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/:+2:+=!/<*: Journal of Sinology ÄžĹ&#x2014;Ĺ&#x201D;Ĺ´aaÄŠĹ?Ĺ?Ĺ?Ĺ&#x203A;Ĺ&#x153;Ųb`ag

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0A!*Ä?(:1:E-8/9! ++)=!2<+<! + )3:/<*:-9*E)Ä&#x2030;'Ä&#x2026;:3-/ Sirindhorn Chinese Language and Culture Center Mae Fah Luang University


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ïìÙüćöìĊęǰǰÙČĂǰĶChivalry of the Chinese Heroes: A Character Sketch of the Knights-Errant and the Assassins in Sima Qian’s 3FDPSETǰPGǰUIFǰ(SBOEǰ)JTUPSJBOķǰđðŨîïìÙüćöìĊę đÖĊę÷üÖĆïïìïćì×ĂÜÝĂö÷čìíĒúąöČĂÿĆÜĀćøĔîïĆîìċÖðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤ ×ĂÜàČĂĀöŠćđßĊ÷îǰ ÞČęĂÝĊĚ ǰđóČęĂýċÖþćüĊøÖøøöêŠćÜėǰ×ĂÜÝĂö÷čìíĒúą öČĂÿĆÜĀćøàċÜę öĊĂĉìíĉóúñúêŠĂÜćîđ×Ċ÷îîĉ÷ć÷ĔîđüúćêŠĂöć ïìÙüćöìĊęǰǰđðŨîïìÙüćöìĊęđÖĊę÷üÖĆïÖúüĉíĊÖćøĒðúïìÿüé öîêŤ× ĂÜóč ì íýćÿîćöĀć÷ćîǰîĉ Öć÷öîêø÷ćîǰöĊ ßČęĂ ïìÙüćöüŠ ćǰ ĶÖćøýċÖþćÖúüĉíĊÖćøĒðúìĆïýĆóìŤ×ĂÜó÷Ćâßîąêšî ǰ) ĔîïìíćøèĊ ÿĎêø×ĂÜóøąĂēöÛüĆßøąķǰàċęÜĕéšýċÖþćüĉđÙøćąĀŤ ÖúüĉíĊĔîÖćøĒðúìĆï ýĆ ó ìŤ ï ìíćøèĊ ÿĎ ê øó÷ćÜÙŤ đ ÿĊ ÷ ÜìĊę öĊ ó ÷Ć â ßîąêš î ǰ ) ÝćÖõćþć ÿĆîÿÖùêÿĎŠõćþćÝĊî ëĆéöćđðŨîïìÙüćöéšćîÙüćöÿĆöóĆîíŤøąĀüŠćÜðøąđìýǰÙČĂǰĶ⌠ ഭ൘ѝഭ-ьⴏ‫ޣ‬㌫ѝⲴẕằ֌⭘ķàċę Ü ýċ Ö þćüĉ ÝĆ ÷ đÖĊę ÷ üÖĆ ï ïìïćì ×ĂÜðøąđìýĕì÷ĔîåćîąìĊęđðŨîÿąóćîđßČęĂöÙüćöÿĆ öóĆîíŤøąĀüŠćÜ ðøąđìýÝĊî ÖĆïðøąđìýĔîÖúčŠöĂćđàĊ÷îöćêúĂéǰǰÖüŠćðŘìĊęñŠćîöćǰ ĔîüćøÿćøÝĊîüĉì÷ćÞïĆïîĊĚ ÷ĆÜðøąÖĂïéšü÷ïìÙüćöìĊęđÖĊę÷üÖĆï ÖćøđøĊ÷îÖćøÿĂîõćþćÝĊîĂĊÖéšü÷ǰÙČĂǰĶÖćøüĉÝĆ÷đóČęĂóĆçîćøąïïÖćø ÝĆé ÖćøđøĊ ÷ îÖćøÿĂîõćþćÝĊ î Ĕîðøąđìýĕì÷øąéĆï ĂćßĊ ü ýċ Öþćķǰ ïìÙüćöîĊĚýċÖþćüĉÝĆ÷đÖĊę÷üÖĆïÿõćóðŦÝÝčïĆîĒúąðŦâĀć×ĂÜÖćøóĆçîć øąïïÖćøđøĊ÷îÖćøÿĂîõćþćÝĊîøąéĆï ĂćßĊüýċÖþćĔîðøąđìýĕì÷ǰ óøšĂöךĂđÿîĂđßĉÜîē÷ïć÷Ēúą÷čìíýćÿêøŤĔîÖćøóĆçîćøąïïÖćø ÝĆéÖćøđøĊ÷îÖćøÿĂîõćþćÝĊîøąéĆïĂćßĊüýċÖþćĔîðøąđìýĕì÷ǰ ïìÙüćöëĆéöćđðŨîïìÙüćöìĊęýċÖþćüĉÝĆ÷đÖĊę÷üÖĆïðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤ ÝĊîǰÙČĂǰĶÖćøøĆïøĎšĂćø÷íøøöÝĊîēïøćèñŠćîðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤîĉóîíŤĒúą


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ĢĤ.óøąøćßóĉ íĊ ì øÜïĞ ć đóĘ â óøąøćßÖč ý úǰđîČę Ă ÜĔîüĆ î ĂćÿćāĀïĎßć Ģĥ.óøąøćßóĉíĊđÞúĉöóøąßîöóøøþćǰÿöđéĘÝóøąîćÜđÝšćĄǰ óøąïøöøćßĉîĊîćë ĢĦ.óøąøćßóĉíĊÿćøì Ģħ.óøąøćßóĉíĊìøÜïĞćđóĘâóøąøćßÖčýúëüć÷ñšćóøąÖåĉî ĢĨ.óøąøćßóĉíĊìøÜïĞćđóĘâóøąøćßÖčýúìĆÖþĉèćîčðøąìćî üĆîðŗ÷öĀćøćß Ģĩ.óøąøćßóĉíĊđÞúĉöóøąßîöóøøþć ÝćÖóøąøćßóĉ íĊìĆĚ ÜĀöéǰÝąóïöĊ óøąøćßóĉíĊ ìĊęđ ÖĊę÷ üך ĂÜÖĆ ï ðøąđóèĊÝĊîĂ÷ĎŠǰĢǰøć÷ÖćøÙČĂǰךĂǰģǰóøąøćßóĉíĊÿĆÜđü÷óøąðŜć÷ óøąøćßóĉíĊÿĆÜđü÷óøąðŜć÷ óøąðŜć÷ǰĀøČĂǰđÖàĉĚîǰÙČĂǰĒñŠîðŜć÷ìĊęÝćøċÖóøąðøöćõĉĕí÷×ĂÜ óøąïćìÿöđéĘÝóøąÝĂöđÖúšćđÝšćĂ÷ĎŠĀĆü ÿöđéĘÝóøąđìóýĉøĉîìøćǰ ïøöøćßĉîĊǰóøąïćìÿöđéĘÝóøąÝčúÝĂöđÖúšćđÝšćĂ÷ĎŠĀĆü ĒúąÿöđéĘÝ óøąýøĊóĆßøĉîìøćïøöøćßĉîĊîćëǰđðŨîĂĆÖþøÝĊî êćö×îïíøøöđîĊ÷ö ÝĊîìĊęîĉ÷öÝćøċÖßČęĂïøøóïčøčþĕüšïîĒñŠîðŜć÷ÿĞćĀøĆïĕüšïĎßćðøąÝĞćïšćî đóČęĂĒÿéÜÙüćöÖêĆâťĎÖêđüìĊ ĂĆî ìĊęÝøĉ ÜǰÖćøÿøš ćÜóøąðŜć÷îĊĚöĊ×ċĚîêĆĚÜĒêŠĔîøĆßÖćúóøąïćìǰ ÿöđéĘ Ý óøąÝĂöđÖúš ć đÝš ć Ă÷ĎŠ ĀĆ ü ǰēé÷ìøÜēðøéĔĀš ÿ øš ć ÜóøąðŜ ć ÷ óøąïćìÿöđéĘÝóøąðŗũîđÖúšćđÝšćĂ÷ĎŠĀĆüǰàċęÜðŦÝÝčïĆîðøąéĉþåćîĂ÷ĎŠìĊę óøąìĊęîĆęÜĂĉý đøýøćßćîč ÿ øèŤǰĔîóĉóĉí õĆèæŤÿ ëćîĒĀŠ ÜßćêĉóøąîÙøǰ êŠĂöćǰóøąïćìÿöđéĘÝóøąÝčúÝĂöđÖúšćđÝšćĂ÷ĎŠĀĆüǰìøÜēðøéĔĀšÿøšćÜ óøąðŜ ć ÷óøąïćìÿöđéĘ Ý óøąÝĂöđÖúš ć đÝš ć Ă÷ĎŠ ĀĆ ü ǰĒúąÿöđéĘ Ý

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óýģĥġĩǰÜćîóøąïøöýó óøąïćìÿöđéĘÝóøąðŗũî đÖúšćđÝšćĂ÷ĎŠĀĆü x óýģĥĢĢǰÜćîóøąïøöýóǰóøąïćìÿöđéĘÝóøąÝĂö đÖúšćđÝšćĂ÷ĎŠĀĆüǰ x óýģĥģĤǰÜćîóøąïøöýóǰÿöđéĘÝóøąîćÜđÝšćÿčîĆ î ìćÖčöćøĊøĆêîŤǰ x óýģĥĤĨǰÜćîóøąýóǰÿöđéĘÝ đÝš ćôŜć öĀćüßĉøč èĀĉ ýǰ ÿöđéĘÝóøąïøöēĂøÿćíĉø ćßǰÿ÷ćööÖč ã øćßÖčö ćøĔî øĆßÖćúìĊęǰĦǰ x óýģĥĩĪǰÜćîóøąïøöýóǰóøąïćìÿöđéĘ Ý óøą đÝšćĂ÷ĎŠĀĆüĂćîĆîìöĀĉéúĄǰ x óýģĥĪĩǰÜćîóøąïøöýóǰÿöđéĘÝóøąýøĊÿüøĉîìĉøć ïøöøćßđìüĊǰóøąóĆîüĆÿÿćĂĆ÷ĉÖćđÝšćǰ x óýģĦģĩǰ üĆ î ìĊę ǰ ĢĪǰöĊ î ćÙö ǰÜćîóøąïøöýó ÿöđéĘÝóøąîćÜđÝšćøĞćĕóóøøèĊǰóøąïøöøćßĉîĊĔîøĆßÖćú ìĊęǰĨǰèǰúćîóøąìĊęîĆęÜéčÿĉêöĀćðøćÿćì x óýģĦĦĢǰÜćîóøąïøöýóǰÿöđéĘÝóøąđÝšćóĊęîćÜđíĂǰ đÝšćôŜćÖĆú÷ćèĉüĆçîćǰÖøöĀúüÜîøćíĉüćÿøćßîÙøĉîìøŤ x óýģĦĦĥǰÜćîóøąïøöýóǰÿöđéĘÝóøąđÝšć õÙĉîĊ đ íĂǰ đÝšćôŜćđóßøøĆêîøćßÿčéćǰÿĉøĉēÿõćóĆèèüéĊ ǰ ÝąđĀĘîĕéšüŠćðøąđóèĊóĉíĊÝĊîöĊĂ÷ĎŠĔîøćßÿĞćîĆÖĕì÷ǰđðŨîóøąøćß óĉíĊìĊęìøÜÖøąìĞćÖĆîöćêĆĚÜĒêŠêšîøĆêîēÖÿĉîìøŤ ǰéšü÷đĀêčðŦÝÝĆ÷éšćîóøą øćßîĉ÷öǰĒúąÿć÷óøąēúĀĉêǰïćÜóøąøćßóĉíĊðäĉïĆêĉđðŨîÙøĆĚÜÙøćüǰđߊîǰ óøąøćßóĉíĊÖÜđêĘÖĂčìĉýÖčýúǰóøąøćßóĉíĊĒà÷ĉéǰïćÜóøąøćßóĉíĊđúĉÖ ðäĉ ïĆ êĉ Ē úš ü ĔîÖćúðŦ Ý Ýč ïĆ î ǰđߊ î ǰóøąøćßÖč ý úđúĊĚ ÷ Üóøąêøč þ ÝĊ îǰ x

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12

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ïćÜóøąøćßóĉíĊ÷ĆÜÙÜ÷ċéëČĂðäĉïĆêĉđðŨîðøąđóèĊìčÖðŘǰđߊîǰóøąøćßóĉíĊ ÿĆÜđü÷óøąðŜć÷ǰǰóøąøćßðøąđóèĊóĉíĊÝĊîđĀúŠćîĊĚ ÙÜÝąéĞćøÜĂ÷ĎŠĔîøćß ÿĞćîĆÖĕì÷ÿČïêŠĂĕðǰđîČęĂÜÝćÖđðŨîÖćøĒÿéÜÙüćöÖêĆâťĎÖêđüìĉêćêŠĂ ïøøóïčøčþïčóÖćøĊ×ĂÜóøąøćßüÜýŤ  ïøøèćîčÖøö ÙîÝĊîǰģġġǰðŘǰõć÷ĔêšóøąïøöēóíĉÿöõćøǰõćÙǰģǰ ÙċÖùìíĉĝǰðøćēöß ǰöøüǰ ģĦĥĤ ǰēÙøÜÖøąéĎÖĔîêĎšǰéĂÖĀâšć. ÝćÖăüÜēĀÿĎŠđÝšćóøą÷ćǰ ģĦĥĩ ǰǰíîćÙćøÖÿĉÖøĕì÷ ÝčúÝĂöđÖúšćđÝšćĂ÷ĎŠĀĆü ǰóøąïćìÿöđéĘÝǰóøąøćßóĉíĊÿĉïÿĂÜđéČĂî ñŠćîôŜćóĉì÷ć. îĉíĉǰđĂĊ÷üýøĊüÜýŤǰðćÖĕÖŠĒúąĔïđøČĂǰ ģĦĤĩ ǰǰĒóøüÿĞćîĆÖóĉöóŤ óøąøćßóĉíĊĔîøĆßÖćúóøąïćìÿöđéĘÝóøąðøöĉîìøöĀćõĎöĉóúǰ Ăéčú÷đéߥǰÿ÷ćöĉîìøćíĉøćßǰïøöîćëïóĉêøǰ ģĦĥģ ǰÖøö ýĉúðćÖøǰ óøąøćßóĉíĊÿĉïÿĂÜđéČĂîǰǰhttp://www1.mod.go.th/heritage/king/ceremony üøćõøèŤǰÝĉüßĆ÷ýĆÖéĉĝǰóĉîĉÝĕì÷ǰÿëćïĆîĕì÷ýċÖþćǰÝčāćĄ. http://www.bkknews.com/weekend/20050202/wed22.shtml

ÿčüîĆîǰ×üĆâìĂÜǰóøąøćßóĉíĊÿĆÜđü÷óøąðŜć÷ǰ http://cul.hcu.ac.th/matter/traditional-china.html

ýĉúðüĆçîíøøöĕì÷ǰđúŠöìĊęǰĤǰ ģĦģĦ ǰÖøöýĉúðćÖø ýčõøĆêîŤ đúĉýóćèĉß÷ŤÖčúǰ×čîîćÜĕì÷đßČĚĂÿć÷ÝĊîïćÜêøąÖĎúĔîÿöĆ÷ øĆêîēÖÿĉîìøŤ http://www.thai-d.com/siam-china/hcu/kunnang.htm

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ýčõüøøèǰßüøĆêîŤüÜýŤǰïìïćì×ĂÜßćüÝĊîĔîðøąđìýĕì÷êĆĚÜĒêŠÿöĆ÷ Ă÷čí÷ćêĂîðúć÷ëċÜÿöĆ÷øĆßÖćúìĊęĤǰóýģĢĨģǰ–ǰģĤĪĥǰǰ ģĦĥĢ) http://www.thairath.co.th/thairath1/2547/column/person/jan/25_1_47pics.php

õćó׊ćü

       

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Traditional Chinese Customs in Thai Royal Court Metta Wongjongjaihan ABSTRACT â&#x20AC;&#x153;Thailand and China are one family,â&#x20AC;? this remark is very familiar to Thai people. In fact, Thailand did establish the close ties with China since Sukhothai Kingdom (corresponding to Yuan Dynasty of China). The relationship is mostly in terms of trade and commerce. Since then, people of both lands have conducted business; thereby learning and exchanging the culture of each other. As a result, Thai people from the past to the present have known such Chinese festivals as Chinese New Year, Tomb-sweeping Day, Mid-Autumn Festival and Dragon Boat Festival well. Even the Thai Royal families also holds the ceremonies related to Chinese tradition like the Royal ceremony of offering food alms to monks during Chinese New Year Festival, the Royal homage to the ancestorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; spirits tablets, and the Chinese funeral Royal rituals. Keywords: IPNBHFÇ°UPÇ°BODFTUPSTÄ´Ç°TQJSJUTÇ°UBCMFUT Ç°$IJOFTFÇ° GVOFSBMÇ°SJUVBMT Ç°$IJOFTFÇ°$VTUPNT Ç°5IBJÇ°3PZBMÇ°$PVSUÇ°

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Chivalry of the Chinese Heroes: A Character Sketch of the Knights-Errant and the Assassins in Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 3FDPSETÇ°PGÇ°UIFÇ°(SBOEÇ°)JTUPSJBO Nop Oungbho1 ABSTRACT This article looks into a character sketch of the historical knights-errant and assassins as depicted in Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Records of the Grand Historian. Both groups of people are featured in two chapters of the Records, which are â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Biographies of the Knights-errantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Biographies of the Assassinsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, respectively, including how they were born to the society, what they did, their social positions and ideals towards their own acts, and how different groups of people thought about them. The article would also discuss the Chinese-style heroism, which has influenced many writers in creating the works of fiction about â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;wuxiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (martial hero or warrior) in later periods as well. Keywords: Chinese knight-errant, heroism, Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji)  1 Nop Oungbho, Ph.D. candidate, Chinese Section, Department of Eastern Languages, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University. E-mail: huangtianci@gmail.comÇ°

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Chivalry of the Chinese Heroes: A Character Sketch of the Knights-Errant and the Assassins in Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Records of the Grand Historian

Introduction Ç° Amongst the historical records of the ancient China, Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Records of the Grand Historian2, which will later be referred as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Shijiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Chinese: ਢä &#x2C6;, literally â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Historical Recordsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;), is one of the principle and most influential documents that many have trusted. It was compiled and written by Sima Qian (ਨäż&#x153;ä&#x161;§), an official in the imperial court in the Han dynasty (206 B.C. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 220 A.D.), succeeding the works of his father Sima Tan (ਨäż&#x153;ä&#x192;ˇ), who was also a historian of that period. Shiji covers the history of ancient China from the age of the Yellow Emperor (ĺ&#x201C;´á&#x2018;?) to the reign of Emperor Han Wudi (â&#x2022;&#x2019;â&#x2020;&#x2013;á&#x2018;?), which is the time of the authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own life. It comprises 120 volumes of classical texts, mostly biographies of historicalÇ°individuals, such as kings, emperors, sages and generals, etc. While several volumes of annals and biographies are about the ruling class or aristocrats, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Biographies of the Knights-errantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Youxia Liezhuanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ä&#x2122;şŘ?ŕĄ&#x2021;ŰŁ, volume 124) and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Biographies of the Assassinsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Cike Liezhuanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ४ á&#x2021;&#x2019;ŕĄ&#x2021;ŰŁ, volume 86) are two volumes specifically devoted to the lives of the knights-errant and assassins in the history. These people generally are commoners who performed memorable chivalrous acts, some notably  2 The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Grand Historianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; or â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Tai Shi Gongâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (ŕ˝&#x161;ਢâ&#x20AC;Ť )Ţ&#x153;â&#x20AC;Źis the title Sima Qian referred to himself in the records.

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without the use of force or weaponry, and had gradually become the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s heroesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, even before â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;xiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (chivalry or hero) became associated with â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;wuâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (martial or armed). 1. About the knight-errant Those who were growing up in the 70â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s or 80â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Thailand, especially the ones who are of Chinese descendants, may have been familiar with the words â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;kamlang phainaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Ă&#x2013;Ä&#x17E;Ä&#x2021;ĂşÄ&#x2020;Ă&#x153;ĂľÄ&#x2021;áÄ&#x201D;ĂŽ) and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;jomyutâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Ă?Ä&#x201A;ÜáÄ?ĂŹĂ­), one way or another, due to the vast popularisation of novels, TV series or films that feature the martial arts, or the wuxia contents. One can easily picture a wandering swordsman (or swordswoman), travelling through mountains and villages, in search of a master to learn from and perfect the craft in martial arts, or to find the most evil archenemy in order to avenge for the loved ones. These martial arts heroes (or heroines) are called xia (Ř?) in Mandarin Chinese, which are aptly translated into English as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;knighterrantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;3. The stories of the knights-errant are repeatedly told in popular media, and we are simply entertained by their elaborate sword fights and the courageous acts of the characters. These stories always have us wonder  3 James Liu explained that the term â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;knight-errantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is by far close enough to the original, and the least misleading of several other translations, i.e. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cavalierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;adventurerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, or â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;soldier of fortuneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. (Liu, 1979: xii)

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whether such people really did exist in Chinese history, or were they merely just a myth? So before these martial arts heroes had established themselves in the realms of literature, we have to venture their historical background to better understand their social positions.Ç° The knight-errant first appeared during the Warring States period (ᥠഝ, 475-221 B.C.)4, amongst many social unrests and the founding of various schools of intellect, i.e. Confucianism (Ý&#x201A;á&#x2021;Ś), Taoism (ä&#x161;&#x192;á&#x2021;Ś), Legalism (â&#x152;&#x2026;á&#x2021;Ś), and Mohism (ŕť&#x2DC;á&#x2021;Ś). While these schools of philosophers and thinkers were trying to persuade the feudal rulers to follow their way, the knights-errant simply took justice in their own hands, to right the wrongs, and to help the poor and the distressed, regardless of the law. Han Fei Zi (ä¸&#x192;äś&#x17D;á&#x2020;&#x20AC;), The leader of Legalism, once expressed his opinion about the knights-errant in the article called Wu Du (Ó&#x201E;㚊) or Five Vermin5, he stated:  4 According to many historians, the beginning of the Warring States period ranges from 481-403 B.C. Sima Qian said the period began during the first year of King Yuan of Zhou (ŕŞ&#x2DC;â&#x20AC;Ť )⌝ݳâ&#x20AC;Źwhich is 475 B.C., Sima Guang said it began in the 23rd year of King Weilie (ŕŞ&#x2DC;á&#x20AC;ąâ&#x203A;¸âŚť) which is 403 B.C., and LĂź Zuqian said it began in the 14th year of Duke Ai of Lu (ĺ&#x2020;&#x;૰â&#x20AC;Ť )Ţ&#x153;â&#x20AC;Źwhich is 481 B.C. (Zheng Tianting, and Tan Qixiang, eds, 2000: 2149) This article uses Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s choice of 475 B.C. 5 According to Han Fei, there were five groups of people who were harmful to the law,Ç°namely the scholars (á&#x2020;¨ă&#x2DC;ľ), the orators (ä&#x20AC;°ä&#x192;ˇă&#x2DC;ľ), the sword bearers (á&#x2018;Śŕ˘˝ă&#x2DC;ľ), the officials (á&#x203A;&#x201C;á&#x2014;&#x2018;ă&#x2DC;ľ), and the craftsmen and the merchants

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Confucian scholars confuse the law with their writings, while the knights-errant violate the prohibitions by force. Yet the rulers of men treat both with courtesy. That is why there is disorder.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Sima Qian ਨäż&#x153;ä&#x161;§, 2010: 2413.) (Translation by James J.Ç°Y. Liu) This is an obvious proof that Han Fei Zi did not approve of the principles of both the Confucian scholars and the knight-errant. Due to the fact that Han Fei was promoting the sanctity of the law, these two groups of people would be great obstacles to his belief and execution. While the former valued morality above all rules, the latter simply discarded the law, and did what they saw was right instead. According to the chivalrous acts they usually performed, the knights-errant were often criticised for not paying any respect to the law of the states. So naturally, they became the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rebels, especially in the eye of the Legalists. The knights-errant were often conceived as independent fighters who possessed an exceptional ability to use different kinds of weapons or superhuman force to fight crimes, and somehow became good vigilantes whom people expected help or rescue from.  (á?&#x2022;ଡ଼ѝâ&#x2030; ). The aforementioned â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sword bearersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; are undoubtedly the knightserrant.

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Apart from the typical looks many have envisioned, the knights-errant were actually very diverse in terms of appearances and their principles. According to several books about knights-errant, there have been many types of xia throughout Chinese historiography (Teo, 2009: 3; Wang Qi ⌝ĺ&#x2022;ş, 1997: 49-83), they were generally categorised by: 1) their action, such as youxia (ä&#x2122;şŘ? wandering knight-errant), yinxia (䳥Ř? hermit knight-errant), and daoxia (â´&#x152;Ř? bandit knight-errant); 2) their social status or gender, such as qingxiang zhi xia (য⴨ѻŘ? royal knight-errant), buyi zhi xia (á?łăş&#x201C;ŃťŘ? plebeian knight-errant), sengxia (â&#x20AC;Ť Ř?Ü&#x2014;â&#x20AC;Źmonk knight-errant), and nĂźxia (ྣŘ? female knight-errant); 3) their principles or intellect, such as yixia (ă&#x2014;&#x2122;Ř? upright knight-errant), haoxia (ä&#x160;&#x161;Ř? heroic knight-errant), and ruxia (Ý&#x201A;Ř? Confucian knight-errant); or 4) their fighting ability or strength, such as jianxia (ࢽ Ř? sword-carrying knight-errant), and wuxia (â&#x2020;&#x2013;Ř? combative knight-errant). While knights-errant are usually seen as commoners, many scholars actually believe that their former status could be of higher or lower class. In Han Shu (â&#x2022;&#x2019;á´¨) or the Book of Han, Ban Gu (â¨?ŕ´Ş) has mentioned Four Princes of the Warring States (ᥠഝŕ´&#x2039;â&#x20AC;ŤŢ&#x153;â&#x20AC;Źá&#x2020;&#x20AC;), which are Xinling Jun from /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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the State of Wei (ĺ&#x2026;żŕ´ťŘ&#x2018;䲼ŕŠ&#x2039;), Pingyuan Jun from the State of Zhao (ä?&#x2030;ŕ´ťá&#x2019;Łŕ§?ŕŠ&#x2039;), Mengchang Jun from the State of Qi (ĺ&#x2022;şŕ´ťá&#x2020;?ŕą&#x2021;ŕŠ&#x2039;), and Chunshen Jun from the State of Chu (áž&#x160; ŕ´ťáą&#x2022;â­ŁŕŠ&#x2039;). These four princes were born in the feudal lordsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; families, but they liked to lead the life of the knight-errant. Their courageous acts gained respect and admiration from many people. Weng Lixueâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s articleÇ° describes that the knights-errant came from many social backgrounds, some used to be Confucian scholars, some were the former Mohists, and some were high class warriors who lost their royal statuses. (Weng Lixue ă&#x2014;ąĺ&#x201C;&#x2021;ä´&#x161;, 1986: 23-27) Weng also wrote about the knights-errantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attitudes towards worldly matters and human interrelations, which are: 1) They do not value wealth or any possessions, 2) They like to help those in distress, 3) They like to travel and meet people, 4) They take revenge for those who are wrongly done, 5) They are willing to give up their life for others, and 6) They value truth and honesty. (Weng, 1986: 40-44) These are the idealistic features the knights-errant should possess, which would make them the ideal figures that

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are selfless, dauntless, free-spirited, and noble. And people would indisputably look up to them as heroes. Ç° 2. The Knights-errant and the Assassins in 4IJKJ 2.1 The Knights-errant in Shiji Youxia Liezhuan or the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Biographies of the Knightserrantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is the 124th volume in Shiji. It depicts the lives of Zhu Jia (ᾥá&#x2021;Ś), Ju Meng (ࢡá&#x2020;?), and Guo Xie (ä&#x153;?ä&#x20AC;&#x201C;) who were the famous knights-errant during the early Han period. In the introduction, Sima has made a clear statement about why he wrote this chapter: To save people from distress and relieve people from want: is it not benevolence? Not to belie anotherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s trust and not to break oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s promises: such conduct a righteous man would approve. That is why I wrote the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Biographies of the Knights-errantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;â&#x20AC;Ś â&#x20AC;ŚNow, as for the knights-errant, though their actions were not in accordance with the rules of propriety, they always meant what they said, always accomplished what they set out to do, and always fulfilled their promises. They rushed to the aid of other men in distress without giving a thought to their own safety. And when

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they had saved someone from disaster at the risk of their own lives, they did not boast their ability and would have been ashamed to brag of their benevolence. (Liu, 1979: 14-15) From the above paragraphs, it is easily understood that the author has such sympathy and high esteem towards the knights-errant, and he likes to make known to other people how important these people are to the society. To justify the existence of the knights-errant and their principles, Sima added, â&#x20AC;&#x153;if we expect accomplishment in oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s doing and honesty in oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s saying, how can one do without the fundamentals of knight-errantry?â&#x20AC;? (Sima Qian ਨäż&#x153;ä&#x161;§, 2010: 2414) After this, Sima Qian started to describe the lives of Zhu Jia, Ju Meng, and Guo Xie, respectively. Zhu Jia lived during the reign of the first emperor of Han dynasty (Han Gaozu â&#x2022;&#x2019;ĺ&#x201E;&#x2C6;âž&#x2020;, 206-193 B.C.). He was known as the person who helped many people, sheltered them or saved their lives. And yet he never showed off his benevolence, and refused to receive any reward or expression of gratitude from others. Ju Meng was a native of Luoyang. He was described to have similar characteristic to Zhu Jia, except for the fondness in gambling and other games that were the youthsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; favourite. When his mother died, there were nearly a thousand carriages from far /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä L= aa2<3: )bef`


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away came to attend the funeral. This shows how Ju Meng was much loved and respected by many. Both Zhu Jia and Ju Meng are depicted as penniless heroes. They helped other people without considering the basic needs of themselves, as Sima wrote that Zhu Jia â&#x20AC;&#x153;liked to help the poor first, while his family had no money to spare, his clothes were ragged and old, and he only had a simple and tasteless mealâ&#x20AC;? (Sima Qian, 2010: 2415), and â&#x20AC;&#x153;by the time Ju Meng was dead, his family barely even had ten pieces of gold to spare.â&#x20AC;? (Sima Qian, 2010: 2415) The fact that they thought of other peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s happiness and wellbeing first has proved that they were truly generous and selfless. The next one is Guo Xie, who is best known for his upright and honest act. This is how he is portrayed in Shiji: Guo Xie was a native of Zhi. His grandfather was an expert in physiognomy. His father was a knight-errant who was executed by the Emperor Han Wendi. Guo had a small physique, yet obtuse and brave, and he drank no wine. When he was younger, he was a hot-tempered man, and killed many people whenever he got angry. He was willing to risk his own life to help his friends, offered convicts a hiding place, illegally made his own money, sometimes even robbed tombs. His /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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crimes were countless, but he somehow managed to escape or was pardoned. As he grew older, he became very modest and kind. He helped other people without expecting them to repay him. Many young men who admired him even avenged for him without his knowing. Once, his sisterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s son used his uncleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s authority and forced a man to drink beyond his capacity. That man was angry, killed Guoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nephew and ran away. His sister was so furious that she demanded Guo to look for the killer. She said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;You must take care of this for me.Ç° Someone has killed my son, but the scoundrel hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been caught yet.â&#x20AC;? She left her sonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body in the middle of the road and refused to bury it, hoping to put a shame on Guo Xie. Guo sent a man to look into his nephewâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s murder. Out of desperation, the killer finally told him what had actually happened. Guo said, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all right that you killed my nephew, this was entirely his fault.â&#x20AC;? Guo then released the man, and admitted the one who did wrong was his own nephew. He went to collect his nephewâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body and buried it. Anyone who heard this story all praised him for

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being just, and trusted him more. (Sima Qian, 2010: 2416) The story of Guo Xie proves that a true knighterrant would not let anything disrupt their utmost principles and what should be done rightly. Guo Xie, as a powerful knight-errant as he was, fully abandoned his personal feelings when judging whether he should kill his nephewâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s murderer. Although he felt awkward at first (by his sisterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s forceful request), he decided to let the man go when he found out the truth. The honourable act of Guo Xie has set a standard for any knight-errant in later period as well. The heroism of the knight-errant can usually be judged by their courage and altruism. An American folklorist Joseph Campbell has stated in his book: â&#x20AC;&#x153;A hero is someone who has given his or her life to something bigger than oneselfâ&#x20AC;?; and â&#x20AC;&#x153;â&#x20AC;Śthe hero performs a courageous act in battle or saves a life.â&#x20AC;? (Campbell with Moyers, 1988: 151-152) Campbell then continued to explain how a hero would take off on a series of adventures, in order to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;recover what has been lost or to discover some life-giving elixir.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; He said that these adventures are the rituals a hero has to undergo to achieve a psychological transformation, and to become more mature when the journey ends. /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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While a hero according to Campbell looks like a complex, or even spiritual, idea, the Chinese knightserrantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s disposition is much simpler and more straightforward than that. The major commitment of the knights-errant is more of a physical act than the psychological one. Sima Qian wrote that the knightserrant â&#x20AC;&#x153;rushed to the aid of other men in distress without giving a thought to their own safety. And when they had saved someone from disaster at the risk of their own lives, they did not boast their ability and would have been ashamed to brag of their benevolence.â&#x20AC;? If the mission of a hero is to help people without hesitation or any concern about his or her lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s safety, but to serve a much higher concept than life, to show selflessness and bigger heart, then we can definitely put the knights-errant to the category of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;heroesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; like what Joseph Campbell has stated above. 2.2 The Assassins in Shiji While the knights-errant in general are highly revered by a lot of people, the assassins, in the other hand, are somewhat arguably less majestic. Many people like to compare the knights-errant to the assassins in many levels and aspects. From the outside, they are similar in the appearance, as a particular group of people who work their way through the use of force and /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä L= aa2<3: )bef`


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weaponry. But on the inside, they are still different in essential elements, the generic types of comparison are: 1) The knights-errant only draw their swords to save innocent people from injustice, but killing is not always necessary, and they definitely do not take any wages in return. While the assassins purposely kill by order, most of them are professional killers, so they take money as payment for each killing. 2) Morality is a must-have quality for the knightserrant, while assassins donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t necessarily have it. 3) Assassinsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; motivation can be politics-related, or it could be merely personal grudges, while the knightserrant do not take anything personally, they perform chivalrous deeds only to serve the altruism and justice. The above arguments are commonly found when speaking of knights-errant and assassins in general. But they are not necessarily true, for there are many assassins who were respected and glorified by a lot of people, especially the ones mentioned in Cike Liezhuan. In addition, whether it was the knight-errant or the assassin, in the eyes of Chinese people, both groups possessed a special set of skills and performed the acts of chivalry, and consequently were treated as heroes nonetheless.Ç° The 86th volume in Shiji, Cike Liezhuan or the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Biographies of the Assassinsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, is an anthological record of /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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the assassins in Chinese history, especially during the Warring States and Han periods. It illustrates the lives of Cao Mo (á´Š â&#x2039;&#x203A;), Zhuan Zhu (á&#x2C6;¸ä&#x201E;¨), Yu Rang (ä&#x160;&#x203A;ä&#x2021;&#x192;), Nie Zheng (ă&#x161;Śá­Ż), and Jing Ke (㼜ä&#x201D;Ť), who probably was the most well-known of them all. Cao Mo was formerly a general of the State of Lu, but Lu army under his command has lost to the state of Qi three times. Afterwards there was a meeting between Qi Huan Gong (ĺ&#x2022;şáş&#x192;â&#x20AC;ŤŢ&#x153;â&#x20AC;Ź, Duke Huan of Qi) and Lu Zhuang Gong (ĺ&#x2020;&#x;㌺â&#x20AC;ŤŢ&#x153;â&#x20AC;Ź, Duke Zhuang of Lu). At the altar where the meeting was held, Cao suddenly put a dagger against Qi Huan Gong, forcing him to return Lu territory that was lost in the battle. Qi Huan Gong had no choice but agreed to do so. This is somehow interesting because Cao Mo then became a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;heroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; for winning the land back, and no one would ever mention that it was he who lost the battle in the first place. Zhuan Zhu was an assassin hired by Prince Guang of Wu (੣â&#x20AC;ŤŢ&#x153;â&#x20AC;Źá&#x2020;&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ť )Ýšâ&#x20AC;Źto murder King Liao of Wu (੣⦻â&#x20AC;Ť)Ü&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź. Zhuan Zhu successfully killed the King in a party, where he hid a dagger in a fish. But after this, he was also killed. Yu Rang, an assassin of the state of Jin, was renowned for his repeated attempts in killing Zhao Xiangzi (ä?&#x2030;ă˝´á&#x2020;&#x20AC;) to avenge for his former lord Zhi Bo (ᲪŐ&#x;). The first time he changed his identity and planned to murder /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä L= aa2<3: )bef`


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Zhao Xiangzi in the toilet, where he was caught before doing so. However, Zhao Xiangzi did not kill him but let him go. After that, he covered himself in lacquer to hide his former looks, swallowed charcoal to make his voice coarser, and became a beggar in the market. His friend, upon seeing this, tried to persuade him otherwise, but he insisted on his plan, saying to give up the plan would mean giving up his loyalty to his master as well. Then Yu Rang tried to attack Zhao Xiangzi from under a bridge, but he failed once again and was arrested. Zhao Xiangzi recognised him despite his beggar appearance. Zhao Xiangzi asked Yu Rang why he kept doing this, and was moved by Yu Rangâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s faithfulness to his master. Yu Rang then requested to stab Zhao Xiangziâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s robe instead to show his strong intention of revenge. Zhao Xiangzi gave him his robe, which Yu Rang stabbed three times before killing himself. Another assassin in the Warring States period was Nie Zheng. Yan Zhongzi (೤Ԣá&#x2020;&#x20AC;) of Puyang had a dispute with Xia Lei (Ř?ă?&#x;) who was the prime minister of Han (ä¸&#x192;). While Yan Zhongzi was looking for someone to kill Xia Lei, he heard about Nie Zhengâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s abilities and wanted to befriend him. After repeatedly refusing to see Yan Zhongzi, Nie Zheng eventually let him enter and have a drink. Yan Zhongzi then offered Nie Zheng a lot of gold, /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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but he refused to accept, saying â&#x20AC;&#x153;I am fortunate enough to have an old mother with me. Although our family is poor and I am merely a dog butcher. But with this profession I am able to feed my family. Seeing that I can earn some to look after my mother, so I do not dare accepting your gift.â&#x20AC;? (Sima Qian, 2010: 1964) Yan Zhongzi heard what he said and insisted no more. Some time later Nie Zhengâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mother died, he then regretted what he has spoken to Yan Zhongzi. So he travelled to see Yan Zhongzi and volunteered to take a revenge for him. Nie Zheng disguised a sword as a walking stick and entered the state of Han. Prime Minister Xia Lei was sitting in his office, guarded by a group of weapon-yielding men. Nie Zheng walked straight in, he stabbed and killed Xia Lei. Then there was a great commotion, where Nie Zheng killed dozens of more men. After that, Nie Zheng skinned his own face, gouged out his eyes, stabbed himself and pulled out his own intestines, and then he died. Jing Ke was famous for his brave act of making his way into Qin palace to assassinate Qin Wang (ă&#x20AC;&#x2013;⌝) or the King of Qin.6 The mission was unsuccessful and Jing Ke was killed afterwards. However, people still praised Jing Ke for his braveness and a strong will to give up his own  6 This refers to Ying Zheng (á&#x2026;¤á­Ż) who later became the Emperor of Qin, also the first emperor of China.

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Chivalry of the Chinese Heroes: A Character Sketch of the Knights-Errant and the Assassins in Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Records of the Grand Historian

life as a martyr. The accounts of Jing Keâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mission are later used as source material in a film adaptation by the masterful director Chen Kaige (ä˛Łŕ Ąâ&#x2026;ź). The film The Emperor and the Assassin (㼜ä&#x201D;ŤŕĄŞă&#x20AC;&#x2013;⌝), released in 1998, is a fairly faithful adaptation of Jing Keâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attempted assassination of Qin Wang in Shiji. A film studies scholar Leon Hunt commented that Jing Ke â&#x20AC;&#x153;is a human-scale heroâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;flawed, but brave enough to give his life up on a mission he wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t entirely equal to. ...His heroism lies in his willing sacrifice and the suspension of his pacifism for a higher causeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;even if he succeeds, he is not going to return.â&#x20AC;? (Hunt, 2011: 67) The accounts of Jing Ke as portrayed in this film and Shiji have represented the idea of a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;heroic sacrificeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. For this matter, Jing Ke is naturally and consequently honoured as an epitome of a historical hero. From all the above stories about the historical assassins, it is evident that being labeled as an assassin does not make these people less worthy than the knights-errant. They, too, can be presented as fearless, brave, honest, and trustworthy men, who would not let anything ruin their principles. They were loyal to their master, and they kept promises they made with their friends. Are these matters not the qualities of the noble men? /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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3.Ç°4IJKJâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s influences on Chinese literature and film Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Shiji is not only influential to the studies of Chinese history, but it is also a huge contribution to the realm of Chinese literature. Shiji has been praised by scholars of every period of time for the conciseness of the text, the beauty in words of choice, and the vivid portrayal of many historical people. These spectacular qualities of its writing contain literary and aesthetic sense that is quite similar to the writing of fiction. (Zhang Xinke á&#x2022;ĽáŻ ă&#x20AC; , 2010: 1-2) As a result, Shiji itself is commonly considered as both historical records and a work of literature. So it is not uncommon to see several works of Chinese literature in later periods would regard Shiji as the major source of their stories, or be heavily inspired by the writing style of Sima Qian. One of the apparent evidences is that many novels in later period would be named with â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;zhuanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (ŰŁ) or â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;jiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (ä &#x2C6;) in their title, (Zhang Xinke, 2010: 122) such as Yingying Zhuan (ĺ?&#x;ĺ?&#x;ŰŁ), Li Wa Zhuan (áľžá&#x20AC;łŰŁ), Chang Hen Ge Zhuan (䎧á&#x161;&#x2DC;â&#x2026;źŰŁ), Gu Jing Ji (ŕ¨&#x201D;ä¨&#x2018;ä &#x2C6;), Li Hun Ji (ä´&#x2019;ĺ&#x2026;˛ä &#x2C6;), and Zhen Zhong Ji (áˇ&#x2026;Ń?ä &#x2C6;) in Tang dynasty, to name but a few. Both â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;zhuanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;jiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; come from the word zhuanji (ŰŁä &#x2C6;) which means biographies or records. Sima Qian wrote and categorised Shiji by the biographies of historical people, and it became a convention for a story title used /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä L= aa2<3: )bef`


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Chivalry of the Chinese Heroes: A Character Sketch of the Knights-Errant and the Assassins in Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Records of the Grand Historian

by many writers in later periods. Even the novels in Ming dynasty, such as Shui Hu Zhuan (â&#x2030;¤â&#x201D;¨ŰŁ, Outlaws of the Marsh, or the Water Margin) or Xi You Ji (㞯ä&#x2122;şä &#x2C6;, Journey to the West), have also been influenced by this convention. The stories of the knights-errant and assassins from Shiji are also the major source of creating the works of fiction, known as chivalric tales (Ř?ă&#x2014;&#x2122;᭾ҝ) or chivalric novels (Ř?ă&#x2014;&#x2122;á&#x2C6;żä&#x192;&#x161;) which have stabilised themselves since the Tang period. The Tang novels, also known as Tang Chuanqi (ŕ­&#x20AC;ۣཡ), are considered as prototypes of Chinese novels. Written in classical Chinese, they are very short and concise, yet very self-contained, with a clear plot point and the vivid description of the characters. The images of the knights-errant in the novels are portrayed as either honourable heroes who save people from their distress, or the wise ones who enlighten or punish the arrogant scoundrels. The most popular chivalric novels in Tang period are Qiuranke Zhuan (ă˛&#x153;ĺ&#x201E;&#x;á&#x2021;&#x2019;ŰŁ), Hongxian Zhuan (ă&#x152;ľă?&#x203A;ŰŁ), Nie Yinniang (ă&#x161;ŚäłĄá &#x2C6;), Kunlun Nu (á°śâ&#x20AC;Ť)ྤ×&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź, and Xie Xiaoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;e Zhuan (ä&#x2026;?á&#x2C6;żá &#x2022;ŰŁ). These novelsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; main characters mostly are the conventional knights-errant, except for Nie Yinniang, whose status is clearly an assassin. Since the chivalric novels in Tang period, many of the knight-errant or wuxia characters in later works of /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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fiction seem to have inherited the heroic ideal from the ancient time. While the term wuxia has become a household genre in Chinese literature and other mediums, modern and contemporary wuxia novels, especially the works by Jin Yong (ä á&#x201C;¨) and Gu Long (ŕ¨&#x201D;ĺ&#x2013;˝), have also become the source materials for wuxia films and television series. The wuxia film (â&#x2020;&#x2013;Ř?⥡) mainly refers to the martial arts action film (sometimes kung fu is included in this genre as well), with the sword-wielding knight-errant character as a protagonist. At first, the wuxia filmsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; popularisation was limited to the Chinese-speaking or Chinese-descendant audience only. Until the year 2000 that the film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (ŕŚ&#x2014;㹞㯿ĺ&#x2013;˝ in Chinese) became an international hit. Its oriental exoticism has drawn attention from the western world immensely. The film, based on the novel by Wang Dulu (⌝á&#x201C;&#x2013;á&#x201D;&#x153;)7 and directed by Ang Lee (áľžá&#x2020;š), is a wuxia romance about a stolen sword, a retiring master, and an arrogant yet impulsive young woman new to the wuxia world. It was well received worldwide and  7 Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon is the fourth novel in the Crane-Iron series. This wuxia-romance series consists of five books, which are 1. Crane Frightens Kunlun (ĺ?¤ĺ&#x201A;&#x160;á? á?&#x2030;) 2. Precious Sword, Golden Hairpin (á&#x2C6;Śŕ˘˝ä  ä Ľ) 3. Sword Force, Pearl Shine (ࢽâ&#x2030;&#x201C;â¨?â&#x20AC;Ť )Ýšâ&#x20AC;Ź4. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and 5. Iron Knight, Silver Vase (䊼ĺ&#x20AC;žä˘°âŹŚ).

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Chivalry of the Chinese Heroes: A Character Sketch of the Knights-Errant and the Assassins in Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Records of the Grand Historian

won so many accolades that it became a phenomenon for the Chinese-speaking film industry. The huge success of Crouching Tiger leads to many more productions of the big budget movies in the same genre, such as Hero (㤥䳴, 2002), which is also about the assassination of Qin Wang, House of Flying Daggers (༹äś&#x2019;࡝Կ, 2004), both directed by Zhang Yimou (á&#x2022;Ľă°?ä&#x201E;°), and recently The Assassin (४á&#x2021;&#x2019;ă&#x161;ŚäłĄ á &#x2C6;, 2015) directed by Hou Hsiao-hsien (â&#x20AC;Ť×&#x;â&#x20AC;Źá&#x2020;?ä&#x152;&#x2019;). The wuxia characters in the novels and films mentioned above are considered â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;heroesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, not because of their superpowers but their courageous actions, their concern about other peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives and social unrests, some of them are even willing to sacrifice themselves for a higher cause. These notions about the heroism of the knights-errant and the assassins can clearly be related to the idea pitched by Sima Qian more than two thousand years ago in Shiji, and this very idea still remains imprinted on Chinese peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s minds to the present day. Conclusion The stories of a hero in any culture are classic, timeless, and inspiring. A lot of people would love to look into the national history or even local myths, to find out what defines a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;true heroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The Chinese-style heroism is presented through a myriad of historical accounts on the /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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lives and acts of the knights-errant and assassins. Being one of the most trustworthy historical records of China, Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Shiji has provided various and numerous narratives of these special and interesting groups of people, who are subsequently promoted as idealistic figures in popular media. I hope this article can show you the other side of the so-called â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Chinese heroesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and their contributions to the history of China. References: English Campbell, Joseph, with Bill Moyers. 1988. The power of myth. Betty Sue Flowers, editor. New York: Anchor Books. Hunt, Leon. 2011. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Heroic chivalry, heroic sacrifice: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;martial arthouseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as epic cinemaâ&#x20AC;?, in The epic film in world culture, edited by Robert Burgoyne. London and New York: Routledge. Liu, James J. Y. 1979. The Chinese knight-errant. Taipei: Southern Materials Center, Inc. Teo, Stephen. 2009. Chinese martial arts cinema: the wuxia tradition. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Chinese Ban Gu â¨?ŕ´Ş. 2010. Hanshu â&#x2022;&#x2019;á´¨. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju. /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä L= aa2<3: )bef`


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Chivalry of the Chinese Heroes: A Character Sketch of the Knights-Errant and the Assassins in Sima Qianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Records of the Grand Historian

Cui Fengyuan á?&#x201E;ཚâ&#x201C;&#x20AC;. 1986. Zhongguo gudian duanpian xiayi xiaoshuo yanjiu Ń?ŕ´ťŕ¨&#x201D;ިâ¸?ă&#x2021;ˇŘ?ă&#x2014;&#x2122;á&#x2C6;żä&#x192;&#x161;âš&#x201E;ă&#x201A;Ś. Taipei: Lianjing Chubanshe.Ç° Peng Wei á&#x2013;?ăş&#x2039;. 2013. Youxia yu Handai shehui ä&#x2122;şŘ?ă ˇâ&#x2022;&#x2019; Ô&#x201C;⽎ᴳ. Hefei: Anhui Renmin Chubanshe. Sima Qian. ਨäż&#x153;ä&#x161;§. 2010. Shiji ਢä &#x2C6;. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.Ç° Wang Qi ⌝ĺ&#x2022;ş. 1997. Zhongguo gudai de youxia Ń?ŕ´ťŕ¨&#x201D;Ô&#x201C; Ⲵä&#x2122;şŘ?. Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan. Weng Lixue ă&#x2014;ąĺ&#x201C;&#x2021;ä´&#x161;. 1986. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Gudai xiashi de fengmaoâ&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;ŕ¨&#x201D;Ô&#x201C; Ř?ŕź&#x203A;Ⲵäť&#x2DC;ä&#x160;źâ&#x20AC;?, in Wen Tzao Journal Ꭱ㰍á&#x2020;¨ŕšĄ, vol. 1. Kaohsiung: Wenzao Ursuline University of Languages. Zhang Xinke á&#x2022;ĽáŻ ă&#x20AC; . 2010. Shiji yu Zhongguo wenxue ਢ ä &#x2C6;ă ˇŃ?ഝᎡá&#x2020;¨. Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan. Zheng Tianting, and Tan Qixiang, eds ä??ŕ˝&#x2122;ἪÇ&#x192;ä&#x2020;&#x160;ŢŚĺ&#x201A;&#x201D;. 2000. Zhongguo lishi dacidian Ń?ŕ´ťâ&#x2020;§ŕ¨˘ŕ˝&#x2014;ä&#x2014;?ި. Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe.

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╦Дс║▒╦ЕтАлт╛А▄ЧтАмсла. .╟Йрак╨╣уп┐фБИф│╢gснЯфЗЖ█г╟К╦Иржз ╦ИреЗ╙Ь╦Ц ╤ЭуиЯс┤исЙ░╟Д тМар┤╗уиЯтАл▄ЧтАм╟ЙтХТс╗еудбтМа╓ЛсЖифВО▐и╟К╦ИтМар┤╗с┤мфЙз╦ЦрбНт▓мржардЙсЙ░╟Д рнА╓Му░Щ╟ЙтХТфГОф╕гф╕лсЖисСифЖИ╟К╦И╨║тОз╦Ц╨║тОзсоЙуЫврактб╕т╜о╟Д р╝┐сФУуа╕╟ЙсЗ╢соЙ█гсд▒уа╖рнА╘Ут╜ос┤│╟К╦И╨║тОз╦Ц╙ктЙБрактб╕т╜о╟Д спатАл╪ЮтАмр╜ЧтЖУуп┐сАДркИ╒К╟Йр╜ЧтЖУспатАл╪ЮтАмр╜Чуп┐уУ┐╟КриареЗ╦Цт▓нхВЬ╥ЦсЙ░сТд╟Д тж╗ргЛ╟ЙтХТфГОривуБп╟К╦ИреЗ╙Ь╦Ц╤ЭуиЯс┤исЙ░╟Д рйгуй╢рдФуРШфХЯ╟ЙсЖ╗с╡ЬсФУф╕лтЙит╛пс╡Ьф╕лфиС╟К╦ИржЗ╙Ь╦ЦхМграарактб╕т╜о╟Д рйг╪Ср╛▓╟ЙуаксЗ╢с╢бсЗ╢уа╖рнАсЗ╢╟К╦ИреЗ╙Ь╦Ц╤Эр┤╗уп┐сЖирактб╕т╜о╟Д р│дуШ░╤Э╟ЙтХТ█гсЗ╢соЙ╟К╦И╨║тОз╦ЦсЖис╖Зрактб╕т╜о╟Д ╓ЙсФмтЙис╣СфБл╟Йспас╣С╙ВргЩфБлсЖ╗с╡ЬсФУф╕л╟К╦ИуакреЗ╦ЦфЯ╝╙▒с┤исЙ░╟Д

/:+2:+=!/<*:╞╣#─Б=Laa2<3: )bef`


@/< *čE Ċ/2@/++č

51

䏉ᥟ䩨ṑlj䳶丫ṑᵜNJˈк⎧˖ѝ഻ᴨᓇDŽ

Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (CBETA), (Chinese Electronic Tripitaka), ᒤ⡸DŽ ðøą÷ÜÙŤǰĒÿîïčøćè. (2548)ǰóøąóčìíýćÿîćöĀć÷ćî.ǰÖøčÜđìó:ǰ ÿĞćîĆÖóĉöóŤēĂđéĊ÷îÿēêøŤ. ÿĞćîĆÖîć÷ÖøĆåöîêøĊǰ  ǰǰđÖèæŤÖćøëŠć÷ëĂéđÿĊ÷ÜõćþćÝĊî Ēöîéćøĉîéšü÷ĂĆÖ×øüĉíĊĕì÷ǰÖøčÜđìó:ǰēøÜóĉöóŤöĀćüĉì÷ćúĆ÷ǰ íøøöýćÿêøŤ.         

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


52

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Study on the Initial Consonant [r] Transliteration Method in Dharani Sutra of Amoghavajra Chatuwit Keawsuwan ABSTRACT This article presents the Dharani sutra transliteration by Amoghavajra. It is a sutra of mantraya-na Buddhism. The paper assorts 4 points: mantraya-na Buddhism, Biography of Amoghavajra, The meaning of Dharani sutra and the Initial Consonant;R=Transliteration method in Dharani Sutra from Sanskrit into Chinese. Keywords: Amoghavajra, mantraya-na, dharani sutra, initial consonant ;R=, transliteration

/:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`




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 1 This research article is a summary of a complete research report with the same title. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by Thammasat University under the TU Research Scholar, Contract No.3/2559. 2  áľ&#x153; ä&#x2C6;Ž äť&#x2C6; ă&#x201C;´ áĄ&#x20AC; ŕŞ&#x2C6; Ë&#x2013; â&#x152; ŕ´­â&#x152;&#x2026; á­Ż ŕ˝&#x2014; á&#x2020;&#x2013;â&#x2C6;&#x201E; ä&#x;ź g á&#x2018;&#x2026; â&#x20AC;Ť ×&#x153;â&#x20AC;ŹăŚ&#x201C; ŕ´­ äąľ á&#x2020;&#x2013; ä˛&#x2019; (Pridi Banomyong International College, Thammasat University)á&#x2022;?ä­&#x2018;ä­ˇáŽ&#x2030;ጸ(Zhang Xizhen)Ç&#x192;ă­&#x2018; â&#x161;žä&#x2122;&#x160;(Kampol Piyasirikul)Ë&#x201E;ŕĽ&#x2021;Ó&#x153;ŕ˝&#x2014;á&#x2020;&#x2013;ŕ´­äąľâ&#x20AC;ŤŢŁâ&#x20AC;Źă&#x152;Ťá&#x2020;&#x2013;ä˛&#x2019;ŕľ&#x2DC;ä&#x2C6;ŤŕŚ&#x160;ŕź&#x203A;â­?Ë&#x2026;Ë&#x2014;Ń?ŕ´­á&#x160;ĄŃ&#x152;ŕ˝&#x2014;á&#x2020;&#x2013; á­Żâ&#x2039;Ťá&#x2020;&#x2013;Đžâ&#x20AC;ŤŢĄŢ&#x153;â&#x20AC;Źă&#x2021;&#x2018;⨜á&#x2020;&#x2013;ä˛&#x2019;ŕĄ&#x2C6;á°źá°žáŽ&#x2030;ጸ (Liu Changming)Ç&#x192;áľžáą&#x2026;㎎ä&#x2021;˘á?¸ (Li Xinlei)Ë&#x201E;ŕŚ&#x160; ŕź&#x203A;Ë&#x2026;Ç&#x192;á&#x2020;&#x2030;Ó äź&#x17D;ä&#x2021;˘á?¸(Sun Yunfei)Ë&#x201E;ŕŚ&#x160;ŕź&#x203A;Ë&#x2026;Ç&#x201E;

/:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


54

㲊⺛䊻䐱⺛Ⰼ㗬⹹㻖䐱⭥㣦㑛䔘䇤 

઼нؑԫDŽѝഭ䴰㾱Ḁњьⴏഭᇦ‫ݵ‬ᖃ᭟⛩ഭᇦˈ൘ѝഭоьⴏ ‫ޣ‬㌫ѝਁᥕẕằ֌⭘DŽ  аǃ⌠ഭ൘ѝഭьⴏ‫ޣ‬㌫ѝⲴẕằ֌⭘ ˄а˅ᆹ‫઼ޘ‬᭯⋫亶ฏⲴẕằ֌⭘ ⌠ഭ൘ѝഭьⴏ‫ޣ‬㌫ѝⲴẕằ֌⭘ᴰケࠪⲴᱟ㺘⧠൘᭯⋫ ᆹ‫ޘ‬亶ฏˈ䘉ҏᱟѝഭьⴏ‫ޣ‬㌫ѝ䳌⺽ᴰབྷⲴ亶ฏDŽлࡇһֻ ケࠪ৽᱐Ҷ⌠ഭ൘䘉а亶ฏⲴẕằ֌⭘DŽ Ḝคመ䰞仈 ൘᭯⋫䀓ߣḜคመ䰞仈кˈᱟ⌠ഭሶѝഭ᣹ࡠоьⴏᩪ᡻ਸ ֌Ⲵ䖘䚃ˈ‫਼࣋ࣚޡ‬ᇎ⧠ҶḜคመ䰞仈Ⲵ᭯⋫䀓ߣDŽ ᒤˈ䎺 ই‫ץޕ‬Ḝคመѻਾˈѝഭ਼ьⴏ䶒ѤҶ‫Ⲵ਼ޡ‬ေ㛱ˈ䙊䗷⌠ഭⲴ ॿ䈳ˈѝഭ਼ьⴏᩪ᡻ਸ֌ˈ᧘ࣘҶḜคመ䰞仈Ⲵ䀓ߣDŽѝഭ〟 ᶱѫ਼ࣘ⌠ഭਸ֌ˈৼᯩ儈ቲ亶ሬᇶ࠷᧕䀖ˈ仁㑱Ӕᦒ᜿㿱ˈн ᯝॿ䈳・൪ˈ‫ࣘ᧘਼ޡ‬Ҷഭ䱵⽮Պ‫ޣ‬Ҿ᭯⋫䀓ߣḜคመ䰞仈Ⲵ䘋 〻DŽৼᯩཆ䮯Ҿ  ᒤ  ᴸਁ㺘Ҷ‫ޣ‬ҾĀ‫⛩ޛ‬ᔪ䇞āⲴ‫਼ޡ‬༠ 

᰾DŽ ൘⌠ഭǃьⴏ઼ѝഭㅹ‫ࣘ᧘਼ޡ‬лˈ‫֯׳‬Ḝคመ䰞仈ᐤ哾 Պ䇞Ҿ  ᒤ  ᴸᴰ㓸Ѯ㹼ˈӾ㘼ѪḜคመ䰞仈Ⲵ䀓ߣᔰ䗏Ҷ 䚃䐟DŽ↓ᱟ⌠ഭ൘Ḝคመ䰞仈кਁᥕҶẕằ֌⭘ˈᢺѝഭ઼ьⴏ Ⲵ࡙⳺䘎᧕䎧ᶕˈ᡽֯ѝഭьⴏ‫ޣ‬㌫൘᭯⋫઼ᆹ‫ޘ‬кӗ⭏Ҷᴰ ࡍⲴؑԫDŽ  

 

ljӪ≁ᰕᣕNJ ᒤ  ᴸ  ᰕDŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


䍦㹞䎓᱃⤭䁸㵉᱃㒖⥞㘘᱃㏏匠㎺᱃㰐䊧⳪

55

ˊ䶎ި䰞仈  ᒤࡍˈа൪ケྲަᶕⲴĀ䶎ިā˄

SARS˅൘ѝഭབྷ䱶

㭃ᔦˈѝഭᴹ‫ޣ‬䜘䰘⋑ᴹ৺ᰦੁц⭼ছ⭏㓴㓷ᣕ੺઼ሩཆ‫ޜ‬ᐳˈ 㠤֯⯛ᛵ⌒৺аӋьⴏഭᇦDŽ䘉ሬ㠤аӋьⴏഭᇦሩѝഭн┑ˈ ֻྲˈᰦԫᯠ࣐එᙫ⨶੤֌ḻਆ⎸Ҷ䇯ॾ㹼〻ˈ傜ᶕ㾯ӊᴤᱟᲲ ᰦ⾱→ѝഭ⑨ᇒ‫ޕ‬ຳDŽаᰦ䰤ˈѝഭ਼ьⴏⲴ‫ޣ‬㌫ࠪ⧠㍗ᕐDŽѝ ഭ᭯ᓌ・ণ㓐↓䭉䈟ˈ᫔ᦒҶছ⭏䜘䮯ˈᔰ࿻ੁཆ⭼ᣕ੺⯛ᛵˈ ਼ᰦˈ䟷ਆᴹ࣋᧚ᯭ䙿ࡦ⯛ᛵ㭃ᔦDŽѪҶ㕃䀓ഭ䱵঻࣋ˈ䇙ц⭼ Ҷ䀓ѝഭⲴߣᗳˈѝഭ᭯ᓌ䚰䈧਴ഭⲴԓ㺘ࡠѝഭ৫䇯䰞ˈ㿲ሏ ѝഭ䱢⋫䶎ިⲴᛵߥDŽ ⌠ഭᱟୟа਼ᛵ઼᭟ᤱѝഭⲴьⴏഭᇦDŽ⌠ഭㅜањ㺘⽪᧕ ਇ䚰䈧ˈ䇔Ѫѝഭᱟ⌠ഭⲴྭᴻ৻ˈ൘ѝഭ䙷ࡠഠ䳮ѻᰦˈ⌠ഭ ᓄ䈕ըࠪᨤ᡻DŽ⌠ഭ᭯ᓌ⍮ࠪ⭡ছ⭏䜘䮯

Sudarat Keyuraphan

ྣ༛Ѫഒ䮯Ⲵছ⭏䜘ԓ㺘ഒࡽᖰेӜ䇯䰞DŽ䘉ᱟㅜањࡠѝഭ৫ 㿲ሏ䶎ި⧠⣦Ⲵԓ㺘ഒDŽ䘉⅑䇯ॾ֯⌠ഭԓ㺘ഒⴻࡠҶѝഭᴹߣ ᗳ઼䈊᜿ሩ䶎ި䘋㹼亴䱢᧗ࡦˈᒦᐢ䟷ਆᴹ᭸Ⲵ䱢⋫᧚ᯭDŽ൘䲿 ਾⲴцছ㓴㓷བྷՊкˈ⌠ഭԓ㺘ഒ䘈ُ↔ᵪՊᑞѝഭੁഭ䱵⽮Պ 䀓䟺ѝഭຳ޵Ⲵ䶎ިᛵߥˈ䇙਴ഭᴤ࣐Ҷ䀓ᒦؑԫѝഭDŽ ѪҶᑞࣙьⴏഭᇦ䟽ᯠṁ・ሩѝഭⲴؑᗳ઼⨶䀓ˈ⌠ഭ᭯ᓌ ߣᇊ൘ᴬ䉧Ѯ㹼а⅑ьⴏ⢩࡛俆㝁Պ䇞ˈ୶䇘‫਼ޡ‬ሩԈ䶎ި䰞 仈ˈᒦ⢩࡛䚰䈧ѝഭᙫ⨶⑙ᇦᇍ৲Պˈ㔉ѝഭᨀ‫׋‬ањੁьⴏ䀓 

䟺઼䈤᰾ⲴཆӔᒣਠDŽ Պ䇞кˈ਴ഭੁѝഭ亶ሬӪᖱ䈒ᖃлⲴ 䶎ި⧠⣦DŽ਴ഭҏӂ⴨ӔᦒҶ᜿㿱઼䍴ᯉDŽ↔⅑Պ䇞᜿ѹ䟽བྷˈ

  㭑⚾䙊ሩ⌠ഭࡽছ⭏䜘䮯 Mrs.Sudarat Keyuraphan Ⲵ䇯䈸ˈ ᒤ  ᴸ  ᰕDŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


56

㲊⺛䊻䐱⺛Ⰼ㗬⹹㻖䐱⭥㣦㑛䔘䇤 

ᆳнն໎䘋Ҷьⴏሩѝഭ⨶䀓઼ؑԫˈ㘼ф䘈‫׳‬䘋Ҷѝഭоьⴏ 䱢⋫䶎ިⲴਸ֌Ӕ⍱DŽ↔⅑Պ䇞ቡᱟ䘎᧕ѝഭ઼ьⴏ⴨ӂ⨶䀓Ⲵ ẕằˈ㘼ᩝᔪ䘉аẕằⲴቡᱟ⌠ഭDŽ ˊই⎧䰞仈 Շᡰઘ⸕ˈই⎧Ⲵѫᵳҹㄟᱟᖡ૽ѝഭьⴏ‫ޣ‬㌫ਁኅᴰἈ ᡻Ⲵ䰞仈DŽ ᒤ  ᴸˈ㤡᣹ᙫ⨶൘᧕ᖵᵾ‫ݻ‬ᕪᙫ⨶䇯䰞ᰦˈ ޽⅑㺘⽪ˈᝯѪьⴏѝഭ‫ޣ‬㌫ਁኅ‫〟ࠪڊ‬ᶱ䍑⥞DŽ ᒤ  ᴸ Ѯ㹼Ⲵьⴏཆ䮯Պ䇞ᵏ䰤ˈ⌠ഭ᧕ᴯ䎺ইᡀѪԫᵏйᒤⲴьⴏѝ ഭⲴॿ䈳ഭDŽ൘ᣵԫॿ䈳ഭⲴ  ᒤ޵ˈ⌠ഭⲴ⺞Ѫॿ䈳ѝഭоь ⴏ൘ই⎧䰞仈кⲴ‫ޣ‬㌫‫ࠪڊ‬Ҷᐘབྷࣚ࣋DŽ൘⌠ഭⲴѫᤱлˈьⴏ оѝഭ‫਼ޡ‬ਜᔰҶ  ⅑ᢗ㹼ljই⎧ᴹ‫ޣ‬਴ᯩ㹼Ѫᇓ䀰NJⲴ㚄ਸ ᐕ֌㓴Պ䇞઼ᢗ㹼䈕ᇓ䀰Ⲵ儈ᇈՊ䇞DŽ⌠ഭ俆‫ݸ‬Ҿ  ᒤᒤᓅ ൘㣝ᨀ䳵ᐲਜᔰьⴏѝഭ儈ᇈՊ䇞ˈѻਾᴮཊ⅑Ѯ࣎ަԆ↓ᔿ ઼䶎↓ᔿⲴՊ䇞ˈⴤࡠৼᯩ‫ޣ‬㌫䘋‫↓ޕ‬ᑨ⣦ᘱDŽѪҶ࣐ᕪӂ઼ؑ 㩕䙐ᴹࣙҾ઼ᒣ䀓ߣই⎧ҹㄟⲴ䈸ࡔ≄≋ˈ⌠ഭ䘈㓴㓷਴⿽⍫ ࣘˈቡljই⎧਴ᯩ㹼Ѫ߶ࡉNJ䘋㹼⻻୶DŽ൘  ᒤ  ᴸˈ൘ѝ ഭ㣿ᐎᐲਜᔰⲴ儈ᇈՊ䇞кˈㅜа⅑ᨀࠪࡦᇊই⎧㹼Ѫ߶ࡉ䰞 仈ˈѻਾˈьⴏ઼ѝഭ䗮ᡀ‫ޡ‬䇶᮷ԦDŽਖཆˈ⌠ഭ䘈ᔪ䇞ˈ൘ 㹼Ѫ߶ࡉ䎧㥹ᐕ֌ᆼ∅Ⲵ਼ᰦˈᓄ䈕䟷ਆᰙᵏ᭦㧧᧚ᯭ˄

early

harvest measures˅ˈԕ䱢ই⎧޽⅑ਁ⭏ߢケᡆ৺ᰦ༴⨶ྭਟ 㜭ਁ⭏Ⲵ䰞仈DŽ㓿䗷⌠ഭⲴॿ䈳ࣚ࣋ˈᐢ㓿ਆᗇҶᴹᖒⲴᡀ᷌ˈ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


䍦㹞䎓᱃⤭䁸㵉᱃㒖⥞㘘᱃㏏匠㎺᱃㰐䊧⳪

57

ྲ䇮・ьⴏѝഭ儈ᇈ✝㓯ǃ䇮・ᐑ䙫ᮁ⚮ᯩ䶒Ⲵᵪᶴ✝㓯ǃᐑ 

䙫ᮁ⚮㚄ਸ䇝㓳ㅹDŽ  ᙫѻˈк䘠һֻ㺘᰾⌠ഭ䙊䗷〟ᶱ᧘઼ࣘॿ䈳ᐕ֌ˈ֯ᗇѝ ഭ਼ьⴏ൘᭯⋫઼ᆹ‫ޘ‬ቲ䶒ᴹ䘋а↕ⲴҶ䀓઼ؑԫDŽ ˄Ҽ˅㓿⍾ਸ֌оൠ४аփॆᯩ䶒Ⲵẕằ֌⭘ ൘㓿⍾ਸ֌亶ฏˈѝഭьⴏ‫ޣ‬㌫ਁኅ㢟ྭˈ䘉ᯩ䶒ˈ⌠ഭ ҏਁᥕҶ〟ᶱⲴẕằ֌⭘ˈަケࠪ㺘⧠ᱟл䘠ࠐњᯩ䶒DŽ ˊӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍 ѝഭьⴏ൘㓿⍾ਸ֌оൠ४аփॆᯩ䶒ˈ⌠ഭҏਁᥕҶẕằ ֌⭘ˈަѝᴰケࠪⲴһֻቡᱟ⌠ഭ俆ّӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍˄

ACD˖

Asia Cooperation Dialogue˅ᵪࡦDŽ䘉ᱟ⌠ഭ൘ᴤབྷ㤳ത઼ᴤ བྷ㿴⁑Ⲵൠ४ਸ֌ᒣਠкˈ᧘ࣘѝഭоьⴏⲴ᧕䘁оਸ֌DŽ ӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍ㅜа⅑ཆ䮯Պ䇞Ҿ  ᒤ  ᴸ  ᰕ൘⌠ഭᐞ ᆹѮ㹼ˈ њഭᇦⲴཆ䮯ᡆԓ㺘ࠪᑝҶՊ䇞DŽ⌠ഭᙫ⨶Ԇؑ൘ᔰ ᒅᔿк䈤ˈӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍ⲴⴞḷᱟѪ४ฏ޵ഭᇦ亶ሬӪᨀ‫׋‬ањ ᇊᵏՊᲔоӔ⍱ⲴᵪՊˈᮤਸӊ⍢ഭᇦⲴ࣋䟿ˈ᥆ᧈਁኅ▌࣋ˈ ᨀ儈਴ഭ⴨ӂ‫׍‬䎆Ⲵ〻ᓖˈ਼ᰦҏ㺕‫઼ݵ‬ᆼழ⧠ᴹⲴਸ֌Ṷᷦˈ 

‫׳‬䘋ӊ⍢४ฏਸ֌ⲴਁኅDŽ  ӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍㠣Ӻᐢ㓿ਜᔰҶ  ⅑䜘䮯㓗ሩ䈍ˈᡀઈഭਁ ኅࡠ  њˈަѝवᤜѝഭ઼‫ޘ‬䜘ьⴏᡀઈഭDŽ䈕ᵪࡦ⋑ᴹᑨ䇮 ᵪᶴˈ⌠ഭѪॿ䈳ഭˈⴞࡽਚᴹањѤᰦ〈Җ༴ˈ䇮൘、ေ⢩DŽ

 5 㭑⚾䙊ሩ Mr.Mongkol Visitstump (Director of Dialogue and International Organs Relation Division, Department of ASEAN Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Thailand) Ⲵ䇯䈸ˈ ᒤ  ᴸ  ᰕDŽ 

䎥‫ࣷݹ‬lj⌠ഭԆؑൠ४ᡈ⮕⹄ウNJेӜབྷᆖഭ䱵‫ޣ‬㌫ᆖ䲒⺅༛䇪᮷ˈㅜ  亥

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


58

㲊⺛䊻䐱⺛Ⰼ㗬⹹㻖䐱⭥㣦㑛䔘䇤 

ѫ ᑝ ഭ 䖞 ⍱ ᣵ ԫ ˈ ԫ ᵏ а ᒤ DŽ ⌠ ഭ ⴞ ࡽ ᱟ ѫ ᑝ ഭ ˄  ˅DŽ‫ޣ‬Ҿ⌠ഭ൘ӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍ᵪࡦѝⲴ֌⭘ˈԆؑ䈤ˈ⌠ ഭਁᥕҶĀẕằā઼Ā㓭ᑖā֌⭘ˈ䙊䗷ӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍оӊ⍢٪ 

ࡨส䠁ˈሶӊ⍢਴ഭ䘎൘Ҷа䎧ˈ⌠ഭᡀѪҶањĀ㚄㌫ഭāDŽ  Ԇ䘈㺘⽪ˈӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍⭡⌠ഭਁ䎧ˈᗇࡠҶѝഭ઼ަԆഭᇦⲴ ᭟ᤱDŽ⋑ᴹѝഭⲴ᭟ᤱˈቡнՊᴹӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍DŽѝഭ઼ьⴏᱟ ྭ䛫ትǃྭՉդˈৼᯩ䙊䗷ॱ࣐йǃॱ࣐аㅹᒣਠ࣐ᕪਸ֌ˈ㘼 ӊ⍢ਸ֌ሩ䈍ᱟሶьⴏǃѝഭѳ㠣ᮤњӊ⍢㚄㌫䎧ᶕⲴẕằˈ⧠ 

ᐢᡀѪањ䰤᧕㕃䀓ൠ४ߢケⲴ䇪උDŽ  ˊѝഭьⴏ㠚䍨४Ⲵᰙᵏ᭦㧧䇑ࡂ ᤹➗ljѝഭьⴏ‫ޘ‬䶒㓿⍾ਸ֌ॿ䇞NJˈ࠶єњ䱦⇥ᔪᡀѝ ഭьⴏ㠚䍨४DŽㅜањ䱦⇥ᱟ  ᒤˈ㓖ᴹ  ⿽ӗ૱ ‫〾ޣ‬䱶㔝߿ቁࡠ䴦˗ㅜҼњ䱦⇥ᱟࡠ  ᒤ˄ьⴏᯠᡀઈഭࡠ  ᒤ˅ˈѝഭьⴏ㠚䍨४ᆼ‫ޘ‬ᔪᡀDŽ㘼ㅜа䱦⇥  ⿽ӗ૱ ѫ㾱Ѫߌӗ૱ˈ‫ݸ‬ᵏ䘋㹼߿〾ˈ᭵〠ѪĀᰙᵏ᭦㧧䇑ࡂāDŽ᤹➗ ᰙᵏ᭦㧧䇑ࡂˈѝഭоьⴏ  њ㘱ᡀઈഭⲴߌӗ૱‫〾ޣ‬൘  

ᒤ䱽ࡠ ԕлˈ ᒤ䱽ࡠ ԕлˈ ᒤᇎ⧠䴦‫〾ޣ‬DŽ  ൘䘉а߿〾䘋〻ѝˈ⌠ഭ䎧ࡠҶᕅ亶֌⭘DŽ ᒤ  ᴸ  ᰕˈѝ⌠ৼᯩ䗮ᡀॿ䇞ˈሶ㠚  ᒤ  ᴸ  ᰕ䎧ˈ൘ѝഭь ⴏ㠚⭡䍨᱃४Ṷᷦлᨀࡽᇎ⧠ѝ⌠ѻ䰤㭜㨌઼≤᷌Ⲵ䴦‫〾ޣ‬DŽѝ

 

䎥‫ࣷݹ‬lj⌠ഭԆؑൠ४ᡈ⮕⹄ウNJेӜབྷᆖഭ䱵‫ޣ‬㌫ᆖ䲒⺅༛䇪᮷ˈㅜ  亥

 Ā⌠ഭᙫ⨶䎎ѝഭᱟឧមⲴབྷഭ˖ᱟᵪ䙷㘼䶎ေ㛱āˈѝᯠ㖁ˈhttp://www. chinanews.com/news/2005/2005-06-28/26/592132.shtml  Āѝഭüьⴏ㠚⭡䍨᱃४ᔰ᭮ᐲ൪ᰦ䰤㺘āhttp://www.china.com.cn/economic/ txt/2009-12/31/content_19161749.htm



/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


䍦㹞䎓᱃⤭䁸㵉᱃㒖⥞㘘᱃㏏匠㎺᱃㰐䊧⳪

59

⌠єഭ  ⿽㭜㨌ǃ≤᷌ㅹߌӗ૱Ⲵ䘋ࠪਓ‫⭡〾ޣ‬ᒣ൷ 䱽Ѫ 

䴦ˈৼᯩӂ‫≤Ⲵ〾ޣݽ‬᷌㭜㨌䎵䗷Ҷ  ཊ⿽DŽ ѝഭоьⴏ㠚 ⭡䍨᱃४Ⲵᔪ䇮ˈѪѝഭоьⴏⲴ㓿⍾ਸ֌ᔰ䗏ҶᯠⲴተ䶒ˈᶱ བྷൠ‫׳‬䘋Ҷьӊ㓿⍾ਸ֌ⲴਁኅDŽ⌠ഭⲴ䘉⿽ᕅ亶֌⭘ˈᴹ࣋ᑖ ࣘҶަԆьⴏഭᇦˈ࣐ᘛҶоѝഭᔪ・㠚⭡䍨᱃४Ⲵ↕ՀDŽ ˊѝഭüьⴏ㓿䍨‫ޣ‬㌫Ӕ⍱ሩ䈍ᵪࡦ ⌠ഭّሬ઼᧘ࣘҶཊњѝഭьⴏ㓿䍨Ӕ⍱ሩ䈍ᵪࡦDŽ ᒤѝഭьⴏ㓿⍾䍨᱃‫׳‬䘋Պ൘ᴬ䉧ᡀ・ˈᰘ൘‫׳‬䘋઼ᢙབྷѝഭ ਼ьⴏⲴ㓿䍨Ӕ⍱ਸ֌DŽѝഭьⴏ˄⌠ഭ˅୶૱䍨᱃ኅ㿸ՊҾ  ᒤ俆⅑Ѯ࣎ˈ↔ਾ⇿ᒤа⅑൘⌠ഭᴬ䉧Ⲵ

IMPACT

ኅ㿸ѝ

ᗳѮ࣎ˈᶕ㠚ѝഭ⭥≄ǃᔪᶀǃᇦާ઼伏૱ㅹ਴བྷ亶ฏⲴኅ୶৲ ኅˈ੨ᕅҶьইӊ਴њഭᇦⲴ䟷䍝୶ࡽᶕ৲㿲઼⍭䈸DŽĀ⌠ഭ༴ ҾьⴏॱഭⲴᗳ㜿ൠᑖˈሩઘ䗩ഭᇦާᴹᖸᕪⲴ䗀ሴ֌⭘ˈᱟь ইӊൠ४㓿⍾ǃ䠁㶽ѝᗳ઼㡚オ᷒㓭DŽ⌠ഭኅⲴѮ࣎ᱟ亪ᓄᐲ൪ 䴰≲ˈሶѪьইӊ⴨‫ޣ‬㹼ъѻ䰤ᨀ‫׋‬ањ䍨᱃⍭䈸ǃᢰᵟӔ⍱ǃ 

ؑ᚟Ӕ⍱Ⲵ୶ъᒣਠDŽā  ˄й˅᮷ॆǃᮉ㛢ǃ᯵⑨ㅹਸ֌亶ฏⲴᕅ亶֌⭘ ѝഭᙫ⨶ᵾ‫ݻ‬ᕪཊ⅑ᕪ䈳䈤ˈѝ⌠‫ޣ‬㌫䎠൘ѝഭоьⴏഭ ᇦ‫ޣ‬㌫ࡽࡇˈਁᥕҶ⽪㤳઼ᕅ亶֌⭘DŽѝ⌠‫ޣ‬㌫ᐢ䎵䎺Ҷৼ䗩㤳

 

 Ā ῤ 㧢 䘋 ਓ 䟿 ཊ ԧ ᒣ ˈ ѝ ⌠ 䍨 ᱃ ৼ ᯩ ӂ ᜐ ā http://www.21food.cn/html/

market/ 2004-06-24/45881.htm 11

ljѝഭьⴏ˄⌠ഭ˅୶૱䍨᱃ኅ㿸ՊኅՊӻ㓽NJˈѝഭьⴏ˄⌠ഭ˅୶૱䍨

᱃ኅ㿸Պᇈ㖁ˈ http://cacf.fairwindow.com/cn/About/Introduction/ˈ 䇯䰞ᰦ䰤

2015/06/30

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


60

㲊⺛䊻䐱⺛Ⰼ㗬⹹㻖䐱⭥㣦㑛䔘䇤 



⮤ˈሩѝഭ਼ьⴏഭᇦ‫ޣ‬㌫ਁኅ䎧ࡠҶ䟽㾱ᕅ亶֌⭘DŽ 䘉⿽⽪ 㤳઼ᕅ亶֌⭘㺘⧠൘ަԆ᮷ॆᮉ㛢、ᢰㅹ਴亶ฏⲴѝഭьⴏਸ ֌Ӕ⍱DŽ ˊьⴏѝഭѝᗳ ⌠ഭѪҶ‫׳‬䘋ѝഭоьⴏ‫ޣ‬㌫Ⲵ‫ޘ‬䶒ਁኅˈ⌠ཆӔ䜘ьⴏተ ੁѝഭᨀࠪҶᔪ・ьⴏѝഭѝᗳⲴᔪ䇞DŽ൘⌠ഭᣵԫьⴏѫᑝ ഭᵏ䰤ˈьⴏ઼ѝഭཆ䮯Ҿᒤ൘⌠ഭㆮ㖢‫ޣ‬Ҿᔪ・ьⴏѝ ഭѝᗳ䈵䀓༷ᘈᖅDŽᒤᴸᰕˈѝഭьⴏѝᗳ↓ᔿᡀ 

・DŽ ѝഭьⴏѝᗳᱟањ᭯ᓌ䰤ഭ䱵㓴㓷ˈᰘ൘‫׳‬䘋ѝഭ઼ ьⴏ൘䍨᱃ǃᣅ䍴ǃ᯵⑨ǃᮉ㛢઼᮷ॆ亶ฏⲴਸ֌ˈ‫׳‬䘋⿱Ӫ䜘 䰘઼≁䰤⴨ӂҶ䀓઼Ӕ⍱DŽѪҶ㺘⽪ሩ䈕ѝᗳⲴ〟ᶱ᭟ᤱˈ֌Ѫ ьⴏѝഭॿ䈳ഭⲴ⌠ഭᴰ‫ݸ‬⍮ࠪԓ㺘৫ᣵԫᯠ䰫‫ޣޜ‬䜘ѫԫˈ 䈕ԓ㺘Ӿᒤᴸࡠᒤᴸԫ㙼DŽ⌠ഭੁᶕ〟ᶱ᭟ᤱ䈕ѝ ᗳᡰ㓴㓷Ⲵ਴亩ᐕ֌઼⍫ࣘDŽ ˊ㿲‫ݹ‬᯵⑨ਸ֌ ൘ѝഭьⴏ᯵⑨ъਁኅѝˈ⌠ഭаⴤ༴Ҿ亶‫ݸ‬ഭൠսDŽᦞ ѝഭ᯵⑨⹄ウ䲒ਁᐳⲴањ䈳ḕᱮ⽪ˈ кॺᒤˈᴰ✝䰘Ⲵ  བྷⴞⲴൠഭᇦ઼ൠ४࠶࡛Ѫ˖⌠ഭǃ丙ഭǃᰕᵜǃѝഭ俉⑟ǃ ѝഭਠ⒮ǃᯠ࣐එǃ傜ᶕ㾯ӊǃ㖾ഭǃঠᓖቬ㾯ӊǃ䎺ইDŽ⌠

 12

Āᵾ‫ݻ‬ᕪՊ㿱⌠ഭᙫ⨶㤡᣹ᒦ൘⌠ഭഭՊਁ㺘╄䇢āˈhttp://www.qnsb.com/

news/html/2013/guoji_1012/46443.html 13 㭑⚾䙊ሩMr.Mongkol Visitstump (Director of Dialogue and International Organs Relation Division, Department of ASEAN Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs)Ⲵ䇯䈸ˈᒤᴸᰕDŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


фНжу╣ЮфОУс▒ГтднфБ╕у╡Йс▒ГуТЦтеЮуШШс▒ГуППхМауО║с▒Гу░РфКзт│к

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р┤н╟Гф╕Щр┤н╟Гс░Хс╡Ьс▒Я╙║сТдс┤░р╜Чт▓┤фОТсЗж╟Д  сТд  с┤╕╦ИтМар┤н╟Гржа сЙм╟Гс╕Ьр╕ДсИШ╟ГхВЬс╢Ху╛п╙КуЕ╣╤МржЗ╙Кр┤нсЗжсп╡тСисЙ░уУзуУзтАл▐ЬтАмсР│▐ж  сТд ╨║ре║сТдсп╡тСиуФПфЗСсоасжЮ╟Д╙║сТд  с┤╕╦И╤Эр┤н▐╡р╡атСисЗТфОдтМар┤н╙ксоафЦ│ рзлсТдри╝с╡Пр╗Офоп ╦Ис▒ЯтМар┤нуЕЬ╨░р╜ЧсЗТтУАр┤н╦ЧтМар┤нсп╡тСисЙ░уАа╦И сТд╤Эр┤нтСисЗТсоат┤ЮфЧо  ╨╖╙к╦Ит┤ифЦ│╥╛  сТдт▓┤соасЖЗр╗ОргР╥╢  

тАлри╝╦И╪╜тАмс░ж╥ПржРрба╥╢фОдтМатСисЗТсЩлсоат▓┤ ╟Д  р╡ШтМар┤нт▓┤сХЕф║╢╨╗╦И╤Мт┤Пр┤нсЗжуУзуУзфЯ╖риЖтАл▌╜тАмуЖо╟ГсФжфопуЖофЗ▒с╡П╟Гф▒╜ ╒╛уЖофЗ▒╘зс╣муЕ╣сзЪспнрйисХЕтСисЗТ╟Д ╦КсоЙуЫври╕╓М р╡ШсЖЦтнП╙ФсжТрк╝соЙуЫври╕╓Мспйф╢Т╦ИтМар┤нс┤дс▒ЯфОар╡Ш╤Мт┤При┤р┤нт▓┤рб╜ р╜д╟Дс╣йсжЮ╤Эр┤нсоЙуЫвфЬШт▓┤╪СсЪЯ╦И сТдр╡Шре╛т▓┤р┤нр╜ЖтоЙсЖЦтнП╦Ир╝┤╥╛рб╜ ╨╣╒╜т▓┤тАлтЕС╫НтАмс▒Яф╕Щр┤н╟ГуЦ╛р┤н╟ГтМар┤н╟ДтМар┤нсЖЦтнПфЧо  ╙к╦И▐жтЕС с▒ЯржасУЦсЙму╛п╙К  ╙к╦ИфО║ржЗ  ╙к╦ИуШ▒сеН  ╙к╦ИхВЬс╢Х 

у╛п╙К  ╙к╟ДтМар┤нр╡Шре╛тоЙсЖЦтнПфШМфШМфО╡фЧ╖▐ж╘Ж╤Мт┤Пр┤нсЗж╟Д  т┤Юрб╜╦ДсТдс┤╕╦Е╤ктЖТ╦Ир╡ШтМар┤нсРвсФкуГ╗╥╢сб░сЖДсЖАсЖЦф▓Трк╝ ╤ЪсЖДсЖАфИор╕▓╦ИфШЙр╡Ш╤Мт┤П╤Эс▒Яс┤░р╜Кт▓┤╦Иф▓ФтМар┤нр╜Ж╦ИуивсЦ╗сЗос┤╣сб░

 14

─АсгХрй║╦Ц╤Эр┤нр╜Чф▒╢тСисЗТракр║│тСиф┐ЖфШ╣тМар┤нтСЯриафП╝ракрб╜ ─Бhttp://news.china.

com.cn/2016-08/08/content_39044511.htm

15

─А╤МржЗ╙Кри┤р┤нтАл▐ЬтАмсР│╨║ре║сТдсп╡тСи├╛сбАуФЩржЕ├┐╤Эр┤нтСисЗТфНСтеЮсРШр╜Ч╟Д─Бhttp://mt.sohu.

com/20160728/n461472594.shtml,─А╤Эр┤нтСисЗТсРвсбАр╜Кр┤нс┤░р╜ЧсЗТтУА╦Ире▒р╜Чракр║│тСит┤Ют▓┤ р╡а╤лу╛▒╙╜р╡Ш╙КтНв─Бhttp://money.163.com/16/0809/11/BU19CN3600253B0H.html 16 ─А сТдтАл▐ШтАмр┤нс╢Хре╛тоЙсЖЦтнПсоасжЮриБсР│─Б

http://www.moe.edu.cn/jyb_xwfb/gzdt_gzdt/s5987/201604/t20160414_238263.html

/:+2:+=!/<*:╞╣#─Б=Laa2<3: )bef`


62

㲊⺛䊻䐱⺛Ⰼ㗬⹹㻖䐱⭥㣦㑛䔘䇤 

ᆄᆀᆖ䲒ˈަԆ਴ഭਚᴹᡰᆄᆀᆖ䲒ᡆ䈮าDŽⴞࡽ˄ᒤ 

ᴸ˅൘⌠ഭᆖҐѝ᮷ⲴӪᮠᴹзӪDŽ  ˊ᮷ॆӔ⍱ ⌠ഭ൘‫׳‬䘋ѝഭ઼ьⴏ᮷ॆӔ⍱ᯩ䶒ҏਁᥕҶ䟽㾱֌⭘DŽ ᒤĀѝഭьⴏ≁䰤᮷ॆӂࣘӪઈӔ⍱ā൘⌠ഭᔰᒅˈ䈕⍫ ࣘᴹєഭ᮷ॆ䜘‫਼ޡ‬ѫ࣎ˈᰘ൘‫׳‬䘋ѝഭ઼ьⴏൠ४Ӫ≁ሩ਴ഭ ≁䰤᮷ॆⲴҶ䀓ˈ໎䘋≁䰤Ⲵ৻䈺DŽ൘ᒤѮ࣎ⲴĀѝഭь ⴏ᮷ॆӔ⍱ᒤā⍫ࣘ ѝˈ ৲࣐⍫ࣘⲴ⌠ഭ᮷ॆ 䜘࢟ 䜘䮯䱯ᣛ ᾐg⌒⋉ӊ᳆㺘⽪ˈ൘ѝഭоьⴏ਴ഭѻ䰤䘋㹼᮷ॆӔ⍱ᱟॱ࠶ 䟽㾱Ⲵˈ⌠ഭሶ〟ᶱ৲оࡠо਴ᯩⲴਸ֌Ӕ⍱ѝᶕˈѝഭьⴏ 

ѻ䰤ቔަᱟѝ⌠ѻ䰤Ⲵ᮷ॆӔ⍱оਸ֌٬ᗇབྷ࣋ᨀّDŽ ѝ⌠‫ޣ‬ ㌫ᱟѝഭоьⴏ਴ᡀઈഭ‫ޣ‬㌫ѝⲴ䟽⛩ৼ䗩‫ޣ‬㌫ˈҏᱟ᧘䘋ѝഭ ьⴏਸ֌Ⲵ䟽㾱ᡈ⮕᭟⛩DŽ↓ྲѝഭ傫⌠ഭབྷ֯ᆱ䍻共ᡰ䈤ˈ ൘нᯝਈॆⲴഭ䱵⧟ຳѝˈѝഭьⴏਸ֌ҏ䶒Ѥ⵰᥁ᡈˈ㾱ඊ 

ᤱн៸᧘ࣘѝ⌠‫ޣ‬㌫ˈ亶䐁ѝഭˉьⴏ‫ޣ‬㌫DŽ   Ҽǃ⌠ഭਁᥕẕằ֌⭘Ⲵ৏ഐ࠶᷀ ⌠ഭѻᡰԕ㜭ਁᥕ䘉⿽ẕằ֌⭘ᱟ⭡ཊ䟽ഐ㍐ߣᇊⲴDŽ

 17 Ā ⎧ к э 䐟 ᆄ ᆀ ᆖ 䲒 ൘ ⌠ ഭ ᡀ ・ āhttp://news.ifeng.com/a/20150624/44035 405_ 0.shtml

18 lj⌠ഭ᮷ॆ䜘࢟䜘䮯˖ᓄབྷ࣋ᨀّѝഭˉьⴏѻ䰤Ⲵ᮷ॆӔ⍱NJˈഭ䱵൘㓯 

ᒤ  ᴸ  ᰕਁ㺘ˈhttp://gb.cri.cn/42071/2014/04/08/7551s4495829.htm 䇯䰞ᰦ䰤  19 lj⌠ഭѮ࣎ѝഭоьⴏ␡ॆ㓿⍾ਸ֌⹄䇘ՊNJˈᯠॾ㖁  ᒤ  ᴸ  ᰕਁ㺘ˈ

http://www.gx.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2014-09/19/c_1112543692.htm䇯䰞ᰦ 䰤 

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


䍦㹞䎓᱃⤭䁸㵉᱃㒖⥞㘘᱃㏏匠㎺᱃㰐䊧⳪

63

˄а˅४սՈ࣯ᨀ‫׋‬Ҷẕằ֌⭘Ⲵᴹ࡙ᶑԦDŽ⌠ഭཞ㹼㹼䮯 ᕐᰝ⍢ᤷࠪˈĀ⌠ഭ൘ൠ㕈᭯⋫кսҾьⴏൠ४ⲴṨᗳൠᑖˈᱟ ьⴏⲴ⢙⍱ǃ䍨᱃઼䠁㶽ѝᗳˈᱟьⴏᐲ൪оѝഭѻ䰤ཙ❦Ⲵẕ 

ằDŽā ѝഭ傫⌠⦻ഭབྷ֯ᆱ䍻共൘仈ѪljՐ᢯э䐟㋮⾎‫ࡋޡ‬ ӊ⍢䖹❼NJⲴ᮷ㄐѝҏ〠ˈ⌠ഭᰒ䘎᧕䱶кьⴏˈҏ䘎᧕⎧кь ⴏˈᱟᴹ⵰˒ӯཊӪਓⲴьⴏབྷᐲ൪Ⲵཙ❦Ӕ≷⛩ˈ४սՈ࣯ᗇ ཙ⤜৊ˈ‫ޜ‬䐟ǃ䫱䐟ǃ㡚オǃ⑟ਓǃ䙊䇟ǃ⭥࣋ㅹส⹰䇮ᯭ䖳Ѫ 

ᆼழˈ൘᧘ࣘ  ц㓚⎧кэ䐟ᔪ䇮ᯩ䶒ާᴹᐘབྷ▌࣋DŽ ⌠ഭⲴ 䘉а४սՈ࣯൘ᵚᶕьইӊ⎧кэ㔨ѻ䐟Ⲵ਴⿽ਸ֌亩ⴞѝՊ䎺 ᶕ䎺ケࠪൠᱮ⽪ࠪᶕDŽѝ⌠儈䫱亩ⴞㅜа䱦⇥Ⲵ੟ࣘሶᱟ‫ޣ‬䭞Ⲵ а↕DŽ ˄Ҽ˅⌠ഭ൘ьⴏѝާᴹаᇊⲴᖡ૽઼࣋ॿ䈳ᢰᐗDŽྲࡽ ᡰ䘠ˈ⌠ഭⲴ㔬ਸഭ࣋൘ьⴏѝнਟሿ䀁ˈᆳ൘ьⴏⲴࡋᔪ઼ਁ ኅ䗷〻ѝ䜭ਁᥕҶ‫ޣ‬䭞֌⭘ˈ䘉֯ьⴏަԆ਴ᡀઈഭ儈ⴻᆳࠐ ࠶DŽ⌠ഭ൘শਢкާᴹՐ㔏ⲴཆӔॿ䈳㜭઼࣋ᢰᐗDŽॱҍц㓚ˈ ⌠ഭ⋑ᴹ‫ۿ‬ᆳⲴ䛫ഭ䛓ṧ⋖Ѫ㾯ᯩ⇆≁ൠˈᒦф㜭ӾҼᡈਾ᩶㝡 ᡈ䍕ഭൠս䜭о⌠ഭⲴ儈䎵ⲴཆӔॿ䈳㜭઼࣋ᢰᐗ࠶нᔰⲴDŽ䀓 ߣ㔵⭨䰞仈ᰦˈ਼ṧᱟ⌠ഭਁᥕҶ‫ޣ‬䭞Ⲵॿ䈳֌⭘DŽ䘉а࠷䜭䇱 ᰾ˈ⌠ഭнӵާᴹཆӔॿ䈳Ⲵ䍴Ṭо䓛ԭˈҏᴹཆӔॿ䈳ⲴᲪភ оᢰᐗDŽ

 20

ᵾ仆ǃ䱸ᇦᇍ˖Ā⌠ഭᵏᖵþаᑖа䐟ÿਸ֌㓒࡙āˈᯠॾ㖁ˈ ᒤ  ᴸ

 ᰕˈhttp://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2015-05/11/c_1115243879.htm 21 ᵾ仆ǃ䱸ᇦᇍ˖Ā⌠ഭᵏᖵþаᑖа䐟ÿਸ֌㓒࡙āˈᯠॾ㖁ˈ ᒤ  ᴸ  ᰕˈhttp://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2015-05/11/c_1115243879.htm

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


64

㲊⺛䊻䐱⺛Ⰼ㗬⹹㻖䐱⭥㣦㑛䔘䇤 

˄й˅⌠ഭ਼ѝഭާᴹ⢩↺Ⲵ৻ྭ‫ޣ‬㌫DŽ䘉⿽‫ޣ‬㌫㻛ᾲᤜ ѪĀ⌠ѝаᇦӢāˈᱟᔪㆁ൘⢒പส⹰ѻкⲴDŽ⌠ഭ਼ѝഭ⋑ᴹ 亶൏ҹㄟ઼শਢ䚇⮉䰞仈DŽ⌠ഭⲴॾ⽮ሩ⌠ഭഭ⦻ǃ⌠ഭ᮷ॆ઼ ᮤњഭᇦᴹ儈ᓖⲴ䇔਼ˈ䘉֯⌠ഭⲴশቺ᭯ᓌ䜭ሩѝഭнᣡᡂ ᗳDŽⴞࡽ⌠ഭ਴њ᭯‫ފ‬ሩѝഭ൷ᣡ৻ྭᘱᓖˈ䜭ѫᕐਁኅ⌠ѝ৻ ྭ‫ޣ‬㌫DŽ⌠ഭ⦻ᇔˈቔަᱟ䈇⩣䙊‫ޜ‬ѫѪ᧘ࣘ⌠ѝ৻ྭ‫ࠪڊ‬Ҷᐘ བྷ䍑⥞DŽ㠚  ᒤ  ᴸˈ‫ޜ‬ѫ⇯л俆⅑䇯䰞ѝഭˈ㠣  ᒤ  ᴸ䇯ॾˈᐢᱟㅜ  ⅑ࡠѝഭ䇯䰞ǃ㘳ሏǃ⹄‫ྩˈ؞‬䎠䙽Ҷ䮯෾ 

޵ཆǃབྷ⊏ইेDŽ ‫ޜ‬ѫሩѝഭ᮷ॆ઼শਢᴹ㌫㔏␡‫⹄Ⲵޕ‬ウᒦ ਆᗇҶᶠࠪᡀቡˈ‫ݸ‬ਾ㦓㧧ेӜབྷᆖ㦓䂹ঊ༛ᆖս઼ѝഭ᭯ᓌᦸ ҸⲴĀѝഭ䈝䀰᮷ॆ৻䈺྆ā઼Ā⨶䀓о৻䈺ഭ䱵᮷ᆖ྆āDŽ↔ ཆˈᵡ᣹㬜‫ޜ‬ѫऔᆖਔㆍн䖽ˈҏཊ⅑Ѯ࣎Ā⌠ѝаᇦӢā丣Ҁ ՊˈѪ᧘ࣘєഭ᮷ॆ‫ޣ‬㌫Ⲵਁኅ䎧ҶнਟᴯԓⲴ⽪㤳֌⭘ˈᡀѪ ഭᇦоഭᇦ᮷ॆӔ⍱‫ޣ‬㌫ਢкⲴި㤳DŽ ˄ഋ˅⌠ഭሩьⴏᴹ儈ᓖ䇔਼ᝏ઼䍓ԫᝏDŽ⌠ഭᱟьⴏⲴ ࣙӗ༛ˈҏᱟᔪᡀॱഭབྷьⴏⲴѫ㾱᧘ࣘ㘵ˈ䘈ᱟᇎ⧠ьⴏ‫਼ޡ‬ փⲴѫ㾱ّሬ㘵DŽഐ↔ˈᆳሩьⴏⲴਁኅ༞བྷ∄ަԆьⴏᡀઈᴤ ‫ޣ‬ᗳ઼൘᜿ˈᆳሩьⴏⲴ䇔਼ᝏ઼䍓ԫᝏᴤ࣐ᕪ⛸DŽࠪҾሩьⴏ 㓴㓷ਁኅⲴ䟽㿶о‫ޣ‬ᗳˈ⌠ഭ⢩࡛‫⌘ޣ‬ьⴏᡰ䶒䛫Ⲵൠ४ᆹ‫ޘ‬䰞 仈ˈ䘉ቡᱟ⌠ഭѪӰѸ൘ই⎧䰞仈кˈ䛓Ѹ〟ᶱ઼✝ᗳൠॿ䈳ѝ ഭоьⴏᡀઈഭѻ䰤Ⲵ‫ޣ‬㌫DŽѪҶ䘉а䰞仈ᗇࡠ䀓ߣˈ֯ᗇ䈕ҹ

 22 Ā䈇⩣䙊‫ޜ‬ѫㅜ⅑䇯ॾ俆ㄉüᡀ䜭āhttp://www.toutiao.com/i64053885063439 32417/

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


䍦㹞䎓᱃⤭䁸㵉᱃㒖⥞㘘᱃㏏匠㎺᱃㰐䊧⳪

65

ㄟнᖡ૽ьⴏⲴਁኅˈнড৺ൠ४Ⲵっᇊˈ⌠ഭн䚇։࣋ൠ㠤࣋ Ҿ‫׳‬䘋ѝഭ਼ьⴏⲴ⴨ӂؑԫ઼⨶䀓DŽ ⭡Ҿк䘠ཊ䟽৏ഐˈ⌠ഭ᡽Պ൘ѝഭ઼ьⴏѻ䰤ਁᥕẕằ ֌⭘ᯩ䶒ᴹᕪ⛸ᝯᵋDŽ⌠ഭ亶ሬӪᴮཊ⅑ੁѝᯩ‫ޜ‬ᔰ㺘⽪䘉⿽ᝯ ᵋDŽᴰ䘁а⅑ᱟ⌠ഭ࢟ᙫ⨶ᐤ䠁Ҿ  ᒤ  ᴸ൘ইᆱѝഭьⴏ ঊ㿸Պᔰᒅᔿкਁ㺘╄䇢ᰦ〠ˈ⌠ഭᝯ᜿൘࣐ᕪьⴏоѝഭ㍗ᇶ Ⲵ৻䈺оਸ֌ᯩ䶒ਁᥕᔪ䇮ᙗⲴ֌⭘DŽԆ㺘⽪ˈ⌠ഭаⴤԕᶕ䜭 㠤࣋ҾᡀѪ‫׳‬䘋ൠ४൘਴亶ฏӂ㚄ӂ䙊Ⲵẕằˈ䘋а↕໎࣐਴ᯩ 

ᖬ↔Ⲵ㢟ྭ᜿ᝯ઼⴨ӂ⨶䀓DŽ   йǃ⌠ഭẕằ֌⭘Ⲵተ䲀ᙗ ⌠ഭⲴẕằ֌⭘൘аᇊ〻ᓖк‫׳‬䘋ҶѝഭоьⴏⲴਸ֌‫ޣ‬㌫ о⴨ӂؑԫDŽᴰ᰾ᱮⲴֻᆀᱟ൘Ḝคመ䰞仈к઼༴⨶䶎ިⲴ䰞仈 кˈ⋑ᴹ⌠ഭⲴ䘉⿽ẕằ֌⭘ˈѝഭ઼ьⴏ൘䘉є䰞仈к䜭нਟ 㜭ᇎ⧠ѝഭ઼ьⴏⲴ⴨ӂ⨶䀓ǃؑԫоਸ֌DŽሩҾ↔⿽ẕằ֌ ⭘ˈᙫփкᶕⴻˈᰐ⯁ᱟ〟ᶱⲴˈնҏнᓄՠ䇑䗷儈ˈቔަᱟ൘ ḀӋާփ䰞仈кDŽ䘉ቡᱟ⌠ഭⲴ䘉⿽ẕằ֌⭘ᴹаᇊⲴተ䲀ᙗˈ ѫ㾱㺘⧠൘ྲлᯩ䶒DŽ ˄а˅⌠ഭнਟ㜭ᆼ‫ޘ‬ѝ・ൠᢞ╄ѝഭ઼ьⴏॿ䈳ӪⲴ䀂 㢢DŽ⌠ഭᱟьⴏⲴањ䟽㾱ᡀઈˈ㘼фᱟьⴏⲴ俆ّഭˈྲк᮷ ᡰ䘠ˈ⌠ഭሩьⴏ㓴㓷ᴹ儈ᓖⲴ䍓ԫᝏˈ䘉⿽䍓ԫᝏᗵ❦㾱≲⌠ ഭ㾱༴༴㔤ᣔьⴏⲴ・൪઼࡙⳺DŽഐ↔ˈ⌠ഭ൘ѝഭ઼ьⴏѻ䰤

 23

Ā ⌠ ഭ ࢟ ᙫ ⨶ ˖ ѝ ⌠ 儈 䫱 ᴰ ᘛ ሶ Ҿ Ӻ ᒤ ᓅ ᰾ ᒤ ࡍ ᔰ ᐕ ā http://www.china

news.com/cj/2016/09-11/8001033.shtml

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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㲊⺛䊻䐱⺛Ⰼ㗬⹹㻖䐱⭥㣦㑛䔘䇤 

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Secretariat, ASEANË&#x2013;the first 20 years. Jakarta, 1987. Buszynski, Leszek. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Thailandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s foreign policyâ&#x20AC;?, Asian Survey Vol. XXXIV, No.8, 1994, p.726. Chinvanno, Anuson. â&#x20AC;&#x153;â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Rise of Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: a perceptual challenge for Thailandâ&#x20AC;?, Rangsit Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (RJSH) Vol.2, No.2, July - December 2015, pp.13-18. Chongkittavorn, Kavi. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Leadership changing and challengeâ&#x20AC;?, The Nation, 19 January 2004. Ciorciari, John D. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Thaksinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s chance for regional leadership?â&#x20AC;?, IDSS Commentaries, 5 March 2004. Kurlantzick, Joshua. â&#x20AC;&#x153;ASEANâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s future and asian integrationâ&#x20AC;?, Council on Foreign Relations, November 2012. Scott, David. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Conflict irresolution in the South China Seaâ&#x20AC;?, Asian Survey Vol. 52, Number 6, 2012, pp. 109-1042. /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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Simon, Sheldom W. “Conflict and diplomacy in the South China Sea: the view from Washington”, Asian Survey Vol. 52. Number 6, 2012, pp. 995-1018. ѝ᮷᮷⥞ ᴩ Ӂ ॾ       lj ь ই ӊ ४ ฏ ਸ ֌ NJ  ॾ ই ⨶ ᐕ བྷ ᆖ ࠪ ⡸ ⽮  ⊏⏋lj㖾ഭ䟽䘄ӊཚ㛼ᲟлⲴѝ⌠‫ޣ‬㌫NJˈ䖭ljॾ‫ט‬བྷᆖ ᆖᣕ˄ଢᆖ⽮Պ、ᆖ⡸˅NJㅜ  ᵏ ߼㜌࡙ljѝ⌠ਸ֌‫ޡ‬ᔪĀ⎧кэ㔨ѻ䐟āᡈ⮕᭟⛩NJˈ䖭 ljᖃԓц⭼NJㅜ  ᵏ 䱶ᔪӪ˄ѫ㕆˅ljьⴏⲴӺཙо᰾ཙNJ㓿⍾㇑⨶ࠪ⡸ ⽮ ҄䶉ljьӊጠՊⲴ䘀㹼ᵪࡦ৺ަ䶒ѤⲴ᥁ᡈNJˈ䖭lj⨶䇪 ⭼NJㅜ  ᵏˈㅜ  亥 ⦻༛ᖅǃ⦻ഭᒣljӾьⴏࡠབྷьⴏNJц⭼⸕䇶ࠪ⡸⽮ ⦻⦹ѫljьⴏ  ᒤNJ⽮Պ、ᆖ᮷⥞ࠪ⡸⽮ ᕐ䭑䭷ljьⴏ‫਼ޡ‬փਁኅ䎻࣯৺ަѫ㾱᧘ࣘ㘵NJˈ䖭ljц ⭼㓿⍾о᭯⋫䇪උNJㅜ  ᵏˈㅜ  亥 ᕐ䭑䭷lj⌠ѝ‫ޣ‬㌫  ᒤNJˈ䖭ljьইӊ⹄ウNJㅜ  ᵏ ᕐ䭑䭷ljѝ⌠‫ޣ‬㌫䘁ߥо⌠ഭ⽮Պ়ॾᛵ㔚NJˈ䖭ljьই ӊ⹄ウNJㅜ ᵏ 䎥‫ࣷݹ‬lj⌠ഭԆؑൠ४ᡈ⮕⹄ウNJेӜབྷᆖഭ䱵‫ޣ‬㌫ᆖ䲒 ⺅༛䇪᮷ˈㅜ  亥 ઘᯩߦljѝ⌠‫ޣ‬㌫ьⴏਸ֌ѝⲴᡈ⮕᭟⛩֌⭘üสҾц㓚 ⎧кэ㔨ѻ䐟Ⲵ࠶᷀㿶䀂NJˈ䖭ljই⌻䰞仈⹄ウNJㅜ  ᵏˈㅜ  亥

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Thailandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Role as a Bridge between China and ASEAN Zhang Xizhen, Cai Yantong, Liu Changming, Li Xinlei, Sun Yunfei ABSTRACT China's cooperation with ASEAN has become one of the highlights of China's foreign relations at that time. Considering the different closeness degree between ASEAN member states and China, China intends to seek pivot states in ASEAN which play a bridging role to promote mutual trust and integration between China and ASEAN, and form a community of shared interests and a community of common fate. Thailand has the basic conditions for becoming a pivot state. Of course, Thailand's role as a bridge cannot be overestimated, which still has some limitations. In order to help the bridging role to play further this report proposes the suggestions to both Chinese and Thai governments. Keywords: ASEAN, Thailand, the bridging role, ChinaThailand relations, China-ASEAN relations

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94

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96

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A Research for the Development of Chinese Language Instruction Offered by Vocational Education in Thailand Kampol PiyasirikulÇ° ABSTRACT This research explores the current status and challenges of Chinese language instruction at vocational colleges in Thailand with the ultimate goal of proposing policy and strategy recommendations on the matter. The data were collected through questionnaires and interviews with related parties. Target populations were Thai vocational institutes which offer Chinese modules. Then, the data were studied by percentage, means and standard deviation, followed by analysis, synthesis and research composition. The finding indicates that there are a range of problems in Chinese instruction offered at Thai vocational colleges. Thus, the researcher's policy and strategy recommendations are (1) striving for an effective Chinese instruction management through meetings between concerned parties to formulate systematic and continuous work plans; (2) ensuring continuation of curriculums between vocational certificates and lower secondary schools, and also between diplomas and vocational certificates. In addition, longer time schedules should be implemented; (3) /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


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providing more access to electronic instructional media. It is also suggested that a selected highest quality materials verified by experts be allowed to come into use when no in-house textbook is available; (4) encouraging a lesser reliance on volunteer native teachers. Rather, it is paramount that the development of competency of full time Thai and Chinese teachers be at top of the agenda; (5) promoting more engaging instructional environments so that students are more motivated and realize the importance of Chinese; (6) fostering greater cooperation with the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, specifically with the Office of Chinese Language Council International (known as Hanban). Keywords: 5IBJMBOEÇ° 7PDBUJPOBMÇ° FEVDBUJPO Ç° $IJOFTF Ç° *OTUSVDUJPO 

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ĂćÝćø÷Ťÿć×ćðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤǰÙèąýĉúðýćÿêøŤǰöĀćüĉì÷ćúĆ÷íøøöýćÿêøŤǰEmail: kornphanat@gmail.com

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ǰöĊÖćø×čéÙšîóïöîčþ÷ŤĀ÷üîēĀöŠüìĊęêĞćïúĀ÷üîēĀöŠüǰöèæú÷ĎîîćîǰĔîÙýǰ1965 ÙćéüŠć öĊßĊüĉêĂ÷ĎŠĔîߊüÜǰ1,700,000 ðŘÖŠĂîǰĂćÝÖúŠćüĕéšüŠćöîčþ÷ŤĀ÷üîēĀöŠüđðŨîöîčþ÷ŤēïøćèìĊę đÖŠćĒÖŠìĊęÿčéìĊęóïĔîðøąđìýÝĊîǰêćöéšü÷öîčþ÷ŤĀúćîđëĊ÷îìĊęÙćéüŠćöĊßĊüĉêĂ÷ĎŠĔîߊüÜǰ700,000 -600,000 ðŘÖŠĂîǰ×čéÙšîóïìĊęêĞćïúĀúćîđëĊ÷îǰöèæúàŠćîÿĊĔîÙýǰ1963 ÿŠüîöîčþ÷ŤðŦÖÖĉęÜ öĊÖćø×čéÙšîóïêĆĚÜĒêŠìýüøøþìĊęǰ 1930 ïøĉđüèēÝüē׊üđêĊĚ÷îǰêĞćïúòćÜàćîǰßćîÖøč ÜðŦÖÖĉęÜǰ ÙćéüŠćöĊßĊüĉêĂ÷ĎŠĔîߊüÜǰ700,000 -200,000ǰðŘÖŠĂîǰÝĆéüŠćđðŨîöîčþ÷ŤēïøćèìĊęöĊךĂöĎúÿöïĎøèŤ ìĊęÿčéǰöĊÖąēĀúÖĔĀâŠðøąöćèǰ80 % ×ĂÜöîčþ÷ŤĔîðŦÝÝčïĆîǰøĎšÝĆÖÖŠĂĕôĒúąðøąéĉþåŤđÙøČęĂÜöČĂ Ă÷ŠćÜÜŠć÷ éĎǰZhang Fan, 2001: 2)

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ÖćøýċÖþćðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤîĉóîíŤÝĊîÿćöĒîüìćÜǰđðŨîĒîüÙĉéìĊęđÿîĂēé÷îĆÖðøĆßâćÝĊîđòŗÜǰ ēĀ÷ŠüĀúćî˄ߟ৻‫˅ޠ‬ĔîìýüøøþìĊęǰ1930 đóČęĂĒÿéÜĔĀšđĀĘîëċÜìĆýîąÿćöĒïïìĊęöĊêŠĂðŦâĀć ÖćøöĂÜðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤēïøćèìĊęïĆîìċÖĔîđĂÖÿćøÿöĆ÷ÖŠĂî éĎǰFeng Youlan, 1935)ǰǰ

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óøąÝĆîìøŤǰöČĂĒúąđìšćÖúć÷öćđðŨîõĎđ×ćǰđúČĂéìĊęĀúĆęÜĕĀúÖúć÷đðŨî ĒöŠîĚĞćǰđðŨîêšî (Yuan Ke, 1998: 72-73)ǰǰ îĂÖÝćÖêĞćîćîĕÙđõĘÖĒúšüǰêĞćîćîÿćöÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤĀšćÝĆÖøóøøéĉ ĀøČĂǰĶàćîĀüÜĂĎŠêĊĚķljйⲷӄᑍNJÖĘđðŨîìĊęøĎšÝĆÖÖĆîéĊĔîåćîąïøøóßî ìĊęßćüÝĊîđÙćøóîĆïëČĂǰĂĆîìĊęÝøĉÜǰÿćöÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤĀšćÝĆÖøóøøéĉĕéšĒÖŠĔÙø ïšćÜîĆĚîđĂÖÿćøÝĊî ÝćÖĀúć÷ÿöĆ÷öĊÖćøïĆîìċÖĕüšĒêÖêŠćÜÖĆîǰĂćÝÝą ĂîčöćîĕéšüŠć÷čÙÿöĆ÷×ĂÜÿćöÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤöćÖŠĂî÷čÙÿöĆ÷×ĂÜĀšćÝĆÖøóøøéĉǰ ÿćöÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤljйⲷNJĂćÝĀöć÷ëċÜǰòĎàĊ˄Կ㗢˅ñĎšìĞćÿĆêüŤðśćĔĀšđßČęĂÜ đóČęĂĔßšÜćîǰÞŠćü ˄ᐒ˅ñĎšîĞćĕöšöćÿøšćÜïšćîđøČĂîǰÿčš÷đĀøĉî ˄⠗Ӫ˅ ñĎšĔßšĕöšđÿĊ÷éÿĊÖĆîđóČęĂÝčéĕôǰđÞĉîĀîÜ˄⾎ߌ˅ñĎšÙĉéüĉíĊÖćøđóćąðúĎÖìĞć îćǰĒúąîďĀüĊęüĆü ˄ྣ㵇˅ĀâĉÜñĎšðŗéĒñŠ îôŜćĒúąĔßšéĉîðŦŪîđðŨîöîčþ÷Ť ĒúąÿĆêüŤêŠćÜėǰ ïćÜêĞćîćîÖúŠćüüŠćîďĀüĊęüĆüđðŨîõøø÷ć×ĂÜòĎàĊǰïšćÜÖĘ üŠćđðŨîóĊęîšĂÜÖĆî ǰĒöšüŠćêĞćîćîÿćöÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤÝąöĊÖćøïĆîìċÖĕüšĕöŠêøÜÖĆî ǰ ĂĊÖìĆĚÜïčÙÙúĔîêĞćîćî÷ĆÜöĊõćóúĆÖþèŤ×ĂÜÖćøñÿöñÿćîÖĆîøąĀüŠćÜ öîčþ÷ŤĒúąđìóǰĒêŠÖøąîĆĚîêĞćîćîéĆÜÖúŠćüÖĘÿąìšĂîĔĀšđĀĘîüŠćÿĆÜÙöÝĊî ĔîĂéĊêÖćúöĊüĉüĆçîćÖćøÙüćöÖšćüĀîšćìĊęđÖĉéÝćÖÖćøÿĆęÜÿöìćÜĂćø÷ íøøöéĆÜðøćÖäĔĀšđĀĘîÝćÖÙčèÿöïĆêĉóĉđýþ×ĂÜïøøóßîĒúąñĎšîĞćßćü ÝĊîĔîÿöĆ÷ĒøÖđøĉęö (Zhang Fan, 2001: 6) ǰ êĞćîćîĀš ćÝĆ Öøóøøéĉ ljӄᑍNJđÖĉé×ċĚî ĀúĆ Ü÷čÙÿöĆ÷×ĂÜÿćö ÖþĆêøĉ÷Ťǰ Üćîđ×Ċ÷îÿĞćÙĆâßČęĂǰïĆ îìċÖ×ĂÜîĆÖðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤ ljਢ䇠NJ ēé÷àČ Ă ĀöŠć ǰđßĊ ÷ î ˄ਨ傜䗱˅ǰñĎš ĕ éš øĆ ï Öćø÷Ö÷ŠĂ ÜĔĀš đ ðŨ î ïĉ é ćĒĀŠ Ü ðøąüĆ êĉý ćÿêøŤ ÝĊ îǰĕéš Ö úŠ ć üëċ Ü ĀüÜêĊĚ ˄哴ᑍ˅ǰÝüîàďüĊ ˄介京˅êĊĚ ÙĎŠ ˄ᑍ௮˅ǰđĀ÷ć ˄቗˅ĒúąßčŠ î ˄㡌˅ñĎš ìĊę îĆ ï üŠ ć öĊ Ăĉì íĉ óúêŠ ĂÖĞ ć đîĉ é Ăćø÷íøøöÝĊ î öćÖìĊę ÿč é ĔîïøøéćĀš ć ÝĆ Ö øóøøéĉ ÖĘ ÙČ Ă ĀüÜêĊĚ ǰ îĆ Ö ðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤÿöĆ÷ÖŠĂîöĆÖĂšćÜüŠć÷čÙÿöĆ÷×ĂÜĀüÜêĊĚđðŨîÝčéđøĉęöêšî×ĂÜ /:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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×ĂÜøćþãøǰ÷ďĀüĊęĔßšđüúćÖüŠćǰǰðŘĔîÖćøĀćìćÜđóČęĂĒÖšĕ×ðŦâĀćĕéšÝî ÿĞćđøĘÝǰøćþãøÝċ Ü÷Ö÷ŠĂÜĔĀšđðŨî ǰĶêšć÷ďĀüĊęķǰĀøČĂ÷ďĀüĊę ñĎšÿ÷ïĀüÜđĀĂǰ éšü÷đĀêčîĊĚđĂÜǰ÷ďĀüĊęÝċÜĕéšøĆïđúČĂÖĔĀšđðŨîÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤêŠĂÝćÖßčŠî đöČę Ă ÷ď Ā üĊę Ý ąÿúąĂĞ ć îćÝÖĘ ĕ éš đ úČ Ă ÖĔĀš ĂĊĚ ˄⳺˅ÿČ ï ìĂéøćß ÿöïĆêĉǰ ĒêŠÙøĆĚ î ÷ďĀüĊę ÿ üøøÙêǰÞĊę ˄ஏ˅àċęÜđðŨîēĂøÿ×ĂÜ÷ďĀüĊę ÖúĆ ï ßĉÜ ĂĞćîćÝĒúš ü êĆĚÜêîđðŨ îÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤĒìîǰÞĊę ĕéšÿ ëćðîćøćßüÜýŤđ àĊę÷ ˄༿ ᵍ˅×ċĚîǰÙćéüŠćøćßüÜýŤđàĊę÷Ă÷ĎŠĔîߊüÜǰ2183-1752ǰðŘ ÖŠĂîÙøĉÿêÖćúǰ ÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤĂÜÙŤÿč éìšć÷ĒĀŠÜøćßüÜýŤđàĊę÷îćöüŠćđÝĊĜ÷ ˄ᶠ˅ĕéšßČęĂüŠćđðŨ î ìøøćß÷Ťǰ×ćéÙčèíøøöĔîÖćøðÖÙøĂÜïšćîđöČĂÜǰÿŠÜñúĔĀšøćßüÜýŤđàĊę÷ úŠöÿúć÷ĕðĔîìĊęÿčé ǰēé÷öĊ øćßüÜýŤ ßćÜ˄୶ᵍ˅ñÜćé×ċĚîöćĒìîìĊę (Fu Lecheng, 2008:12) ëċÜĒöšÝąđðŨîđøČęĂÜđúŠćǰĒêŠêĞćîćîðøĆöðøćđĀúŠćîĊĚúšüîðøćÖä Ă÷ĎŠĔîïĆîìċÖĀøČĂđĂÖÿćøÜćîđ×Ċ÷îìćÜðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤìĆĚÜÿĉĚîǰĀćÖđøć ÿČï÷šĂîìĊęöć×ĂÜêĞćîćîðøĆöðøćđĀúŠćîĊĚđðŨîúĞć ßćÜéĆïÝąđĀĘîüŠćǰ÷ĉęÜ êĞćîćîđÖĊę÷üÖĆïđøČęĂÜđúŠćđÖŠćĒÖŠđìŠćĕøǰÖĘÝą÷ĉęÜóïĔîđĂÖÿćø÷čÙĀúĆ Ü öćÖ×ċĚîđìŠćîĆĚîǰéĆÜđߊîêĞćîćîĕÙđõĘÖìĊęĒöšÝąüŠćéšü÷ÖćøÖĞćđîĉéēúÖĒúą ÿøøóÿĉęÜêŠćÜėǰàċęÜĔîĒÜŠ×ĂÜߊüÜđüúćĒúšüđðŨîđøČęĂÜøćüĔîúĞćéĆïĒøÖÿčéǰ ĒêŠÖúĆïðøćÖäĔîÜćîđ×Ċ÷îøćü÷čÙÿćöÖŢÖõć÷ĀúĆÜÖćøïĆîìċÖêĞćîćî ÿćöÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤĀšćÝĆÖøóøøéĉđÿĊ÷ĂĊÖ (Zhang Fan, 2001: 6) ĀćÖ óĉÝ ćøèćÝćÖĀúĆ ÖåćîđÖŠćĒÖŠìĊęÿč éìĊęđÖĊę÷üÖĆï Ăćø÷íøøöÝĊ î÷č ÙÖŠĂî ðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤìĊę÷ĆÜÙÜĀúÜđĀúČ ĂĔîðŦÝ ÝčïĆî ǰđߊî ǰĀîĆÜÿČ ĂÞšćÜßĎ ljቊ ҖNJǰÖĘÝąóïüŠćđéĉöìĊđĂÖÿćøēïøćèđĀúŠćîĊĚĕéšÖúŠćüëċÜĒêŠđóĊ÷Üïøøó ßî×ĂÜÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤĒĀŠÜøćßüÜýŤđàĊę÷ ǰøćßüÜýŤßćÜĒúąøćßüÜýŤēÝüđìŠćîĆĚîǰ êŠĂöćĔî÷čÙßčîßĉüǰÝċÜĕéšđøĉęöðøćÖäđøČęĂÜøćü×ĂÜđĀ÷ćǰßčŠîĒúą÷ďĀüĊę×ċĚî ĔîĀîĆÜÿČĂĀúčî÷ďĀüĊęlj䇪䈝NJǰàċęÜđ×Ċ÷îĒúąđøĊ÷ïđøĊ÷Üēé÷×ÜÝČęĂ ǰđöČęĂ /:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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ĒîüÙĉéíćêčìĆĚÜĀšć×ĂÜÿĞćîĆÖĀ÷ĉîĀ÷ćÜǰđðŨîìĊęĒóøŠĀúć÷öćÖ×ċĚîĔî÷čÙ ÝšćîÖüţĂǰìĞćĔĀšđÖĉéÖćøÿøšćÜÿćĒĀøÖÖćøúĞćéĆïüÜýŤêøąÖĎú Ă÷ŠćÜđðŨî øąïïêĆĚÜĒêŠÿöĆ÷ĀüÜêĊĚđðŨîêšîöćǰÝîÖøąìĆęÜÜćîÿĞćÙĆâđߊî ïĆîìċÖ×ĂÜ îĆÖðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤǰēé÷àČĂĀöŠćǰđßĊ÷îǰĕéšÖĞćĀîéĔĀšðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤÝĊîöĊ ÝčéđøĉęöêšîÝćÖĀüÜêĊĚǰêćöéšü÷ÖćøÿČïìĂéÙüćöđðŨ îïøøóÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤĒĀŠÜ øćßüÜýŤđàĊę÷ǰßćÜǰĒúąēÝüǰêćöúĞćéĆïǰàċęÜĒÿéÜĔĀšđĀĘîëċÜÖćøÿČïđßČĚĂ ÿć÷ñŠćîêøąÖĎúøąéĆïøćßüÜýŤìĊęĂšćÜĂĉÜêćöúĞćéĆïđÙøČĂâćêĉ (éĎǰGu Jiegang, 1982)ǰ ĔîÿöĆ÷øćßüÜýŤÝĉĚîǰîĆÖðøćßâŤîćöüŠćĀüÜòĎś öĊę˄ⲷ⭛䉗˅ǰĕéš ó÷ć÷ćöúĞćéĆïđßČĚĂÿć÷ĒúąÖćøÿČïìĂéÙüćöđðŨîÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤÝĆÖøóøøéĉ ĔîðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤÝĊîñŠćîÖćøđ×Ċ÷îóÜýćüéćøǰĀüÜòĎś öĊęĕéšøüïøüö øć÷ßČęĂïčÙÙú÷č ÙÖŠĂîðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤìĊęðøćÖäĔîđĂÖÿćøēïøćèđךć éšü÷ÖĆîǰēé÷đøĉęöêĆĚÜĒêŠòĎàĊĒúšüÝĆéđøĊ÷ÜúĞćéĆïêćöĒîüÙĉéíćêčìĆĚÜĀšć×ĂÜ ÿĞćîĆÖĀ÷ĉîĀ÷ćÜǰÝćÖîĆĚîÝċÜÿøšćÜøąïïÖćøÿČïđßČĚĂÿć÷ñŠćîüÜýŤêøąÖĎú øąéĆïøćßüÜýŤêćöúĞćéĆïđÙøČĂâćêĉ×ĂÜïøøóÖþĆêøĉ÷ŤĔîðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤ ÝĊîēïøćè×ċĚîöćĂ÷ŠćÜÿöïĎøèŤ ǰÿćöćøëÖúŠćüĂĊÖîĆ÷ĀîċęÜĕéšüŠćǰïčÙÙú ĔîðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤ÷ĉęÜđÖŠćĒÖŠđìŠćĔéǰÖĘ÷ĉęÜðøćÖäĔîđĂÖÿćøìĊęđ×Ċ÷îĔî÷čÙ ĀúĆ ÜöćÖ÷ĉę Ü×ċĚîđìŠćîĆĚ î ǰ÷ĉęÜ đüúćñŠ ćîĕðîćîđìŠćĔéǰêĞćîćîðøĆöðøć đĀúŠćîĆĚîÖĘ÷ĉęÜëĎÖđúŠć×ćîĔĀšøčŠöøü÷ĒúąđðŨîøąïïöćÖ÷ĉęÜ×ċĚîǰéĆÜîĆĚîǰîĆÖ ðøąüĆêĉýćÿêøŤÝĊîĔîêšîýêüøøþìĊę ǰîćöüŠćÖĎšǰđÝĊĜ÷ÖĆÜ˄亮亹ࡊ˅ÝċÜ  4

ǰíćêčìĆĚÜĀšć×ĂÜÿĞćîĆÖĀ÷ĉîĀ÷ćÜ˄䱤䱣ӄ㹼˅đðŨîĒîüÙĉéĀúĆÖđÖĊę÷üÖĆïÝĆÖøüćúüĉì÷ć×ĂÜ ÝĊîēïøćèǰĀ÷ĉîĒúąĀ÷ćÜđðŨîóúĆÜĒĀŠÜÙüćöÿöéčú÷Ť×ĂÜíøøößćêĉǰĔî×èąìĊęíćêčìĆĚÜĀšćĂĆî ðøąÖĂïéšü÷ǰéĉîǰîĚĞćǰĕöšǰĕôǰēúĀąǰđðŨîÿŠüîðøąÖĂï×ĂÜÿøøóÿĉęÜêŠćÜėǰđðŨîĒîüÙĉéðøĆßâć ēïøćè×ĂÜÝĊîìĊęĔßšĔîÖćøĂíĉïć÷óĆçîćÖćøÙüćöđðúĊę÷îĒðúÜ×ĂÜíøøößćêĉĒúąÿøøóÿĉęÜ êŠćÜėǰĔîēúÖǰ Zhang Fan, 2001: 64-65 ǰ

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ĂĆ î ìĊę Ý øĉ Ü ǰêš î Ùøĉ ÿ êŤ ý êüøøþìĊę ǰ ǰđðŨ î ÷č Ù ïč Ö đïĉ Ö Öćø ÿĞ ć øüÝĒĀúŠ Ü ēïøćèÙéĊ Ĕ îÝĊ î ǰìĆĚ Ü øĆ å ïćúÙèąßćêĉ Ē úąóøøÙ ÙĂööĉü îĉ ÿ êŤêŠćÜÖĘöĂÜđĀĘ îüŠćēïøćèÙéĊ öĊï ìïćìÿĞ ćÙĆâ÷ĉę ÜêŠĂÖćø óĉÿĎÝîŤüŠćßćüÝĊîĒúąĂćø÷íøøöÝĊîöĊĒĀúŠÜÖĞćđîĉéĔîïøĉđüèúčŠöîĚĞćĀüÜ đĀĂêĂîÖúćÜǰĀøČ Ă ìĊę đ øĊ ÷ ÖĔîõćþćÝĊ î üŠ ć ǰĶÝÜĀ÷üîķǰ ˄ѝ৏˅ ÝćÖîĆĚîǰÝċÜÙŠĂ÷ėǰĒñŠ×÷ć÷ĂĂÖĕð÷ĆÜõĎöĉõćÙêŠćÜėǰìĆĚÜõćÙđĀîČĂĒúą õćÙĔêš (Chang, 1968 ĂšćÜëċÜĔîǰWang, 1997: 32)ǰîĆÖíøèĊüĉì÷ć ĒúąîĆÖēïøćèÙéĊßćüÿüĊđéîē÷ăĆîǰÖčîîćøŤǰĒĂîđéĉøŤÿÿĆî (Johan Gunnar Andersson)ǰøŠüöÖĆïîĆÖēïøćèÙéĊÝĊîǰêĉÜǰđĀüĉîđÝĊ÷Üǰ(б᮷ ⊏ǰǰV.K. Ting)ǰĒúąđüĉÜǰđĀüĉîĀšćü (㗱᮷♿ W.H. Wong)ǰĕéšÙšîóï àćÖôĂÿàĉúàċęÜõć÷ĀúĆÜøĎšÝĆÖÖĆîĔîßČęĂǰĶöîčþ÷ŤðŦÖÖĉęÜķǰøąĀüŠćÜÿĞćøüÝ  5

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2 ÖúčŠöÝÜĀ÷üîǰ ìĊęøćïúčŠöĒöŠîĚĞćĀüÜđĀĂêĂîÖúćÜ öĊ ïøĉ đ üèêĂîĔêš × ĂÜàćîàĊ ǰ ĒúąòŦũ Ü êąüĆ î êÖ×ĂÜđĀĂĀîćîđðŨ î ýĎ î ÷Ť Ö úćÜǰđéĉ ö đðŨ î ĒĀúŠ Ü ÖĞ ć đîĉ é üĆ ç îíøøöÞČ Ă ßćî ˄⻱ኡ˅Ēúą üĆçîíøøöđñ÷ĀúĊÖŠćÜ˄㼤ᵾ዇˅ (6000-5500 BC) êŠĂöćÝċÜðøćÖä üĆ ç îíøøöĀ÷Š ć ÜđÞć ˄Ԡ並˅ÖøąÝć÷Ă÷ĎŠ ē é÷ìĆę ü ĕðǰàċę Ü ÿćöćøë ĒïŠÜđðŨîÿĂÜðøąđõìǰĕéšĒÖŠǰĒïïðŜćîóĆü ˄ॺඑ˅ĒúąĒïïđöĊę÷üêĊĚ ēÖüǰ ˄ᓉᓅ⋏˅îĆï ĕéšüŠćđðŨ îïøĉ đ üèìĊęüĆç îíøøöÝĊîĔîÿöĆ÷ÖŠĂîöĊ ÙüćöàĆïàšĂîöćÖìĊęÿčé đÙøČęĂÜðŦŪîéĉîđñćðøćÖäúüéúć÷đø×ćÙèĉê 3 ǰÖúčŠ ö õćÙêąüĆ î êÖđÞĊ ÷ ÜĔêš ǰ öĊ ï øĉ đ üèĒĂŠ Ü đÿÞüîđðŨ î ýĎ î ÷Ť Ö úćÜïøĉ đ üèúčŠ ö ĒöŠ îĚĞ ć Ē÷ÜàĊ ê ĂîÖúćÜǰ đðŨ î ĒĀúŠ Ü ÖĞ ć đîĉ é üĆçîíøøöêšćàĊ˄བྷⓚ˅ (4400-3300 BC) üĆçîíøøöÞďüĊęđÝĊ÷ĀúĉÜ ˄ቸᇦዝ˅ (3000-2700 BC)ǰĒúąüĆçîíøøöÞČĂđÝĊ÷đĀĂ˄⸣ᇦ⋣ ᮷ॆ˅ (4600-4000 BC) àċęÜ öĊÙüćöÿĆöóĆî íŤÖĆï üĆ çîíøøöéšć î êąüĆîêÖđÞĊ÷ÜđĀîČĂǰìĉđïêǰĒúąđĂđßĊ÷êąüĆîĂĂÖđÞĊ÷ÜĔêš 4 ǰÖúčŠ ö õćÙêąüĆ î ĂĂÖǰöĊ à ćîêÜđðŨ î ýĎ î ÷Ť Ö úćÜǰđðŨ î ĒĀúŠÜÖĞćđîĉéüĆçîíøøöđðś÷àĉî ˄े䗋˅ (5400-4400 BC) ìĊęóĆçîć đðŨîüĆçîíøøöêšćđĀüĉîē×üŠ ˄བྷ⊦ਓ˅ (4300-2500 BC) Ēúą üĆçîíøøöĀúÜßćî˄嗉ኡ˅ (2500-2000 BC) ĔîđüúćêŠĂöćǰéĆÜÝą đĀĘîĕéšÝćÖõćßîąÝĂÖàċęÜóïĔîüĆçîíøøöđðś÷àĉîĕéšÿČïìĂéĕðđðŨî ÝĂÖÿćö×ćĔîüĆçîíøøöêšćđĀüĉîē×üŠĒúąđÙøČęĂÜðŦŪîéĉîđñć×ĆééĞćöĆîøĎð ëšü÷ìøÜÿĎÜĔîüĆçîíøøöĀúÜßćî 5 ǰÖúčŠöõćÙêąüĆîĂĂÖđÞĊ÷ÜĔêš öĊýĎî÷ŤÖúćÜĂ÷ĎŠøĂïìąđúÿćï ĕìŠĀĎǰïøĉđüèđÝĊ÷ÜàĎĒúąđÝšĂđÝĊ÷ÜǰàċęÜđðŨîĒĀúŠÜñúĉêךćüôśćÜ (Millet)ǰöĊ üĆç îíøøöÿĂÜÖúčŠ ö ǰÖúčŠ öĒøÖĂ÷ĎŠ ï øĉ đ üèøĂïìąđúÿćïĕìŠĀĎ ǰ ĕéšĒ ÖŠǰ üĆç îíøøöĀöŠć đÝĊ ÷ðŦ Ü ˄傜ᇦ⎌˅üĆçîíøøöàÜđÝţĂ ˄ፗ⌭˅àċęÜÝą /:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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Fu LechengтАл┌╡тАм╥АсбА╟Д╟Й╤Эр┤нфЩКрив╦Д╨║▐╝╦Е╟К╟ДриареЗ╦ЦсХИсвЬр┤о ╥Ц╦И сТд╟Д

Gu Jiegangф║оф║╣рбК╟Д╟ЙуЖДрв╣уЬСтАлтнП▌╕▐ЩтАмс┤и╟К╦И╟ЙриФривфЧШ╟КуЕЬ╨░ ▐╝╟Д╨║тОзриФуЙ╜рактб╕т╜о╦И сТд╟Д BBBBBB╟Д╟ЙсбБс▒ЯсШ╛╤╕уХЖ╟ЛриФривфЧШ╟Мт▓┤╦Ы╟К╦И╟ЙриФривфЧШ╟КуЕЬ╨░ ▐╝╟Д╨║тОзриФуЙ╜рактб╕т╜о╦И сТд╟Д BBBBBB╟Д╟Й╨╛флбтж┤ри╝тАлтнП▌╕тАмфЗкриФрив╥Ц╟К╦И╟ЙриФривфЧШ╟КуЕЬ╨░▐╝╟Д╨║ тОзриФуЙ╜рактб╕т╜о╦И сТд╟Д

Li Xueqinс╡╛сЖЦрдФ╟Д╟Й╤Эр┤нриФ╘Усо╖с░╛╨╛р┤нсЗжсЦТсбАт╣ДуВж╟Д╙БржЗ╙ктЙБ рактб╕т╜о╦И сТд╟Д BBBBBB╟Д╟ЙфОарактпБриФс░ж╘У╟К╟ДфЧнсЖ▒р╜ЧсЖЦрактб╕т╜о╦И сТд╟Д

Sima QianриихВЬфЧ▒╟Д╟ЙривфЗа╟К╟Д╤Эре╛╥ЦсЙ░╦И сТд╟Д

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Xu XushengсЧАс░ЭтнП╟Д╟Й╤Эр┤нриФривт▓┤╒РфИдс░ж╘У╟К╦Др╗ОфЗТс╡Ь╦Е╟Дсо╖ твЩрактб╕т╜о╦ИсТд╟Д

Yuan Keу║▒тз▓╟Д╟Й╤Эр┤нт╛Оре╛╒РфИд╟К╟ДреЗ╙Ь╦Ц╙ктЙБсо╖сЖЦрактб╕т╜о╦И  сТд╟Д

Zhang FanсХРраС╟Д╟Й╤Эр┤нриФ╘УуЖ░рив╟К╟ДреЗ╙Ь╦ЦреЗ╙Ьр╜ЧсЖЦрактб╕ т╜о╦И сТд╟Д

 

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Learning about Chinese Civilization through Historiography and Archaeology Kornphanat Tungkeunkunt ABSTRACT This article aims to examine the development of historiography on ancient and pre-historic Chinese civilization and dynamic changes in archaeological findings, with attention to how these have contributed to the establishment of a contemporary intellectual framework for the understanding of the origins of Chinese civilization. Furthermore, it demonstrates that progresses in Chinese archaeology and ancient history have significantly influenced perceptions of Chinese history and civilization. Keywords: Chinese civilization, Chinese historiography, Debate on Ancient History, Regional and Typological Division

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ǰðøćèßîÖǰêøĊøĆêîüćøĊÿĉîǰîĆÖýċÖþćðøĉââćēìǰÙèąõćþćĒúąüøøèÙéĊÝĊîǰÿć×ćüøøèÙéĊ ÝĊ î ÿöĆ ÷ ĔĀöŠ Ē úąøŠ ü öÿöĆ ÷ ǰöĀćüĉ ì ÷ćúĆ ÷ ôĎś êĆĚ î ǰÿćíćøèøĆ å ðøąßćßîÝĊ î ǰǰEmail: pranchanok.t @gmail.com

 

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ǰ 1. ĂîčõćÙÖĆïÙüćöđðŨîÿćÖú×ĂÜǰđĀúĊ÷üĕÝÝČĚĂĂĊĚǰ ǰ ǰĂîčõćÙÖćøĔĀšøćÜüĆúĒúąÖćøúÜēìþÝĞćîüîöćÖĔîǰđĀúĊ÷ü ĕÝÝČĚĂĂĊǰĚ đĀöČĂîĀøČĂÙúšć÷ÙúċÜÖĆïĂîčõćÙÖćøĔĀšøćÜüĆúĒúąÖćøúÜēìþ Ĕî éĆßîĊĂîčõćÙîĉìćîóČĚîïšćîǰ ×ĂÜÿêĉíǰíĂöðşÿĆîǰĒÿéÜĔĀšđĀĘîüŠć öîčþ÷ŤĔîÿĆÜÙöÝĊîÖĆïöîčþ÷ŤĔîÿĆÜÙöüĆçîíøøöĂČęîėǰöĊ úĆÖþèąøŠüöĔî éšćîêŠćÜėǰéĆÜîĊĚǰǰǰ ǰ 1.1. ÙčèúĆÖþèąĒúąÖćøÖøąìĞćìĊęìĞćĔĀšĕéšøĆïøćÜüĆú ǰ ÙčèúĆ ÖþèąĒúąÖćøÖøąìĞć ìĊęìĞć ĔĀš êĆü úąÙøĔîđøČęĂ ÜĕéšøĆ ï øćÜüĆú ÿąìšĂîëċÜÙčèúĆÖþèąĒúąÖćøÖøąìĞćìĊęñĎšÙîĔîÿĆÜÙö÷Ö÷ŠĂÜǰǰǰ ßČęîßöǰñĎšüĉÝĆ÷óïüŠćÙčèúĆÖþèąĒúąÖćøÖøąìĞćìĊęñĎšÙîĔîÿĆÜÙöÝĊîĒúą ñĎš Ù îĔîüĆ ç îíøøöĂČę î ėßČę î ßö÷Ö÷Š Ă ÜêøÜÖĆ î ǰĕéš Ē ÖŠ ǰ ÙüćöÖêĆ â ťĎ ÖêđüìĊêŠĂïĉéćöćøéćǰ(Q65. Filial duty rewarded) ÙüćööĊîĚĞćĔÝǰ (Q42. Generosity rewarded) ÙüćöàČęĂêøÜǰ(Q54. Uprightness rewarded) ÙüćöøĆÖ (Q56. Love rewarded) Öćøÿüéõćüîć (Q33. Reward for saying of prayers) ÙüćöđßĊę÷üßćâßĞćîćâ (Q88. Reward for proficiency) Ùüćöüĉøĉ÷ąĂčêÿćĀą (Q86. Reward for industry) ǰÙüćöàČęĂÿĆê÷Ť×ĂÜõøø÷ćǰ(Q83.1. Reward for wife’s fidelity) Öćøëüć÷ĂćĀćøĒéŠÿĉęÜđĀîČĂíøøößćêĉĀøČĂÿĉęÜ ýĆÖéĉĝÿĉìíĉĝ (Q32.Reward for offering food to crucifix)ǰēé÷óïüŠć êĆüúąÙøìĊęöĊÙčèÿöïĆêĉĀøČĂÖøąìĞćךćÜêšîöĆÖĕéšøĆïøćÜüĆúĂ÷ĎŠđÿöĂǰđߊîǰ ĔîđøČęĂÜǰĂčÖìÖõĆ÷ ≤⚮ ǰÿćöĊõøø÷ćßćüîćÙĎŠĀîċęÜ÷ĂöìĉĚÜúĎÖßć÷ìĆĚÜ ÿĂÜđóČęĂߊü ÷ÖĆîó÷čÜöćøéćñĎš ĒÖŠ ß øćĀîĊ îĚĞćĀúćÖìĊę ĕĀúïŠćđךćìŠü ö ĀöĎŠïšćîǰđöČęĂîĚĞćúéÖúĆïïšćîÖúĆïóïúĎÖßć÷ìĆĚÜÙĎŠîĆęÜ÷ĉĚöøŠćðúĂéõĆ÷Ă÷ĎŠ ïîđêĊ÷ÜĂ÷ŠćÜðćäĉĀćøĉ÷Ťǰ

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1.2 øćÜüĆúìĊęĕéšøĆï ǰ øćÜüĆ ú ìĊę êĆ ü úąÙøêŠ ć Üėǰĕéš øĆ ï ÿąìš Ă îÿĉę Ü ìĊę ñĎš Ù îĔîÿĆ Ü Ùö ðøćøëîćǰÝćÖÖćøüĉ ÝĆ ÷ ǰóïüŠ ć øćÜüĆ ú ìĊę ÿĆ Ü ÙöêŠ ć Üėǰðøćøëîć Ùúšć÷ÙúċÜÖĆîĕéšĒÖŠǰǰÖćøôŚŪîÖúĆïöćöĊßĊüĉêǰ(Q151.9. Resurrection as reward) ÙüćöøęĞćøü÷ǰ(Q111. Riches as reward)ǰÖćøĕéš Öúć÷đðŨîđìó (Q172.9. Deification as reward) ÖćøĕéšøĆïÖćøðÖ ðŦÖþŤÝćÖđõìõĆ÷ǰ(Q150. Immunity from disaster as reward) ÖćøøĆÖþćĔĀšĀć÷ÝćÖĂćÖćøđÝĘïĕך ǰ(Q161. Healing as reward) øćÜüĆúđĀúŠćîĊĚĒÿéÜĔĀšđĀĘîüŠć öîčþ÷ŤĒöšÝąĂ÷ĎŠêŠćÜÿĆÜÙöêŠćÜüĆçîíøøö ÖĆîĒêŠ÷ĆÜÙÜðøćøëîćĔîÿĉęÜđéĊ÷üÖĆîǰðøćøëîćÝąöĊßĊüĉêĂ÷ĎŠǰöĊåćîąìĊęéĊ ×ċĚîǰðøćøëîćìĊęÝąøĂéóšîÝćÖēøÙøšć÷ĒúąõĆ÷ĂĆîêøć÷êŠćÜėǰđðŨîêšî  1.3 ÙčèúĆÖþèąĒúąÖćøÖøąìĞćìĊęìĞćĔĀšëĎÖúÜēìþ ÙčèúĆÖþèąĀøČĂÖćøÖøąìĞćìĊęìĞćĔĀšêĆüúąÙøëĎÖúÜēìþđðŨîÿĉęÜ ÿąìšĂîëċÜÙčèúĆÖþèąĒúąÖćøÖøąìĞćìĊęñĎšÙîĔîÿĆÜÙöđĀĘîüŠćĕöŠëĎÖêšĂÜǰ ēé÷Ùč èúĆ ÖþèąìĊę óïÙúš ć÷Ùúċ ÜÖĆ î ĔîǰđĀúĊ ÷ üĕÝÝČĚ ĂĂĊĚ ǰ ĒúąĔîǰéĆ ß îĊ ĂîčõćÙîĉìćîóČĚîïšćîǰĕéšĒÖŠ ÖćøÖøąìĞćñĉéĔîđßĉÜßĎšÿćü (Q241. Adultery punished) ÖćøêĆéÿĉîÙéĊÙüćöñĉé (Q265.False judging punished) ÙüćöĂÖêĆâťĎ (Q281. Ingratitude punished) ÖćøēÖÜ đÜĉîǰ(Q274. Swindler punished) ÖćøÛŠćÙîêć÷ (Q211 Murder punished)ǰÖćøĔßš đ üìöîêøŤ ïĆ î éćúĔĀš đ Öĉ é ēøÙøąïćéǰ(Q392. Punishment of evil magician who has caused plague) đðŨîêšîǰ 1.4 ïìúÜēìþìĊęĕéšøĆï ǰ öîč þ ÷Ť öĆ Ö Ĕßš ÿĉę Ü àċę Ü êîĀüćéÖúĆ ü öćđðŨ î ïìúÜēìþǰÝćÖ ïìúÜēìþìĊęÙúšć÷ÙúċÜ ÖĆîĔîǰđĀúĊ÷üĕÝÝČĚĂĂĊĚ ǰÖĆïǰéĆßîĊĂîčõćÙîĉìćî óČĚî ïš ć îǰđøćÝċ Ü đĀĘ î ÙüćöĀüćéÖúĆ ü øŠü ö×ĂÜöîčþ ÷ßćêĉ ǰ đߊ î ǰÖćø /:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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ÿĎâđÿĊ÷ìøĆó÷Ťÿĉîǰ(Q595. Loss or destruction of property as punishment ǰÖćøđîøđìý (Q431. Punishment: banishment, exile) ǰÙüćöêć÷ǰ(Q411. Death as punishment) ÖćøëĎÖÿćð (Q556. Curse as punishment) ÖćøđÖĉéĔîßćêĉõóìĊęêęĞćÖüŠćđéĉöǰ (Q551.5.1. Reincarnation into degraded form as punishment) đðŨîêšî 2. ĂîčõćÙÖĆïđĂÖúĆÖþèŤìćÜüĆçîíøøö×ĂÜǰđĀúĊ÷üĕÝÝČĚĂĂĊĚǰ ĒöšĂîč õćÙÖćøĔĀš øćÜüĆúĒúąÖćøúÜēìþĔîǰđĀúĊ ÷üĕÝÝČĚĂĂĊĚǰ ÝĞćîüîöćÖÝąÙúš ć÷ÙúċÜÖĆïĂîčõ ćÙĔîǰéĆß îĊ ĂîčõćÙîĉìćîóČĚîïšćîǰ Āúć÷Āöüééšü ÷ÖĆî ǰĒêŠ÷ĆÜöĊÝĞ ćîüîĕöŠîšĂ÷ìĊęĒêÖêŠćÜÖĆîĂ÷ĎŠ ǰÿŠ üîìĊę ĒêÖêŠćÜÖĆîđĀúŠćîĆĚî ĒÿéÜëċÜđĂÖúĆÖþèŤìćÜüĆçîíøøöïćÜðøąÖćø ×ĂÜÿĆÜÙöÝĊî ìĊęüøøèÖøøöđøČęĂÜǰđĀúĊ÷üĕÝÝČĚĂĂĊĚǰëČĂÖĞćđîĉé×ċĚîöćǰēé÷ öĊðøąđéĘîìĊęîŠćÿîĔÝéĆÜîĊĚ 2.1 ñĎšĔĀšøćÜüĆúĒúąñĎšúÜēìþ ĔîǰđĀúĊ÷üĕÝÝČĚĂĂĊĚǰǰñĎšĔĀšøćÜüĆúĒúąñĎšúÜēìþÿŠüîĔĀâŠđðŨîÿĉęÜ đĀîČĂíøøößćêĉǰñĎšĔĀšøćÜüĆúĒúąñĎšúÜēìþìĊę ĕöŠðøćÖäĔîǰéĆßîĊĂîčõćÙ îĉìćîóČĚîïšćîǰđߊîǰðŘýćÝÝĉĚÜÝĂÖǰ÷öïćúǰĒúąîĆÖóøêđêţćǰĒÿéÜĔĀš đĀĘîÙüćöđßČęĂ×ĂÜÿĆÜÙöÝĊîìĊęĒêÖêŠćÜĕðÝćÖÿĆÜÙöüĆçîíøøöĂČęî ǰđߊî ĔîđøČęĂÜǰÿĀć÷øęĞćÿčøćǰ 䞂৻ ǰïĆèæĉêđßĂ 䖖⭏ ǰĕüšßĊüĉêðŘýćÝÝĉĚÜÝĂÖ ìĊęöć×ēö÷ÿčøćǰìĆĚÜ÷ĆÜĔÝÖüšćÜÙïöĆîđðŨîÿĀć÷ǰðŘýćÝÝĉĚÜÝĂÖÝċÜöĆÖîĞć ēßÙúćõöćĔĀšđ×ćĂ÷ĎŠđÿöĂǰÝîđ×ćöĆęÜÙĆęÜ×ċĚîöć 2.2 ñĎšĕéšøĆïøćÜüĆúĀøČĂñĎšëĎÖúÜēìþ đĀúĊ÷üĕÝÝČĚĂĂĊĚ ǰöĊđøČęĂÜÿĆĚîĀúć÷đøČęĂÜìĊęöĊïĆèæĉêđðŨîêĆüúąÙø đĂÖĒúąöĊ ï ìïćìđðŨ î ñĎš ĕ éš øĆï øćÜüĆ ú ĒúąñĎš ëĎ Ö úÜēìþǰđߊ î ĔîđøČę Ă Üǰ /:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`




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àĂÖĀúČï×ĂÜĀšüÜÙüćöÙĉéǰüøøèÖøøöđøČęĂÜǰđĀúĊ÷üĕÝÝČĚĂĂĊĚǰĒöšÝąđðŨî üøøèÖøøöĒôîêćàĊìĊęđúŠćđøČęĂÜøćüÙüćööĀĆýÝøø÷Ť×ĂÜÿĉęÜ đĀúČĂđßČęĂ êŠćÜėǰĒêŠÖćøýċÖþćüøøèÖøøöđøČęĂÜéĆÜÖúŠćüìĞćĔĀšóïüŠćđïČĚĂÜĀúĆÜ×ĂÜ đĀúŠćǰđìóǰõĎêǰóøć÷ǰðŘýćÝǰđĀúŠćîĊĚúšüîöĊÙüćöđðŨî ÝøĉÜìćÜÿĆÜÙö üĆçîíøøöǰðöðŦâĀćǰĒúąÙüćöðøćøëîć×ĂÜñĎšÙîĔîÿĆÜÙöÝĊî ĒòÜ Ă÷ĎŠìĆĚÜÿĉĚî ïøøèćîčÖøö ßîĉîìøŤßĆ÷ǰĂĉîìĉøćõøèŤǰĒúąǰÿčüĉì÷ŤǰĀĉøĆè÷ÖćèæŤ. (2548). ðìćîčÖøöýĆóìŤÖćøýċÖþć. ÖøčÜđìóĄǰĒüŠîĒÖšü. ðøąÙĂÜǰîĉööćîđĀöĉîìŤǰ  ǰîĉìćîóČĚîïšćîǰÖøčÜđìóĄǰ ǰ ēÙøÜÖćøđñ÷ĒóøŠñúÜćîüĉßćÖćøÙèąĂĆÖþøýćÿêøŤ ǰ ÝčāćúÜÖøèŤöĀćüĉì÷ćúĆ÷ óĆßîĊǰêĆĚÜ÷Čî÷Üǰ ). ÖüĊîĉóîíŤÿÜÙøćöÝĊîøćßüÜýŤëĆÜǰ:ǰ ÖćøýċÖþćđßĉÜüćìÖøøöǰüĉì÷ćîĉóîíŤðøĉââćéčþãĊïĆèæĉê ÿć×ćüĉßćüøøèÖøøöĒúąüøøèÖøøöđðøĊ÷ïđìĊ÷ïǰÙèą ĂĆÖþøýćÿêøŤ ÝčāćúÜÖøèŤöĀćüĉì÷ćúĆ÷ ýĉøćóøǰèǰëúćÜǰ  ǰǰìùþãĊÙêĉßîüĉì÷ćǰüĉíĊüĉì÷ćĔîÖćø ǰ üĉđÙøćąĀŤǰêĞćîćîîĉìćîóČĚîïšćîǰÖøčÜđìóĄǰÿĞćîĆÖóĉöóŤ ǰ ĒĀŠÜÝčāćúÜÖøèŤöĀćüĉì÷ćúĆ÷ ÿčüøøèćǰǰÿëćĂćîĆîìŤǰ  ǰĀúčîĂĊęüŤǰ×ÜÝČęĂÿîìîćǰÖøčÜđìóĄǰ ǰ ēĂđóŠîïčŢÖÿŤ Armitt, Lucie.ǰ(2005). Fantasy Fiction: An Introduction. New York: The ContinuumǰInternational Publishing Group.

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#+:! +=+9 !/:+=2!<

147

Thompson, Stith. (1955). Motif-Index of Folk-Literature Revised and Enlarged Edition (A to Z). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Lin Geng áˇ&#x2021;á&#x201C;&#x160;. (1995). Zhongguo Wenxue Jianshi Ń?ŕ´­ Ꭱá&#x2020;&#x2013; ă&#x2020;°ŕ¨˘. Beijing: Beijing Daxue Chubanshe. Pu Songling ㍢ᜎĺ&#x2013;´. (2013). Liaozhaizhiyi ă&#x2122;şáŽťá&#x2DC;&#x2021;á&#x201D;˛. Haâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;erbin: Heilongjiang Meishu Chubanshe.Ç° Wang Qingyun ⌝á&#x2019;śÓ . (2003). Zhongguo Gudai Wenxue: Xiaoshuo Juan Ń?ŕ´­ŕ¨&#x201D;Ô&#x201C;Ꭱá&#x2020;&#x2013;:á&#x2C6;żä&#x2C6;¤ŕŚ§. Beijing: Beijing Huayu Jiaoxue Chubanshe.                

/:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


148

5!@(: :+G3Ä&#x160;+:/9-E-8 :+-F1G! !<*:*E'!:=!= @D3-=*/H?5M 5=M



Reward and Punishment Motifs in Chinese Fantasy Novel -JBP[IBJ[IJZJ Pranchanok Treerattanawareesin ABSTRACT This research paper aims to study the reward and punishment motifs in 62 stories in the series of Chinese fantasy novel -JBP[IBJ[IJZJ by comparing to those in Stith Thompsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s .PUJGJOEFYÇ°PGÇ°'PMLMJUFSBUVSF. The results of this research reveal that the reward and punishment motifs in -JBP[IBJ[IJZJ and in .PUJGJOEFYÇ°PGÇ°GPMLMJUFSBUVSF share some similarities and distinctions. The similar motifsÇ° convey humanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s universal characteristics. Whereas the distinctive motifs illustrate the unique features of Chinese cultures which differ from other cultures.Ç°The reward and punishment motifs in -JBP[IBJ[IJZJ also portray the social concepts of Chinese people, including 1) the concept of multi-religious and beliefs in Chinese society, 2) the concept of ideal scholars, 3) the concept of social and political problems, and 4) the concept of ideal family. The study of the reward and punishment motifs in -JBP[IBJ[IJZJÇ° reflects the images of Chinese society and their desires hidden in the miracles of fantasy novel. Keywords: -JBP[IBJ[IJZJ Ç°SFXBSEÇ°BOEÇ°QVOJTINFOUÇ°NPUJGT Ç° $IJOFTFÇ°GBOUBTZÇ°MJUFSBUVSF /:+2:+=!/<*:Ćš#Ä =Laa2<3: )bef`


lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJ䊑ᖒᆇ⹄ウ

Namonrut Yamwong1 ᪈㾱 ൘≹ᆇᶴ䙐ਢкˈ䊑ᖒᱟᴰᰙⲴа⿽䙐ᆇᯩ⌅ˈ䊑ᖒᆇᱟ ≹ᆇփ㌫ѝᴰสᵜⲴ㔃ᶴ㊫රˈ⹄ウ≹ᆇⲴᶴ䙐ᗵ享Ӿ䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޕ‬ ᡻DŽ䊑ᖒᱟа⿽ᴰㆰঅⲴ䙐ᆇ⌅ˈնҏᱟа⿽ᖸ䟽㾱Ⲵ䙐ᆇᯩ ⌅DŽୀ‫˅˄ޠ‬൘ljѝഭ᮷ᆇᆖNJ䟼ᤷࠪ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ䟽㾱ᙗˈቡ ᱟĀа࠷᮷ᆇ⋑ᴹ䊑ᖒ᮷ᆇ‫ڊ‬ส⹰ˈቡ߉нࠪᶕDŽāഐ㘼ˈ⹄ウ ≹ᆇⲴᶴ䙐ˈᓄԕ⹄ウ䊑ᖒᆇѪ࠷‫⛩ޕ‬DŽ ᵜ᮷Ⲵѫ㾱⹄ウ޵ᇩᱟṩᦞljᯠॾᆇިNJሶ  њ䊑ᖒᆇ ᙫ㔃઼࠶㊫DŽᵜ᮷ᔪањᮠᦞᓃˈѫ㾱ԕ䊑ᖒᆇⲴᵜѹѪ‫ˈᦞ׍‬ ሶ䊑ᖒᆇ䘋㹼࠶㊫ˈԕ৺࠶᷀ᆳԜⲴ㔃ᶴDŽਖཆˈ࠶᷀䊑ᖒᆇᡰ փ⧠ࠪ‫Ⲵ≁ݸ‬਴⿽ᙍ㔤⁑ᔿDŽ ‫ޣ‬䭞䇽˖䈤᮷䀓ᆇǃ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ࠶㊫ǃ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ㔃ᶴ

 ⊸㡌Ү  lj䈤Ā䊑ᖒāᆇNJᤷࠪ䊑ᖒᱟ䲿⵰⢙փⲴ䖞 ᔃˈ⭘⴨ᓄⲴ㓯ᶑᢺһ⢙Ⲵ䖞ᔃᡆާᴹ⢩ᖱⲴ䜘࠶᧿⭫ࠪᶕⲴ䙐 ᆇ⌅DŽ൘Ӫ㊫Ⲵઘതˈᴹኡᐍǃ㥹ᵘǃ伎⿭ǃ䎠ޭˈӪ㊫㾱ਲ਼ǃ クǃտǃ㹼ˈቡ㾱ࡦ䙐ᐕާ઼֯⭘ᐕާDŽ䇔⸕ѻ⢙ॳုⲮᘱˈᡰ ԕ䇠ᖅѻᆇѠᇼཊṧDŽ䘉ṧˈᡁԜਟԕṩᦞ⢙䊑Ⲵ⿽㊫ˈሶ䊑ᖒ ᆇ䘋㹼࠶㊫ˈл䶒䙀а䈤᰾DŽ

 

ǰ/BNPOSVUǰ:BNXPOHˈӪ᮷о⽮Պᆖ䲒ѝ᮷㌫ˈ⌠ഭ␵䗸㾯ेབྷᆖ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


150

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

аǃ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ࠶㊫ ࡽӪ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ⹄ウᡀ᷌‫ޣ‬Ҿ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ࠶㊫ˈⴞࡽᴹୀ‫ޠ‬ ˄˅൘ljѝഭ᮷ᆇᆖNJ⹄ウˈԆṩᦞĀйҖ䈤āⲴส⹰кሶ 䊑ᖒᆇ࠶Ѫഋ⿽㊫ර˖䊑䓛ǃ䊑⢙ǃ䊑ᐕ઼䊑һDŽ‫ן‬䵎˄˅ ൘lj⭢僘᮷о⧋䳵᮷䊑ᖒᆇਆ䊑ᯩᔿ∄䖳NJⲴ⹄ウˈԆُ䢤ୀ‫ޠ‬ Ⲵ࠶㊫ᯩ⌅ˈሶ䊑ᖒᆇ᤹➗ᡰਆ䊑Ⲵሩ䊑н਼ˈ࠶Ѫй⿽㊫ර˖ 䊑䓛ǃ䊑⢙઼䊑ᐕDŽ⊸㡌Ү˄˅lj䈤Ā䊑ᖒāᆇNJѫ㾱࠶᷀ 䊑ᖒᆇⲴ࠶㊫ˈ᤹➗㿶䀂к࠶ˈྲ˖↓㿶ѻᖒǃ‫ח‬㿶ѻᖒǃ‫؟‬㿶 ѻᖒǃԠ㿶ѻᖒㅹDŽ ᵜ᮷৲㘳ҶljᯠॾᆇިNJ㖁ˈਁ⧠䊑ᖒᆇᙫ‫ޡ‬ᴹ  њˈᵜ ᮷᤹➗ljᯠॾᆇިNJ㖁㘳ሏҶ  њ䊑ᖒᆇⲴᵜѹˈሶᆳԜ࠶Ѫ  ⿽㊫ර˖Ӫ⢙˗ಘ⢙˗ࣘ⢙˗Ἵ⢙˗㠚❦⢙˗⽮Պǃ ⭏⍫˗኎ᙗ˗ࣘ֌ˈަѝ‫ޛ‬㊫䘈ਟԕ࠶Ѫࠐሿ㊫ˈྲл˖ ˄а˅Ӫ⢙㊫˄ њ˅ Ӫᱟз⢙Ⲵѫᇠˈ㾱䇔䇶ц⭼俆‫ݸ‬Ӿ㠚䓛ᔰ࿻DŽ൘䊑ᖒ䙐 ᆇⲴ䗷〻ѝˈӪⲴᙍᜣ᧗ࡦ⵰‫ޘ‬䗷〻ˈ䘉⿽䇔䇶൘䊑ᖒᶴᆇкⲴ ާփփ⧠ˈ俆‫ݸ‬ቡᱟ‫≁ݸ‬ሩӪ㠚䓛Ⲵᖒփ઼਴њಘᇈⲴ䈖ቭ᧿ ᪩DŽ䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬ҾӪ⢙㊫ˈਟԕ࠶Ѫйሿ㊫˖ Ӫփᮤփᖒ˖Ҷǃ‫ݯ‬ǃӪǃབྷǃྣǃቨǃᐣǃᆁǃ ᆀǃ⇽ǃ㠓ǃ䓛˄ њ˅˗ Ӫփ䜘࠶ᖒ˖࠭ǃӒǃ৸ǃਓǃ੅ǃഏǃ᡻ǃᗳǃ ⢉ǃ㛙ǃ㛳ǃ⡚ǃⴞǃⴹǃ㘼ǃ㙣ǃ㾱ǃ㠚ǃ喯ǃ 䶒ǃ俆ǃ亥ǃ∋˄ њ˅˗

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


Namonrut Yamwong

151

ӪⲴ〠䉃˖ཛǃᐛǃ∿ǃ公˄ њ˅DŽ ˄Ҽ˅ಘ⢙㊫˄ њ˅ Պࡦ䙐ᒦф֯⭘ᐕާ䘉ᱟӪ㊫ᲪភⲴփ⧠ˈ਼ᰦҏᱟӪ㊫ ᔰኅᴤཊࡋ䙐ᙗ⍫ࣘⲴ‫ޣ‬䭞DŽӾਔ㘱Ⲵ᮷ᆇѝˈᡁԜਁ⧠ᖸཊ㺘 ⽪ಘ⢙Ⲵ䊑ᖒᆇ䇠ᖅ⵰Ӫ㊫Ⲵਔ㘱᮷᰾DŽ䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿಘ⢙㊫ˈਟ ԕ࠶Ѫҍሿ㊫˖ ᐳᯉǃᴽ侠˖㉁ǃᑖǃ㌨ǃ㺓ǃᐮǃᐡ˄ њ˅˗ 䞂ಘ˖Ѡǃपǃওǃ⡥ǃ㕦ǃᯇ˄ њ˅˗ 伏ಘ˖ॅǃ༦ǃ⳯ǃ㠬ǃ䉶ǃ兢ǃ唾ǃॷ˄ њ˅˗ ‫ޥ‬ಘ˖࠰ǃӻǃ‫ן‬ǃᒢǃᕃǃᠸǃⲨǃ⸋ǃ⴮ǃ ⸒ǃय˄ њ˅ ˗ ˗ Ҁಘ˖Ҁǃъǃ⼜ǃ޼˄ њ˅ ࣣࣘᐕާ˖бǃᐕǃᐘǃᠹǃᯔǃ㙂˄ њ˅˗ ᦅࣘ⢙ᐕާ˖㖁ǃ⦷˄ њ˅˗ Ӕ䙊ᐕާ˖䖖ǃ㡏ǃᯩ˄ њ˅˗ ަԆ⭏⍫⭘ާ˖ѫǃӂǃࠐǃࠑǃॸǃᑊǃ⬖ǃҏ ˄ њ˅ DŽ



˄й˅ࣘ⢙㊫˄ њ˅ ࣘ⢙ᱟӪ㊫Ⲵᴻ৻Ӫ㊫оࣘ⢙ᴹᇶ࠷Ⲵ‫ޣ‬㌫Ӿਔ㘱Ⲵ䊑 ᖒᆇѝਟԕਁ⧠Ӫ㊫ᱟᖸ‫⌘ޣ‬Āࣘ⢙ц⭼āDŽӪ㊫ሩĀࣘ⢙ā䘋 㹼Ҷ㓶㠤Ⲵ᧿᪩DŽ䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿࣘ⢙㊫ˈਟԕ࠶Ѫഋሿ㊫˖ ˗ 呏ޭ˖Ѽǃ✹ǃ⠅ǃ嗉ǃ呏ǃ䳩˄ њ˅ 䎠ޭ˖嗏ǃ‫ބ‬ǃ‫ޅ‬ǃޭǃӕǃᖈǃ售ǃ傜ǃ⿪ǃ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


152

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

⿭ǃ⢋ǃ⣜ǃ㜭ǃ㱾ǃ䊅ǃ䊑ǃ咯ǃ啐ǃ㖺 ˄ њ˅˗ 㲛劬˖ᆳǃᐤǃ⿩ǃ䍍ǃ㴰ǃ䗠ǃ劬ǃ哴ǃ᱃ ˄ њ˅˗ ࣘ⢙䓛փ䜘ս˖сǃщǃ⮚ǃ䀂ǃথǃ㗭ǃ䶙 ˄ њ˅DŽ ˄ഋ˅Ἵ⢙㊫˄ њ˅ Ӫ㊫䲔Ҷ⿫нᔰĀࣘ⢙ц⭼āԕཆӪ㊫Ⲵ⭏⍫਼ṧоĀἽ ⢙ц⭼ā᚟᚟⴨‫ޣ‬DŽᡁԜ‫Ⲵ≁ݸ‬Ā㺓伏տ㹼āᖸཊᯩ䶒䜭㾱‫׍‬䎆 Ἵ⢙Ⲵ⭏䮯઼㑱⇆ˈᡰԕሩҾĀ㣡㥹ṁᵘāⲴ㓶㠤᧿᪩ˈᱟ䊑ᖒ 䙐ᆇ䟽㾱Ⲵ޵ᇩѻаDŽ䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬ҾἽ⢙㊫ˈਟԕ࠶Ѫйሿ㊫˖ ṁᵘǃ㥹ᵘǃ᷌ᇎ˖ћǃᵘǃㄩǃ㡌ǃ⬌ǃḀǃ ⿻ǃ᷌˄ њ˅˗ Ἵ⢙䜘࠶˖нǃᑍǃᵥǃ⭢ǃ⭛˄ њ˅˗ Ἵ⢙⭏䮯˖҉ǃ᡽ǃࠪǃ喀˄ њ˅DŽ ˄ӄ˅㠚❦⢙˄ њ˅ Ӫ㊫ᖸᰙቡ⌘᜿Ҷཙѻ᮷ǃൠѻ⨶൘䊑ᖒᆇѝᖃ❦ᴹᖸཊ ‫ޣ‬Ҿ㠚❦⢙Ⲵ᧿᪩DŽ䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿ㠚❦⢙ˈਟԕ࠶Ѫйሿ㊫˖ ཙオᆈ൘ѻ⢙˖Ӂǃ≄ǃᰕǃᱏǃᲃǃᴸǃ䴘ǃ䴧˄ њ˅˗ ᰐ⭏ભⲴࣘ⢙ѻᐕ˖ᐒ˄ њ˅˗ བྷൠкᆈ൘ѻ⢙˖൏ǃึǃ⚛ǃ⋹ǃ⸣ǃ⭠ǃ⭾ǃイǃ ⦹ǃ䱌ǃӅǃᐍǃኡǃ≤ǃঔǃѩǃӜǃᔻ˄ њ˅DŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


Namonrut Yamwong

153

˄‫⽮˅ޝ‬Պǃ⭏⍫˄ њ˅ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿ⽮Պǃ⭏⍫ˈਟԕ࠶Ѫйሿ㊫˖  侞伏ǃ侞ᯉ˖ᶕǃ᱄ǃ⿮ǃ〛ǃ㚹ǃ䝹ǃ丝ǃ兟˄  њ˅˗ ᔪㆁǃᔪㆁ䜘࠶˖ӝǃᇛǃ㠽ǃԃǃпǃটǃੁǃ䰘ǃ ᡧǃデǃ㹼˄ њ˅˗ DŽ 䍗ᐱঅս˖ᴻ˄ њ˅ ˄г˅኎ᙗ˄ њ˅ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿ኎ᙗᯩ䶒ˈਟԕ࠶Ѫєሿ㊫˖ ᖒ⣦ǃ⣦ᘱ˖‫ޒ‬ǃӊǃ࣋ǃӘǃઘǃᇵǃ↩ǃ⿳ǃ޹ǃ ᕏǃሿǃᆄǃ⡫ǃ䮯ǃᵚǃⲷǃ䗋ǃ儈ǃ᮷ǃ‫ݶ‬ǃ≨ǃ ഗ˄ њ˅˗ 仌㢢˖ⲭǃ⦴˄ њ˅DŽ ˄‫ ˄֌ࣘ˅ޛ‬њ˅ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿࣘ֌ᯩ䶒ˈਟԕ࠶Ѫєሿ㊫˖ оӪᴹ‫˖֌ࣘⲴޣ‬ঌǃ‫ޛ‬ǃҎǃҾǃԕǃ‫ޕ‬ǃ‫ݻ‬ǃ৽ǃ 㤕ǃᖣǃཝǃྐǃትǃ⅐ǃⲫǃӔǃᕇǃᐢǃ⭘ǃ㠣 ˄ њ˅˗ оࣘ⢙ᴹ‫˖֌ࣘⲴޣ‬㾯ǃ伎˄ њ˅DŽ ⭡↔ਟ㿱ˈ䊑ᖒᆇਟԕ࠶Ѫ‫⿽ޛ‬㊫රˈަѝ䘈ਟԕ޽࠶ᡀ ࠐሿ㊫ˈᵜ᮷ᢺ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ࠶㊫ᙫ㔃Ѫлࡇ㺘˖   

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


154

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

㺘 ˖䊑ᖒᆇⲴ࠶㊫㔏䇑㺘 䊑ᖒᆇ㊫ර  

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ࣘ֌

ሿ㊫ ᆇᮠ                     

ሿ㊫ ∄ֻ                     

བྷൠкᆈ൘ѻ⢙





侞伏ǃ侞ᯉ ᔪㆁǃᔪㆁ䜘࠶ 䍗ᐱঅս ᖒ⣦ǃ⣦ᘱ 仌㢢 оӪᴹ‫ޣ‬ оࣘ⢙ᴹ‫ޣ‬ ᙫ䇑

       

       

Ӫփᮤփᖒ Ӫփ䜘࠶ᖒ ӪⲴ〠䉃 ᐳᯉǃᴽ侠 䞂ಘ 伏ಘ ‫ޥ‬ಘ Ҁಘ ࣣࣘᐕާ ᦅࣘ⢙ᐕާ Ӕ䙊ᐕާ ަԆ⭏⍫⭘ާ 呏ޭ 䎠ޭ 㲛劬 ࣘ⢙䓛փ䜘ս ṁᵘǃ㥹ᵘǃ᷌ᇎ Ἵ⢙䜘࠶ Ἵ⢙⭏䮯 ཙオᆈ൘ѻ⢙ ᰐ⭏ભⲴࣘ⢙ѻᐕ

བྷ㊫ ᆇᮠ

བྷ㊫ ∄ֻ





































ṩᦞ㺘  ᵜ᮷ᢺ䊑ᖒᆇ࠶㊫ˈ࠶Ѫ‫⿽ޛ‬㊫රˈᡁԜਟⴻࠪ ᆇᮠᴰཊⲴᱟ‫ޣ‬Ҿಘ⢙ᴹ‫Ⲵޣ‬䊑ᖒᆇ ˈަ⅑ቡᱟࣘ⢙

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


Namonrut Yamwong

155

ǃӪ⢙ǃ㠚❦⢙ ㅹDŽަѝ‫ޛ‬㊫䘈ਟԕ࠶Ѫ ਴⿽ሿ㊫ˈሿ㊫ѝᮠ䟿ᖸཊⲴᴹӪփ䜘࠶ᖒ ǃ䎠ޭⲴࣘ⢙ ǃབྷൠкᆈ൘ѻ㠚❦⢙ǃ‫ޥ‬ಘǃ伏ಘ ǃ 䞂ಘ ㅹDŽ  Ҽǃ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ㔃ᶴ ṩᦞᵜ᮷ᔪⲴᮠᦞᓃˈਟԕᢺ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ㔃ᶴ࠶ᡀҍ⿽㊫ රˈྲл˖ ˄˅অа㔃ᶴ˄ њ˅Ҷǃ‫ݯ‬ǃӪǃབྷǃྣǃቨǃᐣǃ ᆁǃᆀǃ⇽ǃ㠓ǃ䓛ǃ৸ǃਓǃഏǃ᡻ǃᗳǃ⢉ǃ⡚ǃ ⴞǃ㘼ǃ㙣ǃ㠚ǃ䶒ǃ亥ǃ∋ǃཛǃ∿ǃ公ǃ㺓ǃᐮǃ ᐡǃѠǃपǃওǃ㕦ǃᯇǃॅǃ⳯ǃ㠬ǃ䉶ǃॷǃ࠰ǃ ᒢǃᕃǃᠸǃ⸒ǃбǃᐕǃᐘǃᯔǃ㙂ǃҀǃъǃ޼ǃ 䖖ǃ㡏ǃᯩǃѫǃӂǃࠐǃࠑǃॸǃ⬖ǃҏǃѼǃ嗉ǃ 呏ǃӕǃ傜ǃ⢋ǃ⣜ǃ䊅ǃ㖺ǃᐤǃ⿩ǃ䍍ǃ䗠ǃсǃ щǃ䶙ǃћǃᵘǃㄩǃ⬌ǃнǃ⭢ǃ⭛ǃ҉ǃ᡽ǃࠪǃ Ӂǃ≄ǃᰕǃᴸǃ䴘ǃ൏ǃ⚛ǃ⭠ǃイǃ⦹ǃӅǃᐍǃ ኡǃ≤ǃঔǃѩǃᔻǃᶕǃ⿮ǃ㚹ǃ䝹ǃ丝ǃпǃ䰘ǃ ᡧǃӊǃ࣋ǃ↩ǃ޹ǃᕏǃሿǃ䮯ǃᵚǃ䗋ǃ᮷ǃ≨ǃ ⲭǃ⦴ǃঌǃ‫ޛ‬ǃҎǃҾǃ‫ޕ‬ǃᖣǃཝǃ⅐ǃᕇǃᐢǃ ⭘ǃ㾯ǃ伎 ˄˅л㔃ᶴ˄ њ˅Ӓǃ੅ǃ㛳ǃ㾱ǃ喯ǃ俆ǃ㉁ǃ ᑖǃ㌨ǃ⡥ǃԃǃ༦ǃ唾ǃӻǃⲨǃ⦷ǃ⼜ǃ✹ǃ嗏ǃ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


156

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

‫ޅ‬ǃ‫ބ‬ǃᖈǃ售ǃ⿭ǃ䊑ǃ啐ǃᆳǃ㴰ǃ劬ǃ᱃ǃ⮚ǃ 䀂ǃ㡌ǃḀǃᑍǃᵥǃ喀ǃᱏǃ䴧ǃᐒǃ⋹ǃ䱌ǃ᱄ǃ 兟ǃӝǃᇛǃ㠽ǃデǃᇵǃ⿳ǃ⡫ǃⲷǃ儈ǃ㤕ǃྐǃ ⲫǃӔǃ㠣 ˄˅ᐖਣ㔃ᶴ˄ њ˅‫ן‬ǃ䳩ǃ㜭ǃথǃ㗭ǃ⿻ǃᲃǃ ึǃ⭾ǃ〛ǃটǃ㹼ǃᴻǃ‫ޒ‬ǃᆄǃ‫ݶ‬ǃԕ ˄˅ॺवത㔃ᶴ˄ њ˅㛙ǃⴹǃᐛǃ⴮ǃ㖁ǃ㱾ǃ咯ǃ ⸣ǃੁǃઘǃ޿ǃ৽ǃት ˄˅кѝл㔃ᶴ˄ њ˅兢ǃᑊǃ⠅ǃޭǃ哴ǃӜǃӘǃ‫ݻ‬ ˄˅অփ㔃ᶴ˄ њ˅ᠹǃ⿪ ˄˅ਣкवത㔃ᶴ˄ њ˅यǃ⸋ ˖࠭ ˄˅лवത㔃ᶴ˄ њ˅ ˄˅፼྇㔃ᶴ˄ њ˅᷌ ᵜ᮷ᢺ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ㔃ᶴᙫ㔃Ѫлࡇ㺘˖ 㺘 ˖䊑ᖒᆇ㔃ᶴⲴ㔏䇑㺘

䊑ᖒᆇⲴ㔃ᶴ  অа㔃ᶴ  кл㔃ᶴ  ᐖਣ㔃ᶴ  ॺवത㔃ᶴ  кѝл㔃ᶴ  অփ㔃ᶴ  ਣкवത㔃ᶴ  лवത㔃ᶴ  ፼྇㔃ᶴ ᙫ䇑 

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`

ᙫᮠ          

∄ֻ          


Namonrut Yamwong

157

ṩᦞ㺘 ˈᡁԜਟⴻࠪ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ㔃ᶴਟԕ࠶Ѫ‫⿽ޛ‬㊫රˈ ᮠ䟿ᴰཊⲴᱟঅа㔃ᶴˈަ⅑ቡᱟкл㔃ᶴǃᐖ ਣ㔃ᶴ ǃॺवത㔃ᶴ ǃкѝл㔃ᶴ ㅹDŽ  йǃ䊑ᖒᆇփ⧠≹≁᯿Ⲵᙍ㔤⁑ᔿ ṩᦞ䊑ᖒᆇⲴᵜѹˈᵜ᮷䇔Ѫ䊑ᖒᆇਟԕփ⧠ࠪ‫Ⲵ≁ݸ‬਴⿽ ᙍ㔤⁑ᔿˈֻྲ˖Ӫ⢙‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ㔤ǃӪⲴᰕᑨ⭏⍫֯⭘ᐕާ‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ 㔤˄‫ޣ‬Ҿ伏ಘǃ䞂ಘǃ‫ޥ‬ಘᯩ䶒˅DŽਖཆˈ‫≁ݸ‬ҏሩ㠚❦⢙઼ߌъ ᯩ䶒ᖸ␡‫ޕ‬ൠҶ䀓ˈഐѪᴹᖸཊ‫ޣ‬Ҿ㠚❦⢙઼ߌъᴹ‫Ⲵޣ‬䊑ᖒ ᆇˈྲ˖ᦅࣘ⢙Ⲵᐕާǃоᒴぬᴹ‫ޣ‬ǃоߌъⲴᐕ֌ᴹ‫ޣ‬ǃߌъ ֯⭘Ⲵ㠚❦⢙ㅹDŽᡁԜᶕⴻ‫≁ݸ‬ሩ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ਴⿽ᙍ㔤⁑ᔿྲл˖ ˄а˅Ӫ⢙‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ㔤 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬ҾӪփ ‫≁ݸ‬൘ࡋ䙐᮷ᆇⲴᇎ䐥䗷〻ѝᰒԕӪ㊫㠚䓛Ѫѫ㾱Ⲵ䇔䇶 ሩ䊑ˈ৽᱐ሩ䊑ˈҏԕӪ㊫㠚䓛ѪᵜփѪѝᗳᶕ䇔䇶зһз ⢙ˈᶕ৽᱐ᇒ㿲ц⭼DŽ≹ᆇ䙐ᆇᶴᖒᰦⲴӪᵜսᙍ㔤㺘⧠൘ԕӪ 㠚䓛Ѫ৲➗⢙ࡋ䙐≹ᆇDŽlj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJѝⲴ䊑ᖒᆇ㜭փ⧠䘉⿽Ӫ փ‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ㔤DŽᵜ᮷ሶӪ⢙Ⲵ䊑ᖒᆇ࠶Ѫ  ㊫˖Ӫփᮤփᖒ઼Ӫփ 䜘࠶ᖒˈ䘉  ㊫䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬ҾӪփⲴ᜿ѹˈᵜ᮷ᕅ⭘㣿ᇍ㦓 ˄˅ lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘Ѫส⹰ˈྲл˖  Ӫփᮤփᖒ Ā‫ݯ‬āᱟᒬ‫Ⲵݯ‬᜿ᙍˈਔᰦ⭧〠‫〠ྣˈݯ‬Ⴄˈਾᶕᆙㄕ䜭 〠‫˗ݯ‬

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


158

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

ĀӪāᱟ㜭ࡦ䙐ᐕާ᭩䙐㠚❦ᒦ֯⭘䈝䀰Ⲵ儈ㅹࣘ⢙˗ Āቨāᱟ⾝⽰ᰦԓ㺘↫㘵ਇ⾝ⲴӪ˗ Āྣā䊑ањᮋ᡻䐚⵰ⲴӪᖒˈᱟྣᙗⲴ᜿ѹDŽ 䊑ᖒᆇⲴᶴᖒнӵԕĀӪāⲴ‫ޘ‬փѪѫփⲴ䇔䇶ˈ㘼ф‫ݸ‬ ≁䙐ᆇᰦҏԕӪփⲴ䜘ԦѪ৲➗ሩ䊑DŽ Ӫփ䜘࠶ᖒ Ā࠭āᱟ㠼Ⲵ᜿ѹ˗ĀӒāᱟӪ亸Ⲵࡽ䜘˄ஹૉ˅ ˗ Ā৸āᵜѹᱟਣ᡻Ⲵ᜿ѹ˗Āਓāᱟਓ㞄ಘᇈ˗ Ā੅ā䊑㜺僘ᖒˈᱟ㜺ằ僘Ⲵ᜿ѹDŽ Ӫփ䜘࠶ᖒ䘈ਟԕ࠶ᡀӪփཤ䜘઼Ӫփഋ㛒ˈྲ˖኎ҾӪ փཤ䜘Ⲵᴹ˖俆ǃਓǃⴞǃ㠚ǃⴹǃ⢉ǃ㙣ǃ㘼ǃ㠼ǃഏㅹ˗኎ ҾӪփഋ㛒Ⲵᴹ৸ǃ᡻ㅹ˗኎ҾӪփަᆳಘᇈⲴᴹ˖੅ǃᗳǃ 㛙ǃ㛳ㅹDŽ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬ҾӪⲴ〠䉃 䲔ҶӪփ‫ޘ‬փ઼Ӫփ䜘Ԧˈ䊑ᖒᆇ䘈ਟԕ࠶ѪӪⲴ〠䉃ˈ ‫ޣ‬ҾӪ〠䉃Ⲵ᜿ѹˈᵜ᮷ᕅ⭘㣿ᇍ㦓  lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘Ѫ ส⹰ˈྲл˖ Āཛāᱟᡀᒤ⭧ᆀⲴ䙊〠˗ Āᐛāᱟਔԓ〠㜭ԕ㡎䱽⾎ⲴӪ˗ Ā∿āᱟਔԓ䍥᯿ḷᘇᇇ᯿㌫㔏Ⲵ〠ਧ˗ Ā公ā䘧ؑⲴӪ䇔ѪӪ↫ਾᴹĀ⚥兲ā〠ѻѪĀ公āㅹDŽ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬ҾӪⲴᙗ䍘 䊑ᖒᆇ䘈ਟԕṩᦞĀӪāⲴᙗ䍘ᶕⴻˈ‫ޣ‬ҾӪᙗ䍘Ⲵ᜿

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


Namonrut Yamwong

159

ѹˈᵜ᮷ᕅ⭘㣿ᇍ㦓  lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘Ѫส⹰ˈྲл˖ Āབྷāᱟᴹ↓䶒ㄉ・ⲴӪ˗ Āቨāᱟᴹ䓪‫ق‬൘ൠкⲴӪ˗ Ā䮯āᱟᴹ䮯ਁⲴӪ˗ Ā䓛āᱟᴹ䓛ᘰ‫Ⲵ⭢ޝ‬Ӫ˗ ĀᐣāᱟᴹቊᵚᡀᖒⲴႤ‫˗ݯ‬ Āᆀāᱟᴹቊ൘㽱㽃ѝⲴႤ‫˗ݯ‬ ĀҶāǃ Āᆁāᱟᴹ↻⯮‫˗ݯ‬ Ā⇽āᱟ䊑⇽ӢᴹңѻᖒㅹDŽ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬ҾӪⲴࣘ֌ ᵜ᮷ਁ⧠൘䊑ᖒᆇࣘ֌Ⲵ࠶㊫ˈަѝᴹᖸཊᆇ‫ޣ‬ҾӪⲴࣘ ֌ˈਟ࠶Ѫ  ㊫˖оӪⲴ䜘Ԧ⴨‫֌ࣘⲴޣ‬ǃӪⲴ‫ޣ‬㌫ᴹ‫֌ࣘⲴޣ‬ ઼⾎ጷᤌᴹ‫ޣˈ֌ࣘⲴޣ‬Ҿ䘉  ㊫Ӫࣘ֌Ⲵ᜿ѹˈᵜ᮷ᕅ⭘㣿ᇍ 㦓  lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘Ѫส⹰ˈྲл˖  оӪⲴ䜘Ԧ⴨‫˖ྲˈ֌ࣘⲴޣ‬ Ā‫ޛ‬āᱟ⴨㛼࠶ᔰˈ䊑࠶ᔰ⴨㛼Ⲵṧᆀ˗ Ā‫ޕ‬āᱟ䘋ᶕǃ䘋৫Ⲵ᜿ѹˈ䊑њቆཤಘާǃቆཤಘާᇩ ᱃䘋‫˗ޕ‬ Ā৽āᱟ᡻ᗳ㘫䖜˗ Āᖣāᱟធ↕㹼䎠˗ Āትāᱟ䒢⵰ˈ䊑Ӫᴢ㜛䒢䑎ᖒ˗ Ā⅐āᱟᢃથ⅐Ⲵ᜿ѹ˗ Āⲫāᱟк䖖Ⲵ᜿ѹDŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


160

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

 ӪⲴ‫ޣ‬㌫ᴹ‫˖ྲˈ֌ࣘⲴޣ‬ ĀҎāᱟੁӪ≲䇘DŽ  ⾎ጷᤌᴹ‫˖ྲˈ֌ࣘⲴޣ‬ Āঌā䊑嗏⭢✗䗷ਾࠪ⧠Ⲵ㻲㓩ᖒˈᱟĀঐঌāⲴ᜿ѹ˗ Āྐāᱟ䇮䞂伏ԕ⾝ˈл䶒䊑᭮ь㾯Ⲵส⢙ㅹDŽ ṩᦞк䘠Ⲵ޵ᇩˈᡁԜਟⴻࠪ‫≁ݸ‬ሩӪ⢙਴њᯩ䶒ᖸ␡‫ޕ‬ ൠҶ䀓ˈྲ˖Ӫփ‫ޘ‬փǃӪփ䜘Ԧ˄Ӫփཤ䜘ǃӪփഋ㛒˅ǃӪ Ⲵ〠䉃ǃӪⲴᙗ䍘˄ᴹ↓䶒ㄉ・ⲴӪǃᴹ䓪‫ق‬൘ൠкⲴӪㅹ˅ǃ ӪⲴࣘ֌ㅹˈ䘉ਟփ⧠ࠪ‫≁ݸ‬ሩĀӪā䜭㓶㠤ൠ‫ࡠ⌘ޣ‬DŽ ˄Ҽ˅ ӪⲴᰕᑨ⭏⍫֯⭘ᐕާ‫Ⲵ⌘ޣ‬ᙍ㔤 ṩᦞᵜ᮷䊑ᖒᆇⲴ࠶㊫ˈӪ֯⭘Ⲵᐕާփ⧠൘ಘ⢙㊫Ⲵᮠ 䟿ᱟᴰཊˈᵜ᮷ਁ⧠བྷ䜘࠶ᱟ伏ಘǃ䞂ಘ઼‫ޥ‬ಘᯩ䶒DŽ‫≁ݸ‬ሩ伏 ಘᖸԄ㓶Ⲵ‫ˈࡠ⌘ޣ‬ഐѪᴹᖸཊ਴⿽਴ṧⲴ伏ಘˈྲ˖侞伏࣐ᐕ ᐕާǃ侞伏✩侚ಘާǃⴋ䞂㚹Ⲵ⽬ಘǃਆ伏ⲴಘާㅹDŽ䊑ᖒᆇҏ ᴹᖸཊ‫ޣ‬Ҿ䞂ಘˈབྷཊᮠᱟⴋ䞂ಘDŽਖཆˈᵜ᮷ਁ⧠䘈ᴹᖸཊ䊑 ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿᡈһˈབྷཊᮠᱟ‫ޥ‬ಘ㊫ˈ䈖㓶Ⲵ޵ᇩྲл˖ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿ伏ಘ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿ伏ಘਟ࠶Ѫ  ㊫˖侞伏࣐ᐕᐕާǃ侞伏✩侚ಘ ާǃⴋ䞂㚹Ⲵ⽬ಘǃਆ伏Ⲵಘާ઼⳶ѻ㊫Ⲵ伏ಘˈ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ䘉  ㊫伏ಘˈᵜ᮷ᕅ⭘㣿ᇍ㦓  lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘Ѫส⹰ˈྲл˖  侞伏࣐ᐕᐕާ Ā㠬ā䊑㠲㊣ಘާᖒѝ䰤Ⲵഋ⛩㺘⽪ᴹ㊣ˈᱟѝ䜘лࠩⲴ 㠲㊣ಘާDŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


Namonrut Yamwong

161

 侞伏✩侚ಘާ Ӿlj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJ䇠䖭Ⲵ✩侚ಘާⴻਔӪѫ㾱Ⲵ✩侚ᯩᔿᱟ ➞Ⲵˈ㺘⧠൘➞ಘˈྲ˖ Ā唾āᱟਔԓ✩➞⭘Ⲵಘ⢙ˈᱟ⭢僘᮷ᆇᖒк䶒Ⲵ䜘࠶䊑 唾Ⲵᐖਣ㙣৺唾㞩л䶒䊑唾䏣DŽ唾ᴰᰙᱟ䲦ࡦⲴˈ⇧ઘԕਾᔰ ࿻⭘䶂䬌ࡦ֌˗ Ā兢ā䊑侞伏ಘާᖒˈᱟਔԓ⚺ಘˈ⭘Ҿ✗➞ᡆ✩⛂Ⲵ 䬵ˈ⢩ᤷ㊫լҾ唾⣦Ⲵ⚺ާDŽĀ兢ā઼Ā唾āಘާᱟ➞ಘⲴԓ 㺘ˈ䘉ӋಘާⲴਁ᰾оᲞ৺ˈ৽᱐Ҷԕ➞Ⲵᯩ⌅ѪѫⲴ㗩ǃ㋕ㅹ 伏૱ትҾѫሬൠսDŽ  ⴋ䞂㚹Ⲵ⽬ಘ Ā䉶āᱟਔԓ㻵䞂㚹Ⲵ⾝ಘDŽᖒլ儈䏣ⴈˈབྷཊᴹⴆDŽཊ Ѫ䲦䍘ˈҏᴹ⭘䶂䬌ǃᵘǃㄩࡦᡀⲴDŽ  ਆ伏Ⲵಘާ Āॅāᱟਔԓपᆀˈᱟਆ伏Ⲵ⭘ާDŽᴰࡍ⭘ᆳӾ唾ᡆ䮜ѝ ৹ਆ㚹ඇ᭮ࡠ‫׾‬кˈ❦ਾ⭘࠰ࢢ伏ˈҏ⭘ᶕⴋ㊣依DŽ  ⳶ѻ㊫Ⲵ伏ಘ Ā⳯ā⌋ᤷ⻇⻏ᶟⴈа㊫侞伏⭘ާDŽ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿ䞂ಘ 䲔Ҷ侞伏⭘ާˈ䘈ᴹᖸཊ‫ޣ‬Ҿ䞂ಘⲴ䊑ᖒᆇˈਟ࠶Ѫ  ㊫˖ⴋ䞂ಘ઼㠰䞂ಘˈ䘉  ㊫䊑ᖒᆇ䞂ಘⲴ᜿ѹˈᵜ᮷ᕅ⭘㣿ᇍ 㦓  lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘Ѫส⹰ˈྲл˖  ⴋ䞂ಘ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


162

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

ĀѠāᱟਔԓⴋ䞂ಘⲴᢈⴈˈ᭵Ā䊀āᵜᱟⴋᴹ䍥䟽⢙૱ Ⲵ⽬ಘ˗ Āওāᱟਔԓа⿽䞂ಘˈὝശᖒˈ⭘䶂䬌ࡦˈὝശਓǃ␡ 㞩ǃസ䏣ǃᴹⴆ઼ᨀằ˗ Ā⡥āᱟਔԓ䞂ಘˈ⭘䶂䬌ࡦⲴ˗ Ā㕦āᱟ⬖ಘശ㞩ሿਓ⭘ԕⴋ䞂⍶DŽ  㠰䞂ಘ Āपāᱟਔԓ㠰䞂ⲴಘާDŽ ᡁԜਟⴻࠪlj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJ䇠䖭Ҷᖸཊ‫ޣ‬Ҿ伏ಘ઼䞂ಘⲴ䊑 ᖒᆇˈབྷ䜘࠶Ⲵ伏ಘǃ䞂ಘ䜭⭘䶂䬌઼⬖ࡦⲴˈ䘉ਟԕ㺘᰾䛓њ ᰦԓ䶂䬌઼⬖ᱟᖸ䟽㾱Ⲵǃᇎ⭘ⲴಘާDŽ ਖཆˈᵜ᮷ਁ⧠䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿ侞伏઼䞂㊫Ⲵᮠ䟿∄伏ಘ઼䞂 ಘቁᗇཊˈ侞伏ਚᴹĀ᱄āᱟᒢ㚹Ⲵ᜿ѹ˗Ā⿮āᱟ䉧㊫֌⢙Ⲵ ᙫ〠˗Ā丝āᱟ丝㨌ㅹDŽ䞂㊫ਚᴹĀ䝹āᱟа⿽䞂˗Ā兟āᱟਔ ԓ⾝⽰ǃᇤ侞⭘Ⲵ俉䞂ㅹDŽ䘉ਟⴻࠪਔԓᰦĀ伏ಘā઼Ā䞂ಘā ∄Ā侞伏ā઼Ā䞂āᖸ䟽㾱DŽ䜝㔤἞˄˅൘ljਔԓ᮷ॆ⸕䇶 㾱㿸NJᤷࠪĀ㖾伏нྲ㖾ಘā䘉ਟ㺘᰾ѝഭਔԓⲴ侞伏ಘާ૱⿽ 㑱ཊˈᱟѝഭ侞伏᮷ॆⲴ䟽㾱䜘࠶DŽ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿ‫ޥ‬ಘ 䊑ᖒᆇᮠ䟿ᖸཊоᡈһᴹ‫ˈޣ‬བྷ䜘࠶փ⧠൘‫ޥ‬ಘ㊫ˈ䘉ਟ 㺘⧠ࠪਔԓⲴᰦ‫ى‬ᡈһሩ‫≁ݸ‬ᶕ䈤ᱟ↓ᑨਁ⭏ⲴᛵᲟˈ‫≁ݸ‬㾱‫ڊ‬ ਴⿽਴ṧⲴ‫ޥ‬ಘѪҶ‫؍‬ᣔ㠚ᐡⲴ䓛փDŽ䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿ‫ޥ‬ಘਟ࠶Ѫ  ㊫˖‫ޥ‬ಘ਽ǃ䱢䓛Ⲵ‫ޥ‬ಘǃ㇝䶦ǃ㇝ǃ⴮⡼ǃሴ㇝ᡆᢃᕩⲴಘ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


Namonrut Yamwong

163

Ỡǃ䮯ᷴ‫ޥ‬ಘǃ䮯⸋઼ᐎ䟼ᡰᔪᰇᑌˈ䘉  ㊫‫ޥ‬ಘⲴ᜿ѹˈᵜ᮷ ᕅ⭘㣿ᇍ㦓˄˅ lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘Ѫส⹰ˈྲл˖  ‫ޥ‬ಘ਽˖Ā࠰āᱟሿㇶᆇᖒˈ䊑࠰ᖒ˗ Āӻā䊑Ӫ䓛кク⵰䬐⭢ᖒDŽѝ䰤ᱟǃє  䱢䓛Ⲵ‫ޥ‬ಘ˖ 䗩Ⲵഋ⛩䊑㚄൘а䎧Ⲵ䬐⭢⡷˗  ㇝䶦˖Ā‫ן‬ā䊑ሴ‫ן‬ᕐᐳ㪇⸒ѻᖒ˗  ㇝˖Ā⸒ā䊑䮍ᤜ㗭ѻᖒ˗  ⴮⡼˖ Āᒢā⭘Ҿ䘋᭫Ⲵˈਾᶕ⭘Ҿ䱢ᗑ˗ Ā⴮āк䶒䊑⴮ᖒл䶒ᱟĀⴞā㺘⽪ԕ⴮㭭ⴞ 䓛փ ˗  ሴ㇝ᡆᢃᕩⲴಘỠ˖Āᕃā䊑ᕃᖒˈᴹᕃ㛼઼ᕃᕖˈਾ ⴱ৫ᕃᕖˈਚ࢙лᕃ㛼˗  䮯ᷴ‫ޥ‬ಘ˖ĀᠸāᱟѝഭਔԓⲴѫ㾱‫ޥ‬ಘ˗  䮯⸋˖Ā⸋āᱟਔԓ⭘ᶕࡪᵰ᭼ӪⲴ䘋᭫ᙗ↖ಘ˗  ᐎ䟼ᡰᔪᰇᑌ˖Āयāᱟਔԓབྷཛǃ༛ᡰᔪᰇᑌǃॺ䎔 ॺⲭǃ⭘ᶕ哮䳶ӪՇDŽ 䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿࣣࣘᐕާ ࣣࣘᐕާᴹ‫Ⲵޣ‬䊑ᖒᆇˈᵜ᮷ਁ⧠བྷ䜘࠶䐏ᵘᐕ઼ߌާᴹ ‫ˈޣ‬ᵜ᮷䇔ѪਔԓⲴᰦ‫Ⲵ≁ݸى‬㙼ъਟ㜭ᱟоᵘᐕ઼ߌъᴹ‫ޣ‬ ⲴDŽ䊑ᖒᆇ‫ޣ‬Ҿࣣࣘᐕާਟ࠶Ѫ  ㊫˖䪹ᆀǃᐕॐⲴᴢቪǃᯗ ᆀǃ⭫ⴤ䀂ᯩᖒ⭘Ⲵᐕާ઼ߌާˈ䘉  ㊫ࣣࣘᐕާⲴ᜿ѹˈᵜ᮷ ᕅ⭘㣿ᇍ㦓˄˅ lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘Ѫส⹰ˈྲл˖  䪹ᆀ˖Āбā䠁᮷䊑‫؟‬㿶ᡰ㿱Ⲵ䪹ཤѻᖒˈሿㇶ䊑‫ח‬㿶

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


164

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

Ⲵ䪹ᖒ˗  ᐕॐⲴᴢቪ˖Āᐕā䊑ᐕާᖒ˗  ᯗᆀ˖ Āᠹāᱟབྷᯗˈ䊑བྷᯗѻᖒ˗ Āᯔāᱟᯗᆀа㊫Ⲵᐕާ˗  ⭫ⴤ䀂ᯩᖒ⭘Ⲵᐕާ˖Āᐘā䊑Ӫᤱ⸙ᖒㅹDŽ Ā㙂āᱟਔԓⲴа⿽ߌާˈᖒ⣦‫ۿ‬ᵘ৹DŽ  ߌާ˖ ᡁԜਟⴻࠪ‫≁ݸ‬ሩᰕᑨ⭏⍫֯⭘Ⲵᐕާ䜭‫ˈࡠ⌘ޣ‬փ⧠൘ 伏ಘǃ䞂ಘǃ‫ޥ‬ಘ઼ࣣࣘᐕާˈ䘉Ӌ䜭ᱟਔԓĀӪāⲴᰕᑨ⭏⍫ ѝ൘⭏⍫઼ࣣࣘᯩ䶒ᖸ䟽㾱ⲴಘާDŽ ˄й˅བྷ㠚❦‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ㔤 བྷ㠚❦ᱟӪ㊫䎆ԕ⭏ᆈⲴᇒ㿲ᶑԦDŽ‫⌘≁ݸ‬᜿ࡠҶሩ㠚❦ ⭼Ⲵ㿲ሏˈ㺘⧠൘䊑ᖒᆇѝDŽਢ⧕˄˅ljᑨ⭘≹ᆇ㺘ᖒ༠ᆇ ᖒㅖѹ㊫࠶ᐳ࠶᷀NJᤷࠪ䊑ᖒᆇᴹаӋᱟ‫ޣ‬Ҿཙ᮷ൠ⨶⴨‫ˈⲴޣ‬ ྲ˖ ཙオᆈ൘ѻ⢙˖Ӂǃ≄ǃᰕǃᱏǃᲃǃᴸǃ䴘˗ ᰐ⭏ભⲴࣘ⢙ѻ࣏˖ᐒ˗ ཙൠкᆈ൘ѻ⢙˖൏ǃึǃ⚛ǃኡǃ≤ㅹDŽ 䲔Ҷᵜ᮷к䘠Ⲵ࠶㊫ԕཆˈlj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJѝ䘈ᴹаӋ޵ᇩ ‫ޣ‬ҾĀᰕā઼ĀᴸāⲴᖒ䊑ǃ Āᰕ⾎āⲴጷᤌǃĀᴸ⾎āⲴጷᤌ ઼Ā仾āⲴ〠䉃DŽᵜ᮷ᕅ⭘哴ᆷ呯˄˅Ӿlj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJⴻѝ ഭਔԓᇇᮉጷᤌⲴ⹄ウѪส⹰ˈྲл˖ ˊĀᰕā઼ĀᴸāⲴᖒ䊑˖‫ࡠ⌘ޣ≁ݸ‬Āᰕā઼ĀᴸāⲴ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


Namonrut Yamwong

165

ᖒ䊑ˈĀᰕāѪശᖒˈĀᴸāѪॺശᖒˈ䈤᰾ӪԜᐢӾ㿲ሏѝ⌘᜿ ᒦਁ⧠ҶᴸӞⲴઘᵏᙗਈॆˈ᡽㜭ਆоᰕн਼ѻ䊑ᶕ㺘䗮DŽ ˊĀᰕ⾎āⲴጷᤌ˖ᱟӪ㊫ᴰਔ㘱Ⲵ㠚❦ጷᤌDŽ㣿ᇍ㦓  lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇgᰕ䜘NJӺ⌘˄ㅜ亥˅ᤷࠪĀᰕᇎ ҏDŽཚ䱣ѻ㋮нҿDŽӾਓа䊑ᖒDŽāਟ㿱ਔӪ䇔Ѫཚ䱣ᱟањ ᇎփԓ㺘⵰‫ݹ‬᰾ⴋᇎᱟཙփⲴ㋮ॾ≨нҿᦏDŽljቊҖg቗ ިNJ䀓䈤˄ㅜ亥˅ᴹĀ䗾ᇮࠪᰕāǃĀ䗾侟㓣ᰕā⽬ᤌᰕ ⾎Ⲵ䇠䖭ˈণሩᰕࠪ㹼Āᇮā⽰ሩᰕ㩭㹼Ā侟ā⽰DŽ ˊĀᴸ⾎āⲴጷᤌ˖ਔӪҏᴹ⾝ᤌᴸ⾎ⲴԚᔿˈ൘lj䈤 ᮷䀓ᆇNJѝਟԕራ᢮ࡠ‫⾝≁ݸ‬ᤌᴸ⾎Ⲵ㓯㍒DŽ㣿ᇍ㦓  lj䈤 ᮷䀓ᆇgཅ䜘NJӺ⌘˄ㅜ亥˅ᤷࠪĀཉᰙᮜҏDŽāĀཉā ᆇ⭢僘᮷ǃ䠁᮷൷‫ۿ‬Ӫᰙ䎧䐚ᤌቊᵚ㩭৫ཅᴸѻᖒᵜᤷᰙᲘ㚳 ᮜҾһਾ⌋ᤷĀᰙāⲴ᜿ᙍDŽ ˊĀ仾āⲴ〠䉃˖㣿ᇍ㦓˄˅lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇg仾䜘NJӺ ⌘˄ㅜ亥˅ᤷࠪĀ仾䉃‫ޛ‬仾āˈᒦф‫ڊ‬䘋а↕᰾⺞䀓䟺˖ Āьᯩᴠ᰾ᓦ仾ˈьইᴠ␵᰾仾ˈইᯩᴠᲟ仾ˈ㾯ইᴠ߹仾ˈ㾯 ᯩᴠ䰺䱆仾ˈ㾯ेᴠнઘ仾ˈेᯩᴠᒯ㧛仾ˈьेᴠ㶽仾DŽāᡁ ԜਟⴻࠪਔӪሩҾ仾Ⲵ〠䉃ާփ㘼㓶ॆⲴ⢩⛩DŽ ˄ഋ˅ߌъ‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ㔤 lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJѝᴹᮠ䟿ՇཊⲴоߌъᴹ‫Ⲵޣ‬䊑ᖒᆇˈਟ࠶ Ѫ  ㊫˖ᦅࣘ⢙Ⲵᐕާǃᒴぬᴹ‫ޣ‬ǃߌъⲴᐕ֌ᴹ‫ޣ‬ǃߌъ֯⭘ Ⲵ㠚❦⢙઼ߌ⢗㊫Ⲵࣘ⢙ˈ䘉  ㊫ߌъ䊑ᖒᆇⲴ᜿ѹˈᵜ᮷ᕅ⭘ 㣿ᇍ㦓  lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘Ѫส⹰ˈྲл˖

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


166

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

ˊᦅࣘ⢙Ⲵᐕާ ‫ࣘᦅ≁ݸ‬⢙ᰦˈቡ⭘Ā㖁ā઼Ā⦷āˈĀ㖁āᱟᦅ劬匆呏 ޭⲴᐕާˈ Ā⦷āᱟᦅ呏Ⲵэ㖁DŽ ˊᒴぬᴹ‫ޣ‬ Ā⿻āᱟ᭦ᡀˈᡀ⟏Ⲵᒴぬ˗ Ā⬌āᱟ㥹ᵘ㭃⭏Ἵ⢙਽ˈ⿽㊫ᖸཊˈ᷌ᇎҏ〠⬌˗ Ā᷌āᱟ᷌ᆀ᷌ᇎ˗ Ā⿮āⲴᆇཊоߌ֌⢙ᴹ‫ˈޣ‬Ā⿮ā䊑඲ょⲴ⿮ᵜ、ߌ֌ ⢙ˈᱟ䉧㊫֌⢙Ⲵᙫ〠˗ Ā⭛ā䊑⭠ѝᴹ㨌㤇ѻᖒˈᱟ㤇Ⲵ᜿ѹ˗ Ā喀ā䊑⿮哖ょཤ䮯ᗇᒣᮤⲴṧᆀˈᱟ⿮哖ੀょкᒣᮤ˗ Ā丝ā䊑丝㨌䮯൘ൠкⲴᖒ⣦ˈᱟ丝㨌Ⲵ᜿ѹDŽ ˊߌъⲴᐕ֌ᴹ‫ޣ‬ Ā⭠āᱟ⿽⭠Ⲵ᜿ѹ˗ Āԃāᱟ㋞ԃⲴ᜿ѹDŽ ˊߌъ֯⭘Ⲵ㠚❦⢙ ĀӅāཆ䊑Ӆਓˈѝ䰤а⛩㺘⽪Ӆ䟼ᴹ≤ˈᱟ≤Ӆ˗ Ā⭾āᱟ⭠䰤Ⲵ≤⋏DŽ ˊߌ⢗㊫Ⲵࣘ⢙ lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJ㺘⽪Ā⥚āⲴ᜿ѹ∄䖳ཊˈྲ˖ Āӕāǃ Āᖈāǃ Ā䊅āˈ䘉ਟԕ㺘⧠ࠪĀ⥚āᱟਔӪᖸ䟽㾱Ⲵߌ⢗ࣘ⢙DŽ ަԆߌ⢗ࣘ⢙ˈྲ˖Ā傜āǃĀ⢋āǃĀ㖺āㅹDŽ 㔬кᡰ䘠ˈ䊑ᖒᆇᱟ≹ᆇ㌫㔏ѝᴰ㜭փ⧠≹≁᯿᮷ॆ઼ᙍ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


Namonrut Yamwong

167

㔤⁑ᔿˈֻྲ˖Ӫփ‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ㔤ǃӪⲴᰕᑨ⭏⍫֯⭘ᐕާ‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ 㔤ǃབྷ㠚❦‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ㔤ǃߌъ‫⌘ޣ‬ᙍ㔤ㅹDŽ䊑ᖒᆇᱟѝॾ≁᯿ॳ ᒤ᮷᰾ⲴḷᘇDŽӾ䊑ᖒᆇᡁԜਟԕⴻࡠ‫ݸ‬ӪⲴᲪភǃᙍᜣоᙍ㔤 ᯩᔿǃᇑ㖾䘭≲DŽ䊑ᖒᆇᱟ‫ݸ‬Ӫ⮉㔉ᡁԜⲴᇍᓃˈ٬ᗇᡁԜн៸ ൠ␡ӪᆖҐǃ⹄ウDŽ  ৲㘳᮷⥞ ⊸㡌Үlj䈤Ā䊑ᖒāᆇNJ৖䰘˖╣ᐎᐸ㤳ᆖ䲒ᆖᣕ 䜝㔤἞ljਔԓ᮷ॆ⸕䇶㾱㿸NJ䮯⋉˖⒆ইӪ≁ࠪ⡸⽮ 哴ᆷ呯Ӿlj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJⴻѝഭਔԓᇇᮉጷᤌⲴ⹄ウᒯ 㾯˖䫖ᐎᐸ㤳儈ㅹу、ᆖṑᆖᣕ ‫ן‬䵎lj⭢僘᮷о⧋䳵᮷䊑ᖒᆇਆ䊑ᯩᔿ∄䖳NJኡь˖ ѝഭ⎧⌻བྷᆖᆖᣕ ਢ⧕ljᑨ⭘≹ᆇ㺘ᖒ༠ᆇᖒㅖѹ㊫࠶ᐳ࠶᷀NJ 䟽ᒶ˖䟽ᒶ、ᢰᆖ䲒ᆖᣕ 㣿ᇍ㦓lj䈤᮷䀓ᆇNJӺ⌘䲅㾯˖䲅㾯Ӫ≁ࠪ⡸⽮ ୀ‫ޠ‬ljѝഭ᮷ᆇᆖNJк⎧˖к⎧ਔ㉽ࠪ⡸⽮ ୀ‫ޠ‬ljѝഭ᮷ᆇᆖNJк⎧˖к⎧ц㓚ࠪ⡸䳶ഒ ᕐ⾕嗉ljቊᴨg቗ިNJ䀓䈤ेӜ⭏⍫͌䈫Җ͌ᯠ⸕й㚄 Җᓇࠪ⡸⽮ ljᯠॾᆇިNJ㖁KWWS[KHGXFRP  

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


168

᱗㯖㸥ㆃ䓷᱘㼔㾯䓷䁱㈠

A research on Pictographs ofljShuowen JieziNJ Namonrut Yamwong ABSTRACT *Oǰ UIFǰ IJTUPSZǰ PGǰ $IJOFTFǰ DIBSBDUFST ǰ QJDUPHSBQIǰ JTǰ POFǰ PGǰ UIFǰ FBSMJFTUǰ NFUIPETǰ PGǰ NBLJOHǰ DIBSBDUFSTǰ 1JDUPHSBQITǰ BSFǰ UIFǰ CBTJDǰ TUSVDUVSBMǰ UZQFTǰ PGǰ $IJOFTFǰ DIBSBDUFSTǰ 5IFǰ DPOTUSVDUJPOǰ PGǰ $IJOFTFǰ DIBSBDUFSTǰ NVTUǰ TUBSUǰXJUIǰQJDUPHSBQITǰ1JDUPHSBNTǰBSFǰPOFǰPGǰUIFǰFBTJFTUǰ XPSECVJMEJOHǰ NFUIPET ǰ CVUǰ UIFZǰ BSFǰ BMTPǰ Bǰ WFSZǰ JNQPSUBOUǰXPSECVJMEJOHǰNFUIPEǰ5BOHǰ-BOǰ  ǰQPJOUFEǰ PVUǰ UIBUǰ UIFǰ JNQPSUBODFǰ PGǰ QJDUPHSBQITǰ JOǰ $IJOFTFǰ QIJMPMPHZǰ JTǰ BMMǰ UIFǰ DIBSBDUFSTǰ BSFǰ OPUǰ CBTFEǰ POǰ 1JDUPHSBQIT ǰUIFZǰDBOOPUǰCFǰXSJUUFOǰ5IFSFGPSF ǰUIFǰTUVEZǰ PGǰ $IJOFTFǰ DIBSBDUFSTǰ TIPVMEǰ CFǰ CBTFEǰ POǰ UIFǰ TUVEZǰ PGǰ QJDUPHSBQIJDǰDIBSBDUFSTǰ 5IFǰNBJOǰDPOUFOUǰPGǰUIJTǰQBQFSǰJTǰUPǰTVNNBSJ[FǰBOEǰ DMBTTJGZǰ ǰ QJDUPHSBQITǰ BDDPSEJOHǰ UPǰ UIFǰ 9JOIVBǰ %JDUJPOBSZǰ 5IJTǰ QBQFSǰ CVJMETǰ Bǰ EBUBCBTF ǰ XIJDIǰ JTǰ CBTFEǰ POǰ UIFǰ PSJHJOBMǰ NFBOJOHǰ PGǰ QJDUPHSBQIT ǰ DMBTTJGJFTǰ QJDUPHSBQIT ǰBOEǰBOBMZ[FTǰUIFJSǰTUSVDUVSFTǰ*OǰBEEJUJPO ǰUIFǰ BOBMZTJTǰQJDUPHSBQIJDǰDIBSBDUFSTǰSFGMFDUǰUIFǰWBSJPVTǰNPEFTǰ PGǰUIJOLJOHǰPGǰUIFǰBODFTUPSTǰ Keywords:ǰ 4IVPXFOǰ +JF[J ǰ QJDUPHSBQIJDǰ DMBTTJGJDBUJPO ǰǰ QJDUPHSBQIJDǰTUSVDUVSFǰ /:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


 ≹⌠ৼᇮࣘ䇽⹄ウ৺‫ٿ‬䈟࠶᷀ ⲭ㣜 ᪈㾱 ᵜ᮷ㄐѫ㾱᧒䇘⧠ԓ≹⌠䈝ৼᇮਕᔿⲴ⴨‫ޣ‬䰞仈ˈᒦሩ≹ ⌠є⿽䈝䀰ѝৼᇮਕᔿⲴᴹ‫ޣ‬䰞仈䘋㹼Ҷㆰ㾱Ⲵሩ∄ˈᒦ㔃ਸ䈝 ᯉᗇࠪ⌠ഭᆖҐ㘵Ⲵ‫ٿ‬䈟઼ҐᗇᛵߥDŽ᧒䇘Ҷᮉᶀѝৼᇮਕᔿ䈝 ⌅⛩Ⲵ੸⧠ԕ৺䳮᱃〻ᓖㅹˈ㔃ਸᮉᆖ䈝⌅Ⲵ⴨‫⨶ޣ‬䇪ᨀࠪ䘲ਸ ⌠ഭᆖҐ㘵Ⲵৼᇮਕᔿѻᮉᆖᔪ䇞DŽ ‫ޣ‬䭞䇽˖ৼᇮਕᔿǃ≹⌠ሩ∄ǃ‫ٿ‬䈟࠶᷀ǃᮉᆖ䈝⌅  ৼᇮ䈝ਕᔿᾲ䇪 䈝䀰ѝᴹа⿽⢩↺Ⲵਕ⌅⧠䊑ˈণањਕᆀѝࣘ䇽ਾ᧕ 䘎ࠪ⧠єњᇮ䈝ˈ㤡䈝ǃ≹䈝ㅹ䈝䀰ѝ䜭ᴹ↔⧠䊑ˈྲ˖ ˄˅Ԇ㔉ᡁаᵜҖDŽ ↔㊫ਕᔿ൘㤡䈝ѝ〠ѪĀৼᇮ㔃ᶴā GRXEOHREMHFW FRQVWUXFWLRQ ᡆĀৼ৺⢙㔃ᶴā GLWUDQVLWLYH DŽ ㅄ㘵൘ㅜҼ䈝䀰ᮉᆖ䗷〻ѝˈ᭦䳶ࡠᆖҐ㘵൘֯⭘ৼᇮ 䈝ਕᔿᰦࠪ⧠Ⲵ‫ٿ‬䈟ˈྲ˖ ˄˅ ᕐ㘱ᐸᮉӰѸ֐ԜDŽ ˄˅ Ԇ੺䇹䛓Ԧһ㔉ᡁDŽ

 䘉ㇷ᮷ㄐᶕⓀҾ↔䇪᮷Ⲵа䜘࠶˖ⲭ㣜ˈ⧠ԓ≹䈝ৼᇮਕᔿ৺⌠ഭᆖҐ㘵ѻ‫ٿ‬ 䈟⹄ウ>'@ˈⲷཚਾབྷᆖ⺅༛ᆖս䇪᮷ˈ ⲭ㣜ˈӪ᮷о⽮Պᆖ䲒ѝ᮷㌫ˈ⌠ഭ␵䗸㾯ेབྷᆖ 3D\DS8QLYHUVLW\ ˈ䛞㇡ ൠ൰˖IHQVKH#KRWPDLOFRP

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


170

⼛㲊㯌⢗Ⱀ⪫䁱㈠ゑ㠌㹔⳷㹗

 ᵜ᮷䈅മ᧒䇘ӗ⭏䘉Ӌ‫ٿ‬䈟Ⲵ৏ഐˈ䘉Ӌ‫ٿ‬䈟ሶᱟᵜ᮷ ⹄ウⲴ❖⛩DŽ ഐ↔ˈᵜ᮷൘⧠ԓ≹䈝ৼᇮਕᵜփ⹄ウⲴส⹰кˈԕѝ 㓗䱦⇥⌠ഭᆖ⭏Ѫ㘳ሏሩ䊑ˈ䟷⭘䈝ᯉ㔏䇑࠶᷀Ⲵᯩ⌅ˈ࠶᷀ᖂ 㓣⌠ഭᆖ⭏≹䈝ৼᇮ㔃ᶴҐᗇⲴ‫ٿ‬䈟㊫ර઼‫ٿ‬䈟৏ഐˈ᧒䇘≹䈝 ৼᇮ㔃ᶴⲴ⢩⛩৺ަᮉᆖ㿴ᖻˈᒦ൘↔ส⹰кᨀࠪሩ⌠ഭᆖҐ㘵 䘋㹼≹䈝ৼᇮ䈝㔃ᶴᮉᆖⲴሩㆆ઼ᔪ䇞DŽ

 ≹⌠ৼᇮ㔃ᶴሩ∄  ≹⌠䈝ৼᇮਕᔿሩ∄ 㲭❦ᴹӋ⹄ウᱮ⽪ㅜҼ䈝䀰ҐᗇⲴ⺞ᆈ൘Პ䙽ᙗⲴਁኅ 亪ᒿˈ❦㘼⇽䈝ᡰᢞ╄Ⲵ䀂㢢‫׍‬ᰗॱ࠶䟽㾱ˈഐ↔ӽнਟ䖫ᘭሩ ∄࠶᷀Ⲵ⭘䙄DŽ  ≹⌠ৼᇮਕᔿѝⲴࣘ䇽ሩ∄DŽ㼤ᲃ⶯˄˅ᤷ ࠪ˖Ā⌠䈝ৼᇮ㔃ᶴѝⲴᇮ䈝ਟԕᱟањˈҏਟԕᱟєњDŽ䇔Ѫ ⌠䈝ѝࣘᇮ㔃ᶴѝਟԕᨂ‫ޕ‬਽䇽ˈᨂ‫Ⲵޕ‬਽䇽ҏ਼ṧᱟᇮ䈝DŽ਼ ᰦ䇔Ѫањਕ⌅㔃ᶴѝᴹєњᇮ䈝ˈਛৼᇮ䈝DŽࡽ䶒ањਛⴤ᧕ ᇮ䈝ˈਾ䶒ањਛ࢟ᇮ䈝DŽā 㼤ᲃ⶯˄˅䇔Ѫ⌠䈝ѝ㜭ᑖৼᇮ䈝Ⲵࣘ䇽ᱟᖸᴹ䲀 Ⲵˈᑨ㿱Ⲵᴹ˖ 㔉˅ǃ

ëćö˄WKDP

ĒÝÖ˄FKDHN

䰞˅ǃ

࠶ਁ˅ǃ

ㅹDŽā˄亥 ˅

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`

ïĂÖ˄ERN

ÙČî˄NKXHQ

੺䇹˅ǃ

ĔĀš˄KDL

ðŜĂî˄SRQ

䘈˅ǃ

ல˅


ⲭ㣜

171

 ն㣿㢣伎˄˖˅䘈ਁ⧠⌠䈝ѝĀ ᮜ⥞ǃ⾰˗

ëüć÷ WKDZDL 

öĂï PRS  ⥞㔉ǃᦸҸǃငᢈㅹ䇽ҏਟԕᑖৼᇮ 

䈝DŽᡁԜਟԕਁ⧠䘉Ӌࣘ䇽䜭ᱟйԧࣘ䇽 ˈഐ㘼ਟԕ㛟ᇊ⌠䈝 ѝҼԧǃаԧࣘ䇽а㡜н㜭ᑖৼᇮ䈝āˈ䘉⛩о≹䈝ᴹ४࡛DŽ ᒦᤷࠪĀ⌠䈝ѝਚᴹཆੁ઼޵ੁє㊫ࣘ䇽ˈ㘼⋑ᴹৼੁࣘ䇽DŽā 1DSDVUL7LP\DP˄˖˅ࡉ᤹➗䈝ѹሶ⌠䈝Ⲵৼ ᇮࣘ䇽࠶Ѫєњሿ㊫˖

ĔĀš˄KDL 㔉˅ǃïøĉÝćÙ আ ˅ ǃđúĊĚ÷Ü˄ OLDQJ ޫ ˅ ǃÙČî

$ᵜ䓛ާᴹ㔉ҸѹⲴࣘ䇽ˈྲ˖ ˄ ERULFKDN ᦀ ˅ ǃ

×ć÷˄ NKDL

˄NKXHQ 䘈˅DŽ

ÿĂî˄VRQ ᮉ˅ǃĂíĉïć÷ 䰞 ˅ ǃïĂÖ˄ ERN ੺ 䇹 ˅ ǃ

%㺘⽪䇟᚟Ր䗮Ⲵࣘ䇽ˈྲ˖

ëćö˄ WKDP

˄ DWKLEDL 䀓 䟺 ˅ ǃ

øć÷Üćî˄UDLQJDQ ᣕ੺˅DŽ ᵜ᮷䇔ѪĀৼᇮࣘ䇽āˈҼԧࣘ䇽൘⢙փս〫Ⲵᛵߥл Պ໎࣐㓸⛩䎧⛩ˈഐ↔≹䈝ѝ㜭ᑖৼᇮ䈝Ⲵࣘ䇽∄⌠䈝ѝⲴ↔ ㊫ࣘ䇽ᮠ䟿㾱ཊᗇཊDŽ   ৼ ᇮ ਕ ᔿ 䈝 ᒿ ሩ ∄ ˖ ↓ ྲ  1DSDVUL 7LP\DP 

˄˖˅ᡰ䘠ˈ൘⌠䈝䟼ਇһ SDWLHQW ǰ 13 ࿻㓸൘ሩ䊑

 䈝䀰ᆖُ⭘Āԧā 9DOHQF\ ᤷࣘ䇽䐏аᇊᮠⴞⲴ਽䇽ᙗᡀ࠶ 13 ⲴӾ኎ ‫ޣ‬㌫DŽަѝˈࣘ䇽ᱟ᭟䝽ᡀ࠶ˈ13 ᱟӾ኎ᡀ࠶ˈ䙊ᑨ㜭䐏ањ 13 㓴ਸⲴࣘ䇽ਛ  ‫ڊ‬Āаԧࣘ䇽āˈ㜭䐏єњ 13 㓴ਸⲴࣘ䇽ਛĀҼԧࣘ䇽āˈ㜭䐏йњ 13 㓴ਸⲴ ࣘ䇽ਛĀйԧࣘ䇽āDŽ㤳ᲃ˄˖˅ 䛃ᆸؑ˄˅ሶ䈝ѹṬ࠶Ѫє㊫ˈṨᗳṬ઼ཆതṬDŽṨᗳṬवᤜ˖ᯭһ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


172

⼛㲊㯌⢗Ⱀ⪫䁱㈠ゑ㠌㹔⳷㹗

 

UHFLSLHQW 13 Ⲵࡽ䶒ˈণ˖YHUESDWLHQWUHFLSLHQW ˈ䘉о 㤡䈝৺≹䈝Ⲵৼᇮ䈝ਕᱟ⴨৽Ⲵˈྲ˖

ÝĂĀŤîĔĀšÝéĀöć÷ĒöøĊę ÝĂĀŤîǰǰĔĀšǰǰÝéĀöć÷ǰǰĒöøĊę ˄˅

&KRQKDLFKRWPDL0DHUL -RKQJLYHOHWWHU0DU\ -RKQJDYH0DU\DOHWWHU 㓖㘠㔉⧋ѭаሱؑDŽ ൘ᇮ䈝ⴱ⮕䰞仈кˈⴤ᧕ᇮ䈝䙊ᑨн㜭ⴱ⮕ˈ㕪ቁ䰤᧕ ᇮ䈝㘼н᭩ਈަԆᡀ࠶Ⲵ䈝ѹ‫ޣ‬㌫ᰦˈ䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ਟԕⴱ⮕DŽ⌠䈝 Ӗྲ↔DŽ ≹⌠ৼᇮਕᔿ䈝ѹᐞᔲ˖ ≹䈝䈝⌅ѝˈৼᇮਕᔿ㺘⽪ⲴᱟĀᴹ᜿Ⲵ㔉Ҹᙗ䖜 〫āˈ൘⌠䈝ѝҏᴹ↔㊫ਕᔿˈྲ˖ ˄˅

Ùčè÷ć÷ĔĀš×îöĀúćî

.KXQ\DLKDLNKDQRPODQ ཆၶ㔉⛩ᗳᆉᆀ ཆၶ㔉ᆉᆀ⛩ᗳDŽ

 DJHQW ǃਇһ SDWLHQW ǃሩ䊑 UHFLSLHQW ǃ㤳ത UDQJH ˗ཆതṬ˖ᐕާ LQVWUXPHQW ǃᯩս ORFDWLRQ ǃ䎧⛩ VRXUFH ǃ㓸⛩ⴞḷ JRDO ǃ䲚դ DFFRPSDQLPHQW ǃਇᜐ EHQHIDFWLYH ǃ䙄ᖴ SDWK ǃ㠤һ֯ᖩ㘵 FDXVHU DŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


ⲭ㣜

173

 ަᣭ䊑ਕ⌅㔃ᶴѪ˖691313DŽণ䉃䈝ࣘ䇽ᑖкєњᇮ 䈝ˈфᇮ䈝䜭սҾ䉃䈝ࣘ䇽ਾ䶒DŽަ䈝ѹѪ˖ᯭࣘ㘵ᴹ᜿䇶ൠ֯ һ⢙Ⲵ亶኎ᵳਁ⭏䖜〫ˈণањ㺘䗮ᡰᴹ⢙䖜〫Ⲵ䈝ѹ㔃ᶴDŽ≹ 䈝㺘⧠Ѫ˖Ⓚ⛩䖜〫Ⲵࣘ֌㓸⛩ᇒփ˗㘼⌠䈝ࡉ㺘⧠Ѫ˖Ⓚ ⛩䖜〫Ⲵࣘ֌ᇒփ㓸⛩DŽ䘉䟼ᴹањਖཆˈণ㼤ᲃ⶯ ˄˅ᤷࠪ˖ৼᇮ䈝㔃ᶴⲴⴤ᧕ᇮ䈝ྲ᷌ᱟࣘ䇽⸝䈝ᡆѫ䉃 㔃ᶴ‫ڊ‬ᇊ䈝ˈⴤ᧕ᇮ䈝ቡՊ㖞Ҿ䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ѻਾDŽྲ˖ ˄˅

účÜÝąïĂÖĀúćîìĊęúčÜÝą×ć÷øšćî

/XQJFKDERNODQWKLOXQJFKDNKDLUDQ 㠵㠵ሶ੺䇹ִ‫ݯ‬㠵㠵㾱আᓇ 㠵㠵ሶ੺䇹ִᆀ㠵㠵㾱আᓇⲴ⎸᚟DŽ ≹⌠ӻ䇽Ṭḷ ⌠䈝ѝᑖєњᇮ䈝Ⲵ৺⢙ࣘ䇽઼Ṭо↔ֻѝⲴєњᇮ䈝 Ⲵ亪ᒿᱟ⴨լⲴˈн਼⛩փ⧠൘йњᯩ䶒DŽ൘ਕ⌅кˈ䰤᧕ᇮ䈝 UHFLSLHQW ൘ਕѝᴹṬḷ䇠ˈণӻ䇽ĀNDHā WR ྲ˖

ÝĂĀŤîĔĀšÝéĀöć÷ĒÖŠĒöøĊ ÝĂĀŤî ĔĀš ÝéĀöć÷ ĒÖŠ ĒöøĊ ˄˅

&KRQ KDL FKRWPDLNDH0DHUL -RKQ JLYH OHWWHU WR 0DU\ -RKQJDYHDOHWWHUWR0DU\ 㓖㘠㔉⧋ѭаሱؑDŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


174

⼛㲊㯌⢗Ⱀ⪫䁱㈠ゑ㠌㹔⳷㹗

 ↓ྲ㤡䈝ѝⲴӻ䇽ĀWRāˈ⌠䈝Ⲵӻ䇽ĀNDHā WR Ⲵ ᆈ൘փ⧠ҶоṬⲴ᜿ѹˈ⢩࡛ᱟᇮ䈝ĀOHWWHUāⲴ〫ࣘᯩੁDŽ㘼 єњ㔃ᶴ൘䈝ѹкҏᴹᗞ࿉Ⲵᐞ࡛˖˄˅ᕪ䈳ሩᇮ䈝ᡰ኎‫ޣ‬㌫ Ⲵ䖜ᦒˈ㘼˄˅ᕪ䈳㻛䖜ᦒⲴᇮ䈝Ⲵս㖞᭩ਈDŽєњ㔃ᶴѻ䰤 Ⲵਖањ४࡛ᱟ䈝⭘ᆖDŽа㡜ᶕ䇢ˈ൘䶎↓ᔿ൪ਸᖰᖰ֯⭘ㆰ⌱ Ⲵ㺘䗮DŽৼᇮ㔃ᶴˈަ⢩⛩൘Ҿӻ䇽Ⲵⴱ⮕˄㕪ཡ˅ˈ䘉⿽ৼ৺ ⢙㔃ᶴ㻛䇔Ѫᴤн↓ᔿˈ˄⌠䈝˅⇽䈝㘵ᖰᖰௌ⅒൘䶎↓ᔿ൪ਸ ֯⭘ৼᇮ㔃ᶴDŽ ⭡ԕк㤡⌠ৼᇮ䈝㔃ᶴⲴሩ∄ᡁԜਟԕ⸕䚃ˈ≹⌠䈝Ⲵ ৼᇮ㔃ᶴⲴᇮ䈝亪ᒿᱟ⴨৽Ⲵˈণ 911 ᖒᔿлˈ⌠䈝ѝⲴ㤳ത UDQJH



 13 ࿻ 㓸 ൘ 㓸 ⛩ JRDO  13 Ⲵ ࡽ 䶒 ˈ ণ ˖

YHUEUDQJHJRDO ˗ 㘼 ≹ 䈝 Ⲵ ਇ һ ࿻ 㓸 ൘ ሩ 䊑 Ⲵ ਾ 䶒 ˈ ণ ˖ YHUEJRDOUDQJHDŽ≹䈝ѝⲴṬḷ䇠ᱟĀ㔉āˈ1DSDVUL7LP\DP ˄˅䇔Ѫ⌠䈝ѝⲴ㓸⛩Ṭḷ䇠ᱟĀNDHāDŽ  㠚❦䈝ᯉѝⲴ‫ٿ‬䈟㊫ර৺࠶᷀ 㠚❦䈝ᯉᱟᤷᆖҐ㘵൘㠚❦⣦ᘱлᡰӗ⭏Ⲵ䈝䀰ᶀᯉDŽ䘉 ㊫䈝ᯉ䖳㜭㠚❦ൠ৽᱐ᆖҐ㘵֯⭘ㅜҼ䈝䀰ⲴᛵߥDŽ 

㠚❦䈝ᯉѝⲴ‫ٿ‬䈟㊫ර

 䛃ᆸؑ˄˅ሶ䈝ѹṬ࠶Ѫє㊫ˈṨᗳṬ઼ཆതṬDŽṨᗳṬवᤜ˖ᯭһ DJHQW ǃਇһ SDWLHQW ǃሩ䊑 UHFLSLHQW ǃ㤳ത UDQJH ˗ཆതṬ˖ᐕާ LQVWUXPHQW ǃᯩս ORFDWLRQ ǃ䎧⛩ VRXUFH ǃ㓸⛩ⴞḷ JRDO ǃ䲚դ DFFRPSDQLPHQW ǃਇᜐ EHQHIDFWLYH ǃ䙄ᖴ SDWK ǃ㠤һ֯ᖩ㘵 FDXVHU DŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


ⲭ㣜

175

 ㅄ㘵൘⌠ഭㅜҼ䈝䀰ᆖҐ㘵Ⲵ䙐ਕ઼֌᮷ѝ᭦䳶ࡠаӋ ‫ޣ‬Ҿৼᇮ‫ٿ‬䈟Ⲵֻਕˈṩᦞ -DPHV˄˅ሶ‫ٿ‬䈟࠶ӄ㊫˖䈟 ԓǃ䈟࣐ǃ䚇┿ǃᵲ㋵ǃ䭉ᒿˈާփࡇ㺘ྲл˖ 㺘  㠚❦䈝ᯉѝⲴ‫ٿ‬䈟㊫ර৺৏ഐ 

‫ٿ‬䈟

ਕර

‫ٿ‬䈟৏ഐ

㊫ර  䈟࣐  ⡨⡨੺䇹㔉ᆙᆀDŽ

н䈕࣐Ā㔉ā㘼䈟࣐

 ᡁቡ੺䇹㔉ྸྸੜDŽ  䈟ԓ  Ӻᒤᡁᝏ߂Ҷй⅑ˈ㾱৫ ५䲒㔉५⭏ⴻ⯵DŽ

Ā㔉āԓᴯ֯ࣘࣘ䇽Ā䇙āᡆ Ā䈧ā

 㘱ᐸ㔉ᡁԜк䖖DŽ  ᡁᜣ㔉ᆳаཙᴹ  ሿᰦ 㔉ᡁ⧙DŽ  䭉ᒿ  ᷇㘱ᐸᮉҖ⌅ᡁԜDŽ

䰤᧕ᇮ䈝оⴤ᧕ᇮ䈝Ⲵս㖞

 䚇┿  ⇿њӪ㔉⽬⢙DŽ

н䈕ⴱ䰤᧕ᇮ䈝㘼ⴱ⮕

 㘱ᐸ੺䇹аԦһDŽ  ᡁⲴᴻ৻ୡⅼ㔉ᡁDŽ  ᵲ㋵  ᡁ㔉କକ➗㔉ᡁаᕐ⴨

䚇┿ࣘ䇽 䈟ԓ䈟࣐

⡷DŽ  ᤹➗䈝ᯉѝⲴ‫ٿ‬䈟㊫ර࠶᷀ྲл˖ а䈟࣐㊫  ⡨⡨੺䇹㔉ᆙᆀDŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


176

⼛㲊㯌⢗Ⱀ⪫䁱㈠ゑ㠌㹔⳷㹗

 ᭩Ѫ˖⡨⡨੺䇹ᆙᆀDŽ  ᡁቡ੺䇹㔉ྸྸੜDŽ ᭩Ѫ˖ᡁ੺䇹ྸྸDŽᡁ䇢㔉ྸྸੜDŽ ԕкєਕн䈕࣐㘼䈟࣐ҶĀ㔉āDŽĀ੺䇹āоĀ䰞ā਼ ㊫ˈ኎Ҿؑ᚟Ր䙂㊫ ˈ䘉 ㊫ࣘ䇽䲔Ҷ Āᮉāԕ ཆ䜭 н㜭ਾ࣐ Ā㔉ā㓴ᡀĀ9㔉āᔿDŽĀ⡨⡨੺䇹ᆙᆀā䘉ਕ㘫䈁ᡀ⌠䈝Ѫ˖

óŠĂïĂÖĔĀšúĎÖāˈ3KRERNKDLOXN

Ā

ণĀ ⡨⡨੺䇹㔉ᆙᆀāDŽ

ഐ↔Ā੺䇹āਾ࣐кĀ㔉āҏᱟ⇽䈝䍏䗱〫Ⲵ֌⭘DŽĀ ᡁቡ੺ 䇹㔉ྸྸੜDŽāĀ੺䇹ā䈟࣐Ҷєњࣘ䇽ˈ֯ਕᆀਈᗇᖸ㑱ᵲˈ 㔃ᶴнਸ⌅DŽ Ҽ䈟ԓ㊫  Ӻᒤᡁᝏ߂Ҷй⅑ˈ㾱৫५䲒㔉५⭏ⴻ⯵DŽ ᭩Ѫ˖Ӻᒤᡁᝏ߂Ҷй⅑ˈ⇿⅑䜭㾱৫५䲒䈧५⭏ⴻ⯵DŽ  㘱ᐸ㔉ᡁԜк䖖DŽ ᭩Ѫ˖㘱ᐸ䇙ᡁк䖖DŽ  ᡁᜣ㔉ᆳаཙᴹ  ሿᰦ㔉ᡁ⧙DŽ ᭩Ѫ˖ᡁᐼᵋаཙᴹ  ሿᰦਟԕ⧙DŽ ԕк਴ਕⲴ‫ٿ‬䈟൘Ҿˈ֯⭘Ā㔉āԓᴯ֯ࣘࣘ䇽Ā䇙ā 

ᡆĀ䈧āDŽ൘䇘䇪Ā㔉āⲴ࣏㜭 ᱟᡁԜᐢ㓿ᨀࡠˈӻ䇽Ā㔉āㅜ йњਜ਼ѹ㺘⽪㻛ࣘᡆ㠤֯ˈਟԕᕅࠪᯭࣘ㘵DŽնнᱟᡰᴹⲴᯭһ

 

⭣֣လ˄˅Ā㔉āսҾࣘ䇽ਾ䶒ˈᕅӻһ⢙Ⲵ᧕᭦㘵˗Ā㔉āսҾࣘ䇽ࡽ 䶒ˈᕅӻਇ⢙㘵ǃਇᜐ㘵઼ਇᦏ㘵ˈҏਟᕅӻᯭһ㘵ѻ֯ᡀࣘ䇽DŽ ‫ڵ‬䴘䍔ㅹ˄˖˅˖˅ᕅ䘋ᯭһ㘵Ⲵӻ䇽Ā㔉ā˖ྩ㔉Ӫ僇蘖DŽ 

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


ⲭ㣜

177

 䜭ਟԕ⭘Ā㔉āᶕᕅӻDŽ䘉䟼փ⧠ѪⴞⲴ䈝㿴ࡉⲴ⌋ॆDŽণ䗷ᓖ ֯⭘Ā㔉ā֌Ѫ֯ࣘ⭘⌅䘉њ㿴ࡉˈഐ㘼ࠪ⧠Ҷᖸཊ⭘Ā㔉āԓ ᴯĀ䇙āᡆĀ䈧āⲴᛵߥDŽ⌠䈝ѝⲴࣘ䇽Ā

ĔĀšā˄KDL˅ˈ൘≹

䈝ѝ࠶ॆѪࣘ䇽ӻ䇽ެ㊫ⲴĀ㔉āǃ㺘֯ԔⲴĀ䇙ā˄㺘֯ԔⲴ Ā䈧ā൘⌠䈝ѝਟሩᓄѪ

đßĉâĔĀšˈFKRHQKDL ⴤ䈁ѪĀ䈧㔉ā˅

઼㺘㠤֯ⲴĀ֯䇙āDŽ⭡Ҿ㺘⽪Ā㔉Ҹā઼㔉Ҹሩ䊑Ⲵࣘ䇽ӻ 䇽Ā㔉ā઼⌠䈝Ā

ĔĀšāสᵜሩᓄˈнቁᆖҐ㘵ԕѪࠑᱟĀĔĀšā

㜭㺘䗮Ⲵ᜿ᙍˈĀ㔉ā䜭ਟԕ㺘䗮DŽഐ↔ˈԆԜབྷ䟿ൠሶĀ㔉ā 䈟ԓ‫ޕ‬㺘֯Ԕ઼㠤֯ⲴਕᆀѝDŽ޽ྲĀ㘱ᐸ㔉ᡁԜк䖖āˈ䈕ਕ ѝⲴĀ㔉āᓄ䈕⭘Ā䇙āDŽĀӺᒤᡁᝏ߂Ҷй⅑ˈ㾱৫५䲒㔉५ ⭏ⴻ⯵ā䘉ਕнਸ⌅Ⲵ৏ഐ൘Ҿ㻛䈅֯⭘Ҷ⌠䈝䈝⌅ˈ⌠䈝ѝⲴ ⭘ĀKDLāԓᴯਕѝⲴĀ㔉āӗ⭏Ⲵਕᆀᱟㅖਸ⌠䈝䈝⌅Ⲵˈণ 䈧५⭏㔉Ԇⴻ⯵DŽ㘼൘≹䈝ѝⲴ᜿ѹতᱟĀᡁ㔉५⭏ⴻ⯵āˈ䘉 ᱟнਸ䈝ѹⲴਕᆀDŽĀᡁᜣ㔉ᆳаཙᴹ  ሿᰦ㔉ᡁ⧙ā䘉ਕѝ ᰦ䰤Ā ሿᰦāнᱟĀᡁ⧙āⲴሩ䊑ˈഐ↔⭘Ā㔉āнਸ⌅DŽ䈕 ਕਟ㜭Ⲵ᭩⌅ᱟ˖ᡁᐼᵋаཙᴹ  ሿᰦਟԕ⧙DŽ й䭉ᒿ㊫  ᷇㘱ᐸᮉҖ⌅ᡁԜDŽ ᭩Ѫ˖᷇㘱ᐸᮉᡁԜҖ⌅DŽ ൘ᮉᆖⲴࡍ㓗䱦⇥ˈ䭉ᒿ㊫Ⲵ‫ٿ‬䈟ࠪ⧠ᗇ∄䖳仁㑱ˈ㘼 ѝ㓗≤ᒣ䱦⇥ⲴᆖҐ㘵ਁ⭏䘉⿽‫ٿ‬䈟Ⲵᛵߥ䖳ቁˈഐѪࡍ㓗䱦⇥ ⲴᆖҐ㘵ަ⇽䈝䈝⌅ሩⴞⲴ䈝Ⲵ䍏䗱〫䘈䖳བྷDŽྲ㺘ѝᡰࡇⲴਕ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


178

⼛㲊㯌⢗Ⱀ⪫䁱㈠ゑ㠌㹔⳷㹗

 ᆀ˖᷇㘱ᐸᮉҖ⌅ᡁԜˈቡᱟਇҶ⌠䈝䈝⌅Ⲵᖡ૽DŽ䈕ਕᓄ᭩ Ѫ˖᷇㘱ᐸᮉᡁԜҖ⌅DŽ ഋ䚇┿㊫  ⇿њӪ㔉⽬⢙DŽ ᭩Ѫ˖⇿њӪ䜭㔉ᡁ⽬⢙DŽ⇿њӪ䜭㔉Ԇ⽬⢙DŽ  㘱ᐸ੺䇹аԦһDŽ ᭩Ѫ˖㘱ᐸ੺䇹ᡁԜаԦһDŽ ԕкєਕ䜭䚇┿Ҷ䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ˈণࣘ֌Ⲵ᧕ਇ㘵DŽ䘉єਕ 㘫䈁ᡀ⌠䈝ᱟ↓⺞Ⲵਕᆀˈ⌠䈝ѝĀKDLā઼ĀERNā䜭ਟԕⴱ⮕ 䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ˈєਕ䜭ㅖਸ䈝⌅ˈնᱟؑ᚟䟿н䏣ˈ൘⋑ᴹкл᮷Ⲵ ᛵߥлˈੜ䈍ⲴӪՊᆈᴹ⯁䰞DŽਖཆˈĀ⇿њӪ㔉⽬⢙āᴹє⿽ 䀓䈫ˈਟ㜭㔉Ҹ࡛Ӫ⽬⢙ҏਟ㜭ᱟ㧧ᗇ⽬⢙DŽԕкєਕ䜭ᱟਇ⇽ 䈝ᖡ૽ˈ⌠䈝ѝĀKDLā઼ĀERNā䜭ਟԕⴱ⮕䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ˈєਕ䜭 ㅖਸ䈝⌅DŽ  ᡁⲴᴻ৻ୡⅼ㔉ᡁDŽ ᓄ᭩Ѫ˖ᡁⲴᴻ৻ୡⅼ㔉ᡁੜDŽ ᓄ䈕൘оṬਾ޽࣐ањࣘ䇽DŽഐѪĀୡⅼā䘉њࣘ䇽㲭 ❦ᱟࣘ֌ࣘ䇽ˈնᱟᒦнާᴹᯩੁᙗˈᡰԕᓄ䈕᭩߉ѪањⴞⲴ ᆀਕDŽᡁԜਟԕ䘉ṧ䀓䈫䘉њਕᆀ˖ᡁⲴᴻ৻ୡҶа俆ⅼˈфᡁ Ⲵᴻ৻㔉ᡁੜ䘉俆ⅼˈҏ᜿ણ⵰ѫ㾱ࣘ䇽Āୡāሬ㠤ҶĀੜā䘉 њࣘ֌Ⲵӗ⭏DŽ䘉аਕ਼ṧᱟਇ⌠䈝⇽䈝Ⲵᖡ૽䙐ᡀⲴˈ⌠䈝ѝ ⋑ᴹࣘ䇽Āੜāਕᆀҏㅖਸ䈝⌅DŽ 

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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179

 ӄᵲ㋵㊫  ᡁ㔉କକ➗㔉ᡁаᕐ⴨⡷DŽ ᭩Ѫ˖ᡁ䈧କକ㔉ᡁ➗Ҷᕐ⴨⡷DŽ ᵲ㋵‫ٿ‬䈟ࠪ⧠Ⲵ∄⦷䖳վˈᵜ䇪᮷䇔Ѫкਕᱟ䈟ԓо䈟 ࣐㋵ਸⲴ‫ٿ‬䈟DŽㅜа њĀ 㔉āᓄᱟ㠤֯Ⲵ᜿ѹ ˈᓄ Ѫ Ā䇙ᡆ 䈧āDŽㅜҼњĀ㔉ā኎Ҿ䈟࣐DŽĀ➗āѪࣘ֌ࣘ䇽ˈնᱟ⋑ᴹ Ā9 㔉āᔿˈ㘼ᓄ䈕᭩ѪĀ㔉 13➗āDŽণሶ㓸⛩ᨀ㠣ࣘ䇽ࡽˈ ਈᡀĀ㔉ᡁ➗Ҷᕐ⴨⡷ā᡽ᱟਸ䈝⌅ⲴਕᆀDŽᵲ㋵ਕᔿࠪ⧠Ⲵ∄ ֻվⲴ৏ഐᱟᆖҐ㘵൘ᆖҐ䗷〻ѝ䟷ਆҶഎ䚯Ⲵㆆ⮕ˈণሩ䖳䳮 Ⲵਕᔿ䘋㹼എ䚯ˈањ䮯ਕᖰᖰ࠶ᡀєњᡆ㘵ᴤཊ⸝ਕᶕ㺘䗮ˈ ഐ↔ᵲ㋵㊫а㡜ࠪ⧠൘ѝ儈㓗䱦⇥DŽ ‫ٿ‬䈟ᡀഐ ᵜ᮷ѝⲴ‫ٿ‬䈟ᡀഐѫ㾱ᱟ⇽䈝䗱઼〫ㆰॆєབྷ㊫DŽ  ⇽䈝䗱〫 ⇽䈝䗱〫˄ઘሿ‫˅ޥ‬ᱟㅜҼ䈝䀰ࡍᆖ㘵ᑨ⭘ⲴᆖҐ ㆆ⮕ˈᱟԕᆖҐ㘵ѻࡽⲴ䈝䀰⸕䇶˄䙊ᑨᱟ⇽䈝˅ᶕ⨶䀓ᯠⲴ䈝 䀰DŽഐѪᆖҐ㘵ሩㅜҼ䈝䀰ⲴҶ䀓ᴹ䲀ˈӖণ㕪ѿㅜҼ䈝䀰Ⲵ䍴 Ⓚˈਚ㜭Ӿ⇽䈝ѝራ≲⴨‫Ⲵޣ‬䖵ࣙ䍴Ⓚˈഐ↔⇽䈝㛼Ჟ⴨਼Ⲵㅜ Ҽ䈝䀰ᆖҐ㘵ᑨࠪ⧠㊫լⲴ‫ٿ‬䈟DŽ ⇽䈝䗱〫⧠䊑⢩࡛ᇩ᱃ࠪ⧠ҾㅜҼ䈝䀰ҐᗇⲴࡍᵏˈഐ Ѫ䈕䱦⇥ⲴᆖҐ㘵ަㅜҼ䈝䀰⸕䇶ᴰᴹ䲀DŽ ሩᵜ䇪᮷ᶕ䈤ˈ⇽䈝䍏䗱〫ѫ㾱ⴤ᧕փ⧠൘ৼᇮ㔃ᶴѝ єњᇮ䈝Ⲵս㖞DŽഐѪ⌠䈝Ⲵৼᇮ亪ᒿѪ YHUEUDQJHJRDOˈഐ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


180

⼛㲊㯌⢗Ⱀ⪫䁱㈠ゑ㠌㹔⳷㹗

 ↔ࠪ⧠ҶĀᡁԜ䰞Ҷањ䰞仈㘱ᐸāᡆĀ᷇㘱ᐸᮉҖ⌅ᡁԜā ㊫ⲴਕᆀDŽ ਖཆ䘈ᴹĀ ሿᵾ੺䇹ҶаԦһā઼Ā ሿᵾ੺䇹ā㊫Ⲵ ਕᆀˈ㻛䈅䇔Ѫєਕᱟਸ䈝⌅Ⲵਕᔿҏᱟ⇽䈝Ⲵ䍏䗱〫Ⲵᖡ૽ˈ ⌠䈝ѝĀ੺䇹āਟԕᑖєњᇮ䈝ˈਟԕԫ᜿ᑖަѝањᇮ䈝ˈҏ ਟԕнᑖᇮ䈝DŽഐ↔䈕㊫ਕᔿҏᱟ⇽䈝䍏䗱〫Ⲵ֌⭘DŽ ㆰॆ ㅜҼ䈝䀰ᆖҐ㘵ᑨ⭘Ⲵਖа⿽ᆖҐㆆ⮕ᱟㆰॆDŽᡰ䉃Ⲵ ㆰ ॆ ѳ ᱟ ᆖ Ґ 㘵 Ա മ ߿ 䖫 ᆖ Ґ 䍏 ᣵ Ⲵ а ⿽ ㆆ ⮕ ˄ 5LFKDUGV ˅DŽণᆖҐ㘵൘ᆖҐᡆ֯⭘ㅜҼ䈝䀰ᰦˈ䈅മӾа㌫ࡇⲴ‫ٷ‬ 䇮ѝˈ䘹ਆ䖳᱃䘋㹼ф㜭‫׳‬䘋⋏䙊Ⲵ‫ٷ‬䇮DŽᆖҐ㘵䙊ᑨ൘ㅜҼ䈝 䀰֯⭘ѝⴱ⮕Ҷ࣏㜭䇽˄ᡆ〠㲊䇽˅઼ӻ䇽ㅹ䈝䀰ᡀ࠶ˈԕ߿䖫 䈝䀰༴⨶кⲴ䍏ᣵˈ֯ԆԜ㜭ሶ⌘᜿࣋䳶ѝ൘ᡰ㾱ᆖҐⲴᯠᖒᔿ ᡆ㺘䗮Ⲵ᜿ѹкDŽ ൘ᵜㄐࠪ⧠Ⲵ䚇┿‫ٿ‬䈟Ⲵਕᆀ䜭ਟⴻ֌ᱟ㻛䈅֯⭘Ҷ Āㆰॆāㆆ⮕ᡰሬ㠤ⲴDŽĀ ⇿њӪ㔉⽬⢙ 㘱ᐸ੺䇹аԦһā єਕ䜭ⴱ⮕Ҷ䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ˈ൘⌠䈝ѝ㲭Ѫਸ䈝⌅Ⲵਕᆀˈնؑ᚟䟿 ᱟн䏣Ⲵˈഐ↔䇔ѪᆖҐ㘵Աമ߿䖫ᆖҐ䍏ᣵˈ䘹ᤙㆰॆㆆ⮕DŽ ྲᵜㄐ≹⌠䈝ਕᔿሩ∄䜘࠶ᡰ䇘䇪Ⲵˈ≹䈝ਕᔿ 691313઼ 6913㔉13єњਕᔿѝˈ⌠䈝⇽䈝㘵൘䶎↓ ᔿ൪ਸᖰᖰ֯⭘ 691313 ⲴᛵߥᴤཊDŽ㘼൘ᆖҐ≹䈝ৼᇮᰦ ҏᖰᖰᴤᑨ֯⭘ 691313 ਕˈ⭡ҾĀ㔉ā䇽㓴Ⲵ༽ᵲᙗሬ㠤

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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181

 ᆖҐ㘵ӗ⭏ ᜗ᗳ⨶ˈ֯⭘ 691313 ਕਟԕབྷབྷⲴ߿䖫ᆖҐ 䍏ᣵˈ䘉ҏᱟสҾㆰॆⲴᆖҐㆆ⮕DŽ

 ᮉᆖㆆ⮕ lj≹䈝ᮉ〻NJㅜҼ޼˄ेӜ䈝䀰བྷᆖࠪ⡸ˈᶘᇴ⍢ѫ㕆 ˅ㅜ  亥ˈሩৼᇮ䈝‫ڊ‬Ҷྲл䀓䟺˖ৼᇮ䈝ਕˈ≹䈝ᴹӋ ࣘ䇽ਟԕᑖєњᇮ䈝ˈㅜањਛ䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ˈа㡜ᤷӪDŽㅜҼњਛ ⴤ᧕ᇮ䈝ˈа㡜ᤷһ⢙DŽն㜭ᑖৼᇮ䈝Ⲵࣘ䇽∄䖳ቁˈཊᮠࣘ䇽 н㜭ᑖৼᇮ䈝DŽਟԕᑖৼᇮ䈝Ⲵࣘ䇽ᴹ˖ᮉǃ㔉ǃُǃ䘈ǃ䰞ǃ എㆄǃ੺䇹ㅹDŽ ˄˅⦻㘱ᐸᮉᡁԜ䈮᮷઼䈝⌅DŽ ˄˅⧋ѭ㔉ᡁаᵜ㤡᮷ᵲᘇDŽ ˄˅ᡁ䰞㘱ᐸањ䰞仈DŽ ԕк䇪䘠оᵜ䇪᮷Ⲵ㿲⛩ᴹ⵰ṩᵜⲴ४࡛ˈᲲф᪷ᔰ䘉 ⛩ˈӵӾ䀓䟺ᓖᶕⴻˈ䈕ᮉᶀᱟㅜа⅑ࠪ⧠ৼᇮ䈝ਕˈᵜ䇪᮷䇔 Ѫԕк䀓䟺Ⲵ␡ᓖᐢ㓿䏣ཏDŽն‫޼ޝޘ‬ѝӵ↔а༴ӻ㓽Ҷৼᇮ 䈝ˈѻਾ㲭ᴹнቁৼᇮ䈝ਕࠪ⧠ˈ⭊㠣൘ࠪ⧠ᯠⲴ㔃ᶴ㊫රⲴᰦ ‫ى‬ᮉᶀѝҏᵚ‫ڊ‬䈤᰾ˈҏᰐ⴨ᓄⲴ㓳Ґˈ䘉⿽༴⨶ᯩ⌅᰾ᱮн㜭 ┑䏣ᮉᆖⲴ䴰㾱DŽ਼ᰦᑖєњᇮ䈝ᒦнᱟৼᇮਕⲴᑨᘱˈᐢ⸕Ⲵ ᰗؑ᚟ᑨ㻛ⴱ⮕ˈӾ㘼փ⧠Ѫৼᇮࣘ䇽ӵᑖањᇮ䈝Ⲵ⧠䊑DŽ਼ ᰦˈᴹӋৼᇮࣘ䇽ⴱ⮕䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ਾᱟਸ⌅Ⲵਕᆀˈྲ˖ᡁ䘈аᵜ ҖDŽնᴹӋৼᇮࣘ䇽ⴱ⮕䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ਾࡉѪнਸ⌅Ⲵਕᆀˈֻྲ˖

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


182

⼛㲊㯌⢗Ⱀ⪫䁱㈠ゑ㠌㹔⳷㹗

 Ԇ੺䇹ᡁаԦһDŽėγԆ੺䇹аԦһDŽ䈨ྲ↔㊫ⲴৼᇮਕᔿⲴ⿽ ⿽䲀ࡦᶑԦˈᮉᶀ䘈䴰㾱޽‫ڊ‬䘋а↕Ⲵ䈤᰾઼䀓䟺DŽ 䪸ሩৼᇮ䈝Ⲵᮉᆖㆆ⮕䴰㾱Ӿৼᇮ䈝ਕ䈝䀰⛩Ⲵ⢩↺ᙗ ࠪਁˈѫ㾱Ӿ䈝ѹⲴ䀂ᓖᶕ䇢䀓ৼᇮਕᔿˈ㔃ਸ⨶䇪⹄ウⲴᡀ 

᷌ˈ൘ᮉᆖѝ䟷⭘䈝ѹ⢩ᖱ࠶᷀⌅ ࠶᷀ਕᆀ㔃ᶴˈᒦሩ∄ᆖҐ㘵 ⇽䈝ˈ߿ቁ⇽䈝Ⲵ䍏䗱〫֌⭘ˈ䪸ሩ⇽䈝㕆߉ᮉᶀ઼㓳ҐDŽ ሩҾৼᇮਕᔿⲴᮉᆖާփㆆ⮕ྲл˖  ᕅ⭘ৼᇮ⨶䇪⹄ウⲴᡀ᷌ ‫ޣ‬Ҿৼᇮ䈝ᡆৼ৺⢙Ⲵ᮷ㄐ䶎ᑨཊˈнӵ㤡᮷᮷⥞ˈѝ᮷ ᮷⥞ҏᱟᮠ䟿ѠᇼDŽ䘉Ӌ᮷⥞Ӿн਼Ⲵ䀂ᓖ઼␡ᓖሩৼᇮਕᔿ䘋㹼 Ҷ᧒䇘ˈӾһҼ䈝ᮉᆖⲴᮉᐸਟԕᕅ⭘⹄ウ㔃᷌ѝᴹԧ٬Ⲵ䜘࠶ᶕ 䖵ࣙᮉᆖˈ⢩࡛ᱟҐᗇ઼‫ٿ‬䈟㊫Ⲵ᮷ㄐDŽ䙊䗷䘉⿽ᯩᔿᡁԜਟԕ䚯 ‫ݽ‬䎠ᕟ䐟ˈᮉ㔉ᆖ⭏ᴹ᭸ⲴᆖҐ઼䇠ᗶⲴᯩ⌅ˈ⭊㠣ᦧᖴDŽ  ‫⌠≹ྭڊ‬䈝䀰ሩ∄࠶᷀ˈ‫ݻ‬ᴽ⇽䈝Ⲵ䍏䗱〫 ࡍ㓗≤ᒣⲴᆖ⭏ӗ⭏Ⲵ‫ٿ‬䈟ཊਇަ⇽䈝䗱〫Ⲵᖡ૽ˈᮉ ᆖѝ㾱⌘䟽ᆖ⭏⇽䈝о≹䈝ৼᇮ㔃ᶴᖒᔿⲴ∄䖳ˈ᢮߶ᮉᆖⲴ䟽 ⛩઼䳮⛩ˈৈ␵਴⿽‫ٿ‬䈟ӗ⭏Ⲵ৏ഐˈԕ↔ሩ⯷л㦟DŽࡠҶѝ儈 㓗䱦⇥ˈᮉᐸ䘈ᓄሩаӋ䈝ѹ‫ޣ‬㌫∄䖳༽ᵲⲴ㔃ᶴ֌у䰘Ⲵ䇢 䀓ˈᕪ䈳ৼᇮ㔃ᶴⲴᶴᡀ⢩⛩઼㿴ᖻˈԕᨀॷᆖ⭏⨶䀓઼䘀⭘䈝 䀰Ⲵ㜭࣋DŽሩҾৼᇮਕᔿˈᵜ䇪᮷䇔Ѫ䴰㾱⌘᜿Ⲵᱟєњᇮ䈝Ⲵ

   )LOOPRUH˄˅ᤷࠪˈਕᆀ൘ส⹰㔃ᶴѝवਜ਼ањࣘ䇽ᡆࠐњ਽䇽⸝䈝ˈ ⇿ањ਽䇽⸝䈝ԕаᇊⲴṬ‫ޣ‬㌫઼ࣘ䇽ਁ⭏䈝ѹ‫ޣ‬㌫DŽṩᦞ䘉⿽䈝ѹ‫ޣ‬㌫ᶕ࠶᷀ ਕᆀᡀ࠶Ⲵᯩ⌅ቡᱟ䈝ѹ⢩ᖱ࠶᷀⌅DŽ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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183

 ս㖞䰞仈ˈ‫ٿ‬䈟ᑨࠪ⧠൘ᆖҐⲴࡍ㓗䱦⇥DŽਖཆᱟӻ䇽Ā㔉āо ĀKDLāĀNDHāⲴሩᓄ‫ޣ‬㌫DŽ  ṩᦞഠ䳮ᓖㅹ㓗ᶕሩৼᇮਕᔿ䈝⌅⛩ᧂᒿ ӾৼᇮਕᔿⲴ㔃ᶴǃ䈝ѹ઼䐘䈝䀰ഠ䳮ᓖⲴ亪ᒿᶕሩৼᇮ ਕᔿ䘋㹼ᮉᆖᇊਟԕਆᗇһॺ࣏‫Ⲵؽ‬᭸᷌ˈ਼ᰦҏㅖਸҐᗇ㿴ᖻDŽ  䪸ሩᆖҐ㘵Ⲵ⇽䈝ᶕ㕆߉ᮉᶀ઼㓳Ґ 㾱㕆߉ࠪ䪸ሩ⌠ഭᆖ⭏ᮉᆖⲴᮉᶀ઼㓳Ґˈ䴰㾱ᣅ‫ޕ‬㋮ ઼࣋ᰦ䰤ˈнᱟ⸝ᰦ䰤ਟԕ䗮ࡠⲴⴞḷˈᮉᶀ㕆߉⎹৺ࡠᖸཊᯩ 䶒Ⲵ⸕䇶઼ᢰᐗˈ䴰㾱Ӿһሩཆ≹䈝ᮉᆖⲴᆖ㘵઼ᮉᐸ‫਼࣋ࣚޡ‬ ᡽㜭䗮ᡀDŽ

 ᵜ᮷㔃䇪 ᵜ᮷൘ሩ∄࠶᷀ǃѝӻ䈝ԕ৺‫ٿ‬䈟࠶᷀⨶䇪ส⹰кˈሩ ≹䈝઼⌠䈝Ⲵ㊫ර䘋㹼Ҷሩ∄ˈᒦሩ≹⌠䈝ৼᇮ㔃ᶴⲴᛵߥ䘋㹼 Ҷሩ∄ˈ䇔Ѫ≹⌠䈝ৼᇮ㔃ᶴѝєњᇮ䈝Ⲵս㖞ࡊྭ⴨৽ˈ≹䈝 Ⲵ䈝ᒿѪ YHUEJRDOUDQJHˈ㘼⌠䈝Ⲵৼᇮ㔃ᶴѝᇮ䈝Ⲵս㖞 Ѫ˖YHUEUDQJHJRDODŽਖཆ≹䈝ৼᇮ㔃ᶴѝԕĀ㔉āѪ㓸⛩Ṭ ḷ䇠ˈᕅӻ㓸⛩ǃਇ ᜐ઼ ᯭһ˗㘼⌠䈝ѝⲴӻ 䇽Ṭ ḷᴹєњ ĀNDHā઼ĀKDLāˈަѝĀNDHāĀKDLā䜭ਚ㜭ᕅӻ㓸⛩ˈє㘵 䜭н㜭ᕅӻਇᜐ㘵઼ᯭһˈ⋑ᴹ㠤֯⭘⌅DŽ⧠ԓ⌠䈝䈝⌅ѝˈ ĀNDHāᑨоĀKDLā䘎⭘ˈ㓴ᡀĀKDLNDHāᔿDŽ ᵜ᮷䘈ሩ㠚❦䈝ᯉ䘋㹼Ҷ࠶᷀ˈ䰞ধѝࠪ⧠Ⲵ‫ٿ‬䈟‫ޡ‬ᴹ ࠐ㊫˖䈟࣐ǃ䈟ԓǃ䚇┿ǃ䭉ᒿ઼ᵲ㋵ˈަѝоĀ㔉āӻ䇽㓴ᴹ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


184

⼛㲊㯌⢗Ⱀ⪫䁱㈠ゑ㠌㹔⳷㹗

 ‫ٿⲴޣ‬䈟∄ֻ䖳儈DŽ⴨ሩᶕ䈤ˈ㻛䈅ሩ޵ੁࣘ䇽ⲴҐᗇ∄ཆੁࣘ 䇽ⲴҐᗇ⮕ᐞDŽ‫ٿ‬䈟Ⲵ৏ഐᴹ⇽䈝䗱〫ǃ䗷ᓖ㊫ॆǃㆰॆԕ৺ަ Ԇྲᮉᶀǃᮉᐸㅹ৏ഐDŽަѝਇ⇽䈝䍏䗱〫֌⭘䖳བྷˈ䍏䗱〫ѫ 㾱ᶕ㠚⌠䈝䈝⌅Ⲵᖡ૽ ᵜ䇪᮷Ⲵᴰਾ䜘࠶䇔Ѫᓄ䈕Ӿ䈝ѹᯩੁࠪਁ䪸ሩৼᇮਕ ᔿᵜ䓛Ⲵ⢩↺ᙗ䘋㹼ᮉᆖˈᕅ⭘ഭ޵ཆৼᇮਕᔿ⹄ウⲴ⨶䇪ˈ㔃 ਸሩ∄࠶઼᷀‫ٿ‬䈟࠶᷀ᯩ䶒Ⲵ⹄ウᡀ᷌ˈ‫⌠≹ྭڊ‬䈝䀰ሩ∄࠶ ᷀ˈ‫ݻ‬ᴽ⇽䈝Ⲵ䍏䗱〫ˈ䪸ሩᆖҐ㘵Ⲵ⇽䈝ᶕ㕆߉ᮉᶀ઼㓳ҐDŽ ⭡Ҿᰦ䰤ǃ㋮࣋ǃњӪ㜭࣋ԕ৺ᇒ㿲ᯩ䶒ⲴаӋ৏ഐˈ ᵜ᮷䘈ᆈ൘䘉ᖸཊнཚѕ䉘Ⲵൠᯩˈҏ䳮‫ݽ‬ᴹн䏣઼⮿┿ˈᐼᵋ ൘ԕਾⲴ⹄ウѝᗇࡠᆼழDŽ

 ৲㘳᮷⥞

Fillmore, Charles J. 1971. Some problems for case grammar. In R. J. O’Brien, editor,ǰOEǰBOOVBMǰ3PVOEǰ 5BCMFǰ-JOHVJTUJDTǰEFWFMPQNFOUTǰPGǰUIFǰTJYUJFTǰıǰ WJFXQPJOUTǰPGǰUIFǰTFWFOUJFT, pp. 35-56. (.POPHSBQIǰ 4FSJFTǰPOǰ-BOHVBHFǰBOEǰ-JOHVJTUJDT, vol. 24). Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Napasri Timyam.2003. A comparative study of doubleobje ct construction in English and Thai:

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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The minimalist program and construction grammar. Manoa: University of Hawaii. Richards, Jack C. (editor).1974. &SSPSǰBOBMZTJTǰ1FSTQFDUJWFTǰ POǰTFDPOEǰMBOHVBHFǰBDRVJTJUJPO Essex, England Carl James.2001.lj䈝䀰ᆖҐ઼䈝䀰֯⭘ѝⲴ䭉䈟NJेӜ˖ཆ 䈝ᮉᆖо⹄ウࠪ⡸⽮ 䛃ᆸؑ≹䈝৺⢙ᙗ‫ޣ‬㌫Ⲵ䈝ѹ⹄ウ૸ቄ┘˖唁嗉⊏Ӫ≁ ࠪ⡸⽮ 䛃ᆸؑljሩཆ≹䈝ᮉᆖ䈝⌅NJेӜ˖ेӜ䈝䀰བྷᆖࠪ⡸⽮ ߟ䶂䈸≹䈝ⲴĀ㔉ā઼⌠䈝Ⲵ

“ĔĀš”ᰶ᰾˖Ӂইᐸ㤳བྷᆖ

䇪උ օᲃ⛌ৼᇮ䈝㔃ᶴⲴਕ⌅⹄ウᒯь˖⧠ԓཆ䈝ㅜ  ᵏ ᷇俕㰻ѝ᮷ৼᇮࣘ䇽Ⲵ⇽䈝Ґᗇਠे˖ਠ⒮ᐸབྷབྷᆖ⺅ ༛䇪᮷ ࡈѩ䶂≹䈝㔉Ҹ㊫ৼ৺⢙㔃ᶴⲴ㊫රᆖ㘳ሏेӜ˖ѝഭ 䈝᮷ㅜ  ᵏ ᆏ⾕㣣ࡍ㓗䱦⇥ཆഭᆖ⭏≹䈝ৼᇮ㔃ᶴҐᗇ‫ٿ‬䈟Ⲵ࠶᷀о ⹄ウ৖䰘˖৖䰘བྷᆖ⺅༛䇪᮷ 㼤ᲃ⶯lj⌠䈝䈝⌅ᯠ㕆NJेӜ˖ेӜབྷᆖࠪ⡸⽮ ⊸ᇦ❺Ā൘āᆇਕ઼Ā㔉āᆇਕेӜ˖ѝഭ䈝᮷ㅜ  ᵏ

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


186

⼛㲊㯌⢗Ⱀ⪫䁱㈠ゑ㠌㹔⳷㹗

 ⭣֣လ⧠ԓ≹䈝Ā㔉āਕ⌅ǃ䈝ѹ࠶᷀оᮉᆖᧂᒿਠ े˖ਠ⒮ᐸབྷ⺅༛䇪 㣿㢣伎༞≹⌠ৼᇮ䈝ਕሩ∄⹄ウᒯ㾯˖ḣᐎ㙼ъᢰᵟᆖ 䲒ᆖᣕㅜ  ᵏ亥  ⊔ᔧ⊐ⴤ᧕ᇮ䈝о䰤᧕ᇮ䈝ਠे˖ਠ⒮ᆖ⭏Җተ ੤㍐‫ޠ‬Ӿѝ⌠ሩ∄ⴻ⌠ഭᆖ⭏≹䈝ᑨ⭘ӻ䇽ⲴҐᗇоᮉᆖ ⊏㣿˖㣿ᐎབྷᆖ ᔦ‫׺‬㦓ৼᇮਕ⹄ウ䘠䇴ेӜ˖lj䈝᮷⹄ウㅜ  ᵏNJ亥  ᕐᮼ䈅䇪ࣘᇮᔿࣘ䇽ljሩཆ≹䈝ᮉᆖ⹄ウㅜаᵏNJेӜ ୶࣑ঠҖ侶 ઘሿ‫ޥ‬ཆഭӪᆖ≹䈝䈝⌅‫ٿ‬䈟⹄ウेӜ˖ेӜ䈝䀰བྷᆖ ઘዊ䪺สҾ +6. ࣘᘱ֌᮷䈝ᯉᓃⲴ⮉ᆖ⭏ৼᇮ㔃ᶴ‫ٿ‬䈟⹄ ウेӜ˖ेӜ䈝䀰བྷᆖ 

     

/:+2:+=!/<*:ƹ#ā=Laa2<3: )bef`


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On the Double-Object Construction in Modern Chinese and Analysis of Errors by Thai Learners Bai Fen ABSTRACT This article focuses on the issues related with the double-object construction in modern Chinese. It gives a brief comparison on the double-object constructions in Chinese and Thai language. Meanwhile with questionnaire surveys in Thailand, I obtain the errors of Thai learners. It also probes into the presentation of double-object construction grammar and hierarchy of difficulty. I combined with theories related to pedagogical grammar. I put forward some teaching and learning suggestions concerning the pedagogy of the double-object construction for Thai learners. Keywords: EPVCMFPCKFDUÇ°DPOTUSVDUJPO Ç°DPOUSBTUJWFÇ°BOBMZTJTÇ° CFUXFFOÇ° $IJOFTFÇ° BOEÇ° 5IBJÇ° MBOHVBHF Ç° FSSPSÇ° BOBMZTJT Ç° QFEBHPHJDBMÇ°HSBNNBSÇ°

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2003:3) îĆ ÖõćþćýćÿêøŤ ñĎš đÿîĂĒîüìćÜÖćøýċ ÖþćĂč ð úĆ ÖþèŤ Ĕî õćþćýćÿêøŤðøĉßćîǰĂíĉïć÷üŠćǰĂčðúĆÖþèŤĕöŠĕéšđðŨîđóĊ÷ÜđÙøČę ĂÜöČĂìĊę ߊü÷ÿøšćÜÙüćöÜćöĔîõćþćđìŠćîĆĚîǰĒêŠđðŨîÿĉę ÜìĊęđÖĊę÷üךĂÜēé÷êøÜÖĆï øąïïðøĉßćî×ĂÜöîčþ÷ŤǰĂčðúĆÖþèŤđðŨîÖćøĀ÷ĉï÷ÖÿĉęÜĀîċęÜöćđðøĊ÷ïÖĆï ĂĊÖÿĉęÜĀîċęÜǰߊü÷ÿČęĂÙüćöĀöć÷ÿĉęÜìĊęđðŨîîćöíøøöĔĀšöĊÙüćößĆéđÝîöćÖ ÷ĉęÜ×ċĚîǰēé÷ÖćøĀ÷ĉï÷ÖÿĉęÜîĆĚîĕðđðøĊ÷ïÖĆïÿĉęÜìĊęđðŨîøĎðíøøööćÖÖüŠćǰ ÝćÖïìÙüćö×ĂÜǰđÝĉÜǰÞüćîúĎŠ ˄ᴮՐ⾴ˈ˅đøČęĂÜǰ ≹䈝䟿 䇽䈝ѹⲴ䇔⸕䱀䟺ǰ+iQ\ OLiQ‡Fo \\n GH UkQ]Ky FKiQVKn ǰ ÖćøĂíĉïć÷ÙüćöĀöć÷×ĂÜÙĞćúĆÖþèîćöÝĊîêćöĒîüðøĉßćî ǰÖúŠćüëċÜ ĂčðúĆÖþèŤĕüšǰēé÷÷ÖÙĞćĂíĉïć÷×ĂÜ Lakoff ĒúąǰJohnson ìĊęĂíĉïć÷üŠćǰ ĂčðúĆÖþèŤđðŨîÖøąïüîÖćøđßČęĂöē÷ÜöēîìĆýîŤÿĂÜüÜǰÙČĂüÜöēîìĆýîŤêšî đÙšćǰ(source domain) ÖĆïǰüÜöēîìĆýîŤđðŜćĀöć÷ǰ(target domain) üÜ öēîìĆ ýîŤêšîđÙšćđðŨ îÿĉę ÜìĊęöîčþ÷ŤđøćÙčšîđÙ÷ǰĒúąöĊÙüćöđðŨîøĎðíøøö öćÖÖüŠćǰüÜöēîìĆýîŤđðŜćĀöć÷öĊÙüćöđðŨîîćöíøøöĒúąàĆïàšĂîǰöîčþ÷Ť đøćđøĉęöđøĊ÷îøĎšÿĉęÜìĊęđðŨîîćöíøøöĕéšǰñŠćîÿĉę ÜìĊęđðŨîøĎðíøøöĀøČĂÿĉęÜìĊęđøć ÙčšîđÙ÷ÖŠĂîǰúćÙĂôǰĒúąÝĂĀŤîÿĆîǰ(Lakoff and Johnson, 2003: 4) ÷ÖêĆüĂ÷ŠćÜĂčðúĆÖþèŤĕüšéĆÜîĊĚ ARGUMENT IS WAR ÖćøēêšĒ÷šÜÙČĂÿÜÙøćö

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I demolished his argument. ÞĆîìĞćúć÷ךĂēêšĒ÷šÜ×ĂÜđ×ć

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A Comparative Study of Chinese Collective Classifiers and their Thai Equivalents: A Case Study of Chinese Collective Classifier â&#x20AC;&#x153;baâ&#x20AC;?(kam) Pornsomsuang Satjaakkaramontri ABSTRACT Classifier is a word that accompanies the other noun to describe feature, size or amount of nouns. (Kamchai Thonglor, 2011: 197) Chinese and Thai both are the languages that have classifiers. It is good for learners to know and use classifiers correctly and appropriately for the nouns. This article aims to study Chinese collective classifier, â&#x20AC;&#x153;baâ&#x20AC;?, and its Thai equivalents. The theory that is used in this study is the Prototype Theory of categorization of cognitive linguistics. The result shows that Chinese collective classifier â&#x20AC;&#x153;baâ&#x20AC;? can be used with many kinds of nouns. 1) The noun that can be picked up, grabbed and held in one hand, 2) liquid substances, and 3) abstract nouns. In Thai, Chinese collective classifier â&#x20AC;&#x153;baâ&#x20AC;? is equivalent to â&#x20AC;&#x153;kamâ&#x20AC;? when it is used with things that can be grabbed and held in one hand such as seeds, powder and things that have long feature. In addition, it can also be interpreted to another word that shows a great amount such as â&#x20AC;&#x153;punâ&#x20AC;?, â&#x20AC;&#x153;temâ&#x20AC;?, etc., which depends

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on the context. Lastly, in some case, it does not give any meaning in Thai. Keywords: Chinese-Thai Comparative study, collective classifier â&#x20AC;&#x153;baâ&#x20AC;?, classifier â&#x20AC;&#x153;kamâ&#x20AC;?, prototype theory



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Profile for Mae Fah Luang University

วารสารจีนวิทยา ปีที่ 11 สิงหาคม 2561  

วารสารจีนวิทยา ปีที่ 11 สิงหาคม 2561  

Profile for imu-mfu