Page 1

In Transit

Teachers: Håvard Breivik Tone Selmer-Olsen Mattias Josefsson Tommy Sandløkk

nsit

Architectural Solutions in Emergencies

In Transit Studio: Rebecca Dunne (Ireland) Niloufar Gharavi (Iran) David Kelly (Ireland) Paul-Antoine Lucas (France) Clara Triviño Massó (Spain) Christos Pampafikos (Greece) Nadine Schmauser (Germany) Ralf Sieber (Germany) Tea Skog (Norway) Montserrat Solervicens (Chile) Åsmund Amandus Steinsholm (Norway) Eva Birgitte Storrusten (Norway) Anna Rosa Strassegger (Norway) Ida Mohn Werner (Norway) Ina Westerlund (Finland)

In Tran

In Transit Architectural Solutions in Emergencies

Archite ectural Solutions in Eme ergencies


Architectural Solutions in Emergencies

Teachers: Håvard Breivik Tone Selmer-Olsen Mattias Josefsson Tommy Sandløkk

In Transit

In Transit Studio: Rebecca Dunne (Ireland) Niloufar Gharavi (Iran) David Kelly (Ireland) Paul-Antoine Lucas (France) Clara Triviño Massó (Spain) Christos Pampafikos (Greece) Nadine Schmauser (Germany) Ralf Sieber (Germany) Tea Skog (Norway) Montserrat Solervicens (Chile) Åsmund Amandus Steinsholm (Norway) Eva Birgitte Storrusten (Norway) Anna Rosa Strassegger (Norway) Ida Mohn Werner (Norway) Ina Westerlund (Finland)

IN TRANSIT

Architectural Solutions in Emergencies


Normality in a State of Emergency Tone Selmer-Olsen & HĂĽvard Breivik

Introduction

The current refugee crisis, when millions of people are fleeing war and persecution, proves that there is an acute need for the professions constituting the ‘built environment’, together with the international humanitarian community, to adapt to the particularities of the shifting nature of global crisis caused by mass displacement and urbanization. While these challenges need to be approached from many different angles, there is an urgent need for architects to take on a proactive role in crisis response and to offer their expertise on improving physical conditions and thereby creating dignified living conditions and the feeling of normality for people seeking sanctuary in unfamiliar and often hostile environments.


In Transit Architectural Solutions in Emergencies

Acknowledgments

Editors: Håvard Breivik & Tone Selmer-Olsen Proofreading: Aase-Marie Vardøen Design: Paul-Antoine Lucas Production Assistance: Paul-Antoine Lucas Pictures: Håvard Breivik, Tone Selmer-Olsen, Mattias Fredrik Josefsson

This publication is made possible by the generous support of the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) / NORCAP. Many thanks to Benedicte Giæver and Anne Cath. Da Silva for supporting and believing in this project, and for recognizing the need for bringing in expertise from academia and the world of architecture in humanitarian response. A big thank you also goes to Dean Ole Gustavsen of the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO) for acknowledging the potential of external partnerships and for including current global affairs into the school’s curriculum.

Printing and Binding: Gamlebyen Grafiske Paper: 130g/sm Munken Lynx Typefaces: Akkurat No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or manner whatsoever withour prior written permission, except in the case of Brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

A special thank you goes to Jørn-Casper Øwre of NORCAP, who has been a fellow initiator and driving force for making this project happen. Thank you for your flexibility, and personal engagement. A special thank you to Marianne Skjulhaug of AHO, for your swift action upon the unusual request for running an extracurricular studio course at the Institute of Urbanism and Landscape, for continuing to believe in us, and for your personal quest to convince the profession of the importance of educating socially engaged architects and planners. Thanks to the many dedicated colleagues and collaborators from our partner organizations, who critiqued, gave lectures and offered their insights before, during and after the academic semester: Margo Baars, Vibeke Jensen, Johanne Borthne, Kenneth Chulley, Mari Seilskjær, Liv Grete Framgård, Ansa Masood, Lisbet Harboe, Ketil Blinge, and Bala Venkatasamy. Thank you, Aase Vardøen for making sure that the texts in this publication are linguistically sound and in accordance with the rules of the English language. A big thank you to our fellow teachers, Mattias Fredrik Josefsson and Tommy Sandløkk, who came in with different perspectives - complementing our knowledge, and for being great colleagues and friends. And most importantly, this project could not have been realized without the dedication and hard work of the students at the In Transit Studio. Thank you for using your creativity and contributing to finding solutions for people in need, and for being so positive and patient with your teachers - who came in with limited pedagogical experience. A special thanks goes to Paul-Antoine Lucas, who spent large parts of his summer holiday in putting this material together, never complaining about his teachers constantly making changes and adding more tasks.


In Transit Architectural Solutions in Emergencies

Acknowledgments

Editors: Håvard Breivik & Tone Selmer-Olsen Proofreading: Aase-Marie Vardøen Design: Paul-Antoine Lucas Production Assistance: Paul-Antoine Lucas Pictures: Håvard Breivik, Tone Selmer-Olsen, Mattias Fredrik Josefsson

This publication is made possible by the generous support of the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) / NORCAP. Many thanks to Benedicte Giæver and Anne Cath. Da Silva for supporting and believing in this project, and for recognizing the need for bringing in expertise from academia and the world of architecture in humanitarian response. A big thank you also goes to Dean Ole Gustavsen of the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO) for acknowledging the potential of external partnerships and for including current global affairs into the school’s curriculum.

Printing and Binding: Gamlebyen Grafiske Paper: 130g/sm Munken Lynx Typefaces: Akkurat No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any form or manner whatsoever withour prior written permission, except in the case of Brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

A special thank you goes to Jørn-Casper Øwre of NORCAP, who has been a fellow initiator and driving force for making this project happen. Thank you for your flexibility, and personal engagement. A special thank you to Marianne Skjulhaug of AHO, for your swift action upon the unusual request for running an extracurricular studio course at the Institute of Urbanism and Landscape, for continuing to believe in us, and for your personal quest to convince the profession of the importance of educating socially engaged architects and planners. Thanks to the many dedicated colleagues and collaborators from our partner organizations, who critiqued, gave lectures and offered their insights before, during and after the academic semester: Margo Baars, Vibeke Jensen, Johanne Borthne, Kenneth Chulley, Mari Seilskjær, Liv Grete Framgård, Ansa Masood, Lisbet Harboe, Ketil Blinge, and Bala Venkatasamy. Thank you, Aase Vardøen for making sure that the texts in this publication are linguistically sound and in accordance with the rules of the English language. A big thank you to our fellow teachers, Mattias Fredrik Josefsson and Tommy Sandløkk, who came in with different perspectives - complementing our knowledge, and for being great colleagues and friends. And most importantly, this project could not have been realized without the dedication and hard work of the students at the In Transit Studio. Thank you for using your creativity and contributing to finding solutions for people in need, and for being so positive and patient with your teachers - who came in with limited pedagogical experience. A special thanks goes to Paul-Antoine Lucas, who spent large parts of his summer holiday in putting this material together, never complaining about his teachers constantly making changes and adding more tasks.


Benedicte Giæver Director Expert Deployment / NORCAP

“Only by joining forces can we advance humanitarian assistance and strengthen the resilience of communities affected by war, conflict and natural disasters.”

NORCAP experts Tone Selmer-Olsen and Håvard Breivik have worked in emergencies around the world, including Haiti, Nepal and the European refugee crisis. They have seen first hand what crisis-affected people and communities need and felt the frustrations and limitations of what can be provided against what should be provided. It isn’t necessarily complicated. We need buildings which can be used for other purposes later. We need safe places for children to play and relax, close to where they live. Meeting places and common spaces where people can socialise, participate in activities and connect with others. These aspects often do not figure

at the top of aid workers’ priority lists. Still, they are hugely important to people in a situation where uncertainty and temporality gradually becomes permanent. The publication you are holding in your hands builds on Selmer-Olsen and Breivik’s field experiences. Under their expert guidance, students are given a unique opportunity to contribute to improve emergency aid and come up with new ways to create safe, sustainable and dignified living conditions for refugees and displaced people. Much of the work done by SelmerOlsen and Breivik and their students is already shared with humanitarian shelter experts and will be used in future emergency operations.

Foreword

In an emergency, our focus as humanitarians is to urgently care for people’s most basic needs, such as food, medical treatment and shelter. Time, money and the scale of an emergency often force us to prioritise quick, temporary, low cost solutions over dignity, sustainability and long-term efficiency. But for many displaced people, temporary shelters become semi-permanent or even permanent new homes. Camps become communities. This challenges us to provide assistance which to a larger extent considers the personal and social needs of refugees and displaced.

We are proud of the work Selmer-Olsen and Breivik have done in the field as part of the NORCAP roster of experts. We are equally proud of their efforts to use these experiences to draw the humanitarian community and the academic world closer together, to further improve and develop emergency aid. Only by joining forces can we advance humanitarian assistance and strengthen the resilience of communities affected by war, conflict and natural disasters.

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Foreword

In 2016, a record number of 65 million people worldwide were forced from their homes as refugees or internally displaced. Driven by war, conflict and natural disasters, or all three, many turn to humanitarians for help to find a safe and dignified place to live.


Benedicte Giæver Director Expert Deployment / NORCAP

“Only by joining forces can we advance humanitarian assistance and strengthen the resilience of communities affected by war, conflict and natural disasters.”

NORCAP experts Tone Selmer-Olsen and Håvard Breivik have worked in emergencies around the world, including Haiti, Nepal and the European refugee crisis. They have seen first hand what crisis-affected people and communities need and felt the frustrations and limitations of what can be provided against what should be provided. It isn’t necessarily complicated. We need buildings which can be used for other purposes later. We need safe places for children to play and relax, close to where they live. Meeting places and common spaces where people can socialise, participate in activities and connect with others. These aspects often do not figure

at the top of aid workers’ priority lists. Still, they are hugely important to people in a situation where uncertainty and temporality gradually becomes permanent. The publication you are holding in your hands builds on Selmer-Olsen and Breivik’s field experiences. Under their expert guidance, students are given a unique opportunity to contribute to improve emergency aid and come up with new ways to create safe, sustainable and dignified living conditions for refugees and displaced people. Much of the work done by SelmerOlsen and Breivik and their students is already shared with humanitarian shelter experts and will be used in future emergency operations.

Foreword

In an emergency, our focus as humanitarians is to urgently care for people’s most basic needs, such as food, medical treatment and shelter. Time, money and the scale of an emergency often force us to prioritise quick, temporary, low cost solutions over dignity, sustainability and long-term efficiency. But for many displaced people, temporary shelters become semi-permanent or even permanent new homes. Camps become communities. This challenges us to provide assistance which to a larger extent considers the personal and social needs of refugees and displaced.

We are proud of the work Selmer-Olsen and Breivik have done in the field as part of the NORCAP roster of experts. We are equally proud of their efforts to use these experiences to draw the humanitarian community and the academic world closer together, to further improve and develop emergency aid. Only by joining forces can we advance humanitarian assistance and strengthen the resilience of communities affected by war, conflict and natural disasters.

06 / 07

Foreword

In 2016, a record number of 65 million people worldwide were forced from their homes as refugees or internally displaced. Driven by war, conflict and natural disasters, or all three, many turn to humanitarians for help to find a safe and dignified place to live.


Marianne Skjulhaug Head of the Institute of Urbanism and Landscape / The Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO)

“Relocation of people is also a spatial question. Architecture and design will play a role in dealing with migration.”

Drawing on experience from Tone SelmerOlsen and Havard Breivik, who had been working in different crisis contexts meant that we were able to do more than just scratching the surface – it would allow our master students to get in-depth insights and work with real time challenges.

spatial question. Architecture and design will play a role in dealing with migration. However, In Transit is not only about migration, the learning outcome goes beyond the specific tasks given during the semester. With limited resources as a premise the students developed sustainable, architectural solutions and design ideas, and obtained knowledge that I believe will become useful in any architecture and design task. It is not about saving the world; it is about becoming an operative architect and designer, ready to take on the challenges of our times.

Foreword

The theme “architecture in emergencies” is gaining more and more attention, exemplified by this year’s Venice Biennale with the theme “Reporting from the front” and the Oslo Triennale called “After Belonging”, both looking at architecture and migration in the broader sense. Still, there is a perception within the profession that social concerns addressed through architecture will contaminate the pureness of the architectural form, or even exclude it.

Differently than many other master courses, the In Transit studio has attracted substantial interest and attention from outside the school. New networks have been established and the results will be widely disseminated. The Norwegian Refugee Council has played an important role as a partner. Inequality, conflicts and climate change are reasons for a large number of people leaving their homes to seek sanctuary elsewhere. Relocation of people is also a

08 / 09

Foreword

The academic semester of the first part of 2016 had been planned and approved long before the Oslo School of Architecture (AHO) was approached by two architects from the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)/NORCAP October 2015, asking for the possibility of running a studio course addressing the refugee issue in Europe. Normally such a late request would have been almost impossible to push through, but due to the severity of the ongoing crisis the AHO felt a responsibility to contribute in responding to one of the world’s most pressing agendas.


Marianne Skjulhaug Head of the Institute of Urbanism and Landscape / The Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO)

“Relocation of people is also a spatial question. Architecture and design will play a role in dealing with migration.”

Drawing on experience from Tone SelmerOlsen and Havard Breivik, who had been working in different crisis contexts meant that we were able to do more than just scratching the surface – it would allow our master students to get in-depth insights and work with real time challenges.

spatial question. Architecture and design will play a role in dealing with migration. However, In Transit is not only about migration, the learning outcome goes beyond the specific tasks given during the semester. With limited resources as a premise the students developed sustainable, architectural solutions and design ideas, and obtained knowledge that I believe will become useful in any architecture and design task. It is not about saving the world; it is about becoming an operative architect and designer, ready to take on the challenges of our times.

Foreword

The theme “architecture in emergencies” is gaining more and more attention, exemplified by this year’s Venice Biennale with the theme “Reporting from the front” and the Oslo Triennale called “After Belonging”, both looking at architecture and migration in the broader sense. Still, there is a perception within the profession that social concerns addressed through architecture will contaminate the pureness of the architectural form, or even exclude it.

Differently than many other master courses, the In Transit studio has attracted substantial interest and attention from outside the school. New networks have been established and the results will be widely disseminated. The Norwegian Refugee Council has played an important role as a partner. Inequality, conflicts and climate change are reasons for a large number of people leaving their homes to seek sanctuary elsewhere. Relocation of people is also a

08 / 09

Foreword

The academic semester of the first part of 2016 had been planned and approved long before the Oslo School of Architecture (AHO) was approached by two architects from the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)/NORCAP October 2015, asking for the possibility of running a studio course addressing the refugee issue in Europe. Normally such a late request would have been almost impossible to push through, but due to the severity of the ongoing crisis the AHO felt a responsibility to contribute in responding to one of the world’s most pressing agendas.


Greece - Temporary Displacement Site, Kalymos, February 2016 Greece - Piraeus harbour, Athens, February 2016


Normality in a State of Emergency Tone Selmer-Olsen & HĂĽvard Breivik

Introduction

While these challenges need to be approached from many different angles, there is an urgent need for architects to take on a proactive role in crisis response and to offer their expertise on improving physical conditions and thereby creating dignified living conditions and the feeling of normality for people seeking sanctuary in unfamiliar and often hostile environments. Nepal - Tundikhel, Evacuation Site, Kathmandu, May 2015

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Introduction

The current refugee crisis, when millions of people are fleeing war and persecution, proves that there is an acute need for the professions constituting the ‘built environment’, together with the international humanitarian community, to adapt to the particularities of the shifting nature of global crisis caused by mass displacement and urbanization.


Nepal - Tundikhel, Evacuation, Kathmandu, May 2015

The title ‘Site Planner’ is used by the United Nations and the broader international humanitarian community for expert personnel with a background in the built environment sector (in the broader sense) and engaged in crisis response. The Site Planner’s main objective is to respond to urban and rural displacement through spatial solutions and upgrade of the physical environment. Within emergency response, the Site Planner’s role is to identify and coordinate all physical interventions needed in order to create safe living conditions for displaced populations. The tasks related to this position have traditionally focused on building structures

to accommodate the most basic needs: to provide shelter for the affected populations. Planning and implementation of camps to be used to accommodate refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs), persons who have either left or lost their homes due to conflict or natural disasters, has been at the core. To a certain extent the primary work of a site planner has then been to house as many people as possible in the shortest period of time available. The solutions are mainly based on logistics and capacity: how close together can the tents be erected? How many rows of tents per water point? Is the distance wide enough for a water truck to access and refill the water tanks? Counting families is one of the main activities for a site planner: 4.2 persons in some places; 3.6 in a different context. All this in order to make everything fit into the formula of 30-45 square meters per person, all service facilities included within the site boundaries. Everything is quantitative and measurable, whether to serve as milestones in a project document, or to indicate distances between tent pegs. Nonetheless, even if ‘Site Planning’ is mainly focused on the tasks described above, it can also include a number of other responsibilities, such as the reconstruction

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Introduction

Deployment to the United Nations in crisis situations offers a number of unforeseen tasks for an architect. Upgrading an empty barn as emergency shelter by scrubbing the floors free of animal excrement in preparation for a hurricane in Haiti; engaging Canadian soldiers in looking for open, flat sites that are safe from new earthquakes in the mountains of Nepal, or deciding where it would be best for an Afghan child refugee, based on protection and medical needs, to sleep in a reception center in Hungary, are only examples of tasks that are not specified in the terms of reference for a ‘Site Planner’.

Introduction

“Counting families is one of the main activities for a site planner: 4.2 persons in some places; 3.6 in a different context.”


During a crisis it is often easier to secure funding for temporary housing or engineering interventions mitigating landslide or flooding risks, than it is to raise money for building crucial social and common functions, such as: playgrounds; football fields; urban furniture; and other placemaking interventions. Whether this is the right priority, presupposes that one has to choose. Such a choice is - in our opinion, often based on a lack of understanding for holistic project design processes or a lack of will to undertake new thinking. When the reconstruction work after the earthquake that made 2.3 million people

“Structures facilitating social interaction as a contribution to creating the feeling of normality, are rarely prioritized during a crisis or when communities are rehabilitated in the aftermath of a disaster as housing, naturally, is always prioritized.”

After the earthquake in Nepal in 2015, which led to one half million people losing their homes, we worked with upgrading the conditions in the many spontaneous camps that had arisen, by improving drainage to protect the tents from being flooded, but also by building structures that functioned as social meeting places for the occupants. The design of these structures was based on the need for creating exciting and interesting spaces for children. Children should always have the possibility to play and especially in a crisis situation.

“Spend money on a new basketball hoop rather than on the salary of yet another security guard”.

In the reception centers in Hungary, during the summer of 2015, we witnessed that the occupants staying in facilities with a few sports fields and some sitting benches, experienced far less stress than the ones in the facilities without any recreational offers. Our main recommendation to the Hungarian Directorate for Immigration might seem banal to many: “Spend money on a new basketball hoop rather than on the salary of yet another security guard”. Being allowed to function as an individual, such as drinking tea in the shade with a fellow human being, can reduce stress and serve as a security measure in itself. An umbrella, a bench and a water boiler is often all that is needed. How to physically solve the many challenges experienced by people who have fled from or lost their homes, is incredibly complex – both in the immediate response, in the reconstruction phase, and also when resettling people who have been granted asylum. We have experienced how

frustrating it is when existing response mechanisms are not suitable for the situation at hand. Solutions that are improvised due to acute needs and extreme time pressure, sometimes work somehow, but at other times do not. One doesn’t have to be an expert to understand that a tent is not a suitable shelter option during a cold winter in northern Europe. But due to acute needs, time pressure and the lack of alternative strategies, one is often forced to come up with inadequate solutions and unsustainable interventions. Establishing camps and reception facilities that do not take into account the basic human need for socializing and being active, could have serious implications for the occupants in the long run, as the average length of stay in a refugee camp is 17 years globally, and 1.5 years in a Norwegian reception facility. As such, there is a need for new strategies, solutions and tools that solves both immediate needs and long-term use. We do not have the answers to all these challenges, but we have experienced that the terms of reference of the ‘Site Planner’ and the current response mechanisms are not up-to-date with regards to the current global crisis. We need more, and new, thinking on these issues. We need a new generation of architects, planners and designers capable of contributing to crisis responses and who are equipped to meet these challenges in a professional manner. Architects are trained in finding holistic solutions and to identify and coordinate all the elements needed for carrying out a successful project. We need interdisciplinary collaboration and we need to offer humanitarian partners the competency, capacity and the resources that exist among architects, so that these solutions are provided for those that need them the most. We don’t believe that design, architecture and planning can solve it all – but we know, based on our own experiences, that we can contribute in creating safe and dignified living

Introduction

Introduction

The creation or revitalization of public spaces is a crucial part of building socially integrated communities, regardless of temporary or permanent uses. Structures facilitating social interaction as a contribution to creating the feeling of normality, are rarely prioritized during a crisis or when communities are rehabilitated in the aftermath of a disaster - as housing, naturally, is always prioritized. This does not mean, however, that other crucial elements for creating a livable environment can be left out.

homeless in Haiti in 2010 started, funding was allocated for housing and interventions mitigating risk posed by flooding and landslides, while there was little funding for what we considered as other necessary interventions. We therefore had to come up with design solutions responding to several needs simultaneously, and developed a number of interventions that seemingly only would tackle risks caused by extreme weather, but that would actually also function as meeting places for the local population by modifying the design of structures already used for mitigation purposes. All interventions were designed according to the following criteria: securing sloping landscapes against flooding and landslides; improving movement and accessibility, and creating public spaces and, consequently, small-scale livelihood opportunities. One example of such an intervention was a terraced wall of gabion nets (filled with rubble from collapsed buildings) that would protect a football field against landslides, but that would also function as a tribune (spectator stand), a market place and a gathering point for the neighborhood inhabitants. To summarize the concept: public spaces disguised as interventions responding to risk posed by natural hazards – and hence the opportunity to secure funding.

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of a destroyed neighborhood, or designing structures to be used for a few hours by people in transit fleeing war and persecution. This means that there is a need for responding to acute problems, and simultaneously come up with sustainable solutions that will create safe spaces for the ones seeking sanctuary, as well as for the ones hosting them. This is important, as temporary solutions often will end up becoming permanent, and all emergency interventions that are introduced into a neighborhood will generate change for the ones already living there - for better or for worse. The potential for creating positive changes with rapid interventions, both for the newly arrivals and the host community, is enormous – if done carefully and according to agreed strategies.


Haiti - Setting up emergency shelter, Corail camp for I DPs, Port-au-Prince, May 2010 Haiti - Moving in, Co rail planned camp, Port-au-Prince, May 2010


Haiti - Rows of Emergency shelters, Corail planned camp, Port-au-Prince, May 2010 Haiti - Internal road and fire gap in Corail planned camp, Port-au-Prince, May 2010

The In Transit studio has produced projects responding to urgent needs for people in transit situations - from microinterventions to mega-scale solutions. The In Transit works are: showcasing the potential for multi- and after use by transforming buildings accommodating people in flux; proposing medium- and long-term urban planning strategies for creating livable and sustainable environments for new arrivals and their host communities, and presenting everyday objects for use in extraordinary situations.

The studio courses at the AHO are specifically designed to function as a testbed for merging academia with field experiences, with the aim of developing new thinking and fresh approaches to physical and social structures in humanitarian response and resettlement solutions. Introduction

Introduction

For us personally, it was the large influx of refugees seeking protection in Europe that made us realize that we need additional support. During the summer of 2015 we were stationed in Macedonia and Hungary to support the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in supporting the respective authorities in these countries. Acutely aware of how time constraints during an emergency allows little room for creative thinking and innovation, we thought of one group that, for a few years, is allowed time for the development of innovative solutions: students. We drafted a project proposal after working hours in a hotel bar in Skopje, Macedonia, asking to engage the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (known by its Norwegian acronym, AHO), which resulted in a collaboration between the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)/ NORCAP and the AHO, established in 2015 as a part of a pilot project called ‘BUILD’. The works shown on the following pages are the result of the first part of this project and is a selection of student works from the Master’s course In Transit – safe spaces in crisis contexts produced during the academic semester that ended in June 2016. The second phase of this project In Transit II – when temporary becomes permanent started in August 2016.

The studio is focusing on: the social dimension of physical planning and design; programmatic innovation; the importance of offering a sense of normality in extreme situations; and to showcase why the architecture of transitional spaces is important in order to create dignified temporary living arrangements.

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arrangements for displaced populations – whether this is caused by natural disaster or war and persecution.


During a crisis it is often easier to secure funding for temporary housing or engineering interventions mitigating landslide or flooding risks, than it is to raise money for building crucial social and common functions, such as: playgrounds; football fields; urban furniture; and other placemaking interventions. Whether this is the right priority, presupposes that one has to choose. Such a choice is - in our opinion, often based on a lack of understanding for holistic project design processes or a lack of will to undertake new thinking. When the reconstruction work after the earthquake that made 2.3 million people

“Structures facilitating social interaction as a contribution to creating the feeling of normality, are rarely prioritized during a crisis or when communities are rehabilitated in the aftermath of a disaster as housing, naturally, is always prioritized.”

After the earthquake in Nepal in 2015, which led to one half million people losing their homes, we worked with upgrading the conditions in the many spontaneous camps that had arisen, by improving drainage to protect the tents from being flooded, but also by building structures that functioned as social meeting places for the occupants. The design of these structures was based on the need for creating exciting and interesting spaces for children. Children should always have the possibility to play and especially in a crisis situation.

“Spend money on a new basketball hoop rather than on the salary of yet another security guard”.

In the reception centers in Hungary, during the summer of 2015, we witnessed that the occupants staying in facilities with a few sports fields and some sitting benches, experienced far less stress than the ones in the facilities without any recreational offers. Our main recommendation to the Hungarian Directorate for Immigration might seem banal to many: “Spend money on a new basketball hoop rather than on the salary of yet another security guard”. Being allowed to function as an individual, such as drinking tea in the shade with a fellow human being, can reduce stress and serve as a security measure in itself. An umbrella, a bench and a water boiler is often all that is needed. How to physically solve the many challenges experienced by people who have fled from or lost their homes, is incredibly complex – both in the immediate response, in the reconstruction phase, and also when resettling people who have been granted asylum. We have experienced how

frustrating it is when existing response mechanisms are not suitable for the situation at hand. Solutions that are improvised due to acute needs and extreme time pressure, sometimes work somehow, but at other times do not. One doesn’t have to be an expert to understand that a tent is not a suitable shelter option during a cold winter in northern Europe. But due to acute needs, time pressure and the lack of alternative strategies, one is often forced to come up with inadequate solutions and unsustainable interventions. Establishing camps and reception facilities that do not take into account the basic human need for socializing and being active, could have serious implications for the occupants in the long run, as the average length of stay in a refugee camp is 17 years globally, and 1.5 years in a Norwegian reception facility. As such, there is a need for new strategies, solutions and tools that solves both immediate needs and long-term use. We do not have the answers to all these challenges, but we have experienced that the terms of reference of the ‘Site Planner’ and the current response mechanisms are not up-to-date with regards to the current global crisis. We need more, and new, thinking on these issues. We need a new generation of architects, planners and designers capable of contributing to crisis responses and who are equipped to meet these challenges in a professional manner. Architects are trained in finding holistic solutions and to identify and coordinate all the elements needed for carrying out a successful project. We need interdisciplinary collaboration and we need to offer humanitarian partners the competency, capacity and the resources that exist among architects, so that these solutions are provided for those that need them the most. We don’t believe that design, architecture and planning can solve it all – but we know, based on our own experiences, that we can contribute in creating safe and dignified living

Introduction

Introduction

The creation or revitalization of public spaces is a crucial part of building socially integrated communities, regardless of temporary or permanent uses. Structures facilitating social interaction as a contribution to creating the feeling of normality, are rarely prioritized during a crisis or when communities are rehabilitated in the aftermath of a disaster - as housing, naturally, is always prioritized. This does not mean, however, that other crucial elements for creating a livable environment can be left out.

homeless in Haiti in 2010 started, funding was allocated for housing and interventions mitigating risk posed by flooding and landslides, while there was little funding for what we considered as other necessary interventions. We therefore had to come up with design solutions responding to several needs simultaneously, and developed a number of interventions that seemingly only would tackle risks caused by extreme weather, but that would actually also function as meeting places for the local population by modifying the design of structures already used for mitigation purposes. All interventions were designed according to the following criteria: securing sloping landscapes against flooding and landslides; improving movement and accessibility, and creating public spaces and, consequently, small-scale livelihood opportunities. One example of such an intervention was a terraced wall of gabion nets (filled with rubble from collapsed buildings) that would protect a football field against landslides, but that would also function as a tribune (spectator stand), a market place and a gathering point for the neighborhood inhabitants. To summarize the concept: public spaces disguised as interventions responding to risk posed by natural hazards – and hence the opportunity to secure funding.

16 / 17

of a destroyed neighborhood, or designing structures to be used for a few hours by people in transit fleeing war and persecution. This means that there is a need for responding to acute problems, and simultaneously come up with sustainable solutions that will create safe spaces for the ones seeking sanctuary, as well as for the ones hosting them. This is important, as temporary solutions often will end up becoming permanent, and all emergency interventions that are introduced into a neighborhood will generate change for the ones already living there - for better or for worse. The potential for creating positive changes with rapid interventions, both for the newly arrivals and the host community, is enormous – if done carefully and according to agreed strategies.


Haiti - Rows of Emergency shelters, Corail planned camp, Port-au-Prince, May 2010 Haiti - Internal road and fire gap in Corail planned camp, Port-au-Prince, May 2010

The In Transit studio has produced projects responding to urgent needs for people in transit situations - from microinterventions to mega-scale solutions. The In Transit works are: showcasing the potential for multi- and after use by transforming buildings accommodating people in flux; proposing medium- and long-term urban planning strategies for creating livable and sustainable environments for new arrivals and their host communities, and presenting everyday objects for use in extraordinary situations.

The studio courses at the AHO are specifically designed to function as a testbed for merging academia with field experiences, with the aim of developing new thinking and fresh approaches to physical and social structures in humanitarian response and resettlement solutions. Introduction

Introduction

For us personally, it was the large influx of refugees seeking protection in Europe that made us realize that we need additional support. During the summer of 2015 we were stationed in Macedonia and Hungary to support the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in supporting the respective authorities in these countries. Acutely aware of how time constraints during an emergency allows little room for creative thinking and innovation, we thought of one group that, for a few years, is allowed time for the development of innovative solutions: students. We drafted a project proposal after working hours in a hotel bar in Skopje, Macedonia, asking to engage the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (known by its Norwegian acronym, AHO), which resulted in a collaboration between the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)/ NORCAP and the AHO, established in 2015 as a part of a pilot project called ‘BUILD’. The works shown on the following pages are the result of the first part of this project and is a selection of student works from the Master’s course In Transit – safe spaces in crisis contexts produced during the academic semester that ended in June 2016. The second phase of this project In Transit II – when temporary becomes permanent started in August 2016.

The studio is focusing on: the social dimension of physical planning and design; programmatic innovation; the importance of offering a sense of normality in extreme situations; and to showcase why the architecture of transitional spaces is important in order to create dignified temporary living arrangements.

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arrangements for displaced populations – whether this is caused by natural disaster or war and persecution.


Nepal - Helipad used as public space, kids playing football at 2700ml above sea level, Gupsi Pakha, Gorkha District, May 2015


Nepal - Tundikhel, Evacuation, Kathmandu, May 2015

The title ‘Site Planner’ is used by the United Nations and the broader international humanitarian community for expert personnel with a background in the built environment sector (in the broader sense) and engaged in crisis response. The Site Planner’s main objective is to respond to urban and rural displacement through spatial solutions and upgrade of the physical environment. Within emergency response, the Site Planner’s role is to identify and coordinate all physical interventions needed in order to create safe living conditions for displaced populations. The tasks related to this position have traditionally focused on building structures

to accommodate the most basic needs: to provide shelter for the affected populations. Planning and implementation of camps to be used to accommodate refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs), persons who have either left or lost their homes due to conflict or natural disasters, has been at the core. To a certain extent the primary work of a site planner has then been to house as many people as possible in the shortest period of time available. The solutions are mainly based on logistics and capacity: how close together can the tents be erected? How many rows of tents per water point? Is the distance wide enough for a water truck to access and refill the water tanks? Counting families is one of the main activities for a site planner: 4.2 persons in some places; 3.6 in a different context. All this in order to make everything fit into the formula of 30-45 square meters per person, all service facilities included within the site boundaries. Everything is quantitative and measurable, whether to serve as milestones in a project document, or to indicate distances between tent pegs. Nonetheless, even if ‘Site Planning’ is mainly focused on the tasks described above, it can also include a number of other responsibilities, such as the reconstruction

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Introduction

Deployment to the United Nations in crisis situations offers a number of unforeseen tasks for an architect. Upgrading an empty barn as emergency shelter by scrubbing the floors free of animal excrement in preparation for a hurricane in Haiti; engaging Canadian soldiers in looking for open, flat sites that are safe from new earthquakes in the mountains of Nepal, or deciding where it would be best for an Afghan child refugee, based on protection and medical needs, to sleep in a reception center in Hungary, are only examples of tasks that are not specified in the terms of reference for a ‘Site Planner’.

Introduction

“Counting families is one of the main activities for a site planner: 4.2 persons in some places; 3.6 in a different context.”


Reception Facilities “highly-developed nations have quite often only been able to provide accommodation of substandard living conditions for refugees and migrants.”

Temporary Displacement Sites What is a Temporary Displacement Site?

For the purpose of improving temporary living conditions for displaced populations, the role of humanitarian site planners is to identify and coordinate all physical interventions needed in order to create safe living conditions for displaced populations – both refugees and IDPs.

Humanitarian response mechanisms concerning cultural and social considerations are the factors that have been developed the least - seen from an architectural and urban planning point of view, where positive byproducts and the potential for urban regeneration are left out. The factors for site selection described above have mainly been dealt with in a practical manner, and largely used to avoid tension within the displaced population or in relation to the host community. The potential for urban upgrade is further discussed in the Chapter: Urban Strategies, page 112

The selection of a site depends on many factors: Location; size, site characteristics and conditions; geology; topography; availability of resources; safety and security issues; coexistence with the surrounding communities; and other cultural and social considerations. (1)

1 - SAFE SPACE – PRE-CAMP SET-UP, Breivik, Selmer-Olsen, 2015

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Typically, temporary displacement sites are places where disaster-affected populations either self-settle or are given a physical space assigned by the Government and humanitarian partner agencies as a starting point from which to provide life-saving assistance to those in immediate need while more adequate solutions are being developed.

While many governments have developed contingency plans in case of a natural disaster, the high numbers of people seeking sanctuary in Europe recently has demonstrated that even wealthy, highlydeveloped nations have quite often only been able to provide accommodation of sub-standard living conditions for refugees and migrants. The current situation in Europe is also showing the challenges of providing high-quality physical spaces for constant, but hyper-temporary use.


Reception Facilities “highly-developed nations have quite often only been able to provide accommodation of substandard living conditions for refugees and migrants.”

Temporary Displacement Sites What is a Temporary Displacement Site?

For the purpose of improving temporary living conditions for displaced populations, the role of humanitarian site planners is to identify and coordinate all physical interventions needed in order to create safe living conditions for displaced populations – both refugees and IDPs.

Humanitarian response mechanisms concerning cultural and social considerations are the factors that have been developed the least - seen from an architectural and urban planning point of view, where positive byproducts and the potential for urban regeneration are left out. The factors for site selection described above have mainly been dealt with in a practical manner, and largely used to avoid tension within the displaced population or in relation to the host community. The potential for urban upgrade is further discussed in the Chapter: Urban Strategies, page 112

The selection of a site depends on many factors: Location; size, site characteristics and conditions; geology; topography; availability of resources; safety and security issues; coexistence with the surrounding communities; and other cultural and social considerations. (1)

1 - SAFE SPACE – PRE-CAMP SET-UP, Breivik, Selmer-Olsen, 2015

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Typically, temporary displacement sites are places where disaster-affected populations either self-settle or are given a physical space assigned by the Government and humanitarian partner agencies as a starting point from which to provide life-saving assistance to those in immediate need while more adequate solutions are being developed.

While many governments have developed contingency plans in case of a natural disaster, the high numbers of people seeking sanctuary in Europe recently has demonstrated that even wealthy, highlydeveloped nations have quite often only been able to provide accommodation of sub-standard living conditions for refugees and migrants. The current situation in Europe is also showing the challenges of providing high-quality physical spaces for constant, but hyper-temporary use.


Greece - inside Pikpa Reception Center, Leros, February 2016


Transit Park Anna Rosa Strassegger

The chosen site is Victoria Square in Athens, known as a main gathering spot for refugees passing through Athens. In February 2016, at the time of our study trip to Greece, there were 100-200 refugees spending the night in the park, and over 500 refugees gathered during the day. Many of the refugees sleep in camps and come to the park during the day. Others spend up to two or three days here planning the rest of their journey. The aim of the Transit Park project is to adapt the square to accommodate immediate social and basic needs of the refugees, and at the same time take on

Temporary Displacement Sites

a long-term perspective: improving the square for the local population and tourists by leaving some of the added facilities and structures behind. The main concept of the project is to add two layers, one with permanent facilities serving refugees, tourists and city dwellers, and a second, temporary level serving as resting areas for the refugees currently occupying the ground space of the square. Greece -The situation in Victoria Square, Athens, February

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Temporary Displecement Sites

The Transit Park project looks at the public square as a transit point. Urban squares are often important transit points for gathering information, planning the rest of the journey, money transfer and exchange, and meeting others. These sites usually lack attention and facilities.


Transit Park Anna Rosa Strassegger

The chosen site is Victoria Square in Athens, known as a main gathering spot for refugees passing through Athens. In February 2016, at the time of our study trip to Greece, there were 100-200 refugees spending the night in the park, and over 500 refugees gathered during the day. Many of the refugees sleep in camps and come to the park during the day. Others spend up to two or three days here planning the rest of their journey. The aim of the Transit Park project is to adapt the square to accommodate immediate social and basic needs of the refugees, and at the same time take on

Temporary Displacement Sites

a long-term perspective: improving the square for the local population and tourists by leaving some of the added facilities and structures behind. The main concept of the project is to add two layers, one with permanent facilities serving refugees, tourists and city dwellers, and a second, temporary level serving as resting areas for the refugees currently occupying the ground space of the square. Greece -The situation in Victoria Square, Athens, February

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Temporary Displecement Sites

The Transit Park project looks at the public square as a transit point. Urban squares are often important transit points for gathering information, planning the rest of the journey, money transfer and exchange, and meeting others. These sites usually lack attention and facilities.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Project: Transit facilities for refugees Solution for: Urban squares Site: Victoria Square, Athens Capacity: 110 persons resting, 500 persons daytime

After-Use For the public Viewpoints between the foilage. The top of the concrete cores with stairs get an added railing to create viewpoints in the middle of the tree crown tops.

2

Temporary Private Space For the refugees Transitional “tree houses�. The wooden structures are added on top of the concrete cores. Their facades are made of plates and polycarbonate. They provide the private functions: resting and storage. The layer can easily be dismantled and removed when no longer needed.

1

Permanent Core Giving back to the city serves everyone, from refugees to tourists. Concrete structures built on the square in between the existing furniture and vegetation. New public functions are added: showers, toilets, a laundromat, an office space and a kitchen.

Added Functions

+ Seating possible seating for everyone while waiting. Shaded. Special areas for PSN, a.o. children

Information Stands minimum one visible at every entry, updated infos on the processes, the place and options

Latrines 1 for 50 adults 1 for 20 children

Showers and washing 1 for a 100

Charging Stations + wifi minimum 1 for 100

Health Facilities minimum one per site

+ Common areas play areas for children and good open spaces for all

Accommodations 1 per family 3,5 sqm per person (UDI: 2,5 sqm)

Waterpoints 1 for 80 to 1 for 500 according to the flow

+ Administration Offices meeting area

Food Distribution minimum one centralized, easily accessible / sufficient staff / volunteers to hand out efficiently if in vast area decentralized distribution

Toilets 1 for 20 for staff

Garbage bins 1 for 50 also important with good collection system

Registration Weather protected areas

List of minimum requirements

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

Axonometric drawing

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Temporary Displacement Sites

+

Temporary Displacement Sites

Camp Management Toolkit

3

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Project: Transit facilities for refugees Solution for: Urban squares Site: Victoria Square, Athens Capacity: 110 persons resting, 500 persons daytime

After-Use For the public Viewpoints between the foilage. The top of the concrete cores with stairs get an added railing to create viewpoints in the middle of the tree crown tops.

2

Temporary Private Space For the refugees Transitional “tree houses�. The wooden structures are added on top of the concrete cores. Their facades are made of plates and polycarbonate. They provide the private functions: resting and storage. The layer can easily be dismantled and removed when no longer needed.

1

Permanent Core Giving back to the city serves everyone, from refugees to tourists. Concrete structures built on the square in between the existing furniture and vegetation. New public functions are added: showers, toilets, a laundromat, an office space and a kitchen.

Added Functions

+ Seating possible seating for everyone while waiting. Shaded. Special areas for PSN, a.o. children

Information Stands minimum one visible at every entry, updated infos on the processes, the place and options

Latrines 1 for 50 adults 1 for 20 children

Showers and washing 1 for a 100

Charging Stations + wifi minimum 1 for 100

Health Facilities minimum one per site

+ Common areas play areas for children and good open spaces for all

Accommodations 1 per family 3,5 sqm per person (UDI: 2,5 sqm)

Waterpoints 1 for 80 to 1 for 500 according to the flow

+ Administration Offices meeting area

Food Distribution minimum one centralized, easily accessible / sufficient staff / volunteers to hand out efficiently if in vast area decentralized distribution

Toilets 1 for 20 for staff

Garbage bins 1 for 50 also important with good collection system

Registration Weather protected areas

List of minimum requirements

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

Axonometric drawing

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Temporary Displacement Sites

+

Temporary Displacement Sites

Camp Management Toolkit

3

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

1 2

3

4 5

6

Temporary Displacement Sites

Temporary Displacement Sites

7

Showers 35,4 sqm - 6 normal, 2 accessible Resting Area Section A 120,7 sqm - 2,9 sqm per person Resting Area Section F 28 sqm - 2,9 sqm per person Toilets 28 sqm - 2,9 sqm per person Resting Area Section D 138,5 sqm - 2,9 sqm per person Laundromat 25,5 sqm Drying Room 23 sqm

2

5

3

1

4

6

7

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

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Cross Section ‘AA’ of the Square

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

1 2

3

4 5

6

Temporary Displacement Sites

Temporary Displacement Sites

7

Showers 35,4 sqm - 6 normal, 2 accessible Resting Area Section A 120,7 sqm - 2,9 sqm per person Resting Area Section F 28 sqm - 2,9 sqm per person Toilets 28 sqm - 2,9 sqm per person Resting Area Section D 138,5 sqm - 2,9 sqm per person Laundromat 25,5 sqm Drying Room 23 sqm

2

5

3

1

4

6

7

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

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Cross Section ‘AA’ of the Square

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

A

Temporary Displacement Sites

Temporary Displacement Sites

A’

IN TRANSIT

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Site Plan

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

A

Temporary Displacement Sites

Temporary Displacement Sites

A’

IN TRANSIT

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Site Plan

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

Temporary Displacement Sites

Temporary Displacement Sites

IN TRANSIT

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

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Axonometric drawing of the interventions in Victoria Square

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

Temporary Displacement Sites

Temporary Displacement Sites

IN TRANSIT

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

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Axonometric drawing of the interventions in Victoria Square

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


The New Hotspot Typology

The In Transit Studio visited the Leros hotspot in early 2016 just days before it was planned to open. Shortly after the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Doctors Without Borders (MSF), the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) and other relief groups suspended their activities in the hotspots due to what they considered to be “an unfair and inhumane system�. (1)

New Hotspot Typology

Physical Characteristics of the Leros Hotspot The ground is covered entirely by impervious surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete. There are no shaded areas apart from the outdoor area where everyone waits their turn to file. With temperatures reaching the 40s (Celsius) the hotspot certainly lives up to its name. Prefabricated sleeping units are arranged in a military grid with one open space (created by the absence of pre-fabs) at the center of the site. Fences with razor wire mark the site boundaries.

1 - http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/03/aid-groups-withdraw-greece-refugee-hotspots-160322202842234.html

IT

EX

EN

TR

AN

CE

Hotspot Existing Layout

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Temporary Displacement Sites

Hotspots are European Union-supervised registration centers where everyone arriving in boats from Turkey to the Greek Islands is held while police officers from across Europe verify their identity and enter them in a database. This is part of a drive by EU leaders to tighten security. There are currently five hotspots in Greece.

Temporary Displacement Sites

Christos Pampafikos


The New Hotspot Typology

The In Transit Studio visited the Leros hotspot in early 2016 just days before it was planned to open. Shortly after the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Doctors Without Borders (MSF), the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) and other relief groups suspended their activities in the hotspots due to what they considered to be “an unfair and inhumane system�. (1)

New Hotspot Typology

Physical Characteristics of the Leros Hotspot The ground is covered entirely by impervious surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete. There are no shaded areas apart from the outdoor area where everyone waits their turn to file. With temperatures reaching the 40s (Celsius) the hotspot certainly lives up to its name. Prefabricated sleeping units are arranged in a military grid with one open space (created by the absence of pre-fabs) at the center of the site. Fences with razor wire mark the site boundaries.

1 - http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/03/aid-groups-withdraw-greece-refugee-hotspots-160322202842234.html

IT

EX

EN

TR

AN

CE

Hotspot Existing Layout

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Temporary Displacement Sites

Hotspots are European Union-supervised registration centers where everyone arriving in boats from Turkey to the Greek Islands is held while police officers from across Europe verify their identity and enter them in a database. This is part of a drive by EU leaders to tighten security. There are currently five hotspots in Greece.

Temporary Displacement Sites

Christos Pampafikos


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Temporary Displacement Sites

Instead of being a strict border sending a message of exclusion and alienation by its inhumane design, the new fence is communicating integration, safety and supply and is composed of a series of kiosks where informal markets (bazaar-like structures), exhibitions or other events can take place. Corridor System The same structure is used for every module on the new Hot Spot: the fence; the corridors; and the various private or shared units. All corridors are shaded and can be used as common spaces. A flexible Layout Each unit can adopt a unique floor plan, as the partition walls can be placed in different ways in the constructive system. The sizes of the units can therefore vary between 8 – 20 square meters (accommodating one to 20 persons per unit) and be modified according to the shifting situation and the need to increase or decrease the capacity. Structural elements and materiality The Unit Structure is made of the following elements: hollow metal prefabricated

The light, bendable materials proposed for the vaulted roof structures create variations and adds spatial qualities, as opposed to the flat roofs of the current prefabricated sleeping units. It also allows for height variations where the second interior layer (underneath the vault) could be used in different ways: a private place when you just want to be left alone; or as storage for your belongings. The different materials used as roof covers create variations in light and shade.

Illustration of the fence system - Closed

Temporary Displacement Sites

Fence System The fence structure is placed only where necessary to show the limits of the Hot Spot. In other situations, terrain formations or neighbouring buildings can also be used as separating elements. In the case of the Leros Hot Spot, the sea delimits one side of the camp and the site is thus not in need of a fence here.

columns casted into concrete foundations; wooden curved pieces, corrugated galvanized iron (CGI) sheets or lengths of fabric attached to the metal arches of the roof; metal connectors between the columns and the roof structure; and prefabricated concrete foundations creating a platform that elevate the units from the ground and allowing the water to circulate under the units. The columns can be attached to any point along the roof structure, which allows for more flexibility and the possibility of making different configurations according to needs.

Illustration of the fence system - Open

Bringing back diversity With the flexibility of the units, and their structural adaptability, the layout of each facility can be modified and adjusted to any given situation. This is important as refugees are not one homogenous group. Unaccompanied minors, disabled people and other vulnerable people might have different needs than others. Variations in construction materials also reduce the feeling of being in a logistics machine, and so does the use of colors- which could not be found in the existing Hotspot site on Leros. Privacy The variation in height, the flexible layout and the many opportunities for different configurations of units, combined with the possibility of being alone, provide a level of privacy not to be found in the existing layout.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

priv ate pub

lic

rivate

semi-p

Axonometrics showing the basic unit structure

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

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Inspired by Islamic architecture - with reference to the culture of the largest groups of refugees entering Europe, the main vocabulary of the architecture is based on the vault and column principle. This allows for spatial variations, and the principle will be developed as a module system that can be pre-fabricated and modified according to shifting needs.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Temporary Displacement Sites

Instead of being a strict border sending a message of exclusion and alienation by its inhumane design, the new fence is communicating integration, safety and supply and is composed of a series of kiosks where informal markets (bazaar-like structures), exhibitions or other events can take place. Corridor System The same structure is used for every module on the new Hot Spot: the fence; the corridors; and the various private or shared units. All corridors are shaded and can be used as common spaces. A flexible Layout Each unit can adopt a unique floor plan, as the partition walls can be placed in different ways in the constructive system. The sizes of the units can therefore vary between 8 – 20 square meters (accommodating one to 20 persons per unit) and be modified according to the shifting situation and the need to increase or decrease the capacity. Structural elements and materiality The Unit Structure is made of the following elements: hollow metal prefabricated

The light, bendable materials proposed for the vaulted roof structures create variations and adds spatial qualities, as opposed to the flat roofs of the current prefabricated sleeping units. It also allows for height variations where the second interior layer (underneath the vault) could be used in different ways: a private place when you just want to be left alone; or as storage for your belongings. The different materials used as roof covers create variations in light and shade.

Illustration of the fence system - Closed

Temporary Displacement Sites

Fence System The fence structure is placed only where necessary to show the limits of the Hot Spot. In other situations, terrain formations or neighbouring buildings can also be used as separating elements. In the case of the Leros Hot Spot, the sea delimits one side of the camp and the site is thus not in need of a fence here.

columns casted into concrete foundations; wooden curved pieces, corrugated galvanized iron (CGI) sheets or lengths of fabric attached to the metal arches of the roof; metal connectors between the columns and the roof structure; and prefabricated concrete foundations creating a platform that elevate the units from the ground and allowing the water to circulate under the units. The columns can be attached to any point along the roof structure, which allows for more flexibility and the possibility of making different configurations according to needs.

Illustration of the fence system - Open

Bringing back diversity With the flexibility of the units, and their structural adaptability, the layout of each facility can be modified and adjusted to any given situation. This is important as refugees are not one homogenous group. Unaccompanied minors, disabled people and other vulnerable people might have different needs than others. Variations in construction materials also reduce the feeling of being in a logistics machine, and so does the use of colors- which could not be found in the existing Hotspot site on Leros. Privacy The variation in height, the flexible layout and the many opportunities for different configurations of units, combined with the possibility of being alone, provide a level of privacy not to be found in the existing layout.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

priv ate pub

lic

rivate

semi-p

Axonometrics showing the basic unit structure

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

44 / 45

Inspired by Islamic architecture - with reference to the culture of the largest groups of refugees entering Europe, the main vocabulary of the architecture is based on the vault and column principle. This allows for spatial variations, and the principle will be developed as a module system that can be pre-fabricated and modified according to shifting needs.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Area: 15m2 Capacity: 4

shaded corridor

Area: 18m2 Capacity: 8

Area: 16m2 Capacity: 4

WC

common space

Area: 18m2 Capacity: 4

united module open space

Area: 8m2 Capacity: 1

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 3

Area: 12m2 Capacity: 5

Area: 8m2 Capacity: 2

Area: 20 m2 Capacity: 16

Area: 10 m2 Capacity: 3

Area: 12m2 Capacity: 5 Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 6

Area: 9 m2 Capacity: 3

With curved wooden sheets screwed onto the metal structure

1 Area: 12 m2 Capacity: 4

Area: 18 m2 Capacity: 6

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 5

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 6

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 4

2

With fabric pieces tied onto the metal structure

3

With curved wooden sheets on the sides

With curved CGI sheets

4

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 5

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 8

split module

shaded corridor around the common courtyard

NGO's space

united module mushroom

Groundfloor plan 1

2

3

4

Longitudinal Section

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Temporary Displacement Sites

Area: 9 m2 Capacity: 2

Temporary Displacement Sites

Detailed Unit Section

Area: 12 m2 Capacity: 6 Area: 15 m2 Capacity: 5

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Area: 15m2 Capacity: 4

shaded corridor

Area: 18m2 Capacity: 8

Area: 16m2 Capacity: 4

WC

common space

Area: 18m2 Capacity: 4

united module open space

Area: 8m2 Capacity: 1

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 3

Area: 12m2 Capacity: 5

Area: 8m2 Capacity: 2

Area: 20 m2 Capacity: 16

Area: 10 m2 Capacity: 3

Area: 12m2 Capacity: 5 Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 6

Area: 9 m2 Capacity: 3

With curved wooden sheets screwed onto the metal structure

1 Area: 12 m2 Capacity: 4

Area: 18 m2 Capacity: 6

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 5

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 6

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 4

2

With fabric pieces tied onto the metal structure

3

With curved wooden sheets on the sides

With curved CGI sheets

4

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 5

Area: 16 m2 Capacity: 8

split module

shaded corridor around the common courtyard

NGO's space

united module mushroom

Groundfloor plan 1

2

3

4

Longitudinal Section

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Temporary Displacement Sites

Area: 9 m2 Capacity: 2

Temporary Displacement Sites

Detailed Unit Section

Area: 12 m2 Capacity: 6 Area: 15 m2 Capacity: 5

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

Temporary Dipslacement Sites

Temporary Displacement Sites

IN TRANSIT

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New Hotspot Typology


AHO / Spring 2016

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

Temporary Dipslacement Sites

Temporary Displacement Sites

IN TRANSIT

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New Hotspot Typology


“Many individuals, especially in the early stages of displacement, often show signs of emotional distress, which may be worsened by crowded and inadequate living conditions.”

What is a Collective Centers? While these places may serve the purpose of emergency accommodation, they are rarely suitable for longer stays – which is often what happens.

Collective centers are existing buildings or structures used as temporary accommodation for displaced populations. As with camps, they are considered last resort and are only used when no other options are available. Collective centers have highly variable life spans. While most collective centers are used only for a couple of days or weeks, in other contexts they may be used for a decade or more. Types of buildings include schools, hotels, sports halls, community centers, industrial buildings, hospitals, religious buildings, and military compounds - none of them intended as living quarters.

One of many challenges in spaces used as collective centers is overcrowding, and it is difficult to ensure the privacy of the residents. Consequently, protection risks in these centers increase, as it is hard to provide safety and security with regards to population composition (breakdown of social and familial structures) or find suitable locations for basic services, such as water and sanitation facilities. Many individuals, especially in the early stages of displacement, often show signs of emotional distress, which may be worsened by crowded and inadequate living conditions. The composition of the collective center population and the use of the space should therefore be carefully considered. Organizing the residents’ living spaces inside a building is a difficult task, and the physical layout of these spaces can have a direct impact on whether it provides protection for people or puts them at more risk. A common way of maintaining the safety of the residents is to separate people by gender. Whether this is the best way to accommodate the center residents, is up for debate. The idea that families should stay together is also a widespread solution. However, multi-family areas can present challenges; women having to share the space with male strangers, as one example. Also, it often happens that minor unaccompanied boys or girls seek the company of families or adult individuals

during their journey. Should they then be separated again, based on gender or familial structures? The following projects are showing how the many challenges of large open spaces used as collective centers (in this case a sports hall) can be improved by physical planning and design interventions. The layout and interventions in these examples form a flexible system that ensures privacy, reduces the risk of gender-based violence (GBV), provides protection for persons with specific needs, while at the same time allows for social interaction in a number of common spaces. The units vary in size, and can form different constellations: a design that specifically responds to the need for more flexible living arrangements that is not limited to gender and familial structures, and that allows for different uses at night and during the day. Use of materials also play an important role when it comes to creating the feeling of safety. Visual proximity, but physical separation can be used as a compromise for ensuring privacy, but at the same time allow the residents to get the overview (literally) of the situations. This can be achieved by varying the height of separation walls in combination with different surfaces with a variation in transparency (clear, opaque or solid materials) and by lifting the sleeping units from the ground, which again ensures more space for common activities and voluntary social interaction.

58 / 59

Collective Centers


“Many individuals, especially in the early stages of displacement, often show signs of emotional distress, which may be worsened by crowded and inadequate living conditions.”

What is a Collective Centers? While these places may serve the purpose of emergency accommodation, they are rarely suitable for longer stays – which is often what happens.

Collective centers are existing buildings or structures used as temporary accommodation for displaced populations. As with camps, they are considered last resort and are only used when no other options are available. Collective centers have highly variable life spans. While most collective centers are used only for a couple of days or weeks, in other contexts they may be used for a decade or more. Types of buildings include schools, hotels, sports halls, community centers, industrial buildings, hospitals, religious buildings, and military compounds - none of them intended as living quarters.

One of many challenges in spaces used as collective centers is overcrowding, and it is difficult to ensure the privacy of the residents. Consequently, protection risks in these centers increase, as it is hard to provide safety and security with regards to population composition (breakdown of social and familial structures) or find suitable locations for basic services, such as water and sanitation facilities. Many individuals, especially in the early stages of displacement, often show signs of emotional distress, which may be worsened by crowded and inadequate living conditions. The composition of the collective center population and the use of the space should therefore be carefully considered. Organizing the residents’ living spaces inside a building is a difficult task, and the physical layout of these spaces can have a direct impact on whether it provides protection for people or puts them at more risk. A common way of maintaining the safety of the residents is to separate people by gender. Whether this is the best way to accommodate the center residents, is up for debate. The idea that families should stay together is also a widespread solution. However, multi-family areas can present challenges; women having to share the space with male strangers, as one example. Also, it often happens that minor unaccompanied boys or girls seek the company of families or adult individuals

during their journey. Should they then be separated again, based on gender or familial structures? The following projects are showing how the many challenges of large open spaces used as collective centers (in this case a sports hall) can be improved by physical planning and design interventions. The layout and interventions in these examples form a flexible system that ensures privacy, reduces the risk of gender-based violence (GBV), provides protection for persons with specific needs, while at the same time allows for social interaction in a number of common spaces. The units vary in size, and can form different constellations: a design that specifically responds to the need for more flexible living arrangements that is not limited to gender and familial structures, and that allows for different uses at night and during the day. Use of materials also play an important role when it comes to creating the feeling of safety. Visual proximity, but physical separation can be used as a compromise for ensuring privacy, but at the same time allow the residents to get the overview (literally) of the situations. This can be achieved by varying the height of separation walls in combination with different surfaces with a variation in transparency (clear, opaque or solid materials) and by lifting the sleeping units from the ground, which again ensures more space for common activities and voluntary social interaction.

58 / 59

Collective Centers


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

shelving partition

Levels of Privacy

single unit corrugated metal sheets

Dignity and Comfort

Personal Space

Flexibility

opening

Temporality

family unit

Construction Axonometric

Daytime Configuration

Nighttime Configuration

Longitudinal Section

60 / 61

Temporary Displacement Sites

main structure

Temporary Displacement Sites

double unit

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

shelving partition

Levels of Privacy

single unit corrugated metal sheets

Dignity and Comfort

Personal Space

Flexibility

opening

Temporality

family unit

Construction Axonometric

Daytime Configuration

Nighttime Configuration

Longitudinal Section

60 / 61

Temporary Displacement Sites

main structure

Temporary Displacement Sites

double unit

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


“It is important to point out that the actual transformation is key in creating dignified living arrangements for people in transit, as many of the spaces currently used for temporarily accommodating people were never intended for living.�

The power of Transformation

There is currently a discrepancy between solving immediate needs and developing sustainable solutions benefitting the ones fleeing and the urban environments hosting them. Developing and adopting response strategies taking both aspects into consideration, often start with one good example, or in this case two: the project proposals Integrative Roof and Kalymnos Composite.

In the last few decades the transformation of unoccupied buildings formerly used for industrial production in urban areas - quite often leading to gentrification processes and real estate development, have taken place in many major cities globally. This has become a rather common type of project for architects, and there are many good examples of adaptive reuse and the creation of high quality spaces transforming not only the building, but entire neighborhoods. It is important to point out that the actual transformation is key in creating dignified living arrangements for people in transit, as many of the spaces currently used for temporarily accommodating people were never intended for living. > This is further described in the Chapter: What is a Collective Center? page 58 The following two projects highlight the fact that even if an individual might be in transit, the physical surroundings accommodating her on her way do not have to be of a temporary character with sub-standard conditions. The project proposals also point out that through smart programming, inclusion of different user groups, a mix of functions, and good architecture - neighborhood coherence and social cohesion between the new arrivals

and their host community, can be achieved. Both project proposals are showing how an abandoned Industrial building on the island of Kalymnos has the potential to become a livable permanent reception facility. The building is a one-story 270 square meters brick and concrete structure, situated in the harbor of Pothia, the capital city of Kalymnos. One part of the building has been repurposed and is currently in use as a reception center for refugees meeting certain vulnerability criteria. The majority of the inhabitants are families with children. These families are typically staying there for a few days, sometimes weeks. As such, the rapid turnover and the high number of people coming and going is not any different than in facilities accommodating travelers and tourists, and although their life situations are not comparable, they do share some of the same needs: a place giving temporary protection from bad weather or danger; a place that offers sanitation facilities; a place where one can eat and drink; a place where information is shared, and a place that ensures privacy but also the possibility to socialize. The layout and spatial organization of the building do not accommodate the latter.

64 / 65

Transforming Buildings


“It is important to point out that the actual transformation is key in creating dignified living arrangements for people in transit, as many of the spaces currently used for temporarily accommodating people were never intended for living.�

The power of Transformation

There is currently a discrepancy between solving immediate needs and developing sustainable solutions benefitting the ones fleeing and the urban environments hosting them. Developing and adopting response strategies taking both aspects into consideration, often start with one good example, or in this case two: the project proposals Integrative Roof and Kalymnos Composite.

In the last few decades the transformation of unoccupied buildings formerly used for industrial production in urban areas - quite often leading to gentrification processes and real estate development, have taken place in many major cities globally. This has become a rather common type of project for architects, and there are many good examples of adaptive reuse and the creation of high quality spaces transforming not only the building, but entire neighborhoods. It is important to point out that the actual transformation is key in creating dignified living arrangements for people in transit, as many of the spaces currently used for temporarily accommodating people were never intended for living. > This is further described in the Chapter: What is a Collective Center? page 58 The following two projects highlight the fact that even if an individual might be in transit, the physical surroundings accommodating her on her way do not have to be of a temporary character with sub-standard conditions. The project proposals also point out that through smart programming, inclusion of different user groups, a mix of functions, and good architecture - neighborhood coherence and social cohesion between the new arrivals

and their host community, can be achieved. Both project proposals are showing how an abandoned Industrial building on the island of Kalymnos has the potential to become a livable permanent reception facility. The building is a one-story 270 square meters brick and concrete structure, situated in the harbor of Pothia, the capital city of Kalymnos. One part of the building has been repurposed and is currently in use as a reception center for refugees meeting certain vulnerability criteria. The majority of the inhabitants are families with children. These families are typically staying there for a few days, sometimes weeks. As such, the rapid turnover and the high number of people coming and going is not any different than in facilities accommodating travelers and tourists, and although their life situations are not comparable, they do share some of the same needs: a place giving temporary protection from bad weather or danger; a place that offers sanitation facilities; a place where one can eat and drink; a place where information is shared, and a place that ensures privacy but also the possibility to socialize. The layout and spatial organization of the building do not accommodate the latter.

64 / 65

Transforming Buildings


The second part of the building is left unused, as the roof is damaged and needs to be replaced. The roof has been the point of departure for both projects, but developed in different ways offering a variety of possible uses. In Integrative Roof the exterior of the building has become the new meeting point for the local population. The new roof terrace – replacing the damaged existing structure, marks the starting point of a seaside promenade connecting the area to the city center. This new public space will be shared by the new arrivals, tourists and the local population and can be used for events, performances, meetings and recreation. The guiding design principle has been to create a place where children can safely run around and play, protected from the strong wind but with views of the city and the sea.

people have emigrated from the island; the 1925 population was 24,000 inhabitants compared to 16,500 in 2012. The two proposals are showcasing that, if executed properly, the use and transformation of abandoned buildings in urban, dense areas throughout Europe is not only possible, but a clever way of accommodating people in need and simultaneously upgrading physical and social structures in the host community. Transforming existing buildings as opposed to erecting temporary structures in a neighborhood may feel less invasive for the host community, and living in a building similar to the rest of the neighborhood may feel less alienating for the new arrivals.

Greece - The facade of the Pikpa Reception Center, and old hospital, Leros, February 2016 Greece - Industrial building used as a reception facility on the island of Kalymnos, February 2016

Both authors have carefully considered the possibility of a drop in numbers of refugees arriving in Kalymnos due to the shifting asylum policies locally and in the EU. The potential for multi- and after use have therefore been guiding for the design and programming of the buildings, as well as the need for creating a new meeting place for the population of Kalymnos, and potentially more jobs. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a large number of

66 / 67

In Kalymnos Composite programming and the principle of mixed use has been guiding for the architectural expression of the vertical expansion of the building. The majority of tourists coming to Kalymnos are climbers, as the island is ideal for this activity all year round. The transformed building is thought to function as a reception facility for refugees and as a hostel for climbers. The composition of the two groups will vary according to seasons and needs, but the two different groups are always treated as equal guests with same access to both private and common spaces. The total capacity is 40 guests.


The second part of the building is left unused, as the roof is damaged and needs to be replaced. The roof has been the point of departure for both projects, but developed in different ways offering a variety of possible uses. In Integrative Roof the exterior of the building has become the new meeting point for the local population. The new roof terrace – replacing the damaged existing structure, marks the starting point of a seaside promenade connecting the area to the city center. This new public space will be shared by the new arrivals, tourists and the local population and can be used for events, performances, meetings and recreation. The guiding design principle has been to create a place where children can safely run around and play, protected from the strong wind but with views of the city and the sea.

people have emigrated from the island; the 1925 population was 24,000 inhabitants compared to 16,500 in 2012. The two proposals are showcasing that, if executed properly, the use and transformation of abandoned buildings in urban, dense areas throughout Europe is not only possible, but a clever way of accommodating people in need and simultaneously upgrading physical and social structures in the host community. Transforming existing buildings as opposed to erecting temporary structures in a neighborhood may feel less invasive for the host community, and living in a building similar to the rest of the neighborhood may feel less alienating for the new arrivals.

Greece - The facade of the Pikpa Reception Center, and old hospital, Leros, February 2016 Greece - Industrial building used as a reception facility on the island of Kalymnos, February 2016

Both authors have carefully considered the possibility of a drop in numbers of refugees arriving in Kalymnos due to the shifting asylum policies locally and in the EU. The potential for multi- and after use have therefore been guiding for the design and programming of the buildings, as well as the need for creating a new meeting place for the population of Kalymnos, and potentially more jobs. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a large number of

66 / 67

In Kalymnos Composite programming and the principle of mixed use has been guiding for the architectural expression of the vertical expansion of the building. The majority of tourists coming to Kalymnos are climbers, as the island is ideal for this activity all year round. The transformed building is thought to function as a reception facility for refugees and as a hostel for climbers. The composition of the two groups will vary according to seasons and needs, but the two different groups are always treated as equal guests with same access to both private and common spaces. The total capacity is 40 guests.


Integrative Roof Montserrat Solervicens Harbour Ferry Station

Registration Buidling

Reception Center and Social Roof Terrace

Location

Transforming Buildings

Public Beach

Entrance Public Access

Plan of the building in its context

68 / 69

Transforming Buildings

The construction of the new roof structure is designed to be adaptable; it can be reconfigured and applied to other situations. The roof is a transformative child-friendly landscape that invites the local community, refugees and migrants, hikers and tourists to experience the natural beauty this very unique site offers.


Integrative Roof Montserrat Solervicens Harbour Ferry Station

Registration Buidling

Reception Center and Social Roof Terrace

Location

Transforming Buildings

Public Beach

Entrance Public Access

Plan of the building in its context

68 / 69

Transforming Buildings

The construction of the new roof structure is designed to be adaptable; it can be reconfigured and applied to other situations. The roof is a transformative child-friendly landscape that invites the local community, refugees and migrants, hikers and tourists to experience the natural beauty this very unique site offers.


AHO / Spring 2016

4.15 m.

1.2 m.

7.6 m.

3.16 m.

IN TRANSIT

Stairs / Seating Structure

Wood Cladding 4.2 m.

12 m.

3.6 m.

19.7 m.

Rooftop Plan

1.7 m.

A

1 m.

4 m.

4 m.

8 m.

4 m.

8 m.

4 m.

32 m. A’

Private spaces

Common spaces

Ground Floor Plan

Panel Structure

Transforming Buildings

2.3 m.

New Steel Structure 8.8 m2

0.7

New Removable Panels

Joints Structure Existing Concrete Structure

Cross Section

Axonometric drawing

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

74 / 71

Transforming Buildings

8 m.

2.2 m.

Roof Structure

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

4.15 m.

1.2 m.

7.6 m.

3.16 m.

IN TRANSIT

Stairs / Seating Structure

Wood Cladding 4.2 m.

12 m.

3.6 m.

19.7 m.

Rooftop Plan

1.7 m.

A

1 m.

4 m.

4 m.

8 m.

4 m.

8 m.

4 m.

32 m. A’

Private spaces

Common spaces

Ground Floor Plan

Panel Structure

Transforming Buildings

2.3 m.

New Steel Structure 8.8 m2

0.7

New Removable Panels

Joints Structure Existing Concrete Structure

Cross Section

Axonometric drawing

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

74 / 71

Transforming Buildings

8 m.

2.2 m.

Roof Structure

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures “Focus on children and the right to play should be a guiding principle for all common space interventions.�

Common Spaces The Need for Social Infrastructures

Whether used as a strategy for a return to normalcy for disaster-affected populations, or as a mean to offer a sense of normality for people fleeing war and persecution, advocating for design interventions that take into consideration psychosocial wellbeing is the one area within crisis response where architects, planners and designers should engage and where our professions can really make a difference.

be suitable for both children and adults alike. Spatial solutions benefiting children will also benefit other segments of the population - in particular women and vulnerable groups. As common space is the physical architecture for human interaction, the following projects have either used this notion as a guiding principle for their proposed interventions or incorporated one or more interventions or buildings that will serve as recreational and social places for both the new arrivals and their host communities.

Focus on children and the right to play should be a guiding principle for all common space interventions. High-quality common spaces will provide children with opportunities for fun, exercise and learning. Structures that function as a recreational supplement to other daily activities should

78 / 79

Building social and physical structures is at the core of responding to mass displacement. The social dimension of physical planning and design has been the overall guiding principle for all project proposals produced during the academic semester, and to a certain extent the whole premise for establishing the In Transit studio.

Places that serve everyone in a temporary situation: recreational space; meeting places; a kitchen; play areas; urban furniture, or other social gathering points - are especially important for those with no option to maintain their social habits in unfamiliar and often hostile environments. Common spaces - in urban contexts and camp-settings alike, allow residents to control the areas around their living spaces, and contribute to increased safety.


Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures “Focus on children and the right to play should be a guiding principle for all common space interventions.�

Common Spaces The Need for Social Infrastructures

Whether used as a strategy for a return to normalcy for disaster-affected populations, or as a mean to offer a sense of normality for people fleeing war and persecution, advocating for design interventions that take into consideration psychosocial wellbeing is the one area within crisis response where architects, planners and designers should engage and where our professions can really make a difference.

be suitable for both children and adults alike. Spatial solutions benefiting children will also benefit other segments of the population - in particular women and vulnerable groups. As common space is the physical architecture for human interaction, the following projects have either used this notion as a guiding principle for their proposed interventions or incorporated one or more interventions or buildings that will serve as recreational and social places for both the new arrivals and their host communities.

Focus on children and the right to play should be a guiding principle for all common space interventions. High-quality common spaces will provide children with opportunities for fun, exercise and learning. Structures that function as a recreational supplement to other daily activities should

78 / 79

Building social and physical structures is at the core of responding to mass displacement. The social dimension of physical planning and design has been the overall guiding principle for all project proposals produced during the academic semester, and to a certain extent the whole premise for establishing the In Transit studio.

Places that serve everyone in a temporary situation: recreational space; meeting places; a kitchen; play areas; urban furniture, or other social gathering points - are especially important for those with no option to maintain their social habits in unfamiliar and often hostile environments. Common spaces - in urban contexts and camp-settings alike, allow residents to control the areas around their living spaces, and contribute to increased safety.


Building Common

There’s a fine balance between proposing ideal solutions and accepting the fact that all interventions would have to resonate with decision making entities. With this in mind, a scaffolding system seemed like a natural fit and was used as the main structural element of the common space pavilions. To break free from the military grid, but at the same time speak the language of solutions typically used by potential implementing partners (the Greek military), the proposed structures for the new common space were horizontally rotated but still arranged in a repetitive

Greece - Hotspot, Leros, February 2016

network with varying distances between the columns. The structural elements were given color, standing out in the grey landscape.

80 / 81

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

As the site-specific conditions of the Leros hotspot were based on geopolitical decisions, there was hardly any room - literally and figuratively, for altering the physical layout of the hotspot. The area where improvements could potentially be made was limited to the unarticulated open space. The striking need for social and recreational activities in the Leros hotspot led to the design of a number of interlinked pavilions that would serve as the new common space on site.

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

Tea Skog, Christos Pampafikos, Clara Trivino-Masso, David Kelly, Paul-Antoine Lucas


Building Common

There’s a fine balance between proposing ideal solutions and accepting the fact that all interventions would have to resonate with decision making entities. With this in mind, a scaffolding system seemed like a natural fit and was used as the main structural element of the common space pavilions. To break free from the military grid, but at the same time speak the language of solutions typically used by potential implementing partners (the Greek military), the proposed structures for the new common space were horizontally rotated but still arranged in a repetitive

Greece - Hotspot, Leros, February 2016

network with varying distances between the columns. The structural elements were given color, standing out in the grey landscape.

80 / 81

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

As the site-specific conditions of the Leros hotspot were based on geopolitical decisions, there was hardly any room - literally and figuratively, for altering the physical layout of the hotspot. The area where improvements could potentially be made was limited to the unarticulated open space. The striking need for social and recreational activities in the Leros hotspot led to the design of a number of interlinked pavilions that would serve as the new common space on site.

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

Tea Skog, Christos Pampafikos, Clara Trivino-Masso, David Kelly, Paul-Antoine Lucas


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT EXIT

ENTRANCE

Waiting Area (240 seats)

Waiting Area (175 seats)

2

1

3

Medical Screening Asylum Seeker Procedure Frontex Screening Registration Procedure Return Procedure

Site Plan CAPACITY 109 containers 872 individuals

Ground Floor Plan within context

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

Construction Axonometric

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

82 / 83

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

1 2 3 4 5

4

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

5


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT EXIT

ENTRANCE

Waiting Area (240 seats)

Waiting Area (175 seats)

2

1

3

Medical Screening Asylum Seeker Procedure Frontex Screening Registration Procedure Return Procedure

Site Plan CAPACITY 109 containers 872 individuals

Ground Floor Plan within context

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

Construction Axonometric

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

82 / 83

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

1 2 3 4 5

4

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

5


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Option 1

Option 2

CAPACITY public area/children friendly 82 ppl private enclosed area 24 ppl gathering/sitting area 65 ppl

CAPACITY public area/children friendly 60 ppl private enclosed area 64 ppl gathering/sitting area 36 ppl

TOTAL around 170 ppl

TOTAL around 160 ppl

SITTING AREA

PRIVATE AREA PRIVATE AREA

Option 3 CAPACITY public area/children friendly 45 ppl private enclosed area 87 ppl gathering/sitting area 28 ppl

SITTING AREA PLAYING AREA

SITTING AREA

PRIVATE AREA

PUBLIC AREA

PRIVATE AREA

TOTAL around 160 ppl

PRIVATE AREA

PUBLIC AREA

PRIVATE AREA

84 / 85

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

PUBLIC AREA

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

PLAYING AREA

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Option 1

Option 2

CAPACITY public area/children friendly 82 ppl private enclosed area 24 ppl gathering/sitting area 65 ppl

CAPACITY public area/children friendly 60 ppl private enclosed area 64 ppl gathering/sitting area 36 ppl

TOTAL around 170 ppl

TOTAL around 160 ppl

SITTING AREA

PRIVATE AREA PRIVATE AREA

Option 3 CAPACITY public area/children friendly 45 ppl private enclosed area 87 ppl gathering/sitting area 28 ppl

SITTING AREA PLAYING AREA

SITTING AREA

PRIVATE AREA

PUBLIC AREA

PRIVATE AREA

TOTAL around 160 ppl

PRIVATE AREA

PUBLIC AREA

PRIVATE AREA

84 / 85

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

PUBLIC AREA

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

PLAYING AREA

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

24

24

Bin

200 400

24

Construction Detail

Bench Cover

2500

3500

Plant Pot

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

600

24

145

7,

600

145

10° 145

7,

30°

10°

22

600

2

° ,50

The system can be adapted to other contexts. 400

30° °

0 2,5

200

3300 2300

600

200

3300 2300

400

3300

200

4300

3300

400

4300

145

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

The roof elements providing shade were tilted in different directions to create a form for irregularity compared to the homogenous pre-fab roofscape. A modular urban furniture system was developed and inserted in-between and around the scaffolding structure. Sheer fabrics and fishnets were also introduced to create vertical, subtle physical and visual separations. This layer of organicallyshaped forms organizes the space in a way that diffuses the boundaries between different functions – and would, according to UNHCR protection experts, be an ideal way of reducing stigma of vulnerable persons who usually have no other choice than to walk through open areas under social surveillance of others, in order to receive psycho-social support or partake in other sensitive activities.

Flip it ! 2400-3600

Furniture System

2400-3600

Constructive Section

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

2400-3600

86 / 87

Flip it !

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

24

24

Bin

200 400

24

Construction Detail

Bench Cover

2500

3500

Plant Pot

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

600

24

145

7,

600

145

10° 145

7,

30°

10°

22

600

2

° ,50

The system can be adapted to other contexts. 400

30° °

0 2,5

200

3300 2300

600

200

3300 2300

400

3300

200

4300

3300

400

4300

145

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

The roof elements providing shade were tilted in different directions to create a form for irregularity compared to the homogenous pre-fab roofscape. A modular urban furniture system was developed and inserted in-between and around the scaffolding structure. Sheer fabrics and fishnets were also introduced to create vertical, subtle physical and visual separations. This layer of organicallyshaped forms organizes the space in a way that diffuses the boundaries between different functions – and would, according to UNHCR protection experts, be an ideal way of reducing stigma of vulnerable persons who usually have no other choice than to walk through open areas under social surveillance of others, in order to receive psycho-social support or partake in other sensitive activities.

Flip it ! 2400-3600

Furniture System

2400-3600

Constructive Section

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

2400-3600

86 / 87

Flip it !

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


Social Spacemaking

The project Social Spacemaking I Leros Landscaping responds to the climatic position of Leros, situated in the Aegean Sea, and has the advantage of the luscious tree-filled existing courtyard. The proposal provides new programs for the existing facilities: a space to eat, play and rest safely; a space to BBQ outside, and a reconfiguration of the groundscape.

The simplicity of this project is that it is not site specific, but rather climate specific. A lattice of oxidized steel, hangs on a steel beam structure, offering a shaded space from intense heat and direct sunlight. This will provide a protective environment where all ethnicities and age groups can come together to perform basic human requirements such as eating, resting and

Site Plan

92 / 93

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

The Pikpa reception center in Lakki, on the Greek island of Leros, is a magnificent 1930s former Italian military hospital currently hosting young families, vulnerable refugees and migrants for a number of days, while they get registered and then progress on their journey through Europe. The current facility is quite beautiful and adequately provides safe sleeping spaces, washing facilities, medical aid, and psychological support for up to 100 individuals. The center is run by a local volunteer group. Meals are prepared off site and brought to the center.

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

Rebecca Dunne


Social Spacemaking

The project Social Spacemaking I Leros Landscaping responds to the climatic position of Leros, situated in the Aegean Sea, and has the advantage of the luscious tree-filled existing courtyard. The proposal provides new programs for the existing facilities: a space to eat, play and rest safely; a space to BBQ outside, and a reconfiguration of the groundscape.

The simplicity of this project is that it is not site specific, but rather climate specific. A lattice of oxidized steel, hangs on a steel beam structure, offering a shaded space from intense heat and direct sunlight. This will provide a protective environment where all ethnicities and age groups can come together to perform basic human requirements such as eating, resting and

Site Plan

92 / 93

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

The Pikpa reception center in Lakki, on the Greek island of Leros, is a magnificent 1930s former Italian military hospital currently hosting young families, vulnerable refugees and migrants for a number of days, while they get registered and then progress on their journey through Europe. The current facility is quite beautiful and adequately provides safe sleeping spaces, washing facilities, medical aid, and psychological support for up to 100 individuals. The center is run by a local volunteer group. Meals are prepared off site and brought to the center.

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

Rebecca Dunne


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

playing; a social space that is very often neglected in these transit conditions.

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

Cross Section

Longitudinal Section

94 / 95

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

The structure can be assembled in open, untouched landscapes. In addition to creating a counterpoint in a specific setting, the structure is always in dialogue with the terrain and earth. The construction is seeking a prototypical configuration. The architecture has a rigorously clear, regular steel portal frame. The volume is consequently emphasized as a unit, not as a structural essence or subdivision. The fixed steel lattice adds a layer of transparency that is welcoming and enhances the tactile and sensual impact of architecture.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

playing; a social space that is very often neglected in these transit conditions.

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

Cross Section

Longitudinal Section

94 / 95

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

The structure can be assembled in open, untouched landscapes. In addition to creating a counterpoint in a specific setting, the structure is always in dialogue with the terrain and earth. The construction is seeking a prototypical configuration. The architecture has a rigorously clear, regular steel portal frame. The volume is consequently emphasized as a unit, not as a structural essence or subdivision. The fixed steel lattice adds a layer of transparency that is welcoming and enhances the tactile and sensual impact of architecture.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Ground Floor Plan, Zoom-in

Axonometric drawing, Barbecue Stands

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

96 / 97

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

This structure can have high impact as a temporary “sanctuary”, in the limitless landscape of transit conditions, reintroducing fundamental experiences of climate, enclosure and togetherness. Our attempts to build temporary architecture is doomed to failure if it is regarded as just a quick, cheap fix, that is detached from the cultural and psychological issues of life values, ethics, and aesthetics. This intervention can be implemented to every park, and temporary city worldwide. The need for beautiful, simple, multi-functional, social spaces is vital to help repair our fractured society.

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

The concept is based on using oxidized floor grates of standard dimensions that are assembled together and can be dismantled and moved to another location should that be a requirement. Reclaimed timber decking forms the ground surface, a soft material in comparison to the cool steel skin of the upper children’s bench that protectively wraps their ‘treehouse’. The effect provides relief from the intense summer heat experienced on the Greek islands, a time when the largest number of refugees are in-transit.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Ground Floor Plan, Zoom-in

Axonometric drawing, Barbecue Stands

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

96 / 97

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

This structure can have high impact as a temporary “sanctuary”, in the limitless landscape of transit conditions, reintroducing fundamental experiences of climate, enclosure and togetherness. Our attempts to build temporary architecture is doomed to failure if it is regarded as just a quick, cheap fix, that is detached from the cultural and psychological issues of life values, ethics, and aesthetics. This intervention can be implemented to every park, and temporary city worldwide. The need for beautiful, simple, multi-functional, social spaces is vital to help repair our fractured society.

Common Spaces and Social Infratsructures

The concept is based on using oxidized floor grates of standard dimensions that are assembled together and can be dismantled and moved to another location should that be a requirement. Reclaimed timber decking forms the ground surface, a soft material in comparison to the cool steel skin of the upper children’s bench that protectively wraps their ‘treehouse’. The effect provides relief from the intense summer heat experienced on the Greek islands, a time when the largest number of refugees are in-transit.


Urban Strategies Urban Development

Mass displacement and urbanization are two of the main challenges the world is currently facing. The future of humanitarian response will for the most part be in urban, densely populated areas, and participation in creating viable solutions for the new arrivals and the host communities alike, is undoubtedly an area where the international humanitarian community needs to team up with urban specialists and in particular from the realm of the built environment.

The potential for integrating humanitarian response with urban planning mechanisms is in general an unexplored subject. The focus is usually on the challenges that comes with rapid urbanization and mass influx of people to cities, rather than exploring the opportunities for the host communities of accepting new arrivals. In this regard there is a need to change the conception that people seeking sanctuary is only a burden to their hosts and instead emphasize the contribution that the new arrivals can make to host communities, and to use funding in a way that also benefits the host community. Many host communities see new arrivals as a risk to local security, and this is likely to cause resentment among local residents who may regard them as competitors for livelihoods options and for putting additional pressure on public services and city resources. Despite the potential for negative impact on host communities, new arrivals often come in with productive capacities and assets, and are likely to endorse important economic functions in their hosts’ societies –new arrivals also quite often come with direct or indirect financial support, through programs or operations run and funded by the international humanitarian community (UN agencies, NGOs) or national immigration authorities. While urbanization is happening across the globe, many European cities are also facing a decrease in population numbers due to the worldwide financial crisis, and consequently a lack of human and financial resources. In recent years, many planned and ongoing construction projects were

halted, and the much needed upgrade of poor urban areas never materialized. It is true that the built environment is a major source of vulnerability, but it also represents a potential innovative tool for social cohesion. While it is important to understand that a city is not only a physical and functional entity, it is equally important to recognize that, in fact, most of the municipal services, livelihoods projects and other interventions that would be introduced in a neighborhood end up having some kind of site-specific physical manifestation influencing people’s everyday life. Community upgrade requires a holistic approach that includes smart programming combined with attractive physical spaces. The following project presents a new form of urban planning focusing on refugee integration as an opportunity for revitalizing poor urban neighborhoods in Athens. The authors have - through their proposed strategies and interventions, aimed to showcase the potential for hosting refugees in the many unfinished and abandoned buildings in Athens: a common starting point for bolstering livelihoods, housing, infrastructure and social meeting places for the new arrivals and the existing population.

112 / 113

Urban Strategies

“It is true that the built environment is a major source of vulnerability, but it also represents a potential innovative tool for social cohesion.”


Urban Strategies Urban Development

Mass displacement and urbanization are two of the main challenges the world is currently facing. The future of humanitarian response will for the most part be in urban, densely populated areas, and participation in creating viable solutions for the new arrivals and the host communities alike, is undoubtedly an area where the international humanitarian community needs to team up with urban specialists and in particular from the realm of the built environment.

The potential for integrating humanitarian response with urban planning mechanisms is in general an unexplored subject. The focus is usually on the challenges that comes with rapid urbanization and mass influx of people to cities, rather than exploring the opportunities for the host communities of accepting new arrivals. In this regard there is a need to change the conception that people seeking sanctuary is only a burden to their hosts and instead emphasize the contribution that the new arrivals can make to host communities, and to use funding in a way that also benefits the host community. Many host communities see new arrivals as a risk to local security, and this is likely to cause resentment among local residents who may regard them as competitors for livelihoods options and for putting additional pressure on public services and city resources. Despite the potential for negative impact on host communities, new arrivals often come in with productive capacities and assets, and are likely to endorse important economic functions in their hosts’ societies –new arrivals also quite often come with direct or indirect financial support, through programs or operations run and funded by the international humanitarian community (UN agencies, NGOs) or national immigration authorities. While urbanization is happening across the globe, many European cities are also facing a decrease in population numbers due to the worldwide financial crisis, and consequently a lack of human and financial resources. In recent years, many planned and ongoing construction projects were

halted, and the much needed upgrade of poor urban areas never materialized. It is true that the built environment is a major source of vulnerability, but it also represents a potential innovative tool for social cohesion. While it is important to understand that a city is not only a physical and functional entity, it is equally important to recognize that, in fact, most of the municipal services, livelihoods projects and other interventions that would be introduced in a neighborhood end up having some kind of site-specific physical manifestation influencing people’s everyday life. Community upgrade requires a holistic approach that includes smart programming combined with attractive physical spaces. The following project presents a new form of urban planning focusing on refugee integration as an opportunity for revitalizing poor urban neighborhoods in Athens. The authors have - through their proposed strategies and interventions, aimed to showcase the potential for hosting refugees in the many unfinished and abandoned buildings in Athens: a common starting point for bolstering livelihoods, housing, infrastructure and social meeting places for the new arrivals and the existing population.

112 / 113

Urban Strategies

“It is true that the built environment is a major source of vulnerability, but it also represents a potential innovative tool for social cohesion.”


112.486 65.574 2011 2016

IOANNINA

2010 2016

VOLOS

2011 2016

AGRINIO

10.9 M

2011 2016

11.2 M

84.425

Clara Triviño-Masso

46.899

144.449

106.053

Starting Point

2011 2016 61.653 81.355

128.758 52006

144.651

75.315

Population evolution in shrinking Greek cities

STARTING POINT

Where do we go?

- The possibility that a large number of refugees will need acute accommodations in Greece due to shifting asylum policies in the EU. - The financial crisis in Greece and the phenomena of shrinking cities throughout the country. - The fact that more than 80% of displaced populations worldwide are seeking sanctuary in cities.

Concept Diagram of the project intention

114 / 115

Urban Strategies

The project ‘Starting Point’ aims to develop a spatial and programmatic strategy that will benefit the ones fleeing and the urban environments hosting them. This strategy is based on the potential for providing a common response to the following current challenges, by combing the opportunities that lie within:

Urban Strategies

2011 2016

LAMIA

2011 2016

LARISSA

Athens

TRIKALA

GREECE


112.486 65.574 2011 2016

IOANNINA

2010 2016

VOLOS

2011 2016

AGRINIO

10.9 M

2011 2016

11.2 M

84.425

Clara Triviño-Masso

46.899

144.449

106.053

Starting Point

2011 2016 61.653 81.355

128.758 52006

144.651

75.315

Population evolution in shrinking Greek cities

STARTING POINT

Where do we go?

- The possibility that a large number of refugees will need acute accommodations in Greece due to shifting asylum policies in the EU. - The financial crisis in Greece and the phenomena of shrinking cities throughout the country. - The fact that more than 80% of displaced populations worldwide are seeking sanctuary in cities.

Concept Diagram of the project intention

114 / 115

Urban Strategies

The project ‘Starting Point’ aims to develop a spatial and programmatic strategy that will benefit the ones fleeing and the urban environments hosting them. This strategy is based on the potential for providing a common response to the following current challenges, by combing the opportunities that lie within:

Urban Strategies

2011 2016

LAMIA

2011 2016

LARISSA

Athens

TRIKALA

GREECE


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Empty Spaces 10 spaces

abandoned/em

pty buildings

Abandonned Buildings 42 buildings

services avai lable

Services

empty flats and /or

Urban Strategies

The potential design and programmatic interventions is a part of a proposed strategy that is merging the need for acute humanitarian response with the need for sustainable resettlement options, and the wish to repopulate shrinking cities. This will be exemplified by looking at the town of Ioannina in Greece.

potential emp ty spaces

houses

Empty flats / houses 225 empty flats or houses Potential Capacity 235 families 1200 people empty shops

Empty shops 160 shops

Mapping of potential spaces, infrastructure, and urban features in Ioannina, to be used by refugees.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

116 / 117

Urban Strategies

The main focus of this project is to develop a center for Communication and Community Management. Refugees and IDPs who do not want to settle in the camps-like settings but rather go to urban areas, often end up being exposed to additional risks, becoming more vulnerable as protection needs are not met. This group often ends up living in poor urban neighbourhoods, putting additional stress on the existing population. In order to reach and provide assistance to these groups, the creation of a Communication and Community Management Center has been suggested by the international humanitarian community as a part of an approach called Urban Displacement and Outside of Camps (UDOC). As this concept is yet to find its physical form, this project will focus on developing feasible solutions for what these spaces might look like, how they can be implemented, and how they could adjust to the local context and situation.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Empty Spaces 10 spaces

abandoned/em

pty buildings

Abandonned Buildings 42 buildings

services avai lable

Services

empty flats and /or

Urban Strategies

The potential design and programmatic interventions is a part of a proposed strategy that is merging the need for acute humanitarian response with the need for sustainable resettlement options, and the wish to repopulate shrinking cities. This will be exemplified by looking at the town of Ioannina in Greece.

potential emp ty spaces

houses

Empty flats / houses 225 empty flats or houses Potential Capacity 235 families 1200 people empty shops

Empty shops 160 shops

Mapping of potential spaces, infrastructure, and urban features in Ioannina, to be used by refugees.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

116 / 117

Urban Strategies

The main focus of this project is to develop a center for Communication and Community Management. Refugees and IDPs who do not want to settle in the camps-like settings but rather go to urban areas, often end up being exposed to additional risks, becoming more vulnerable as protection needs are not met. This group often ends up living in poor urban neighbourhoods, putting additional stress on the existing population. In order to reach and provide assistance to these groups, the creation of a Communication and Community Management Center has been suggested by the international humanitarian community as a part of an approach called Urban Displacement and Outside of Camps (UDOC). As this concept is yet to find its physical form, this project will focus on developing feasible solutions for what these spaces might look like, how they can be implemented, and how they could adjust to the local context and situation.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

+ 3,20

+ 3,70 + 3,20

+ 3,20

+ 6,30

+ 6,30

First Floor

+ 3,20

+ 3,20

+ 3,70

+ 3,70

Second Floor

The main concept of the project is to develop a typology that can be easily adjusted. Walls of different depth will contain the program required for this building and be integrated in the structural elements of the building. The design is developed in a way that allows for different materials to be used, which could change according to need and available materials in different contexts and in many types of crisis situations. The building will create a type of public space where the host community, refugees and IDPs can interact and help each other.

+ 0,00

Urban Strategies

+ 0,00

+ 0,00

Internal circulation

Urban Strategies

+ 2,20

+ 2,20

+ 5,50

+ 5,50

+ 4,60

+ 4,60

Implementation of the building

+ 0,20 + 0,20

+ 0,20

+ 1,20

+ 1,20

Axonometric drawing showing the implementation in Ioannina

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

118 / 119

+ 1,20

Ground Floor


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

+ 3,20

+ 3,70 + 3,20

+ 3,20

+ 6,30

+ 6,30

First Floor

+ 3,20

+ 3,20

+ 3,70

+ 3,70

Second Floor

The main concept of the project is to develop a typology that can be easily adjusted. Walls of different depth will contain the program required for this building and be integrated in the structural elements of the building. The design is developed in a way that allows for different materials to be used, which could change according to need and available materials in different contexts and in many types of crisis situations. The building will create a type of public space where the host community, refugees and IDPs can interact and help each other.

+ 0,00

Urban Strategies

+ 0,00

+ 0,00

Internal circulation

Urban Strategies

+ 2,20

+ 2,20

+ 5,50

+ 5,50

+ 4,60

+ 4,60

Implementation of the building

+ 0,20 + 0,20

+ 0,20

+ 1,20

+ 1,20

Axonometric drawing showing the implementation in Ioannina

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

118 / 119

+ 1,20

Ground Floor


(Un)Finished Athens

300,000

Estimated Empty, Abandoned and Unfinished buildings [Athens]

495,000

Potential refugees and asylum seekers arriving in Greece in 2016

David Kelly

Urban Strategies

Yiannis Baboulias

2007 marked the beginning of a worldwide financial crisis. Beginning in the US, the effects soon travelled to Europe. Greece felt the effects of the economic downturn more than most, with a 20% drop in wages, a 25% rise in unemployment and the highest sovereign debt default in history. Because of the sudden nature in which the recession affected Greece when the banking system collapsed, many project that were onsite at this time, as Greece had been building rapidly during this period, ran out of funds. This left behind the concrete shells that can be seen throughout Greece today. An unfinished landscape, lying in wait.

As the years pass by, these structures remain untouched, while Europe is in the midst of another crisis. As Europe prepares for another potential mass influx of refugees, the question arises of how and where to house them?

Suggested Location: Metaxourgeio District, Athens

122 / 123

Urban Strategies

“Unfinished and Abandoned buildings lie in wait through out Greece, as refugees and homeless line the streets in front of them. Why can’t one balance out the other?”


(Un)Finished Athens

300,000

Estimated Empty, Abandoned and Unfinished buildings [Athens]

495,000

Potential refugees and asylum seekers arriving in Greece in 2016

David Kelly

Urban Strategies

Yiannis Baboulias

2007 marked the beginning of a worldwide financial crisis. Beginning in the US, the effects soon travelled to Europe. Greece felt the effects of the economic downturn more than most, with a 20% drop in wages, a 25% rise in unemployment and the highest sovereign debt default in history. Because of the sudden nature in which the recession affected Greece when the banking system collapsed, many project that were onsite at this time, as Greece had been building rapidly during this period, ran out of funds. This left behind the concrete shells that can be seen throughout Greece today. An unfinished landscape, lying in wait.

As the years pass by, these structures remain untouched, while Europe is in the midst of another crisis. As Europe prepares for another potential mass influx of refugees, the question arises of how and where to house them?

Suggested Location: Metaxourgeio District, Athens

122 / 123

Urban Strategies

“Unfinished and Abandoned buildings lie in wait through out Greece, as refugees and homeless line the streets in front of them. Why can’t one balance out the other?”


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

3

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

2

1

Existing Situation

Base - PUBLIC LIFE Communal Areas Communal Kitchen Workshop / Market Space

2

Middle - MAIN LIVING AREA Both Dorms and Private Rooms Information Points

3

Roof - PLAY AREA Garden Space Women Friendly Spaces

124 / 125

1

Concept Illustration

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

3

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

2

1

Existing Situation

Base - PUBLIC LIFE Communal Areas Communal Kitchen Workshop / Market Space

2

Middle - MAIN LIVING AREA Both Dorms and Private Rooms Information Points

3

Roof - PLAY AREA Garden Space Women Friendly Spaces

124 / 125

1

Concept Illustration

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Unfinished

Starting from the Existing

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

Room Dividers

Addition of the Cores within the Existing structure Closing of the Building with the Facades

Addition of the Room Dividers to delimit the private spaces

Infill Strategy Diagrams

126 / 127

Finished Building

Cores

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Unfinished

Starting from the Existing

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

Room Dividers

Addition of the Cores within the Existing structure Closing of the Building with the Facades

Addition of the Room Dividers to delimit the private spaces

Infill Strategy Diagrams

126 / 127

Finished Building

Cores

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


1

2

3 4 5

6

7 2 8

9

Urban Strategies

7

Existing Structure The structure of the unfinished building sets the frame for the renovation Existing Circulation The existing circulation space is kept as is and renovated if needed Outdoor Patio Communal Space for play & interactions Sleeping Area Private Spaces (dorms and private rooms) Corridor Public Space, wide enough with seating space to be used for gatherings and alone time Cores The cores serve as space dividers and provide the necessary communal functions (kitchen and bathrooms) Immediate Response Tents can be erected inside the structure while the renovation takes place Building Workshop The renovation of the building doesn’t necessarily require skilled workers, the construction can be managed by the refugees themselves through the organization of workshops Communal Space The center of the communal Space is the shared living room/kitchen delimited by the cores.

5

6

Urban Strategies

AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

6 4

9

1 8

128 / 129

3

Possible Floor Plan Development

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


1

2

3 4 5

6

7 2 8

9

Urban Strategies

7

Existing Structure The structure of the unfinished building sets the frame for the renovation Existing Circulation The existing circulation space is kept as is and renovated if needed Outdoor Patio Communal Space for play & interactions Sleeping Area Private Spaces (dorms and private rooms) Corridor Public Space, wide enough with seating space to be used for gatherings and alone time Cores The cores serve as space dividers and provide the necessary communal functions (kitchen and bathrooms) Immediate Response Tents can be erected inside the structure while the renovation takes place Building Workshop The renovation of the building doesn’t necessarily require skilled workers, the construction can be managed by the refugees themselves through the organization of workshops Communal Space The center of the communal Space is the shared living room/kitchen delimited by the cores.

5

6

Urban Strategies

AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

6 4

9

1 8

128 / 129

3

Possible Floor Plan Development

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

Axonometric of a building under renovation

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

Different facade options

Section detail of the finished building

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

130 / 131

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

IN TRANSIT


AHO / Spring 2016

Axonometric of a building under renovation

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

Different facade options

Section detail of the finished building

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

130 / 131

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

IN TRANSIT


IN TRANSIT

AHO / Spring 2016

Urban Strategies

With a flexible design approach, this system could be used initially for hyper temporal situations, with a long term goal of providing a finished building with both temporary and permanent accommodations, taking advantage of current practices of free rent of certain structures, and providing certain upgrades to the structure.

Urban Strategies

This projects looks into the possibility of inhabiting these concrete structures, utilising the scars of economic collapse to house refugees, as well as the homeless, throughout Greece. With an estimated 300,000 empty, unfinished and abandoned structures in Athens alone, all of varying scales, housing refugees in these structures could be seen as an opportunity to reinvigorate both the communal and the economic situations at a micro scale within struggling communities. With ease of access to services, facilities, transport, and more possibilities in terms of integration for refugees, the possible benefits of housing refugees within communities, rather than on the peripheries, are clear.

132 / 133

All in all, this exercise aims to create a socially and economically sustainable model within which refugees can feel safe and secure during the period of their stay in Greece. Rather than seeing both the refugee situation and the landscape of concrete shells as problems, they should be seen as opportunities for bottom up community growth.

Elevation

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


IN TRANSIT

AHO / Spring 2016

Urban Strategies

With a flexible design approach, this system could be used initially for hyper temporal situations, with a long term goal of providing a finished building with both temporary and permanent accommodations, taking advantage of current practices of free rent of certain structures, and providing certain upgrades to the structure.

Urban Strategies

This projects looks into the possibility of inhabiting these concrete structures, utilising the scars of economic collapse to house refugees, as well as the homeless, throughout Greece. With an estimated 300,000 empty, unfinished and abandoned structures in Athens alone, all of varying scales, housing refugees in these structures could be seen as an opportunity to reinvigorate both the communal and the economic situations at a micro scale within struggling communities. With ease of access to services, facilities, transport, and more possibilities in terms of integration for refugees, the possible benefits of housing refugees within communities, rather than on the peripheries, are clear.

132 / 133

All in all, this exercise aims to create a socially and economically sustainable model within which refugees can feel safe and secure during the period of their stay in Greece. Rather than seeing both the refugee situation and the landscape of concrete shells as problems, they should be seen as opportunities for bottom up community growth.

Elevation

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

134 / 135

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

IN TRANSIT

Axonometric drawing of the neighbourhood after completion of the unfinished buildings

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

134 / 135

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

IN TRANSIT

Axonometric drawing of the neighbourhood after completion of the unfinished buildings

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


Common Grounds Paul-Antoine Lucas Metaxourgeio Karameikos

Commercial Center

To showcase the potential of this approach, I have chosen to work with an area in Athens: the Karameikos-Metaxourgeio district. This area represents a challenge that many European cities are currently facing: a decrease in population numbers and consequently a lack of human and financial resources. Today, 46% of the urban spaces in the Karameikos-Metaxourgeio district are currently not occupied or used in any other ways.

ATHENS

Urban Strategies

Acropolis

Location

136 / 137

Urban Strategies

This project presents a new form of urban planning, focusing on refugee integration as an opportunity for revitalizing cities. With the increasing number of refugees and asylum seekers fleeing conflicts and seeking sanctuary in urban areas, there’s a great opportunity for host communities to better benefit from the assets that refugees bring to their cities. With this project I am aiming to turn the underutilised spatial potential of cities into economic and social incubators within the existing urban fabric.


Common Grounds Paul-Antoine Lucas Metaxourgeio Karameikos

Commercial Center

To showcase the potential of this approach, I have chosen to work with an area in Athens: the Karameikos-Metaxourgeio district. This area represents a challenge that many European cities are currently facing: a decrease in population numbers and consequently a lack of human and financial resources. Today, 46% of the urban spaces in the Karameikos-Metaxourgeio district are currently not occupied or used in any other ways.

ATHENS

Urban Strategies

Acropolis

Location

136 / 137

Urban Strategies

This project presents a new form of urban planning, focusing on refugee integration as an opportunity for revitalizing cities. With the increasing number of refugees and asylum seekers fleeing conflicts and seeking sanctuary in urban areas, there’s a great opportunity for host communities to better benefit from the assets that refugees bring to their cities. With this project I am aiming to turn the underutilised spatial potential of cities into economic and social incubators within the existing urban fabric.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Refugee Integration as an incubator for Urban Revitalization

A space for social interactions enabling cultural integration through a shared public space. Community Programming

Potential Spaces Back yards Urban voids Unused buildings Abandoned buildings Unfinished buildings

A new Housing Typology

Mapping of the potential spaces

Creation of an evolutive system where the maximization of the common and small private spaces creates a more community oriented living, facilitating interactions. This generic system can be implemented in various contexts due to the different building sizes.

Emergence of a creative class Drug Trafficking

Remaining Prostitution

A New Construction System Immigrants Community

Working Class

Middle Class Urban Displaced people presence

Potential Actors area of homeless people presence area of drug trafficking brothels

Structure constitution: - Laser-cut mass timber panel (CLT) - Glue-laminated Columns - An external steel scaffolding-like structure - 25mm steel sheets for the outer surfaces

area of street prostitution galleries

Growing Structures

gentrified areas soon to be gentrified areas

Mapping of the potential actors

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

Made from prefabricated elements quick to assemble, it can be mounted in

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

138 / 139

Urban Strategies

Arcade spaces

The programming of this new Common Ground creates a new public layer within the existing urban fabric, linking building typology and urban morphology. It’s a catalyst to start provoking social changes, where a new type of local community living integrates the local population and refugee’s needs.

a matter of a few weeks (around 1 week per floor). Able to accommodate people during construction with the possibility to integrate temporary tents between the glue-laminated columns for response to an immediate need. No need to dismantle the scaffoldings that form the circulation space around the units (permanent structure).

Urban Strategies

Building of a Common Ground


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Refugee Integration as an incubator for Urban Revitalization

A space for social interactions enabling cultural integration through a shared public space. Community Programming

Potential Spaces Back yards Urban voids Unused buildings Abandoned buildings Unfinished buildings

A new Housing Typology

Mapping of the potential spaces

Creation of an evolutive system where the maximization of the common and small private spaces creates a more community oriented living, facilitating interactions. This generic system can be implemented in various contexts due to the different building sizes.

Emergence of a creative class Drug Trafficking

Remaining Prostitution

A New Construction System Immigrants Community

Working Class

Middle Class Urban Displaced people presence

Potential Actors area of homeless people presence area of drug trafficking brothels

Structure constitution: - Laser-cut mass timber panel (CLT) - Glue-laminated Columns - An external steel scaffolding-like structure - 25mm steel sheets for the outer surfaces

area of street prostitution galleries

Growing Structures

gentrified areas soon to be gentrified areas

Mapping of the potential actors

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

Made from prefabricated elements quick to assemble, it can be mounted in

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

138 / 139

Urban Strategies

Arcade spaces

The programming of this new Common Ground creates a new public layer within the existing urban fabric, linking building typology and urban morphology. It’s a catalyst to start provoking social changes, where a new type of local community living integrates the local population and refugee’s needs.

a matter of a few weeks (around 1 week per floor). Able to accommodate people during construction with the possibility to integrate temporary tents between the glue-laminated columns for response to an immediate need. No need to dismantle the scaffoldings that form the circulation space around the units (permanent structure).

Urban Strategies

Building of a Common Ground


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Teaching Space

Workshop Space

Urban Farming

Urban Strategies

NGO Office

CO-OP Store

Urban Strategies

Community kitchen

Outdoor Dining

Co-Working Space

Community Cafeteria

Public Spaces

Common Ground

Potential Spaces

Building Intervention

Unused Buildings

Unused Buildings Extended Public Boundary

New Pedestrian Streets

Existing Situation

New Situation

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

A New Common Ground

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

140 / 141

Existing Pedestrian Streets

Outdoor Amphitheatre


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Teaching Space

Workshop Space

Urban Farming

Urban Strategies

NGO Office

CO-OP Store

Urban Strategies

Community kitchen

Outdoor Dining

Co-Working Space

Community Cafeteria

Public Spaces

Common Ground

Potential Spaces

Building Intervention

Unused Buildings

Unused Buildings Extended Public Boundary

New Pedestrian Streets

Existing Situation

New Situation

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

A New Common Ground

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

140 / 141

Existing Pedestrian Streets

Outdoor Amphitheatre


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Common Space Private Space

Type 1

Bathrooms FLOOR: Inhabitable Surface: 36 sqm Potential Capacity: 2 to 4 people BUILDING: Inhabitable Surface: 180 sqm (5 floors) Community Space: 72 sqm (2 floors) Potential Capacity: 10 to 20 people

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

Type 2 FLOOR: Inhabitable Surface: 72 sqm Potential Capacity: 4 to 8 people BUILDING: Inhabitable Surface: 360 sqm (5 floors) Community Space: 144 sqm (2 floors) Potential Capacity: 20 to 40 people

Type 3 FLOOR: Inhabitable Surface: 144 sqm Potential Capacity: 6 to 12 people BUILDING: Inhabitable Surface: 720 sqm (5 floors) Community Space: 288 sqm (2 floors) Potential Capacity: 30 to 60 people

Bedroom Unit Bathroom Unit

Prefabricated Living Modules

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

142 / 143

A New Housing Typology

Kitchen Unit


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Common Space Private Space

Type 1

Bathrooms FLOOR: Inhabitable Surface: 36 sqm Potential Capacity: 2 to 4 people BUILDING: Inhabitable Surface: 180 sqm (5 floors) Community Space: 72 sqm (2 floors) Potential Capacity: 10 to 20 people

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

Type 2 FLOOR: Inhabitable Surface: 72 sqm Potential Capacity: 4 to 8 people BUILDING: Inhabitable Surface: 360 sqm (5 floors) Community Space: 144 sqm (2 floors) Potential Capacity: 20 to 40 people

Type 3 FLOOR: Inhabitable Surface: 144 sqm Potential Capacity: 6 to 12 people BUILDING: Inhabitable Surface: 720 sqm (5 floors) Community Space: 288 sqm (2 floors) Potential Capacity: 30 to 60 people

Bedroom Unit Bathroom Unit

Prefabricated Living Modules

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

142 / 143

A New Housing Typology

Kitchen Unit


AHO / Spring 2016

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

IN TRANSIT

IMMEDIATE RESPONSE

A new Construction System

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

144 / 145

LONG-TERM HOUSING

Growing Structures

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

Urban Strategies

Urban Strategies

IN TRANSIT

IMMEDIATE RESPONSE

A new Construction System

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

144 / 145

LONG-TERM HOUSING

Growing Structures

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


Catalogue Outdoor Ground Surfaces for Temporary Displacement Sites


Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

There are currently very few options for how the ground is treated when setting up temporary displacement sites, both when developing a new site, and also when inhabiting a site with existing structures (outdoor spaces and buildings), in rural and urban contexts alike. For sites where the existing ground surface is of a solid material, like concrete or asphalt, the surface is usually left as it is. For sites with a natural ground, like sand, grass or other vegetation, the ground is covered with gravel to make it more durable. For the sites to function properly, the outdoor surfaces should be durable, easy to walk/move on and take care of surface run-off water. Currently these features are seldom all present in one site: either the run-off water management is a problem, with solid or slowly infiltrating surfaces causing risks for flooding and erosion; or the accessibility is lacking, putting people with disabilities at a disadvantage. This toolkit for outdoor ground surfaces

aims to serve as a handbook for site planners and people working in temporary displacement sites, to help them make fast and cheap but durable decisions responding to the site specific needs. The toolkit consists of three parts; a chapter about the soil and its properties, a catalogue of surface materials and three site specific examples of the ground surface interventions. The surface materials are divided into hard and soft

expensive over time, but at some sites the maintenance can also be seen as a welcomed source of activity. Frost sensitivity The frost sensitivity is an important factor for sites in a colder climate. A highly frost sensitive material can, if exposed to cold, be deformed and need to be repaired or replaced, causing problems and extra costs.

To get a fast and relevant overview of the possible alternatives for ground surfaces of a displacement site, each material is presented with a legend showing its potentials and challenges. For the legend, values important for the site to function properly are chosen. These take into account accessibility for people and vehicles, cost efficiency and suitability for different site and climate conditions. The vocabulary and symbols used in the legend is specified here below.

Price The price of a material can vary a lot according to what is locally accessible. Also the possible and accessible construction techniques can vary according to site, creating variations in price. For the legend the costs of the materials are estimated and ranked according to the general price level and general construction costs. Maximum slope Indicates the steepest slope suitable for the material. Differences in sensitivity to erosion can be especially visible on steep slopes. To minimize risks of landslides and other problems of erosion, suitable ground surface materials should be chosen for steeper slopes.

Accessibility How easy and suitable the surface is to move on for people, persons in wheelchair and vehicles. The accessibility of a ground surface material can vary according to construction technique, so the value in the legend are specified on the most commonly used technique. Infiltration Indicates how well rain and storm water is infiltrated to the ground through the surface. A surface infiltrating water well can prevent flooding, but can also involve a risk of contaminating the ground water if the infiltrated water is not getting clean enough running through the soil layers. Durability The durability of the surface is ranked according to how well it can withstand active human use, with focus on how durable it is for walking. Maintenance Estimates the need of maintenance of the surface after construction. The need of maintenance can make a cheap material

Common use Indicates areas where the material is commonly used as a ground surface today.

easy to move on for people

easy to move on for wheelchair users

can stand vehicle traffic

+ - +++

1:3

-

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

Ina Westerlund

surfaces, indicating the texture and sensory feeling of the material. Each material is accompanied by some reference pictures, indicating to give ideas and inspire to an innovative use of the surfaces. The site specific examples serve the same aim and showcases the potential of the catalogue as a toolkit.

low – high infiltration low – high frost sensitivity low – high value

steepest recommended gradient of slope no information

In some of the sections of the materials the grain sizes of the recommended soil type is presented. For example 0/45 indicates that the preferred soil type or mixture contains grains from size 0-45mm.

152 / 153

Surface Studies


Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

There are currently very few options for how the ground is treated when setting up temporary displacement sites, both when developing a new site, and also when inhabiting a site with existing structures (outdoor spaces and buildings), in rural and urban contexts alike. For sites where the existing ground surface is of a solid material, like concrete or asphalt, the surface is usually left as it is. For sites with a natural ground, like sand, grass or other vegetation, the ground is covered with gravel to make it more durable. For the sites to function properly, the outdoor surfaces should be durable, easy to walk/move on and take care of surface run-off water. Currently these features are seldom all present in one site: either the run-off water management is a problem, with solid or slowly infiltrating surfaces causing risks for flooding and erosion; or the accessibility is lacking, putting people with disabilities at a disadvantage. This toolkit for outdoor ground surfaces

aims to serve as a handbook for site planners and people working in temporary displacement sites, to help them make fast and cheap but durable decisions responding to the site specific needs. The toolkit consists of three parts; a chapter about the soil and its properties, a catalogue of surface materials and three site specific examples of the ground surface interventions. The surface materials are divided into hard and soft

expensive over time, but at some sites the maintenance can also be seen as a welcomed source of activity. Frost sensitivity The frost sensitivity is an important factor for sites in a colder climate. A highly frost sensitive material can, if exposed to cold, be deformed and need to be repaired or replaced, causing problems and extra costs.

To get a fast and relevant overview of the possible alternatives for ground surfaces of a displacement site, each material is presented with a legend showing its potentials and challenges. For the legend, values important for the site to function properly are chosen. These take into account accessibility for people and vehicles, cost efficiency and suitability for different site and climate conditions. The vocabulary and symbols used in the legend is specified here below.

Price The price of a material can vary a lot according to what is locally accessible. Also the possible and accessible construction techniques can vary according to site, creating variations in price. For the legend the costs of the materials are estimated and ranked according to the general price level and general construction costs. Maximum slope Indicates the steepest slope suitable for the material. Differences in sensitivity to erosion can be especially visible on steep slopes. To minimize risks of landslides and other problems of erosion, suitable ground surface materials should be chosen for steeper slopes.

Accessibility How easy and suitable the surface is to move on for people, persons in wheelchair and vehicles. The accessibility of a ground surface material can vary according to construction technique, so the value in the legend are specified on the most commonly used technique. Infiltration Indicates how well rain and storm water is infiltrated to the ground through the surface. A surface infiltrating water well can prevent flooding, but can also involve a risk of contaminating the ground water if the infiltrated water is not getting clean enough running through the soil layers. Durability The durability of the surface is ranked according to how well it can withstand active human use, with focus on how durable it is for walking. Maintenance Estimates the need of maintenance of the surface after construction. The need of maintenance can make a cheap material

Common use Indicates areas where the material is commonly used as a ground surface today.

easy to move on for people

easy to move on for wheelchair users

can stand vehicle traffic

+ - +++

1:3

-

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

Ina Westerlund

surfaces, indicating the texture and sensory feeling of the material. Each material is accompanied by some reference pictures, indicating to give ideas and inspire to an innovative use of the surfaces. The site specific examples serve the same aim and showcases the potential of the catalogue as a toolkit.

low – high infiltration low – high frost sensitivity low – high value

steepest recommended gradient of slope no information

In some of the sections of the materials the grain sizes of the recommended soil type is presented. For example 0/45 indicates that the preferred soil type or mixture contains grains from size 0-45mm.

152 / 153

Surface Studies


Soil Layers CLAY AND SLIT Clay and slit are fine-grain soil types, with a grain size of less than 0,063mm. Because of their structure they infiltrate water slowly and therefore creates muddy conditions during and after rain. The load bearing capacity of the soil types are low, so they are not suitable for heavy constructions. As long as the conditions are not too dry clay and slit are good soil types to cultivate. During dry conditions the fine soil becomes dusty.

Soils are classified in different ways, according to, for example, texture and structure size or shape. On the following pages you find different soil types classified according to grain size of their mineral components. The grain size affects both the capacity of infiltrating water and the loadbearing capacity of the soil.

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+ ++

maximum slope

+ -

common use

fields and cultivated land

SAND Sand has a grain size of 0,063-2mm. It is a good infiltrator of water, but not suitable for cultivation because of the dry conditions this creates. Sand is a problematic surface material in the sense that it is difficult to move on and easily moves around with the wind. Still, sand has a nice texture adding sensorial value especially to recreational areas. For safety areas of playgrounds sand is a suitable commonly used material.

2

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

++ ++

maximum slope common use

+ -

saftey areas in playgrounds, beaches

FINE AND MEDIUM SIZED GRAVEL Fine and medium gravel are soil types with a grain size of 2-63mm. Fine and medium gravel are good infiltrators of water and have good loadbearing capacities making them suitable also for heavy constructions. In dry conditions the gravel can be dusty. The gravel is good to walk on and, depending on under laying layers, even suitable for vehicles. But in high heels or for wheelchairs the gravel is a problematic surface difficult to move on. On a big widespread area the impression of gravel is monotone and dull. 3

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+++ +

maximum slope common use

+ -

suburban roads, sports fields, walkways

156 / 157

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

The soil of the site affects both the surface and what you can build on it or how it can be used. Soil can consist of both mineral and organic components and is formed when solid rock break down by physical, chemical or biological processes. The soil consists of visually and texturally distinctive horizontal layers. The subsoil reaches down to the bedrock and the parental material of the soil. The soil is called topsoil when it gets enriched by components of organic origin. On top there can be a thin layer of hummus, consisting of organic origin, and can be a thin layer material in a relatively non-composed form.

accessibility

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

1


Soil Layers CLAY AND SLIT Clay and slit are fine-grain soil types, with a grain size of less than 0,063mm. Because of their structure they infiltrate water slowly and therefore creates muddy conditions during and after rain. The load bearing capacity of the soil types are low, so they are not suitable for heavy constructions. As long as the conditions are not too dry clay and slit are good soil types to cultivate. During dry conditions the fine soil becomes dusty.

Soils are classified in different ways, according to, for example, texture and structure size or shape. On the following pages you find different soil types classified according to grain size of their mineral components. The grain size affects both the capacity of infiltrating water and the loadbearing capacity of the soil.

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+ ++

maximum slope

+ -

common use

fields and cultivated land

SAND Sand has a grain size of 0,063-2mm. It is a good infiltrator of water, but not suitable for cultivation because of the dry conditions this creates. Sand is a problematic surface material in the sense that it is difficult to move on and easily moves around with the wind. Still, sand has a nice texture adding sensorial value especially to recreational areas. For safety areas of playgrounds sand is a suitable commonly used material.

2

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

++ ++

maximum slope common use

+ -

saftey areas in playgrounds, beaches

FINE AND MEDIUM SIZED GRAVEL Fine and medium gravel are soil types with a grain size of 2-63mm. Fine and medium gravel are good infiltrators of water and have good loadbearing capacities making them suitable also for heavy constructions. In dry conditions the gravel can be dusty. The gravel is good to walk on and, depending on under laying layers, even suitable for vehicles. But in high heels or for wheelchairs the gravel is a problematic surface difficult to move on. On a big widespread area the impression of gravel is monotone and dull. 3

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+++ +

maximum slope common use

+ -

suburban roads, sports fields, walkways

156 / 157

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

The soil of the site affects both the surface and what you can build on it or how it can be used. Soil can consist of both mineral and organic components and is formed when solid rock break down by physical, chemical or biological processes. The soil consists of visually and texturally distinctive horizontal layers. The subsoil reaches down to the bedrock and the parental material of the soil. The soil is called topsoil when it gets enriched by components of organic origin. On top there can be a thin layer of hummus, consisting of organic origin, and can be a thin layer material in a relatively non-composed form.

accessibility

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

1


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

COARSE SIZED GRAVEL AND COBBLE To coarse gravel and cobble are counted soil types with a grain size bigger than 63mm. Coarse gravel and cobble are as fine and medium gravel good infiltrators of water, but the big grain size creates a situation where the infiltrated water do not get cleaned filtrating through this soil type. Coarse gravel and cobble can bear heavy vehicle traffic, but for humans it is not nice to walk on due to the big grain size. For persons in wheelchair coarse sized gravel and cobble surfaces are not accessible. Coarse gravel is commonly used at building sites during construction and therefore as a surface material gives the impression of a construction site. 4

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+++ +

maximum slope

+ -

common use

construction sites

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

Mixed soils are soils consisting of grains in various sizes from 0-63mm. The soils ability to infiltrate water, its loadbearing capacity and its accessibility varies according to the proportions of the different grainsizes. However, mostly these capacities are good for mixed soils. By composing a mixed soil type you can adjust the soil to have the wanted and needed properties.

5

soil layers

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

++ +

maximum slope

+ -

common use

natural ground

Hummus

Topsoil

Subsoil

Parent material of soil

158 / 159

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

MIXED SOILS

Bedrock

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


Hard Surfaces ASPHALT

CONCRETE Concrete is a ground surface material that mainly is already found on site before the setup of a displacement site begins. The concrete surface has many of the same advantages and disadvantages as the asphalt. It is a monotonous solid surface, not infiltrating run-off water, but durable and depending on the construction, often also suitable for vehicle traffic.

6

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+++ +

maximum slope common use

Concrete surfaces do not, because of the lighter colour of the concrete, get as warm in the sun as asphalt surfaces do. Concrete surface is generally not used for large areas. This has to do with the methods of construction and the time the concrete needs to dry. At backyards and rooftop gardens of urban areas concrete surfaces are most common, often being a part of the building structure.

9

+ -

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

streets, parking lots, urban areas

+++ +

7 asphalt surface course

100mm

asphalt base course

310mm

Frost Protection 0/45

Building Ground

common use

urban areas, terraces

concrete

asphalt 40mm

maximum slope

+ -

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

The biggest challenges with asphalt as a ground surface material is that it does not infiltrate any run-off water, so the drainage need to be taken care of, and that it as a dark material gathers heat, creating an unfortunate microclimate especially in warmer countries.

8 It is possible to paint on asphalt, creating a possibility to add colour and joy to the surface. With paint you can inspire to play or games, but it can also be used for spreading information or directing the movement of people. To improve the infiltration of water, pieces of the asphalt can be cut out. This is easily made with a jackhammer. The cut out areas can be filled with another surface material suitable for the site and the use of the area.

10

11

180mm

140-180 mm

concrete surface

Frost Protection

Building Ground

12 The Crack Garden by CMG Landscape Architecture is a good example of how a concrete surface can be made livelier, at the same time improving the run-off water infiltration. Cracks are created in the concrete surface, using a jackhammer, and plants are planted in the cracks. The intervention is cheap and easy to realize, making it suitable for temporary displacement sites. It is also possible to crack up a concrete surface and use the concrete pieces on site, creating a run-off water infiltrating concrete paving.

160 / 161

Asphalt is a surface material commonly used in urban areas. It is normally not a surface material added to displacement sites, because of its permanent nature and the work and machines needed for the construction. But as the displacement sites today to a great extent also are situated in an urban context, for many of the sites asphalt is the surface material there from the start.


Hard Surfaces ASPHALT

CONCRETE Concrete is a ground surface material that mainly is already found on site before the setup of a displacement site begins. The concrete surface has many of the same advantages and disadvantages as the asphalt. It is a monotonous solid surface, not infiltrating run-off water, but durable and depending on the construction, often also suitable for vehicle traffic.

6

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+++ +

maximum slope common use

Concrete surfaces do not, because of the lighter colour of the concrete, get as warm in the sun as asphalt surfaces do. Concrete surface is generally not used for large areas. This has to do with the methods of construction and the time the concrete needs to dry. At backyards and rooftop gardens of urban areas concrete surfaces are most common, often being a part of the building structure.

9

+ -

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

streets, parking lots, urban areas

+++ +

7 asphalt surface course

100mm

asphalt base course

310mm

Frost Protection 0/45

Building Ground

common use

urban areas, terraces

concrete

asphalt 40mm

maximum slope

+ -

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

The biggest challenges with asphalt as a ground surface material is that it does not infiltrate any run-off water, so the drainage need to be taken care of, and that it as a dark material gathers heat, creating an unfortunate microclimate especially in warmer countries.

8 It is possible to paint on asphalt, creating a possibility to add colour and joy to the surface. With paint you can inspire to play or games, but it can also be used for spreading information or directing the movement of people. To improve the infiltration of water, pieces of the asphalt can be cut out. This is easily made with a jackhammer. The cut out areas can be filled with another surface material suitable for the site and the use of the area.

10

11

180mm

140-180 mm

concrete surface

Frost Protection

Building Ground

12 The Crack Garden by CMG Landscape Architecture is a good example of how a concrete surface can be made livelier, at the same time improving the run-off water infiltration. Cracks are created in the concrete surface, using a jackhammer, and plants are planted in the cracks. The intervention is cheap and easy to realize, making it suitable for temporary displacement sites. It is also possible to crack up a concrete surface and use the concrete pieces on site, creating a run-off water infiltrating concrete paving.

160 / 161

Asphalt is a surface material commonly used in urban areas. It is normally not a surface material added to displacement sites, because of its permanent nature and the work and machines needed for the construction. But as the displacement sites today to a great extent also are situated in an urban context, for many of the sites asphalt is the surface material there from the start.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

PAVING

WATER-BOUND SURFACES

There are numerous different types of paving. Paving stones and tiles can be found in different materials and various sizes. The material and paving size will affect the features of the surface as well as the costs of the construction. Paved surfaces need to be laid out carefully on site, adding up work hours for the construction and raising the price of the surface.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+++ +

14

+ -

maximum slope

water-bound surface 2-layer

120mm

Ballast / base course 0/32

Building Ground

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

maintenance

+++ +

maximum slope

15

paving 17

18

80mm

concrete tiles

40mm

crushed sand 0/5

150mm

Ballast / base course 0/32

180mm

Frost protection 0/45

The surface can also be made easier to move on by adding stepping stones where needed. As a water infiltrating surface gravel and water-bound surfaces can be used in combination with solid surfaces to improve the water management of a site.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

++ -

squares, pathways, gardens, terraces

common use

asphalt

Gravel and water-bound surfaces can be reinforced by reinforcement panels. The panels keep the mineral rubble in place, making the surface wheelchair or vehicle accessible and also reducing the maintenance needs.

gravel / surface course O/4, 2/5, 8/16

accessibility

durability

suburban roads, sports fields, walkways

common use

40mm

16

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

13

Most paving types have the advantage of being both durable and suitable for people and sometimes vehicles to move on, like the solid surfaces, but also infiltrating some off the run-off water, although not always to a great enough extent to deal with all the run-off water of a site.

19 Paved surfaces can add great aesthetic values by creating beautiful patterns and adding colours to the ground surface. The joints of the paving can be made green by using extra wide joints filled with a mixture of soil and chippings, creating a vegetation-supporting but at the same time loadbearing surface. This can also be a way to create green areas with an improved durability.

Building Ground

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

162 / 163

A water-bound surface is a surface of mineral grains bonded by means of a certain water content. The construction is cheap and easy to realize, making it a commonly used ground surface for walkways. The surface, however, needs some maintenance, increasing the costs during time. Gravel is a commonly used surface material of temporary displacement sites. Because of the big grain size s of the gravel used, the surfaces are seldom water-bound, but they have similar features. As the water-bound surfaces are bound by water they will become dusty during dry periods. The wheelchair accessibility is also depending on the water content. Both in a too dry and a too wet state the surface will be difficult to move on. Another factor affecting the wheelchair accessibility is the grain size of the mineral rubble used. The surface can bear accessional vehicle traffic in a dry state.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

PAVING

WATER-BOUND SURFACES

There are numerous different types of paving. Paving stones and tiles can be found in different materials and various sizes. The material and paving size will affect the features of the surface as well as the costs of the construction. Paved surfaces need to be laid out carefully on site, adding up work hours for the construction and raising the price of the surface.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+++ +

14

+ -

maximum slope

water-bound surface 2-layer

120mm

Ballast / base course 0/32

Building Ground

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

maintenance

+++ +

maximum slope

15

paving 17

18

80mm

concrete tiles

40mm

crushed sand 0/5

150mm

Ballast / base course 0/32

180mm

Frost protection 0/45

The surface can also be made easier to move on by adding stepping stones where needed. As a water infiltrating surface gravel and water-bound surfaces can be used in combination with solid surfaces to improve the water management of a site.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

++ -

squares, pathways, gardens, terraces

common use

asphalt

Gravel and water-bound surfaces can be reinforced by reinforcement panels. The panels keep the mineral rubble in place, making the surface wheelchair or vehicle accessible and also reducing the maintenance needs.

gravel / surface course O/4, 2/5, 8/16

accessibility

durability

suburban roads, sports fields, walkways

common use

40mm

16

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

13

Most paving types have the advantage of being both durable and suitable for people and sometimes vehicles to move on, like the solid surfaces, but also infiltrating some off the run-off water, although not always to a great enough extent to deal with all the run-off water of a site.

19 Paved surfaces can add great aesthetic values by creating beautiful patterns and adding colours to the ground surface. The joints of the paving can be made green by using extra wide joints filled with a mixture of soil and chippings, creating a vegetation-supporting but at the same time loadbearing surface. This can also be a way to create green areas with an improved durability.

Building Ground

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

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A water-bound surface is a surface of mineral grains bonded by means of a certain water content. The construction is cheap and easy to realize, making it a commonly used ground surface for walkways. The surface, however, needs some maintenance, increasing the costs during time. Gravel is a commonly used surface material of temporary displacement sites. Because of the big grain size s of the gravel used, the surfaces are seldom water-bound, but they have similar features. As the water-bound surfaces are bound by water they will become dusty during dry periods. The wheelchair accessibility is also depending on the water content. Both in a too dry and a too wet state the surface will be difficult to move on. Another factor affecting the wheelchair accessibility is the grain size of the mineral rubble used. The surface can bear accessional vehicle traffic in a dry state.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

WOOD

METAL

common use

decks, natural playgrounds

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

++ ++

20

21

23

accessibility infiltration durability maintenance

22 Wooden walkways can be used for directing movement or creating pleasant common space areas. It can also be used for adding softness and a natural feeling to an urban context. Wood can also be used as reinforcement of loose materials, making these surfaces more easily accessible. In a natural environment, wood is a material that blends in well.

Depending on the type of metal used the surface can get really hot in the sun and cold during chilly days. As a smoot surface it can also be slippery. Metal is not a suitable surface material for large areas, but for uplifted walkways it is a good option, being relatively cheap and easily available strong material, that can be used as a net or grid letting water pass through.

+++ +

24

maximum slope

-

common use

industrial areas

frost sensitivity price

25

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

maximum slope

++ -

accessibility

Metal as a ground surface material is highly associated with industrial areas, something that need to be taken into consideration using the material. It is a hard and rough material and is therefore best to combine with softer materials.

26 To preserve existing vegetation and ground surfaces lifted up walkways can be built. For this metal grating is a suitable affordable option. Gabions, cages formed as boxes or cylinders, in metal can be used for example to prevent erosion or landslide of steep slopes or to create new levels of the ground. The gabions can be filled in with everything from stones to planting soil.

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Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

Wood can be used as a ground surface in various ways, for examples as decks or walkways or as a paving material. It is mainly used for creating a natural atmosphere, at for example playgrounds or nature paths, or for terraces, but not often for larger areas. Wood is a material that needs some maintenance and that needs to be renewed over time. However the material is easy to work with, making it possible for non-professionals to construct and renew on site. The suitability of wood as a surface material is strongly connected to the availability of wood as a material in the region of the site. Wood has great aesthetic and sensorial values, being a solid but at the same time soft material that feels pleasant also in the warmth of the sun. Getting wet wood surfaces become slippery and is therefore not the best surface material for wheelchair accessible routes.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

WOOD

METAL

common use

decks, natural playgrounds

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

++ ++

20

21

23

accessibility infiltration durability maintenance

22 Wooden walkways can be used for directing movement or creating pleasant common space areas. It can also be used for adding softness and a natural feeling to an urban context. Wood can also be used as reinforcement of loose materials, making these surfaces more easily accessible. In a natural environment, wood is a material that blends in well.

Depending on the type of metal used the surface can get really hot in the sun and cold during chilly days. As a smoot surface it can also be slippery. Metal is not a suitable surface material for large areas, but for uplifted walkways it is a good option, being relatively cheap and easily available strong material, that can be used as a net or grid letting water pass through.

+++ +

24

maximum slope

-

common use

industrial areas

frost sensitivity price

25

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

maximum slope

++ -

accessibility

Metal as a ground surface material is highly associated with industrial areas, something that need to be taken into consideration using the material. It is a hard and rough material and is therefore best to combine with softer materials.

26 To preserve existing vegetation and ground surfaces lifted up walkways can be built. For this metal grating is a suitable affordable option. Gabions, cages formed as boxes or cylinders, in metal can be used for example to prevent erosion or landslide of steep slopes or to create new levels of the ground. The gabions can be filled in with everything from stones to planting soil.

164 / 165

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

Wood can be used as a ground surface in various ways, for examples as decks or walkways or as a paving material. It is mainly used for creating a natural atmosphere, at for example playgrounds or nature paths, or for terraces, but not often for larger areas. Wood is a material that needs some maintenance and that needs to be renewed over time. However the material is easy to work with, making it possible for non-professionals to construct and renew on site. The suitability of wood as a surface material is strongly connected to the availability of wood as a material in the region of the site. Wood has great aesthetic and sensorial values, being a solid but at the same time soft material that feels pleasant also in the warmth of the sun. Getting wet wood surfaces become slippery and is therefore not the best surface material for wheelchair accessible routes.

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


Soft Surfaces MEADOW

LAWN

For temporary displacement sites growing a lawn can be too slow, but there are also ready grown lawn rolls available on the market. For sites set up on an area with lawn surface, the lawn can be a valuable surface of the common space, adding greenery to the site but still having the capacity of hosting activities. The maintenance the lawn surface needs can, however, be an unwelcomed extra cost.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

It is important to use local species for the meadows as these are more adapted to the conditions of the region and more durable. It also eliminates the risk of foreign species spreading to the surroundings and taking over the natural vegetation.

31

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

++

maximum slope

1:3

durability

common use

parks, gardens, roadsides, sports fields

maintenance

durability maintenance

+ +++

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

+ +

maximum slope

+ -

common use

parks, nature

meadow

lawn

28

15-80 mm

lawn

100-150 mm

lawn underlay sand/soil mixture

100-200 mm

subsoil with gravel, sand or rubbel

Building Ground

30

29 To make the lawn surface more durable, and for example wheelchair or vehicle accessible, the surface can be reinforced using reinforcement panels. For a short term temporary use, for example during periods of rain, reinforcement paths can be put out on the lawn surface to prevent it from becoming muddy. Lawn can also be used on smaller areas, as in boxes, to create a soft atmosphere. For this artificial turf can be a good alternative, needing no maintenance and not being at risk of drying out.

Vegetation reduces the erosion of slopes. Meadows can be used for steeper slopes than lawn. 100-1200 meadow mm

200mm

Some meadows grow tall and can contribute to dividing and creating spaces. Also high ornamental grasses can give the same effect.

mineral subsoil

Building Ground

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27

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

There are meadows standing both draught and wet conditions, which makes the meadows a durable surface in sense of challenging climate conditions. The meadows do not stand activity, like movement of people, very well. Therefore they should be used mainly on areas of low activity. The vegetation of the meadow can help binding the ground of steep slopes, so as the steep areas are not well suitable for activities, these can be good places for using meadows as the ground surface.

Lawn is a popular ground surface of parks. How well it can stand activities, like walking or play, is depending on the type of grass and the maintenance. Most lawn types can stand some activity, but for example not be used as main routes. During rain or draught the surface is more sensible, getting either muddy or worn out.


Soft Surfaces MEADOW

LAWN

For temporary displacement sites growing a lawn can be too slow, but there are also ready grown lawn rolls available on the market. For sites set up on an area with lawn surface, the lawn can be a valuable surface of the common space, adding greenery to the site but still having the capacity of hosting activities. The maintenance the lawn surface needs can, however, be an unwelcomed extra cost.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

It is important to use local species for the meadows as these are more adapted to the conditions of the region and more durable. It also eliminates the risk of foreign species spreading to the surroundings and taking over the natural vegetation.

31

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

++

maximum slope

1:3

durability

common use

parks, gardens, roadsides, sports fields

maintenance

durability maintenance

+ +++

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

+ +

maximum slope

+ -

common use

parks, nature

meadow

lawn

28

15-80 mm

lawn

100-150 mm

lawn underlay sand/soil mixture

100-200 mm

subsoil with gravel, sand or rubbel

Building Ground

30

29 To make the lawn surface more durable, and for example wheelchair or vehicle accessible, the surface can be reinforced using reinforcement panels. For a short term temporary use, for example during periods of rain, reinforcement paths can be put out on the lawn surface to prevent it from becoming muddy. Lawn can also be used on smaller areas, as in boxes, to create a soft atmosphere. For this artificial turf can be a good alternative, needing no maintenance and not being at risk of drying out.

Vegetation reduces the erosion of slopes. Meadows can be used for steeper slopes than lawn. 100-1200 meadow mm

200mm

Some meadows grow tall and can contribute to dividing and creating spaces. Also high ornamental grasses can give the same effect.

mineral subsoil

Building Ground

166 / 167

27

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

There are meadows standing both draught and wet conditions, which makes the meadows a durable surface in sense of challenging climate conditions. The meadows do not stand activity, like movement of people, very well. Therefore they should be used mainly on areas of low activity. The vegetation of the meadow can help binding the ground of steep slopes, so as the steep areas are not well suitable for activities, these can be good places for using meadows as the ground surface.

Lawn is a popular ground surface of parks. How well it can stand activities, like walking or play, is depending on the type of grass and the maintenance. Most lawn types can stand some activity, but for example not be used as main routes. During rain or draught the surface is more sensible, getting either muddy or worn out.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

?

Bark mulch and sawdust are natural materials that will moulder in the course of time. For temporary displacement sites this can be a good feature, solving the problem of where to move or what to do with the surface material after closure of the temporary displacement site.

Ground cover have a positive effect on the infiltration of water and can also prevent erosion of slopes, binding both water and the soil. Plants can be an a bit more expensive alternative for the ground surface, but by using fast spreading plants the amount of plants needed can be taken to its minimum.

Bark mulch and sawdust are difficult surface materials to move on for people in wheelchairs, but for surfaces that tend to get muddy during wet conditions adding bark mulch or sawdust on top of the surface can make it easier to access, also improving the wheelchair accessibility.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

++ +

35

+ - +++ -

maximum slope common use

seedbed

price

++ ++

maximum slope

+ -

common use

festivals, playgrounds, running paths

sawdust 34

300-400 mm

infiltration

maintenance

gardens, parks, forest

33

ground cover

frost sensitivity

durability

ground cover

50-300 mm

accessibility

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

32

BARK MULCH AND SAWDUST

Ground cover are plants covering up the ground surface. There are different kinds of ground cover plants, with varying advantages and disadvantages. Some grow fast and can give a dull area some green life quickly. Some are highly durable, not needed to be taken care of and even to some extent surviving movement or activity of people.

36

37

By using ground cover, uniform ground surfaces can be split up, adding aesthetic values and variation to ground surface, giving life to the area.

Bark mulch and sawdust are suitable materials in a natural environment, melting in and disappearing in the course of time. As a soft material sawdust is a good alternative for safety areas of playgrounds.

The roots of ground cover plants help binding the soil in steep slopes. How well the ground cover can prevent erosion and landslides varies, so the plants should be chosen with care. 50-100 mm

Building Ground

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

38

sawdust

Building Ground

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

168 / 169

GROUND COVER


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

?

Bark mulch and sawdust are natural materials that will moulder in the course of time. For temporary displacement sites this can be a good feature, solving the problem of where to move or what to do with the surface material after closure of the temporary displacement site.

Ground cover have a positive effect on the infiltration of water and can also prevent erosion of slopes, binding both water and the soil. Plants can be an a bit more expensive alternative for the ground surface, but by using fast spreading plants the amount of plants needed can be taken to its minimum.

Bark mulch and sawdust are difficult surface materials to move on for people in wheelchairs, but for surfaces that tend to get muddy during wet conditions adding bark mulch or sawdust on top of the surface can make it easier to access, also improving the wheelchair accessibility.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

++ +

35

+ - +++ -

maximum slope common use

seedbed

price

++ ++

maximum slope

+ -

common use

festivals, playgrounds, running paths

sawdust 34

300-400 mm

infiltration

maintenance

gardens, parks, forest

33

ground cover

frost sensitivity

durability

ground cover

50-300 mm

accessibility

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

32

BARK MULCH AND SAWDUST

Ground cover are plants covering up the ground surface. There are different kinds of ground cover plants, with varying advantages and disadvantages. Some grow fast and can give a dull area some green life quickly. Some are highly durable, not needed to be taken care of and even to some extent surviving movement or activity of people.

36

37

By using ground cover, uniform ground surfaces can be split up, adding aesthetic values and variation to ground surface, giving life to the area.

Bark mulch and sawdust are suitable materials in a natural environment, melting in and disappearing in the course of time. As a soft material sawdust is a good alternative for safety areas of playgrounds.

The roots of ground cover plants help binding the soil in steep slopes. How well the ground cover can prevent erosion and landslides varies, so the plants should be chosen with care. 50-100 mm

Building Ground

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

38

sawdust

Building Ground

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

168 / 169

GROUND COVER


Site-Specific Examples

r-bound surface er

water-bound surface 3-layer

PLASTIC COATINGS

The availability of construction materials and the construction work can be challenges for using plastic coating as a surface material, along with the costs. The appearance of the material is not appreciated by everyone and the association with sports fields and playgrounds may be strong, both things that need to be taken into consideration thinking about using plastic coating as a surface material.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+++ ++

maximum slope

-

common use

playgrounds, sport tracks

plastic coating 40 By using plastic coating it is possible to create soft and durable sloping areas that are suitable for being used as common space and activity areas for people.

20mm

plastic coating

40mm

bituminous base course

150mm

mineral mixture 0/32

Building Ground

The plastic coating makes it possible to add bright colours to the ground surface, inviting to joy and play, and at the same time being soft and safe but durable.

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39

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

Plastic coatings are mainly used for play or sport areas. Depending on the type of plastic coating, the surface do not infiltrate or infiltrates some run-off water. For creating soft surfaces that are highly durable the plastic coating can be a good alternative, also giving the opportunity of adding colours to the ground surface.


Site-Specific Examples

r-bound surface er

water-bound surface 3-layer

PLASTIC COATINGS

The availability of construction materials and the construction work can be challenges for using plastic coating as a surface material, along with the costs. The appearance of the material is not appreciated by everyone and the association with sports fields and playgrounds may be strong, both things that need to be taken into consideration thinking about using plastic coating as a surface material.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

accessibility

frost sensitivity

infiltration

price

durability maintenance

+++ ++

maximum slope

-

common use

playgrounds, sport tracks

plastic coating 40 By using plastic coating it is possible to create soft and durable sloping areas that are suitable for being used as common space and activity areas for people.

20mm

plastic coating

40mm

bituminous base course

150mm

mineral mixture 0/32

Building Ground

The plastic coating makes it possible to add bright colours to the ground surface, inviting to joy and play, and at the same time being soft and safe but durable.

170 / 171

39

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

Plastic coatings are mainly used for play or sport areas. Depending on the type of plastic coating, the surface do not infiltrate or infiltrates some run-off water. For creating soft surfaces that are highly durable the plastic coating can be a good alternative, also giving the opportunity of adding colours to the ground surface.


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

PIKPA RECEPTION CENTER, LEROS, GREECE An old hospital building functions as a reception center especially for vulnerable refugees and immigrants arriving to the island of Leros. The reception center has a backyard, which is used as a common space for the inhabitants. The ground surface of the backyard is concrete, with a small area of gravel at its lowest point. To improve the backyard the uniform hard surface could be diversified by cutting out pieces of the concrete and filling them up with other softer ground surfaces. By doing this, the infiltration of run-off water is also improved. By planting fast growing ornamental grasses in the cut out holes smaller spaces are created in the backyard. Here everyone can find a calm place to sit and read or discuss. At the same time the space created in combination with a winding line painted on the concrete surface encourage children to run around and play. For areas where people can be expected to walk through the cut out areas are filled up with gravel instead of grasses, making this possible. At the lowest part of the yard an area of gravel and vegetation is created. This area will collect the run-o water during heavy rains. The border of this area is made smoother by placing out some of the cut out pieces of concrete as stepping stones. Also filling up the cut out holes materials are to a great extent reused on site.

1

2

Main themes: run-off water management, play 1 3 2 3 4 4

Fast and high growing ornamental grasses is a fast way of creating division of the space. They can be left standing dry during the winter, and cut down early spring, before the new grasses starts to grow, so that the space division is visible almost all year around. Semi-private and calmer spaces are created by the areas of ornamental grasses. Movable chairs adds flexibility to the common space. By moving the chairs around you can either find a private space for your own or sit together in a big group. Cut out shapes filled with gravel creates areas, that infiltrate water, in the solid concrete surface. In contrast to the areas of ornamental grasses, these areas are still possible to walk across. A winding line is painted on the concrete surface. It, along with the network of cut out shapes, invites children to play and run around.

Use and Values of cut out shapes in concrete surfaces

Cut out for gravel surface

1 5

1a

7

2

Concrete surface 180 mm Frost protection 140-180 mm

6 2

Cut out for ornemental grass

4

3 6 1a

1b

5

3

Concrete surface 180 mm

4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Pieces of concrete are cut out using a jack-hammer (1a). For planting ornamental grasses also the frost protection is taken out (1b). Mix half of the frost protection with planting soil. Fill the hole up with the mixture. Plant fast and high growing ornamental grasses in the hole. A part of the concrete is broken down to smaller pieces and put back on the bottom of the cut out hole. Half of the frost protection (left over from a hole for ornamental grasses) is put into the hole. Gravel is added on top.

Construction of cut out shapes in a concrete surface

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

1 2 3 4 5 6

Movable furniture Cut out with ornemental grass Cut out with gravel surface Stepping stones extracted from the concrete cut outs Painted lines on the concrete surface Pavilion for outdoor dining

Backyard Plan of the Pikpa Reception center

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

172 / 173

Frostprotection 140-180 mm


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

PIKPA RECEPTION CENTER, LEROS, GREECE An old hospital building functions as a reception center especially for vulnerable refugees and immigrants arriving to the island of Leros. The reception center has a backyard, which is used as a common space for the inhabitants. The ground surface of the backyard is concrete, with a small area of gravel at its lowest point. To improve the backyard the uniform hard surface could be diversified by cutting out pieces of the concrete and filling them up with other softer ground surfaces. By doing this, the infiltration of run-off water is also improved. By planting fast growing ornamental grasses in the cut out holes smaller spaces are created in the backyard. Here everyone can find a calm place to sit and read or discuss. At the same time the space created in combination with a winding line painted on the concrete surface encourage children to run around and play. For areas where people can be expected to walk through the cut out areas are filled up with gravel instead of grasses, making this possible. At the lowest part of the yard an area of gravel and vegetation is created. This area will collect the run-o water during heavy rains. The border of this area is made smoother by placing out some of the cut out pieces of concrete as stepping stones. Also filling up the cut out holes materials are to a great extent reused on site.

1

2

Main themes: run-off water management, play 1 3 2 3 4 4

Fast and high growing ornamental grasses is a fast way of creating division of the space. They can be left standing dry during the winter, and cut down early spring, before the new grasses starts to grow, so that the space division is visible almost all year around. Semi-private and calmer spaces are created by the areas of ornamental grasses. Movable chairs adds flexibility to the common space. By moving the chairs around you can either find a private space for your own or sit together in a big group. Cut out shapes filled with gravel creates areas, that infiltrate water, in the solid concrete surface. In contrast to the areas of ornamental grasses, these areas are still possible to walk across. A winding line is painted on the concrete surface. It, along with the network of cut out shapes, invites children to play and run around.

Use and Values of cut out shapes in concrete surfaces

Cut out for gravel surface

1 5

1a

7

2

Concrete surface 180 mm Frost protection 140-180 mm

6 2

Cut out for ornemental grass

4

3 6 1a

1b

5

3

Concrete surface 180 mm

4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Pieces of concrete are cut out using a jack-hammer (1a). For planting ornamental grasses also the frost protection is taken out (1b). Mix half of the frost protection with planting soil. Fill the hole up with the mixture. Plant fast and high growing ornamental grasses in the hole. A part of the concrete is broken down to smaller pieces and put back on the bottom of the cut out hole. Half of the frost protection (left over from a hole for ornamental grasses) is put into the hole. Gravel is added on top.

Construction of cut out shapes in a concrete surface

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

1 2 3 4 5 6

Movable furniture Cut out with ornemental grass Cut out with gravel surface Stepping stones extracted from the concrete cut outs Painted lines on the concrete surface Pavilion for outdoor dining

Backyard Plan of the Pikpa Reception center

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

172 / 173

Frostprotection 140-180 mm


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Painted line on the concrete surface, connecting the yard with both the street and the main building of the reception center. Electricity pylon Pavilion Rain garden, collecting the run-off water during seasons of heavy rain. Concrete pieces are used as stepping stones along the edge. Existing pine tree Laundry drying rack Wall for street football. Entrance to the backyard from the street. Entrance of the reception center. Cut out shapes dividing the space. Cut out shape, with ornamental grasses. Cut out shape, with gravel surface. Main entrance of the reception center. Entrance of the reception center. 3

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

1 11 2 13

4

12

5 8 6 7 10

15

9

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

p

SITE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES

10m

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Plan of Reception Center Pikpa. 1:500

1

174 / 175

14

Intervention Plan of Pikpa Reception center

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

Painted line on the concrete surface, connecting the yard with both the street and the main building of the reception center. Electricity pylon Pavilion Rain garden, collecting the run-off water during seasons of heavy rain. Concrete pieces are used as stepping stones along the edge. Existing pine tree Laundry drying rack Wall for street football. Entrance to the backyard from the street. Entrance of the reception center. Cut out shapes dividing the space. Cut out shape, with ornamental grasses. Cut out shape, with gravel surface. Main entrance of the reception center. Entrance of the reception center. 3

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

1 11 2 13

4

12

5 8 6 7 10

15

9

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

p

SITE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES

10m

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Plan of Reception Center Pikpa. 1:500

1

174 / 175

14

Intervention Plan of Pikpa Reception center

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

LEROS HOTSPOT, GREECE

1

Refugees and immigrants arriving to the island Leros are taken to the hotspot. People are accommodated in barracks placed out forming a grid. The outdoor spaces consist of the space between the barracks, functioning as streets or walkways, and an open common space area in the middle of the hotspot. All the surface is covered by gravel. As gravel is a difficult surface material for persons in wheelchair to move on, it puts persons in an unequal position restricting their movement not only outside, but also inside the area of the hotspot. The accessibility can be improved by adding panels of plastic reinforcement to the surface layer of the gravel. This makes the surface easier to move on also for people with disabilities.

2

TO BE EDITED

Main themes: wheelchair accessibility, common space

1 2 3

5

Use and Values of the reinforced gravel and the gabions

1

5

2

5 1

6

2 3

7

4

3

9a

6

4

9d

7

9e

8

9b

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9c

Remove 100mm of the gravel of the ground surface from an area of 1000x1000mm. Place a gabion of the size 1000x1000x500mm at the place where the gravel surface is removed. Replace the removed gravel into the gabion. Remove 50mm of the gravel of the ground surface from an area of 1000x1000mm in front of the gabion. Place a plastic reinforcement panel of the size 1000x1000x50mm at the place where the gravel surface is removed. Connect the reinforcement panel to the gabion with steel wire. Fill the holes of the reinforcement panel up with the removed gravel. The gabion can be covered with a top of wood to create a sitting place. By filling the gabion up with stones (a), a plastic sheet (b) to avoid water and soil loss, planting soil (c) and plants (for example herbs (d) or ground cover or climbing plants (e).

Construction of reinforced gravel path connected to gabions on an existing gravel surface

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Non-reinforced gravel Reinforced gravel A small front yard is created by placing two of the gabions, that are keeping the reinforcement panels in place, by the door of the barrack Gabion covered with wood for seating Barrack for accommodation Ground cover plants planted in gabions Useful plants planted in gabions outside of the barracks.

Leros Hotspot Common Space intervention plan

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

176 / 177

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

4 5

Ground cover planted in the gabions brings the grey landscape alive. Many ground cover plants are durable and easy to take care of. Useful plants, like herbs or vegetables, can also be planted in the gabions. Taking care of the plants can be a welcomed relaxing activity for the people staying at the hotspot. With the gabions it is possible to divide the space into smaller seating groups, where you also have the possibility to find semiprivate space. The area is made wheelchair accessible by reinforcing the gravel with plastic panels. The reinforced gravel creates paths around the site. Areas, where accessibility is of low importance, are left without reinforcement, saving in costs of materials.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

4

3


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

LEROS HOTSPOT, GREECE

1

Refugees and immigrants arriving to the island Leros are taken to the hotspot. People are accommodated in barracks placed out forming a grid. The outdoor spaces consist of the space between the barracks, functioning as streets or walkways, and an open common space area in the middle of the hotspot. All the surface is covered by gravel. As gravel is a difficult surface material for persons in wheelchair to move on, it puts persons in an unequal position restricting their movement not only outside, but also inside the area of the hotspot. The accessibility can be improved by adding panels of plastic reinforcement to the surface layer of the gravel. This makes the surface easier to move on also for people with disabilities.

2

TO BE EDITED

Main themes: wheelchair accessibility, common space

1 2 3

5

Use and Values of the reinforced gravel and the gabions

1

5

2

5 1

6

2 3

7

4

3

9a

6

4

9d

7

9e

8

9b

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9c

Remove 100mm of the gravel of the ground surface from an area of 1000x1000mm. Place a gabion of the size 1000x1000x500mm at the place where the gravel surface is removed. Replace the removed gravel into the gabion. Remove 50mm of the gravel of the ground surface from an area of 1000x1000mm in front of the gabion. Place a plastic reinforcement panel of the size 1000x1000x50mm at the place where the gravel surface is removed. Connect the reinforcement panel to the gabion with steel wire. Fill the holes of the reinforcement panel up with the removed gravel. The gabion can be covered with a top of wood to create a sitting place. By filling the gabion up with stones (a), a plastic sheet (b) to avoid water and soil loss, planting soil (c) and plants (for example herbs (d) or ground cover or climbing plants (e).

Construction of reinforced gravel path connected to gabions on an existing gravel surface

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Non-reinforced gravel Reinforced gravel A small front yard is created by placing two of the gabions, that are keeping the reinforcement panels in place, by the door of the barrack Gabion covered with wood for seating Barrack for accommodation Ground cover plants planted in gabions Useful plants planted in gabions outside of the barracks.

Leros Hotspot Common Space intervention plan

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

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Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

4 5

Ground cover planted in the gabions brings the grey landscape alive. Many ground cover plants are durable and easy to take care of. Useful plants, like herbs or vegetables, can also be planted in the gabions. Taking care of the plants can be a welcomed relaxing activity for the people staying at the hotspot. With the gabions it is possible to divide the space into smaller seating groups, where you also have the possibility to find semiprivate space. The area is made wheelchair accessible by reinforcing the gravel with plastic panels. The reinforced gravel creates paths around the site. Areas, where accessibility is of low importance, are left without reinforcement, saving in costs of materials.

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

4

3


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

TEMPORARY CAMP, KOS, GREECE Next to an archeological site, a temporary camp is put up on the island of Kos. The tents are situated in a parklike environment in the shadow of high pine trees. To make the natural ground more durable it is covered by gravel all over the camp area. This example is showcasing an alternative for the gravel, preserving the natural ground and making it possible to turn the area back into a park as soon as the camp is not needed anymore. To preserve the vegetation of the ground and at the same time create durable routes for the people staying in the camp, the walkways are lifted up slightly above the ground. In this way, lifting the new activity up to a new layer, the intervention with the natural ground is kept at a minimum, leaving it nearly untouched. The lifted up walkways will not only have a preserving function, but also make the camp wheelchair accessible as well as directing the movement of people.

Main themes: ground preservation, durability 4

2

3

5

The natural ground can be left untouched under and around the walkway, preserving the vegetation of the site. The walkway can be used to direct the movement of people. A wooden piece is added to create a 45° turn of the walkway. EUR-pallets are used as flooring in the tents. The walkway is leveled with the EUR-pallets to make the tents easily accessible. At the ends the walkway is connected to the ground surface with a ramp. The ramp has the lenght of two gratings (2000 mm) and a gradient of 1:14, making the walkway wheelchair accessible.

Use and Values of the elevated walkway

960 mm 960 mm

144 mm

1

CHAPEL RUINS

2

1

5 6

2

117 m

0m

3

1000 mm 5

m

4

m

3

mm

0

50

2

320 mm

90 °

3

45 ° 4

3

1

450

900 mm

4

5

The walkway is lifted up to the height of a EUR-pallet, 144mm above the ground. This makes it possible to combine the walkway with EUR-pallets used as flooring in the tents. Rammed posts are used as foundation for the walkway to make it possible to remove easily without traces after camp closure. The embedment depth is depending on the composition of the ground. Steel gratings make up the surface of the walkway. They are laid on a wooden frame and are connected to each other and secured to the wooden substructure using connective elements. The steel grating is an element consisting of pressure-locked support and filler bars, creating a steel grid, enclosed by iron bars. The element used has a width of 900 mm and a lenght of 1000 mm. To make the 90° turns wide enough to be wheelchair accessible, a small wooden piece is added to the inner corner on the same hight as the surface of the grating. A 45° turn is created by adding a wooden piece between the gratings at the turning piont.

Construction of the elevated walkway

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

PARKING 7

ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Natural ground, grass Sawdust covering the ground surface Tents for accomodation in the temporary camp Pine trees Uplifted walkway Toilets Entrance of the park and the temporary camp

Plan of Kos Temporary Displacement Site

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

178 / 179

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

1 2 3 4 5

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

1


AHO / Spring 2016

IN TRANSIT

TEMPORARY CAMP, KOS, GREECE Next to an archeological site, a temporary camp is put up on the island of Kos. The tents are situated in a parklike environment in the shadow of high pine trees. To make the natural ground more durable it is covered by gravel all over the camp area. This example is showcasing an alternative for the gravel, preserving the natural ground and making it possible to turn the area back into a park as soon as the camp is not needed anymore. To preserve the vegetation of the ground and at the same time create durable routes for the people staying in the camp, the walkways are lifted up slightly above the ground. In this way, lifting the new activity up to a new layer, the intervention with the natural ground is kept at a minimum, leaving it nearly untouched. The lifted up walkways will not only have a preserving function, but also make the camp wheelchair accessible as well as directing the movement of people.

Main themes: ground preservation, durability 4

2

3

5

The natural ground can be left untouched under and around the walkway, preserving the vegetation of the site. The walkway can be used to direct the movement of people. A wooden piece is added to create a 45° turn of the walkway. EUR-pallets are used as flooring in the tents. The walkway is leveled with the EUR-pallets to make the tents easily accessible. At the ends the walkway is connected to the ground surface with a ramp. The ramp has the lenght of two gratings (2000 mm) and a gradient of 1:14, making the walkway wheelchair accessible.

Use and Values of the elevated walkway

960 mm 960 mm

144 mm

1

CHAPEL RUINS

2

1

5 6

2

117 m

0m

3

1000 mm 5

m

4

m

3

mm

0

50

2

320 mm

90 °

3

45 ° 4

3

1

450

900 mm

4

5

The walkway is lifted up to the height of a EUR-pallet, 144mm above the ground. This makes it possible to combine the walkway with EUR-pallets used as flooring in the tents. Rammed posts are used as foundation for the walkway to make it possible to remove easily without traces after camp closure. The embedment depth is depending on the composition of the ground. Steel gratings make up the surface of the walkway. They are laid on a wooden frame and are connected to each other and secured to the wooden substructure using connective elements. The steel grating is an element consisting of pressure-locked support and filler bars, creating a steel grid, enclosed by iron bars. The element used has a width of 900 mm and a lenght of 1000 mm. To make the 90° turns wide enough to be wheelchair accessible, a small wooden piece is added to the inner corner on the same hight as the surface of the grating. A 45° turn is created by adding a wooden piece between the gratings at the turning piont.

Construction of the elevated walkway

ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS IN EMERGENCIES

PARKING 7

ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Natural ground, grass Sawdust covering the ground surface Tents for accomodation in the temporary camp Pine trees Uplifted walkway Toilets Entrance of the park and the temporary camp

Plan of Kos Temporary Displacement Site

INSTITUTE OF URBANISM AND LANDSCAPE / NORCAP

178 / 179

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

1 2 3 4 5

Common Spaces and Social Infrastructures

1


In Transit

Teachers: Håvard Breivik Tone Selmer-Olsen Mattias Josefsson Tommy Sandløkk

nsit

Architectural Solutions in Emergencies

In Transit Studio: Rebecca Dunne (Ireland) Niloufar Gharavi (Iran) David Kelly (Ireland) Paul-Antoine Lucas (France) Clara Triviño Massó (Spain) Christos Pampafikos (Greece) Nadine Schmauser (Germany) Ralf Sieber (Germany) Tea Skog (Norway) Montserrat Solervicens (Chile) Åsmund Amandus Steinsholm (Norway) Eva Birgitte Storrusten (Norway) Anna Rosa Strassegger (Norway) Ida Mohn Werner (Norway) Ina Westerlund (Finland)

In Tran

In Transit Architectural Solutions in Emergencies

Archite ectural Solutions in Eme ergencies

Profile for In Transit - Architecture in Emergencies

In Transit  

The book 'In Transit - Architectural Solution in Emergencies' was first published in September 2016. The In Transit studio has produced pro...

In Transit  

The book 'In Transit - Architectural Solution in Emergencies' was first published in September 2016. The In Transit studio has produced pro...

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