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I ns t i t ut eofManage me nt & Te c hni c alSt udi e s

ELECTRI CAL MACHI NE

500

Di p l o mao fEn g i n e e r i n g www. i mt s i ns t i t ut e . c om


IMTS (ISO 9001-2008 Internationally Certified) ELECTRICAL MACHINES

ELECTRICAL MACHINES

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CONTENT Page No.

Sl.No. 1.

Introduction of Electrical Engineering

01-09

2.

Materials and Tools Used in Electrical Engineering Department

10-17

3.

Electrical Terms and DC Circuits

18-68

4.

Electro Magnetism

69-80

5.

Electrical Effect

81-88

6.

Batteries

89-105

7.

A.C. Circuits and Electrical Measuring Instruments

106-145

8.

Transformer

146-161

9.

DC Generator

162-176

10.

DC Motor

177-185

11.

AC Generator (Alternator)

186-198

12.

AC Motors

199-216

13.

Motor Starters

217-223

14.

Electronics

224-256

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Solution

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1000 watts x 1 Hour

1 Unit

Energyconsurned = 500 x 6

3000 Watt-hrs. 3000

=3 Unit

1000 3 Unit of energy is spent by using 500 watts lamp for 6 hours. Example 3 Ina 100 V circuit the current is 4 A Calculate ( 1) Resistance Solution (2) Power

(3) Energy for 30 min

Current d) Voltage(V) Time(t) 4 Ampere 100V 30 Min.

=

According to Ohm's Law R

V I

1) Resistance

100

25

n

4 2) Power (P)

=

VI

=

100 x 4 watts

3) Energy (P) t

Energy

400W 30 min. = 0.5 hIS 400 x 0.5 1000 0.2 Unit

watt-hrs Example 4 In a factory the following appliance are inoperation 1.

2 HP Motor 3 hours daily.

2.

100 W 181np12 hour daily. 47

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Closed loop CBEDC 412 + 20(11 + I) - 110 = 0 412 + 2011 + 2012

=

110

2012 + 2412

=

110

\

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2)

What is buzzar?

3)

Write the parts oflron Box?

4)

What are the types of heating appliances?

5)

What is incandecent lamp?

88

Part- D

:rv.

Answer the following questions in one page level

1)

Draw the neat sketch of incandecent lamp?

2)

Explain magnetic circuit breaker?

3)

Explain Electric heater with neat diagram? Part-E

V.

Answer the following questions in two page level

1)

Explain the working principle of tube lamp?

2)

Explain the working principle of Electric Bell with neat diagram

91

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Inthis method similar ends (starting end or finishing end) of each phase winding arejoined to.gether to form a commonjunction N and supply is taken from other three ends. The junction N is called star point FOR MORE DETAILS VISIT US ON WWW.IMTSINSITUTE. COM OR CALL ON +91-999554621


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or neutral point. The voltage between anyone line and neutral is called phase voltage. Current flows through that phase is called phase current. Voltage between any two lines is called line voltage and current through that line is called line current. In the star connection, phase current = Line current i.e.Iph Phase voltage

= IL

Line voltage --13

7.10.2. Delta or Mess Connection If the six ends of three phases are so connected that one end of first coil is connected to start end of the second coil and so on, a closed mesh will be formed. If three lines are taken from the three connected points, then this method is called delta connection. As only one phase winding is in between any two lines, phase voltage will be equal to the line voltage. Phase Voltage Current

=

phase power

=

Line Voltage Phase

Line Current/~ Therefore, 3 =

-{3VI cosf

7.11. TWO WATT METER METHOD OF MEASURING POWER AND POWER FACTOR

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Mica insulation

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In practical generator, the number of coils are large and are accommodated on the surface of the armature. Instead of split rings the commutator (with large number of segments) is provided at the one end of the armature. For example if there are two coils. Then the number of commutator of large number of segments may be less pulsating as shown in figure. 9.9.

E.M.F. Equation ofD.C. Generator:Fig. 9.9. The e.m.f. generated in a direct current generator is proportional to the speed rotation of the armature, total number of armature conductors, total flux available in the field and the type of winding adopted in the armature. Let, P =No. of poles.

o = flux per pole, in webers. Z =total no. of conductors inthe armature (number of slots inthe armature x number of conductors per slot). N = Speed of rotation of armature in r.p.m. A =No.

of parallel paths in armature

Eg = e.m.f induced in any parallel path is armature. The EMF Equation ofD. C. generator (Eg) = 0zn x ÂŁ volts

60 A

Where, A = P in case oflap wound generator, A = 2 in case of wave wound generator. Types ofD.C. Generators: D. C. Generators are classified according to the manner in which their field windings are connected. The process of giving D.C. voltage to the field winding for producing magnetic field is called field excitation. The generators are classified as follows:

D.C. generator

Seperately Excited D.C. generator Self excited D.C. generator

Series Generator Shunt generator Compound generator

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SEPARATELYEXCITED GENERATORS:Long shunt Compound Generator Short Shunt Compound generator In this type of generator, the field winding is excited by a separate D.C. source. The schematic diagram of a separately excited D.C. generator is shown in figure. 9.10.

SELF EXCITED GENERATORS:Inthis type of generator, the field winding is excited by the same machine. When the armature is rotated some e.m.f is generated due to the presence of residual magnetism. Thus some induced currents is produced and this passes through the field coils. This induced current produce more flux. This action is repeated and thereby sufficient current passes through the field coils to generate the rated induced EMF. The self excited generators are further classified in to three types, according to the way of their field winding connections to the armature as follows:

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3. COMPOUND GENERATORS a)

Level Compound: Used where reated terminal voltage is required at full load conditions.

b)

Over Compound: Used where power is to be transmitted to a long distance. In this case, the voltage at load remains constant.

c)

Differential compound: - Used for D.C. welding sets since they have an inherent character to limit the short circuit current.

4. SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS These generators are used for (l) Supplying D.C. motors whose speed in to be varied widely (2) where a wide range of D.C. voltage is required for testing purpose. Questions

Part A choose the correct answer 1.

The e.m.finduced in the d.c generator is alternating one and this is converted in to direct e.m.fby a. slipring

b. corbon brush

c. commulator 2.

d. end rings.

The direction of induced e.m.fis determined by using a. fleming's right hand rule

c. Kirchoff's law b. fleming's left hand rule d. Mutual induction. 3.

4.

The Yoke or frame of the d.c machine is made of a. Copper

b.Aluminium

c. Cast iron

d.Bronze

Inter poles are provided to a. Generate the e.m.f c. economical basis

b. operate in over load. d. improve commutation 5.

Armature lamination is about a. 1 Cm thick

c. 0.5 mm thick b.1 mmthick d. 0.5 inch thick 6.

Compensating windings are provided inslots made on the a.armature

b. mainpole faces

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11. A.C. GENERATOR (ALTERNATOR) 11.0. Introduction In power supply system alternating current is supplied to a much greater extent than direct current supply, because of the following advantages. Advantages ofAC GenerationÂť (1) AC power can be generated in bulk quantitywithoutmuch difficulty. (2) AC requirements are cheaper in cost. (3) AC voltage can be step up or step down to any level of our requirement. (4) We can convert in to AC into DC, in case of atmost need for DC supply. The machine which generates alternating current is called as Alternator (or) Synchronous generator. 11.1. Principle of Alternator

The alternator works on the principle of "Electromagnetic Induction". According to Faraday's Laws of electro magnetic Induction, when there is a cutting of magnetic flux by a conductor or when there is a change in flux linkage by a coil, an emf is induced in the conductor or coiL Fig. 11.1.shows the simple arrangement of an alternator. In the fig. 11.1. shown an open ended loop or coil of wire is rotated between the poles of an electromagnet. An e.m.f. is generated in the loop.

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3. Capacitor-start, capacitor-run motors FOR MORE DETAILS VISIT US ON WWW.IMTSINSITUTE. COM OR CALL ON +91-999554621


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4. Shaded pole motors.

1.RESISTANCE-START, INDUCTION-RUN MOTORS As the starting torque of this type of motor is relatively small and its starting current is high, these motors are most commonly used for rating upto 0.5 HP where the load could be started easily. The essential parts are shown in Fig: 12.2. • Main winding or running winding. • Auxiliary winding or starting winding •

Squirrel cage type rotor.

• Centrifugal switch. lit

Main'

e \

Is stor.tlng

winding

\

\

\ \

IW -..- ... ~

\ \

I

":::J

\ '-~- I a)Sd1amaticai~rttrn

(a)

b)Voctor dlaoram

(b) Fig: 12.2

The starting winding is designed to have a higher resistance and lower reactance than the main winding. This is achieved by using small conductors in the auxiliary winding than in the main winding. The main winding will have higher inductance when surrounded by more iron, which could be made possible by placing it deeper into the stator slots, it is obvious that the current would split as shown in Fig: 12.2(b). The starting current "1" start will lag the main supply voltage "V" line by 15 degree and the main winding current, "I" main lags the main voltage by about 80 degree. Therefore, these currents will differ in time phase and their magnetic fields will combine to produce a rotating magnetic field.

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14.2.1. TYPES OF SEMI路CONDUCTORS:

In every elements, the atoms, are tied together by the bending action of valence electrons. Si and Ge atoms contain only 4 valence electrons. These electrons have a tendency to fill the last outermost orbit. Inthis way, the electrons placed in the last orbit of an atom share the electrons with their neighbouring atoms. Similarly, all electrons are tied together with their neighbouring atoms. For this, they form a band called covalent bond. The semi conductors are classified as follows: Semi -conductors

Intrinsic Semi conductors

N. Type Semi -conductors

Extrinsic Semi conductors

P.Type Semi -conductors,

. 14.3. INTRINSIC SEMI CONDUCTORS

A pure semi conductor is called intrinsic semi conductor. The silicon and germani urn atoms contains only four electrons in the outermost orbit. So they are called tetravalent atoms. The co-valent band structure of germanium atom is shown in the Fig: 14.3. At low temperature (0 K), the semiconductor behaves as a perfect consulator. Now no electrons get away from the co-valent band. So the current flow (electron flow) is zero. At room temperature, some ofthe valence electrons may acquire sufficient energy. The bonds may be broken, the electrons become free and are shifted to the conduction band as shown in the Fig: 14.4.

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ELECTRI CALMACHI NE

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IMTS Electrical Eng. (Electrical machine)  

IMTS Electrical Eng. (Electrical machine)