation, we have prioritised issues of agriculture and food security. This is one of the critical issues that we are faced with today, particularly, in the developing world. It is an open secret that prices of agricultural commodities are on the rise all over the world, and this has impacted negatively on food security, especially in countries that are dependent on agricultural imports. At the same time, trade distorting agricultural subsidies given by developed countries also act against the interests of the developing countries. We need to intensify our cooperation to build capacities, allow for the transfer of applied agricultural technology and skills, and enhance market opportunities. The Indian private sector should, therefore, look for opportunities for joint ventures in Africa for agriculture production, agro-processing and value

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addition. Through the various lines of credit that our Indian counterparts have generously made available, combined with the experiences we can learn from the Indian Green Revolution, I am confident that we can diversify our export base, and enhance the value chain on a number of crops. Time has now come that we should undertake every effort to move away from the export of unprocessed goods, to value addition, thereby increasing value for our products and create jobs for our people. The India-Africa Partnership supports this by facilitating market access through Duty Free Tariff Preference (DFTP) Scheme introduced by the Indian Government and also through skills development and technology transfer. This can further be enhanced through investment in education. To this end, I am pleased to note that the Pan-Africa E-Network Project is contributing to critical fields of education and healthcare. This is a win-win partnership. It is incumbent upon us to sustain it by taking common positions on important global issues, such as, reforms of the United Nations, International Terrorism, Climate Change and Millennium Development Goals. n (This is the text of the speech by Malawi President Bingu wa Mutharika at the second Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa.)


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India and Africa: Dependable partners SADC welcomes wide-ranging possibilities offered by the Africa-India partnership that will bring skills and technology to create jobs e in Southern African Development Community (SADC) recall with enduring appreciation that India and the SADC region, have been dependable partners in the epoch making struggle for the realisation of our right to self determination and independence. Africa and India have over the years extended the South-South cooperation between our states and countries, to concentrate day-to-day collaboration between our peoples. The first summit that took place in April 2008, consolidated the fraternal bonds of friendship and solidarity that exist between India and Africa. It is the view of SADC that the second summit should provide a comprehensive framework for dialogue and cooperation between Africa and India on national, regional and continental levels. For this reason, SADC is particularly proud that the partnership recognises the importance of and encourages active interaction between Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and India. The presence of the Chief Executive Officers of RECs is a testimony of this unwavering desire to and provides sufficient basis for deepening cooperation and identifying concrete projects at the regional level. The SADC devotes special attention to matters of sustainable socio-economic development for our peoples. Since the first summit, our region has recorded remarkable gains in economic growth. However, there are still challenges to translate economic growth into tangible benefits in the form of jobs for our peoples. We, therefore, welcome the wide ranging possibilities offered by the

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Rt. Hon. Nahas Angula, Prime Minister, Republic of Namibia.

Socio-economic elements of the summit, such as collaboration in SMSEs, should enable two sides to address the plight of our youths Africa-India partnership that will bring needed skills and expertise as well as technology transfer, to create jobs and empower our youth. In our view, the socio-economic elements of the Africa-India Forum Summit, such as collaboration in the area of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) should enable our two sides to address the plight of our youths. Similarly, SADC further appreciates that the second summit will strengthen and build on the successes of the first summit, by inter alia broadening cooperation to address matters of desertification.

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SADC is committed to attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the year 2015. We, therefore, welcome the assistance of and cooperation with India to help us meet the targets and to achieve the betterment of the living conditions of our people. As a region, we are confident that the establishment of various capacity-building institutions under the auspices of Africa-India partnership will reinforce Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effort towards attainment of the MDGâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. At the same time, SADC is committed to fully utilise the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme offered by India. This scheme will certainly increase of exports of products from SADC to India.In conclusion, we wish to register our full support to institutionalise the Africa-India Forum Summit as an important vehicle in our common fight against poverty. I thank you. n (This is the text of the speech by Prime Minister of Republic of Namibia Rt. Hon. Nahas Angula on behalf of Southern African Development Community at the second Africa-India Forum Summit.)

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The second Africa-India Forum Summit culminated in the Addis Ababa Declaration and the Africa-India Framework for Enhanced Cooperation â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the two defining documents that outline the blueprint for expanding partnership between India and Africa.

Second Africa-India Forum The Addis Ababa Declaration

Summit

2011:

May 25, 2011 e, the Heads of State and Government and Heads of Delegation representing the Continent of Africa, the African Union (AU) and its Institutions, and the Prime Minister of the Republic of India, have met in Addis Ababa, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, from 24 to 25 May 2011, to continue our dialogue, deepen our friendship and enhance our cooperation, under the theme: Enhancing Partnership: Shared Vision. We recall the Delhi Declaration adopted during our First Summit in New Delhi in April 2008 and the Framework of Cooperation and the associated Plan agreed upon thereafter as providing a concrete foundation for the consolidation of our strategic partnership and also reviewed the progress made in this regard since the First Summit. We also recall that Africa and India have been fraternal partners and allies in the struggle for independence and achievement of self-determination. We reaffirm that our partnership remains based on the fundamental principles of equality, mutual respect, mutual benefit and the historical understanding amongst our peoples. We further agree that this partnership will continue to be guided by the principles of respect for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of States; commitment

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to deepen the process of African integration, dialogue among our civilisations to promote a culture of peace, tolerance and respect for religious, cultural and human rights, as well as gender equality, with a view to strengthening the trust and understanding between our peoples; recognition of diversity and levels of development between and within regions; collective action and cooperation for the common good of our States and peoples and our desire to nurture harmonious development in our plural, multi-cultural and multi-ethnic societies through the consolidation and development of our plural democracy. We welcome the continuing transformation of the political, economic and social environment in Africa. Economic growth in Africa has revived to levels that existed before the financial crisis and many African countries are progressing rapidly, opening greater avenues for economic cooperation. Similarly, Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy continues to develop into one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s growth nodes and has withstood the impact of the global recession well. Both Africa and India have young, dynamic populations with great expectations, drive and initiative. We recognise that their aspirations and vigour provide a concrete basis for expanding the frontiers of this partnership as an agenda for development, Africa and India therefore, have today a good platform to expand our partnership for development on the basis of these fundamentals. We have thus decided to enhance our partnership with new initiatives for the mutual benefit of Africa and India,

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A F R I C A In recent years, this has included substantial financial flows from India to Africa in terms of grants, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and concessional loans that continue to contribute to capacity building in the socio-economic sectors, particularly in the human resource development, the development of the private sector, increasing support to infrastructure, agriculture and SMEs, leading to a substantial expansion of Indian investment in Africa and of trade between Africa and India. We agree, to build upon this by assisting each other to achieve inclusive growth, socio-economic development and self-reliance. Areas for such cooperation will include sharing strategies for sustainable development, poverty alleviation, healthcare and universal education, and sharing appropriate technologies. These new avenues for cooperation will enable us to add strategic depth to our partnership. Our partnership enhances our ability to work together and address the global challenges of our times. In addressing these challenges, Africa and India continue to reiterate their intention to ensure that the interests of developing countries are safeguarded and that socio-economic development requirements of our various countries are guaranteed. We urge the developed countries to take ambitious actions to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and also provide adequate financing and transfer of technology to support developing countries’ efforts to effectively address the impact of climate change. We reaffirm the importance of reaching an agreement on a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol as an indispensable step to preserve the integrity of the international climate change regime. We stress the importance of the Bali Action Plan of 2007 worked out under the aegis of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in this regard. We notice the positive aspects of the Cancun Conference Climate Change negotiations in December 2010 and appeal to the developed countries to operationalise all the institutional arrangements included in the Cancun decisions. We express our firm commitment to a balanced outcome from the climate change negotiations which are commensurate with the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities on the basis of respective capabilities, in the process of COP17 which will be held in Durban, South Africa. We take note of the African common position on Climate Change and support efforts towards combating drought and desertification in Africa, as well as support for Africa’s Great Green Wall Project. We affirm the critical importance of South-South cooperation as an instrument that can effectively supplement existing international efforts and lead to tangible and real benefits for developing countries. We stress that South-South Cooperation should be a supplement to North-South Cooperation and not a substitute for it. We recognise that significant diversity prevails among individual countries in Africa, about thirty three (33) of

Q U A R T E R L Y

which are listed among the Least Developed Countries. Collectively, these countries confront some of the most persistent, pervasive and complex development challenges. Accordingly, we will explore new and innovative ways to supplement the mainstream effort to assist these developing countries and look for out-of-the-box solutions. We remain concerned with the recurrent trend of increasing global crisis that are of economic nature, such as the global food, energy and financial crisis. While recognising the current economic recovery, we are still concerned with its sustainability. We underline the importance of supporting stable, long-term capital flows to developing countries to simulate investment, especially in infrastructure. This will help enhance global demand, thus securing the long-term sustainability of the recovery and address developmental imbalances. We urge major economies to work together and enhance macro-economic policy coordination. In this context, we acknowledge the G20 process as an important forum for international economic cooperation, and request fair representation of Africa in the evolving architecture of decision-making process in the global economic system. We reiterate the importance of the UN Millennium Declaration and the need to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We reaffirm our commitment to achieving the MDGs by 2015, including through technical cooperation and financial support. Sustainable development models and unique paths of development in developing countries should be respected, including by guaranteeing the policy space of developing countries. We urge that aid commitments for developing countries must be fulfilled and that development assistance should not be reduced. We urge the developed countries to fulfill their obligations of achieving the target of 0.7 percent GNI as official development assistance (ODA) to developing countries. We also support African economic programmes within the context of Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), and Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). We underscore the need for a comprehensive and balanced outcome of the Doha Round, in a manner that gives weight to its mandate as a “development round”, based on progress already made. We reiterate the need for continuing solidarity between developing countries in this regard. We affirm the importance of ensuring that an acceptable agreement adequately protects the concerns of developing countries with regard to livelihood, food security and rural development. Equally, concerns need to be addressed on Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) services and rules. We urge all parties to oppose all forms of protectionism and trade distorting domestic support. We remain concerned that no significant progress has been achieved in key issues of interest to developing countries including India and those of Africa and therefore call, once more, on key

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players in the Doha Round to give priority to resolving all issues of critical concern to developing countries, especially regarding negotiation on agriculture. We affirm our commitment to multilateralism and to strengthening the democratic structure of the United Nations (UN) to increase the participation of developing countries in decision-making processes. We emphasise the need for enhanced Africa-India cooperation at the UN, the G-77 and other multilateral fora, to foster common purpose in addressing areas of mutual concern. In the context of issues relating to international peace and security, we commend efforts made by the African Union Peace and Security Council in maintaining peace in Africa. Africa recalls, with appreciation, India’s principled support to and continuing involvement with UN peacekeeping operations, especially in the African continent, India appreciates the role of African countries in maintaining peace and security in the continent and their participation in peace keeping missions in other parts of the world. It also commends Africa on its development of the African Standby Force, which will enhance the continent’s capacity to maintain peace and security. We take note of UN Security Council resolutions 1970 and 1973 on Libya and stress that efforts to implement them should be within the spirit and letter of those resolutions. In this regard, we call for an immediate cessation of all hostilities in Libya and urge the parties in the conflict to strive towards a political solution through peaceful means and dialogue. We express support for the African Union High-Level Ad Hoc Committee initiative and the African Union roadmap for the peaceful and consensual resolution of the conflict. Based on the strong partnership between Africa and India on international issues relating to peace and security, Africa welcomes India’s election to a non-permanent seat in the UN Security Council for the years 2011-2012. India expresses its appreciation for the support of African States in this election in October 2010. The African members of the UN Security Council and India affirm their commitment to coordinate closely during India’s tenure in the Council. In this context, we underscore the imperative of urgent and comprehensive reform of the UN system. We share the view that the UN should function in a transparent, efficient and effective manner and that the composition of its central organs must reflect contemporary realities. The expansion of the UN Security Council, in permanent and non-permanent categories of membership, with increased participation of developing countries in both categories, is central to the process of reform and for enhancing the credibility of the United Nations. India notes the common African position and the aspirations of the African countries to get their rightful place in an expanded UN Security Council as new permanent members with full rights as contained in the Ezulwini

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Consensus. Africa takes note of India’s position and its aspirations to become a permanent member with full rights in an expanded UN Security Council. We emphasise the need for Member States to exert utmost effort on the United Nations Security Council reform during the current session of the United Nations General Assembly. We recognise that the security of all nations would be enhanced by a global, non-discriminatory and verifiable elimination of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. We reaffirm our commitment to the consensus in the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations on Disarmament, which accorded priority to nuclear disarmament. We also express support for an International Convention Prohibiting the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Nuclear Weapons, leading to their destruction. We call for negotiating specific steps to reduce and finally eliminate nuclear weapons, leading to a world free from all weapons of mass destruction as envisaged in the Rajiv Gandhi Action Plan of 1988. We also look forward to the commencement of negotiations on the Treaty Banning the Production of Fissile Material for Nuclear Weapons and Other Nuclear Explosive Devices in the Conference on Disarmament. We welcome the entry into force in July 2009, of the Africa Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the Pelindaba Treaty) of 1995 and the efforts towards the operationalisation of the African Commission on Nuclear Energy (ACNE) in November 2010, which, among others, will promote the peaceful application of nuclear energy and technology within Member States. We stress the importance of addressing the threat posed by illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons through full implementation of the UN Programme of Action on SALWs and welcome the African Union’s efforts towards that end. We unequivocally condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. An act of terrorism anywhere is a threat to the entire international community. We recognise the need to further strengthen international cooperation to combat global terrorism and for compliance of all member states with all international terrorism conventions and related protocols and UN Security Council resolutions on counter-terrorism. We call on all States to cooperate with each other in prosecuting, extraditing and rendering legal assistance with regard to acts of international terrorism. In this connection, we deplore the tragic losses arising from terrorist attacks and call for the active prosecution of the authors of such crimes and their accomplices, and urge that they be brought to justice expeditiously. We further call on all countries to ensure that acts of crossborder terrorism do not occur, and that their territories are not made a base for terrorists. We strongly condemn kidnapping and hostage-taking as well as the demands

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A F R I C A for ransom and political concessions by terrorist groups. We express serious concern at the increase in such incidents. Taking note of the African position on the condemnation of the payment of ransom to terrorist groups, we call for the urgent need to address this issue. We also agree to work to expeditiously finalise and adopt, a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism at the UN. We underscore the need to strengthen the implementation of AU mechanisms to prevent and combat terrorism. We further stress the importance of addressing the threat posed by piracy off the coast of Somalia and suffering caused by taking of hostages, and call on all States to cooperate in combating and eradicating the menace of piracy. In this context, Africa welcomes India’s support to efforts to safeguard shipping in the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean from piracy. We also pledge to work to eradicate drug trafficking, trafficking in human beings, especially women and children, organised crime and money laundering. In this regard, we call on all States to ratify and implement all relevant International Instruments relating to these crimes. We have reviewed, with satisfaction, the progress made in the implementation of the Africa-India Framework of Cooperation and note in this regard, the four-year Plan of Action adopted in March 2010. Work is moving apace on the various elements of this Plan of Action, including the establishment of 21 capacity-building institutions in various countries of Africa. India is committed to substantially contribute to building African capacities through supporting education and capacity-building institutions and in enhancing value addition and processing of raw materials in Africa. Africa appreciates the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme offered by India and believes it has the potential to increase African exports to India. We stress that cooperation between Africa and India, as emerging from the First Africa-India Forum Summit, has been a true manifestation of South-South Cooperation. Our endeavour to find new ways of energising our partnership by taking into account the emerging capabilities in Africa and India has found sustenance in the implementation of the Action Plan of our Framework of Cooperation. We deeply appreciate the implementation of the initiatives that Africa and India took since the first India-Africa Forum Summit in April 2008, in New Delhi. We also laud the further initiatives that have been announced by the Prime Minister of India at the Second Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa in May 2011. India, on the other hand, welcomes the new spirit of association that has facilitated these initiatives. Our Agreement that Africa and India will go beyond bilateral linkages to strengthen partnerships with the African Union and the Regional Economic Communities of Africa, have borne fruit. The level of interaction between India and the African Union has increased manifold, particularly with the implementation of new AIFS initiatives after the success

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of the Pan-African e-Network Project. The relationships with the Regional Economic Communities have also been strengthened and India’s initiative to invite Africa’s Regional Economic Communities for a meeting in November 2010 was appreciated. The multi-tiered functional engagement which India has with Africa is a model for multilateral engagements around the world. We also welcome the positive results of efforts to promote trade and investment, human resource development and infrastructure development in Africa. We commit ourselves to involving the private sector and civil society in Africa and India to widen the scope of our partnership. We note with satisfaction that Trade Ministers from African countries and India met on 21 May, 2011, in Addis Ababa and take note of the Joint Statement issued by the Trade Ministers and lend our support to the ideas enunciated therein as indicators of our future cooperation. We appreciate that the Ministers had an in-depth discussion on the economic engagement between Africa and India, including the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme of India, cluster development initiatives and the identification of priority sectors of partnership. We also note with satisfaction the initiatives taken by the Trade Ministers in the establishment of Trade and Investment linkages between India and Africa and welcome the constitution of the India-Africa Business Council as well as the constitution of the annual India-Africa Trade Ministers’ Dialogue. We acknowledge the common platform shared by India and Africa in the WTO Doha Round and reiterate the core principles of Special and Differential (S&D) Treatment and obtaining more preferential treatment for all LDCs. We recognise that this Second Africa-India Forum Summit will help to realise our common vision of a self-reliant and economically vibrant Africa and India. We are committed to work together towards a peaceful and more egalitarian international order, where the voices of Africa and India can be heard to pursue their desire for inclusive development, both internationally and domestically. Africa is determined to partner in India’s economic resurgence as India is committed to be a close partner in Africa’s renaissance. We agree to add further substance to our Framework of Cooperation and to broaden exchanges to cover all facets of our relationship. We adopt, in this context, the Africa-India Framework for Enhanced Cooperation to supplement the existing Framework. We agree to institutionalise this Summit process. Accordingly, we agree that the next India-Africa Forum Summit will be held in 2014 in India. The Prime Minister of India expresses his appreciation to the African Union Commission for hosting the Summit and to the Government and people of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for the hospitality extended to his delegation and to all participating leaders. The African leaders also express their appreciation to the Prime Minister of India for his participation. n

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Second Africa-India Forum Summit 2011: Africa-India Framework for Enhanced Cooperation May 25, 2011 he Heads of State and Government and Heads of Delegations of Africa, representing the Continent, the African Union and the Regional Economic Communities (RECs), along with the Prime Minister of the Republic of India, noting with satisfaction the progress made in the implementation of the Africa-India Framework of Cooperation and its Plan of Action of March 2010, and agreeing to give additional substance to the partnership and to widen its scope, decide to adopt this Framework for Enhanced Cooperation between Africa and India.

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Africa and India agree to continue their cooperation in the areas enumerated below:

1. ECONOMIC COOPERATION frica and India reiterate the mutual desire to expand economic cooperation and trade and investment linkages between them. Recognising that trade and investment between Africa and India have increased, both Africa and India agree to take further measures to continue to create a positive ambience for such enhanced flows. Africa has also effectively utilised concessional financial flows from India to Africa for supporting the development of its infrastructure industry and services. Both sides agree to further expand cooperation and sharing of experiences to increase trade, investment and financial flows between India and Africa as they provide a common paradigm of cooperation in the true spirit of South-South engagement.

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i. Agriculture Africa and India reaffirm their commitment to cooperate for increasing agricultural output and achieving the Millennium Development Goal of halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger and malnutrition by 2015. They emphasise the importance of harnessing the latest scientific research for raising productivity and for the conservation of land and the environment in order to ensure food security for their people and to bring down the currently rising cost of food prices so as to make food affordable for all. In this respect, they agree to collaborate in the implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP).

ii. Trade, industry and investment Africa and India recognise that enhanced trade and economic linkages would further contribute to sustainable growth and economic development in both Africa and India

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and welcome the contribution by India to build value addition and processing facilities in Africa. Africa values private investment and financial flows on a concessional basis, which have been received from India and wishes to enhance their usage for building its infrastructure and enhancing the capacity of Africa to increase its exports. The value addition provided by Indian investment in Africa contributes to Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exports to third countries and to the development of intra-Africa trade. Both Africa and India will continue to work together to take these initiatives further. Africa has also welcomed the Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme for Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s LDCs unilaterally announced by India at the time of the first India-Africa Forum Summit in 2008. It has significantly contributed to the ability of African countries to access the growing Indian market and contributed to the creation of complementarity in their export baskets. Africa and India will together endeavour to increase awareness and usage of this Scheme. In the Action Plan of the Framework of Cooperation of IAFS-1, several initiatives were taken to build African capacities so that African human resources could join the process of industrialisation and development of the services sector. Africa and India propose to continue to develop more such initiatives so that the growing young population of Africa finds suitable training and integration into the increasing economic opportunities in Africa. Support to the legal and regulatory environment for public private partnerships, particularly in infrastructure, operationalisation of bilateral agreements on investment promotion and protection between India and African countries and support to the development of capacities in the Chambers of Commerce in Africa, would be among the new priorities to be pursued. African countries have found the India-Africa Project Partnership Conclaves to be useful vehicles for bringing Indian and African entrepreneurs and decision makers together. These would be continued.

iii. Small and medium enterprises As Africa moves towards more rapid industrialisation, there is a growing recognition that small, medium and micro enterprises offer significant avenues for supporting industrialisation, generating employment and enhancing local capacities. Institutional support for the development of SMEs in Africa will be provided through the vocational training centres offered by India and the linkages between SMEs on both sides through the Conclaves and other activities by Chambers of Commerce and Industry. Africa and India will continue to work together on such initiatives, particularly to support the creation of entrepreneurship development and business incubators in Africa. It is the common endeavour of both, that in the capacity-building initiatives to be undertaken in the future, support to the private sector would be an integral part of the new efforts.

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A F R I C A

Q U A R T E R L Y

iv. Finance

i. Peace and security

One of the salient features of the first Africa- India Forum Summit and its Action Plan was the commitment by India for new financial flows to assist African countries in the true spirit of South-South Cooperation. Besides the grants for establishing capacity-building institutions in Africa, there was an important commitment for concessional lines of credit to support the economic development of African countries and for regional integration. These have been augmented by significant private sector flows through FDI into Africa. Both Africa and India will work together to enhance the efficacy and spread of these financial flows so that the common objectives are fully met. India remains committed to supporting Africa with concessional lines of credit and suitable grants for mutually beneficial projects. Greater efforts will be made to utilise these flows for regional integration projects. There would be an increasing focus to enhance engagement between African and Indian financial institutions and an encouragement for closer relationship between commercial banks in Africa and India. Encouragement will be provided to the opening of branches of Indian banks in Africa and African banks in India to participate in the growing matrix of financial flows between Africa and India.

Peace and Security are essential to progress and sustainable development, which are common goals for Africa and India. Both Africa and India will continue their close cooperation, including through regular consultations at the United Nations, at the African Union and in New Delhi. Both will work towards an early operationalisation of the African Standby Force through special training programmes.

v. Regional integration Africa and India reiterate the importance of the Regional Economic Communities in Africa and their contribution to economic integration within themselves and in Africa. India has an important engagement with the Regional Economic Communities of Africa as pat of its multi-tiered cooperation. Both Africa and India recall the first ever meeting of India with the African RECs held in November 2010. In recognition of this, both Africa and India agree to build capacities for effectively carrying out the implementation of the integration agenda among the Regional Economic Communities, including providing financial support to regional integration projects and capacity building programmes among the RECs.

2. POLITICAL COOPERATION

ii. Civil society and governance Africa and India recognise the importance of democratic governance and of promoting and protecting human rights. They also recognise the importance of decentralisation, the promotion of local government and the need to strengthen the institutions of parliamentary democracy and elections. They agree to enhance cooperation by sharing of experiences and capacity building, where necessary, among Election Commissions, the institutions of parliamentary democracy and media organisations. They also agree to cooperate in the strengthening of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights through sharing of best practices and capacity building of the court. Africa and India will also encourage interaction of legal experts/lawyers through the Bar Associations. They will also exchange experiences on best practices, research and human resources within the framework of decentralisation and local governance alongside the Conference of Ministers of Public Services and Administration and ECOSOCC.

3. COOPERATION IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT he development of science & technology and research capacities is an integral pat of the process of development. Africa greatly values the progress made by India in its scientific and technological development and believes that it can engage with India in these sectors, especially knowledge and technology transfer for mutual benefit. Africa and India are convinced that harnessing the knowledge economy can make hunger and want, things of the past. They agree to intensify cooperation in the following areas:

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i. Science and technology frica and India are conscious of the important role they play in the world and agree to intensify political cooperation. Their common endeavour will be to continue to strive for peace and security as such harmonious policies will allow the fructification of the enhanced agenda of cooperation currently agreed upon. In this respect, the African Union would consider, as soon as possible, the establishment of an office in New Delhi, India, as recognition of the close partnership that exists between Africa and India.

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Africa welcomes the establishment of the Special Agricultural Scholarship Scheme and the Special Science & Technology Fellowship Scheme (CV Raman Fellowships) under the provisions of IAFS-1 and looks forward to continuing this engagement to build scientific and technological human resource in Africa, including through the Pan-African University for which Africa has requested India, to be the Lead Partner in the Life and Earth Sciences segment. Management of natural disasters, combating

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desertification and support to scientific institutions in Africa would continue. Initiatives to enhance linkages between scientific institutions in Africa and India would be undertaken and training on health related issues like HIV, TB and Malaria will be explored. The African-Indian Science and Technology Conference will also be organised.

ii. Information and Communication Technology Africa has immense regard and admiration for the strides made by India in the development of its information and communications technology. The contribution of the Government of India towards developing the infrastructure and the resourcefulness of the private sector and Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s scientific and technological manpower in allowing this sector to make important contributions to the growth of GDP in India, are well recognised in Africa. Africa and India recognise the importance of an early introduction of information and communication technologies as key enablers of capacity building for youth and for poverty eradication and accelerated growth. Africa recognises the important contribution made by the Pan-African E-Network Project to African countries in achieving these objectives and both Africa and India commit themselves to taking the lessons of the implementation and efficacy of the Pan-African E-Network Project further, so that the digital divide can be bridged and the socio-economic benefits of ICT can be harnessed for their mutual objectives.

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the host governments and the African Union. They will make efforts to have effective governance strategies and business plans for these institutions to make them sustainable. India remains committed to further enhancement of this approach of building African capacities in Africa. Pan-Africa E-Network Project: Africa and India have both recognised the successful implementation of this visionary project. It has added capacity and value in the critical fields of education and health care in African countries. Its fulsome utilisation will remain one of the major objectives of the Framework of Enhanced Cooperation and effots will be made to enhance its utilisation, widen its scope and increase its success rate so that the true objectives of assisting Africa in meeting its millennium development goals on education and health could be achieved. Africa and India will continue to work together to increase exchanges in education, health, water and sanitation, culture and spots and poverty eradication through innovative new programmes as well as commit themselves to effective implementation of programmes agreed upon earlier in the Action Plan for the Framework of Cooperation. Special care would be taken to encourage greater investment in some of these sectors as well as to increase financial flows from the government sector to achieve these objectives. India is committed to continue with increasing number of scholarships both for under-graduate and post-graduate studies including in specialised areas like agriculture, science & technology and other priorities listed in this Framework for Enhanced Cooperation.

5. COOPERATION IN HEALTH, CULTURE AND SPORTS i. Health

frica and India both recognise the importance of capacity building, particularly as both are young societies and want to translate the demographic dividend into effective growth. The successful utilisation of the ITEC programme offered by India has been a manifestation of the South-South Cooperation that effectively exists between Africa and India. The enhancement of scholarships and training positions under the ITEC programme, as well as the creation of new courses for training of African nationals in specified areas, all emerge from the Action Plan of the Framework of Cooperation of IAFS-1. Africa and India would endeavour to continue to take these important initiatives forward together. India is committed to their enhancement. Africa has been appreciative of the 21 new capacity-building institutions which India is in the process of establishing in Africa in diverse sectors. These will greatly assist African human resource development for the development of industries and the service sector to contribute to growth. Both India and Africa will continue to strive to have an early conclusion of the implementation of the process to establish these new institutions in close collaboration between the Indian implementing agencies,

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In the area of health, Africa and India reiterate their conviction that the promotion of health is critical in the development of the human capital necessary to drive socioeconomic growth. They look forward to the outputs and recommendations of the India-Africa workshop on Traditional medicine to be held in India and undertake to implement the outcome. They reaffirm their commitment to enhance collaboration in the application of advancement in science, technology, research and development to training in the area of HIV, TB and Malaria; the provision of basic medical services in rural areas, the deployment of Telecoms and ICTs in support of tele-medecine and e-health applications; strengthening of public-private sector collaboration in the areas of pharmaceutical and procurement in Africa and India in the framework of the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Plan for Africa, the fight against counterfeit medicines. They also undertake to pursue dialogue on intellectual property rights and access to medicines; research and development in traditional medicine and practices in Africa and India; sharing of experiences, specialised expertise and best practices in healthcare systems development and

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A F R I C A community health programmes; support for Africa’s Campaign on Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); and training and continuing education for health professionals;

ii. Culture Noting the role that culture can play in the development and integration of their societies, specifically through the use of creative and cultural industries, Africa and India agree to collaborate in the development of cultural policies and will undertake the following: Exchange of experience in the area of the development of creative industries and cultural goods so as to increase the contribution of culture to the development of their nations and collaborate in the organisation of international training for trainers in the field of cultural goods protection.

iii Sports Considering the paramount role that sports can play in the development and integration of their societies, specifically through the use of spots as a tool for development and desirous to advocate for well-designed sports and play programmes, as powerful tools for fostering health, child and individual development, teaching positive values and life skills, strengthening education and improving health and well-being; Africa and India agree to collaborate in the development of spots policies; exchange of experiences in the area of the development of sports and the training of trainers in the field of qualified spots personnel;

5. COOPERATION IN TOURISM frica and India are deeply conscious of their age-old ties at the people to people level. As neighbours across the Indian Ocean, Africa and India are in favour of providing greater connectivity between the countries of Africa and India and to increase the level of popular exchanges. Tourism and connectivity remain important areas which could provide economic benefits and also contribute to enhanced mutual understanding. Africa and India therefore, agree to strengthen partnership with the private sector especially, travel agencies, hotels, airlines and other tourism related establishments, as well as the media, and take other necessary steps that will enable harmonisation of policies and norms in tourism with a view to advancing tourism development between the two sides.

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their commitment to focus on these areas, particularly in the context of sustainable development as important areas of cooperation. They dedicate themselves to fulfilling programmes established under the Action Plan and to look at enhanced engagement in areas such as the continental NEPAD-Identified infrastructure projects and PIDA, particularly with regard to increasing financial flows to these sectors. This will provide a better environment for greater investment in these sectors. They agree to work closely together in the interest of developing countries to set an appropriate international agenda to benefit the development of both Africa and India. Efforts will be made to give more attention to new areas like new and renewable energies through training programmes and capacity building as well as in sustainable environmental practices. The concessional credit flows from India would be channeled in a wider manner into infrastructure projects. They agree to cooperate in the area of environment, including desertification and support for Africa’s Great Green Wall project.

7. COOPERATION IN THE AREA OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATIONS he successful implementation of the decisions of the first Africa-India Forum Summit emanating from the Framework Cooperation and its Action Plan have brought qualitative change into the existing relationship between Africa and India. The depth and diversity of the relationship has significantly altered and the traditional engagement has successfully moved towards a modern functional partnership. However, there remains an uneven recognition of this, particularly in the public mind which requires to be addressed. At the same time, Africa needs greater opportunities to bring its own media and communications to an independent growth path in recognition of its multi-cultural and multi-ethnic identities. Africa and India therefore agree to promote a larger number of visits between African and Indian editors and journalists, academicians, scholars and civil society representatives, so that closer interaction envisaged in this Framework for Enhanced Cooperation can be suitably disseminated. In this respect, consideration will be given to the training of African media personnel with a view to capacity building and improving their skills. Without prejudice to India’s ongoing and future programmes at the bilateral, REC and other levels, it is agreed to jointly revise, within a period of six months, the Joint Plan of Action to fully reflect the Africa-India Framework for Enhanced Cooperation. This Joint Plan of Action will also incorporate a follow-up mechanism which will ensure the effective implementation of programmes and activities agreed in the Plan. n

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Prime Minister’s address at the joint session of the two houses of the Parliament of Ethiopia, in Addis Ababa May 26, 2011 am deeply honoured to be given this opportunity to address the Joint Session of both Houses of the Parliament of Ethiopia. I feel privileged to be the first Prime Minister of India to visit this great country. For me, this is a voyage of friendship and solidarity. I bring to you greetings from a fellow democracy — a democracy that, like yours, faces the challenges of development and a democracy that, like yours, treasures diversity and federalism. I am conscious that when one visits Ethiopia one visits the cradle of humankind. It is located in the Horn of Africa and is the gateway to East Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh addressing the joint session of the Africa. It is a land of natural beauty and home to the most Ethiopian parliament in Addis Ababa, on May 26. ancient kingdom in Africa. India and Ethiopia are no strangers to each other. Many stability are the fruit of hard-working people and a tribute to millennia ago, Africa and India were joined as one landmass. the progressive leadership of prime minister Meles Zenawi. The voice of Ethiopia is heard with respect. Addis Ababa, Today we are separated by the waters of the Indian Ocean but our connections are deep and they have brought in their wake the new flower, has become the diplomatic capital of Africa. Relations between India and Ethiopia have expanded. We rich and varied exchanges in the ebb and flow of history. Indian traders flocked to the ancient port of Adulis, trading attach high importance to our relations with Ethiopia. Our silk and spices for gold and ivory. A sizeable Indian development and economic partnership is progressing well. community consisting of merchants and artisans came and set- Education and capacity building are priorities for both our tled in this ancient land in the latter part of the 19th century. countries. The Pan-African e-Network project in Ethiopia There was movement in the other direction too. Thousands implemented by India has connected Addis Ababa University of Ethiopians have settled as an integral part of Indian society with the Indira Gandhi National Open University. We have along the West Coast of India. The fort of Murud Janjira in agreed to the establishment of a Vocational Training Centre. India has assisted in a rural electrification programme in Maharashtra stands as a symbol of African influence in India. These exchanges have produced remarkable and often Southern Ethiopia. India has provided a line of credit of $640 overlooked similarities in our traditions and cultures. The million for the development of Ethiopia’s sugar industry. We Siddis of African descent living in India have created a fusion will support the Ethio-Djibouti Railway project to promote of Indian and African styles of music that thrives today. The regional integration. We have decided to extend a line of tradition in southern India of using fermented flour for credit of $300 million for this project. India is one of the largest making Dosa is similar to the Injara in Ethiopia. The sight of foreign investors in Ethiopia. More than 450 Indian women with heads covered and men wearing turbans is companies have committed upwards of $4 billion in strikingly common in Ethiopian and Indian villages. investment in Ethiopia. Our bilateral trade is on course to Hospitality in humble village homes begins with simple reach the target of US $1 billion by 2015. Our political ties are close. Indian troops were part of the offerings, and guests are treated as incarnations of the gods. Unlike large parts of Asia and Africa, Ethiopia never suffered UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Military training is a the humiliation and trauma of colonisation. Yet, when valued area of our cooperation. The decisions prime minister Abyssinia was invaded in 1935, it deeply affected Jawaharlal Zenawi and I will strengthen our partnership further. Going Nehru, and he led India in offering sympathy to the people of forward, our bilateral cooperation should help to make a Ethiopia. In his appeal to the people of India to observe difference to the real problems affecting the common man. India and Ethiopia must address challenges of food Abyssinia Day in 1936 he said: ‘We in India can do nothing to help our brethren in distress in Ethiopia for we also are victims security, energy security, health security, sustainable of imperialism. But we can at least send them sympathy in the development and climate change. We have to learn to solve our hour of their trial. We stand with them today in their sorrow own problems by collaborating with each other. Our farming as we hope to stand together when better days come.’ I believe communities and scientists should collaborate to usher in a second Green Revolution. the better days that Jawaharlal Nehru spoke of have come. Providing affordable healthcare to our people, particularEthiopia has overcome many adversities to become one of Africa’s fastest growing economies. Ethiopia is a magnet for ly in rural areas, is another challenge. Indian pharmaceutical foreign investment. Its economic performance and political companies are known for providing cheap and good quality

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A F R I C A generic drugs. I am happy they have begun to invest in Ethiopia. We have to be conscious of our environment and ensure judicious management of natural resources. It is essential for rich countries to share financial burden of combating climate change, participate in research and development and promote transfer of technology to ensure green growth. Prime Minister Zenawi has made a contribution as co-chair of the United Nations Secretary General’s High-level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing. The struggles for freedom in India and Africa and the collaboration of our leaders were glorious chapters in our history. After we attained freedom, we worked shoulder to shoulder to fight apartheid and strengthen the Non-aligned Movement and the United Nations. India supported liberation movements such as the African National Congress and South West Africa People’s Organisation. We fought to build a just, equitable and democratic international order. This is the legacy of friendship we have inherited from our forefathers. The world has changed. Globalisation is a reality today. Our people have expectations. Africa is responding to these and discovering its potential. The world is reaching out to Africa and seeing it as a new growth pole in the world economy. India sees Africa as a natural partner in our engagement with the world. India and Africa have to work together to make global interdependence work for the millions in the developing world. This is our next project. We must work towards market access for some of the poorest commodity producers in Africa. Vulnerable sections of our peasantry need to be protected from the vagaries of the international marketplace. It is imperative that the development dimension of the Doha Round of negotiations is not diluted. Prices of many agricultural commodities remain volatile. The problem is made worse by speculation. The G-20 countries have taken the initiative of supporting work on regulation and supervision of commodity derivative markets. This is an area where India and Ethiopia should cooperate. The Second India-Africa Forum Summit has opened a new era in India-Africa relations. Our development cooperation with Africa is based on the principles of mutual equality and mutual benefit. Local employment generation and capacity development are the pillars of our development cooperation. African students find a welcome home in India. The Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme has enabled the training of thousands of African youth in industrial training institutes, medical colleges, engineering colleges and in fields such as business administration, agriculture and legal services. We have decided to increase scholarships and training slots for Africa. Their total number will stand at over 22,000 during the next three years. The development of infrastructure in Africa is a priority and an area where Indian technology is appropriate. We will offer $5 billion for the next three years under lines of credit to help achieve the development goals of Africa. We will offer an additional $700 million to establish new institutions and

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training programmes in consultation with the African Union and its institutions. India and Ethiopia are pluralistic and diverse societies. We share the belief that democracy and respect for the free will of the people are the only durable basis to find solutions to our problems. We believe that similar principles should be applied in the conduct of international governance. The Horn of Africa is today faced with threats from piracy and terrorism. International piracy in the Red Sea and off the coast of Somalia has become a well-organised industry. It is important that the United Nations takes the lead in developing a comprehensive and effective response to this threat. Simultaneously, the international community should continue with efforts to restore stability in Somalia. As a littoral State of the Indian Ocean, India is ready to work with Ethiopia and other African countries in this regard. We would all like the Indian Ocean to remain a secure link between Asia and Africa through which international maritime trade can take place unhindered. The winds of change are blowing in West Asia and North Africa. We believe it is the right of all peoples to determine their own destiny and choose their own path of development. International actions must be based on the rule of law and be strictly within the framework of United Nations Resolutions. We support the efforts of the African Union in bringing peace and stability to the region. The birth of a new nation in a few weeks time in South Sudan will be a historic event. We hope it will contribute to peace and reconciliation among the people of Sudan. The changing world order calls for corresponding changes in the structure of institutions of global governance, whether these are international financial institutions or the international monetary system or the United Nations Security Council. These are issues which have to be tackled and resolved. We are grateful to Ethiopia for its strong support to India’s permanent membership in an expanded Security Council and look forward to our continuing cooperation with Ethiopia on these issues. Ethiopia is one of most stable and progressive states in Africa. The engine of African growth is being driven by economic dynamism in countries like Ethiopia. Ethiopia has the credentials to shape a new vision for Africa’s prosperity and development. I call upon you, the parliamentarians and people of Ethiopia, to take a lead in this process. The people of India will stand by you every step of the way. Our economies have been doing well in recent years. Let us cooperate with each other so that we can reinforce and build upon our successes and achievements. In conclusion, let me say once again how fortunate I feel to have visited your beautiful country. I feel a sense of deep personal fulfillment to see the coming together of our two brotherly nations. You have honoured me and the people of India today for which I am indebted to you. I wish Ethiopia greater peace, prosperity and happiness in the years ahead. May your dreams come true.” n

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Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singhâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s speech at a lunch hosted by Tanzanian President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete in Dar es Salaam May 27, 2011 thank you most sincerely for the warm words of welcome. I also wish to thank you and Mrs. Kikwete for your very gracious hospitality. We are deeply touched by the warmth and friendship of the Tanzanian people. I am honoured to visit your great country. This is the land of mighty lakes, the majestic snow capped Kilimanjaro and wildlife reserves. Its people have lived in harmony for years and are renowned for their politeness and hard work. For me it is a pilgrimage to visit the land of Mwalimu Julius Nyerere. He was a towering personality not only of Tanzania but also of the entire developing world. We remember him fondly and can never forget his contribution to the cause of the South. I was privileged to work with him in preparing the report of the South Commission. I recall your highly successful visit to India in 2008, when I had the privilege of co-chairing Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh with Tanzanian President Jakaya Mrisho the first India-Africa Forum Summit with you. Kikwete at a meeting in Dar es Salaam, on May 27. Under your leadership Tanzania has made India and Africa are like brothers of an extended family. commendable progress. The recent general elections have again reaffirmed the trust the people of Tanzania have in We have to rediscover and revive these fraternal ties of kinship. We are working hard to build a strong, mutually your wisdom and vision. Tanzania has withstood the global economic crisis well beneficial and diversified relationship with the people of and plays a most influential role in African and global affairs. Africa. We seek a partnership on the basis of equality and We applaud your achievements in dealing with poverty and mutual benefit. The second Africa India Forum Summit, which hunger and wish you greater success. Our two countries belong to different continents but for concluded on May 25 in Addis Ababa, has taken forward the centuries we have been neighbours across the Indian Ocean. agenda of cooperation between India and Africa. The seeds Maritime trade and people to people exchanges have drawn for this were laid with your support in New Delhi in 2008, us closer. We have shared historical experiences. Today, we for which I am most grateful. I am confident that we are on our way to revive the seek to build a modern and dynamic partnership, based on golden era of Africa-India relations, when our leaders stood the strength of these traditional bonds. We face the common challenges of accelerating shoulder to shoulder in the struggle for freedom and as economic development; of ensuring that its fruits reach the partners in peace. India attaches great importance to its relations with the most disadvantaged sections; and of strengthening peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s United Republic of Tanzania. Let us pledge to work participation in processes of governance. As two leading democracies, we should aim to build a together to realise the full potential of our partnership. Excellencies and distinguished guests, may I now request broad and ambitious relationship that can serve as a model you to join me in raising a toast to the good health of his of cooperation among developing countries. Our two countries should work together for interna- excellency President Jakaya Kikwete and Mrs. Kikwete; to tional peace and stability. We should work to ensure that the the prosperity and well-being of the people of the United fruits of globalisation are shared equitably. We should make Republic of Tanzania; and to further strengthening of the common cause to ensure that global governance is just and bonds of cooperation and friendship between India and the United Republic of Tanzania. meets the aspirations of the developing world. n

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Out of US $5.4 billion, in concessional lines of credit, announced at the time of the last Summit, nearly US $2 billion for projects in Africa have been committed. 19 Least Developed Countries in Africa are already availing the May 23, 2011 benefits of Duty Free Tariff Preference (DFTP) Scheme, which India announced unilaterally during the last Summit. Distinguished Foreign Ministers, Distinguished Chairperson of the African Union We are satisfied with the steady progress of implementation of the commitments made in first India-Africa Forum Commission, Distinguished representatives of the Regional Summit and these are being constantly monitored. Our senior officials have met here in Addis Ababa over the Economic Communities and NEPAD, last few days. The officials have expended sincere efforts in Excellencies, drafting the outcome documents for the 2nd Africa India Forum Summit. The two documents, Addis Ababa Ladies and Gentlemen, Declaration and India Africa Framework for Enhanced t gives me great pleasure to welcome you all to this Foreign Cooperation, reflect our traditional consultative and Ministers’ Meeting of the 2nd Africa India Forum Summit. consensual approach towards issues of mutual interest. We, the Foreign Ministers of the India Africa Forum, may We meet here today in this beautiful city to deliberate upon accord our agreement to these documents so the current state of our partnership and to that they can be placed before our leaders for chart out the way ahead in taking this their consideration when they meet exemplary association to still greater heights. tomorrow for the Summit. I am glad to note that India’s partnership The Trade Ministers of the India-Africa with Africa is marked by a frank and open Forum met on 21 May 2011 and I am consultative mechanism wherein we meet as optimistic that their deliberations would add partners who not just highlight their needs further momentum to trade and commercial and expectations but bring forth historical exchanges between India and her African goodwill and empathy. We fully appreciate partners. each other’s abilities as well as constraints. I would also like to share with you that a We met in New Delhi three years ago series of events have been organised during the First India Africa Forum Summit, concurrently with this 2nd Africa India a landmark event which re-defined the Forum Summit. contours of India-Africa relations. The These events include academic and Summit provided us with a design of a Minister for External Affairs media symposia, trade exhibition, cultural three-tiered cooperation at the Pan African, the S. M. Krishna performances, interaction between Indian and regional as well as the bilateral levels. The implementation of various announcements made under the African craftswomen, film festival, etc. Some of you might rubric of India Africa Framework of Cooperation should have had the opportunity to attend some of these events. I would also like to take this opportunity to place before this indeed be a matter of utmost satisfaction for all of us. A Joint Action Plan, based on the India-Africa Framework august gathering the two reports that have emerged from the for Cooperation, was announced in March 2010. One of the India-Africa Academic Symposium and the India-Africa highlights of the Joint Action Plan is the establishment of 19 Media Partnership Symposium. We intend to continue and further enrich our development capacity building institutions. The African Union has conveyed to us the locations of these institutions in December cooperation with our African partners. In this regard, I am glad to inform that we would be signing today Memoranda of 2010. The concerned implementing agencies have already begun Understanding (MoUs) to establish 14 capacity-building the preliminary process and preparation of Detailed Project institutions in various member states of the African union. We meet today in the context of a rapidly changing world. Reports is underway. Several new training programmes for about 450 trainees have been completed during the last year. Both India and her African partners need to work towards Further, Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation carving our rightful places in the emerging global order. India’s (ITEC) training positions were increased and Indian Council economic progress and Africa’s robust resurgence in recent for Cultural Relations (ICCR) scholarships have also been years need to be channelised towards this end. I am extremely hopeful that our interactions during this Summit doubled. The response to our offer for Special Agriculture and over the coming years will be guided by the realisation of Scholarships and C.V. Raman Scientific Fellowship has been this historical responsibility. I thank you and look forward to participating in today’s very encouraging and currently more than 150 scholars are discussions. benefitting from these. n External Affairs Minister S.M. Krishna’s speech at the Foreign Ministers’ Meeting of the Africa-India Forum Summit 2011

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■ Contributors ■ GURJIT SINGH is Additional Secretary (East and Southern Africa), Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi. He was

India’s Permanent Representative to the African Union and the Ambassador of India to Ethiopia at the time of the First India-Africa Forum Summit. ■ JEAN PING is the Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union and a Gabonese diplomat. He had been the Foreign Minister of Gabon from 1999-2008 and has also served as President of the United Nations General Assembly from 2004-2005. ■ H.H.S VISWANATHAN is a former High Commissioner of India to Nigeria. He is a Distinguished Fellow

at Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi. He has had extensive and diverse experience in international relations and diplomacy. ■ RENU MODI is Senior Lecturer and former Director (2008-2010) of the Centre for African Studies, University of

Mumbai. She has edited many books, including Beyond Relocation: The Imperative of Sustainable Resettlement (ed. Sage, New Delhi, 2009) and South South Cooperation: Africa on the Center Stage (ed. Palgrave Macmillan, United Kingdom, August 2011). She has also served as the social development consultant with the Inspection Panel of the World Bank in 2005. ■ MANISH CHAND is Editor of Africa Quarterly, a journal focused on India-Africa relations, published by ICCR, and

Senior Editor with IANS, a leading Indian media company. He has presented papers at international seminars. He has written widely on African issues and the ongoing African renaissance, including the emergence of Asian powers in the African continent. ■ HAYLEY HERMAN is Research Manager at the Centre for Chinese Studies based at the University of Stellenbosch.

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Note to Contributors Africa Quarterly, published since 1961, is devoted to the study and objective analyses of African affairs and issues related to India-Africa relations. Contributions are invited from outstanding writers, experts and specialists in India, Africa and other countries on various political, economic, social-cultural, literary, philosophical and other themes pertaining to African affairs and India-Africa relations. Preference will be given to those articles which deal succinctly with issues that are both important and clearly defined. Articles which are purely narrative and descriptive and lacking in analytical content are not likely to be accepted. Contributions should be in a clear, concise, readable style and written in English. Articles submitted to Africa Quarterly should be original contributions and should not be under consideration by any other publication at the same time. The Editor is responsible for the selection and acceptance of articles, but responsibility for errors of facts and opinions expressed in them rests with authors. Manuscripts submitted should be accompanied with a statement that the same has not been submitted/accepted for publication elsewhere. Copyright of articles published in the Africa Quarterly will be retained by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR). Manuscripts submitted to Africa Quarterly should be typed double space on one side of the paper and two copies should be sent. A diskette (3 ½” ) MS-Dos compatible, and e-mail as an attachment should be sent along with the two hard copies. Authors should clearly indicate their full name, address, e-mail, academic status and current institutional affiliation. A brief biographical note (one paragraph) about the writer may also be sent. The length of the article should not normally exceed 7,000 to 8,000 words, or 20 to 25 ( A-4 size) typed pages in manuscript. Titles should be kept as brief as possible. Footnote numbering should be clearly marked and consecutively numbered in the text and notes placed at the end of the article and not at the bottom of the relevant page. Tables (including graphs, maps, figures) must be submitted in a form suitable for reproduction on a separate sheet of paper and not within the text. Each table should have a clear descriptive title and mention where it is to be placed in the article. Place all footnotes in a table at the end of the article. Reference numbers within the text should be placed after the punctuation mark. Footnote style: In the case of books, the author, title of the book, place of publication, publisher, date of publication and page numbers should be given in that order, e.g. Basil Davidson, ‘The Blackman’s Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation State’, London, James Curry, 1992, pp. 15-22. In the case of articles, the author, title of article, name of the journal, volume and issue number in brackets, the year and the page numbers should be given in that order. In addition to major articles and research papers, Africa Quarterly also publishes short articles in the section titled News & Events. They may not exceed 2,000 words in length. Contributions of short stories and poems are also welcome. Contributors to Africa Quarterly are entitled to two copies of the issue in which their article appears in addition to a modest honorarium. Contributors of major articles accepted for publication will receive up to a maximum of `4,000. Contributions may be sent by post to: The Editor Africa Quarterly Indian Council for Cultural Relations Azad Bhavan Indraprastha Estate New Delhi-110 002 Contributions may be e-mailed to: africa.quarterly@gmail.com

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l BIRTH OF SOUTH SUDAN: Unbroken continuity l INTERVIEW: India-Egypt ties set for an upsurge

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