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APPLIED PHYSICS

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Physics I Modern Physics and Quantum Mechanics Unit 1

01-26

Black-Body Radiation

Unit 2

27-50

Uncertainty Principle

Unit 3

51-74

The Schrodinger Wave Equation

Unit 4

75-86

Waves And Particles

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APPLIED PHYSICS

Unit 1 Black-Body Radiation Structure 1.0

Objectives

1.1

Introduction

1.2

The Ideal Black-Body Model

1.3

Definition of a Black Body

1.4

Properties of a black body

1.5

Historical Aspects

1.6

Black-Body Radiation Laws

1.7

The Planck law

1.8

The Wien Radiation Law

1.9

The Rayleigh-Jeans Radiation Law

1.10

The Wien Displacement Law

1.11

The Stefan-Boltzmann law

1.12

Correlation properties of black-body radiation

1.13

The Kirchhoff Law 1.13.1 Emissive ability 1.13.2 Absorbing ability

1.14

Summary

1.15

Keywords

1.16

Self Assessment Questions

1.17

References

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1.0

2

Objectives After studying this unit you will be able to:

1.1

Explain The Ideal Black-Body Model: Historical Aspects.

Define a black body.

Describe Properties of a black body.

Explain Black-Body Radiation Laws

Discuss The Planck law (formula).

Explain The Wien radiation law.

Introduction Let us understand the black-body model, which is of primary importance in thermal radiation theory and practice, and the fundamental laws of radiation of such a system. Natural and artificial physical objects, which are close in their characteristics to black bodies, are considered here. The quantitative black-body radiation laws and their corollaries are analysed in detail. The notions of emissivity and absorptivity of physical bodies of grey-body radiation character are also introduced. The Kirchhoff law, its various forms and corollaries are analysed on this basis.

1.2

The Ideal Black-Body Model The ideal black-body notion (hereafter the black-body notion) is of primary importance in studying thermal radiation and electromagnetic radiation energy transfer in all wavelength bands. Being an ideal radiation absorber, the black body is used as a standard with which the absorption of real bodies is compared. As we shall see later, the black body also emits the maximum amount of radiation and, consequently, it is used as a standard for comparison with the radiation of real physical bodies. This notion, introduced by G. Kirchhoff in 1860, is so important that it is actively used in studying not only the intrinsic thermal radiation of natural media, but also the radiations caused by different physical nature. Moreover, this notion and its characteristics are sometimes used in describing and

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studying artificial, quasi-deterministic electromagnetic radiation (in radioand TV-broadcasting and communications). The emissive properties of a black body are determined by means of quantum theory and are confirmed by experiment.

The black body is so called because those bodies that absorb incident visible light well seem black to the human eye. The term is, certainly, purely conventional and has, basically, historical roots. For example, we can hardly characterize our Sun, which is, indeed, almost a black body within a very wide band of electromagnetic radiation wavelengths, as a black physical object in optics. Though, it is namely the bright-white sunlight, which represents the equilibrium black-body radiation. In this sense, we should treat the subjective human recognition of colours extremely cautiously. So, in the optical band a lot of surfaces really approach an ideal back body in their ability to absorb radiation (examples of such surfaces are: soot, silicon carbide, platinum and golden niellos). However, outside the visible light region, in the wavelength band of IR thermal radiation and in the radio-frequency bands, the situation is different. So, the majority of the Earth's surfaces (the water surface, ice, land) absorb infrared radiation well, and, for this reason, in the thermal IR band these physical objects are ideal black bodies. At the same time, in the radio-frequency band the absorptive properties of the same media differ both from a black body and from each other, which, generally speaking, just indicates the high information capacity of microwave remote measurements.

1.3

Definition of a Black Body A black body is an ideal body which allows the whole of the incident radiation to pass into itself (without reflecting the energy) and absorbs within itself this whole incident radiation (without passing on the energy). This property is valid for radiation corresponding to all wavelengths and to

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all angles of incidence. Therefore, the black body is an ideal absorber of incident radiation. All other qualitative characteristics determining the behaviour of a black body follow from this definition.

1.4

Properties of a black body A black body not only absorbs radiation ideally, but possesses other important properties which will be considered below.

Consider a black body at constant temperature, placed inside a fully insulated cavity of arbitrary shape, whose walls are also formed by ideal black bodies at constant temperature, which initially differs from the temperature of the body inside. After some time the black body and the closed cavity will have a common equilibrium temperature. Under equilibrium conditions the black body must emit exactly the same amount of radiation as it absorbs. To prove this, we shall consider what would happen if the incoming and outgoing radiation energies were not equal. In this case the temperature of a body placed inside a cavity would begin to increase or decrease, which would correspond to heat transfer from a cold to a heated body. But this situation contradicts the second law of thermodynamics (the question is, certainly, on the stationary state of an object and ambient radiation). Since, by definition, the black body absorbs a maximum possible amount of radiation that comes in any direction from a closed cavity at any wavelength, it should also emit a maximum possible amount of radiation (as an ideal emitter). This situation becomes clear if we consider any less perfectly absorbing body (a grey body), which should emit a lower amount of radiation as compared to the black body, in order that equilibrium be maintained.

Let us now consider an isothermal closed cavity of arbitrary shape with black walls. We move the black body inside the cavity into another position and change its orientation. The black body should keep the same

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temperature, since the whole closed system remains isothermal. Therefore, the black body should emit the same amount of radiation as before. Being at equilibrium, it should receive the same amount of radiation from the cavity walls. Thus, the total radiation received by the black body does not depend on its orientation and position inside the cavity; therefore, the radiation passing through any point inside a cavity does not depend on its position or on the direction of emission. This implies that the equilibrium thermal radiation filling a cavity is isotropic (the property of isotropy of black-body radiation). And, thus, the net radiation flux (see equation (5.7)) through any plane, placed inside a cavity in any arbitrary manner, will be strictly zero.

Consider now an element of the surface of a black isothermal closed cavity and the elementary black body inside this cavity. Some part of the surface element's radiation falls on a black body at some angle to its surface. All this radiation is absorbed, by definition. In order that the thermal equilibrium and radiation isotropy be kept throughout the closed cavity, the radiation emitted by a body in the direction opposite to the incident beam direction should be equal to the absorbed radiation. Since the body absorbs maximum radiation from any direction, it should also emit maximum radiation in any direction. Moreover, since the equilibrium thermal radiation filling the cavity is isotropic, the radiation absorbed or emitted in any direction by the ideal black surface encased in the closed cavity, and related to the unit area of surface projection on a plane normal to the beam direction, should be equal.

Let us consider a system comprising a black body inside a closed cavity which is at thermal equilibrium. The wall of the cavity possesses a peculiar property: it can emit and absorb radiation within a narrow wavelength band only. The black body, being an ideal energy absorber, absorbs the whole incident radiation in this wavelength band. In order that the thermal

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equilibrium be kept in a closed cavity, the black body should emit radiation within the aforementioned wavelength band; and this radiation can then be absorbed by the cavity wall, which absorbs in the given wavelength band only. Since the black body absorbs maximum radiation in a certain wavelength band, it should emit maximum radiation in the same band. The black body should also emit maximum radiation at the given wavelength. Thus, the black body is an ideal emitter at any wavelength. However, this in no way implies uniformity in the intensity of black-body emission at different wavelengths (the 'white noise' property). The peculiar spectral (and, accordingly, correlation) properties of black-body radiation could only be revealed by means of quantum mechanics.

The peculiar properties of a closed cavity have no relation to the black body in the reasoning given, since the emission properties of a body depend on its nature only and do not depend on the properties of a cavity. The walls of a cavity can even be fully reflecting (mirroring).

If the temperature of a closed cavity changes, then, accordingly, the temperature of a black body enclosed inside it should also change and become equal to the new temperature of a cavity (i.e. a fully insulated system should tend to thermodynamic equilibrium). The system will again become isothermal, and the energy of radiation absorbed by a black body will again be equal to the energy of radiation emitted by it, but it will slightly differ in magnitude from the energy corresponding to the former temperature. Since, by definition, the body absorbs (and, hence, emits) the maximum radiation corresponding to the given temperature, the characteristics of an enclosing system have no influence on the emission properties of a black body. Therefore, the total radiation energy of a black body is a function of its temperature only.

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In addition, according to the second law of thermodynamics, energy transfer from a cold surface to a hot one is impossible without doing some work at a system. If the energy of radiation emitted by a black body increased with decreasing temperature, then the reasoning could easily be constructed (see, for example, Siegel and Howell, 1972), which would lead us to a violation of this law. As an example, two infinite parallel ideal black plates are usually considered. The upper plate is maintained at temperature higher than the temperature of the lower plate. If the energy of emitted radiation decreased with increasing temperature, then the energy of radiation, emitted by the lower plate per unit time, would be greater than the energy of radiation emitted by the upper plate per unit time. Since both plates are black, each of them absorbs the whole radiation emitted by the other plate. For maintaining the temperatures of plates the energy should be rejected from the upper plate per unit time and added to the lower plate in the same amount. Thus, it happens, that the energy transfers from a less heated plate to more heated one without any external work being done. According to the second law of thermodynamics, this situation is impossible. Therefore, the energy of radiation emitted by a black body, should increase with temperature. On the basis of these considerations we come to the conclusion, that the total energy of radiation emitted by a black body is proportional to a monotonously increasing function of thermodynamic temperature only.

All the reasoning we set forth above proceeding from thermodynamic considerations represents quite important, but, nevertheless, only qualitative, laws of black-body radiation. As was ascertained, classical thermodynamics is not capable of formulating the quantitative laws of black-body radiation in principle.

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1.5

8

Historical Aspects Until the middle of the nineteenth century a great volume of diverse experimental data on the radiation of heated bodies was accumulated. The time had come to comprehend the data theoretically. And it was Kirchhoff who took two important steps in this direction. At the first step Kirchhoff, together with Bunsen, established the fact that a quite specific spectrum (the set of wavelengths, or frequencies) of the light emitted and absorbed by a substance corresponds to that particular substance. This discovery served as a basis for the spectral analysis of substances. The second step consisted in finding the conditions, under which the radiation spectrum of

heated bodies depends only on their temperature and does not depend on the chemical composition of the emitting substance. Kirchhoff considered theoretically the radiation inside a closed cavity in a rigid body, whose walls possess some particular temperature. In such a cavity the walls emit as much energy as they absorb. It was found that under these conditions the energy distribution in the radiation spectrum does not depend on the material the walls are made of. Such a radiation was called 'absolutely (or ideally) black'.

For a long time, however, black-body radiation was, so to speak, a 'thingin-itself. Only 35 years later, in 1895, W. Wien and O. Lummer suggested the development of a test model of an ideal black body to verify Kirchhoff's theory experimentally. This model was manufactured as a hollow sphere with internal reflecting walls and a narrow hole in the wall, the hole diameter being small as compared to the sphere diameter. The authors proposed to investigate the spectrum of radiation issuing through this hole (Figure 6.1). Any light beam undergoes multiple reflections inside a cavity and, actually, cannot exit through the hole. At the same time, if the walls are at a high temperature the hole will brightly shine (if the process occurs

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in the optical band) owing to the electromagnetic radiation issuing from inside the cavity. It was this particular test model of a black body on which the experimental investigations to verify thermal radiation laws were carried out, and, first of all, the fundamental spectral dependence of blackbody radiation on frequency and temperature (the Planck formula) was established quantitatively. The success of these experimental (and, a little bit later, theoretical) quantum-approach-based investigations was so significant that for a long time, up until now, this famous reflecting cavity has been considered in general physics textbooks as a unique black-body example. And, thus, some illusion of black body exclusiveness with respect to natural objects arises. In reality, however (as we well know both from the radio-astronomical and remote sensing data, and from the data of physical (laboratory) experiments), the natural world around us, is virtually saturated with physical objects which are very close to black-body models in their characteristics.

First of all, we should mention here the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of the universe - the fluctuation electromagnetic radiation that fills the part of the universe known to us. The radiation possesses nearly isotropic spatial-angular field with an intensity that can be characterized by the radiobrightness temperature of 2.73 K. The microwave background is, in essence, some kind of 'absolute ether at rest' that physicists intensively sought at the beginning of the twentieth century. A small dipole component in the spatial-angular field of the microwave background allowed the researchers to determine, to a surprising accuracy, the direction and velocity of motion of the solar system. The contribution of the microwave background as a re-reflected radiation should certainly be taken into account in performing fine investigations of the emissive characteristics of terrestrial surfaces from spacecraft.

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The second (but not less important) source of black-body radiation is the star nearest to the Earth - the Sun. The direct radar experiments, performed in the 1950s and 1960s, have indicated a complete absence of a radio-echo (within the limits of the receiving equipment capability) within the wide wavelength band - in centimetre, millimetre and decimetre ranges. Detailed spectral studies of solar radiation in the optical and IR bands have indicated the presence of thermal black-body radiation with a brightness temperature of 5800 K at the Sun. In other bands of the electromagnetic field the situation is essentially more complicated - along with black-body radiation there exist powerful, non-stationary quasi-noise radiations (flares, storms), which are described, nevertheless, in thermal radiation terms.

The third space object is our home planet, - the Earth, which possesses radiation close to black-body radiation with a thermodynamic temperature of 287 K. The basic radiation energy is concentrated in the 8-12 micrometre band, in which almost all terrestrial surfaces possess blackbody radiation properties. Just that small portion of radiation energy which falls in the radio-frequency band is of interest for microwave sensing. The detailed characteristics of radiation from terrestrial surfaces in this band have shown serious distinctions of many terrestrial media from the blackbody model.

In experimental measurements of the radiation properties of real physical bodies it is necessary to have an ideally black surface or a black emitter as a standard. Since ideal black sources do not exist, some special technological approaches are applied to develop a realistic black-body model. So, in optics these models represent hollow metal cylinders having a small orifice and cone at the end, which are immersed in a thermostat with fixed (or reconstructed) temperature (Siegel and Howell, 1972). In the radio-frequency band segments of waveguides or coaxial lines, filled with

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absorbing substance (such as carbon-containing fillers), are applied. Multilayer absorbing covers, which are widely used in the militarytechnological area (for instance, Stealth technology), are applied as standard black surfaces in this band. It is clear, that objects covered with such an absorbing coat are strong emitters of

the fluctuation

electromagnetic field. It is important also to note that in the radiofrequency band a closed space with well-absorbing walls (such as a concrete with various fillers) represents a black-body cavity to a good approximation. For these reasons the performance of fine radiothermal investigations in closed rooms (indoors) makes no sense. (Of interest is the fact that it was in a closed laboratory room that in 1888 Hertz managed to measure for the first time the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation.)

1.6

Black-Body Radiation Laws But now we return to the quantitative laws of black-body radiation. The general thermodynamic considerations allowed Kirchhoff, Boltzmann and Wien to derive rigorously a series of important laws controlling the emission of heated bodies. However, these general considerations were insufficient for deriving a particular law of energy distribution in the ideal black-body radiation spectrum. It was W. Wien who advanced in this direction more than the others. In 1893 he spread the notions of temperature and entropy to thermal radiation and showed, that the maximum radiation in the black-body spectrum displaces to the side of shorter wavelengths with increasing temperature (the Wien displacement law); and at a given frequency the radiation intensity can depend on temperature only, as the parameter appeared in the (y/T) ratio. In other words, the spectral intensity should depend on some function f(y/T). The particular form of this function has remained unknown.

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In 1896, proceeding from classical concepts, Wien derived the law of energy distribution in the black-body spectrum (the Wien radiation law). However, as was soon made clear, the formula of Wien's radiation law was correct only in the case of short (in relation to the intensity maximum) waves. Nevertheless, these two laws of Wien have played a considerable part in the development of quantum theory (the Nobel Prize, 1911).

According to the results of fairly accurate measurements, carried out before that time, and to some theoretical investigations, Wien's expression for spectral energy distribution was invalid at high temperatures and long wavelengths. This circumstance forced Planck to turn to consideration of harmonic oscillators, which have been taken as the sources and absorbers of radiation energy. Using some further assumptions on the mean energy of oscillators, Planck derived Wien's and the RayleighJeans' laws of radiation. Finally, Planck obtained the empirical equation, which very soon was reliably confirmed experimentally on the basis, first of all, of the Wien-Lummer black-body model. Searching for the theory modifications which would allow this empirical equation to be derived, Planck arrived at the assumptions constituting the quantum theory basis (the Nobel Prize, 1918).

1.7

The Planck law According to quantum statistics principles, the spectral volume density of radiation energy can be determined (see relation (5.10)) by calculating the equilibrium distribution of photons, for which the radiation field entropy is maximum, and taking into consideration that the photon energy with frequency v is equal to hv, where h is the Planck constant (Table A.4). If the radiation field is considered to be a gas obeying the Einstein-Bose statistics, then we obtain the Planck formula for the volume density of radiation (see, for example, Schilling, 1972; Amit and Verbin, 1999):

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where k is the Boltzmann constant.

Apart from a rigorous quantum derivation of Planck's formula, there exists a spectrum of heuristic approaches. From the remote sensing point of view, of principal significance is the other radiation field characteristic, namely, the spectral radiation intensity, which is measured at once by remote sensing devices. With allowance for relation the spectral intensity of black-body radiation into the transparent medium with refractive index n will be specified by the following expression:

It can easily be seen from this relation that the black-body radiation into the transparent medium is n2 times greater than when emitting into a vacuum (the Clausius law).

In many practical applications in determining the spectral intensity of radiation the wavelength is used instead of frequency. It is impossible to transfer from frequency to wavelength by simply replacing the frequency with the wavelength in above expression because this expression includes the differential quantity. However, this expression can be transformed taking into account that the energy of radiation, emitted within the frequency band du, that includes frequency v, is equal to the energy of radiation, emitted within the wavelength band dA that includes the working wavelength A,

The wavelength depends on the medium, in which the radiation propagates. Subscript 0 denotes that the considered medium is the vacuum. At the same time, the electromagnetic radiation frequency does

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not depend on the medium. The frequency and wavelength in a transparent dielectric medium (A) are related by the equation:

Supposing the refractive index of a transparent medium to be independent of the frequency, we shall obtain, after appropriate differentiation, the expression of Planck's formula for the intensity of black-body radiation into the transparent medium, expressed in terms of the wavelength in a medium, as:

In the SI system the intensity, presented in such a form, is measured in W/(m3 sr). Often, in the IR band especially, the wavelength is measured in micrometres; then the dimension of radiation intensity will be W/(m2srLim). However, it is convenient to use the frequency presentation of Planck's formula in the cases where the radiation propagates from one medium into another, since in this case the frequency remains constant and the wavelength changes.

In many practical applications (remote sensing, heat transfer, radioastronomy) of interest is the surface density (per unit of the surface) of a spectral flux of black-body radiation. Substituting the spectral density value from (6.5), we have

where the quantities

were called the first and second radiation constants.

Note that qx(T) represents the amount of radiation energy emitted by the unit area of the black-body surface at temperature T per unit time, in the

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wavelength band unit, in all directions within the limits of the hemispherical solid angle. In the SI system this quantity is measured in W/m 3, and if the wavelength is measured in micrometres then this quantity is measured in W/(m2 urn).

Figure 2 presents the spectral distribution of the surface density of a monochromatic black-body radiation flux qx(T), calculated by formula (6.6) for n = 1. In order to understand better the implication of this equation, Figure 6.2

Figure 2. Hemispherical spectral radiation flux of black bodies for some values of temperatures versus wavelengths. Black-body temperatures are shown by figures next to the curves. Positions of spectral radiation flux maxima are shown by a dotted line.

Wavelength dependencies of hemispherical spectral surface density of radiation flux for several values of absolute temperature. A peculiarity of Planck's curves is the increase of the energy of radiation, corresponding to all wavelengths, with increasing temperature. As was shown in section 6.1, qualitative thermodynamic considerations and everyday experience indicate that the energy of total radiation (including all wavelengths) should increase with temperature. It also follows from Figure 2 that this conclusion is also valid for the energy of radiation corresponding to each wavelength. Another peculiarity is the displacement of maxima of the spectral surface density of radiation flux to the side of shorter wavelengths with increasing temperature. The cross-sections of the plot in Figure 2 at fixed wavelengths, which determine the radiation energy as a function of temperature, allow us to state that the energy of radiation, emitted at the short-wave extremity of the spectrum, increases with temperature faster than the energy of radiation corresponding to greater wavelengths. Figure 2 indicates the position of the wavelength band in the visible spectrum

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region. For a body at temperature of 555 K only a very small fraction of energy falls on the visible spectrum range, which is virtually imperceptible by the human eye. Since the curves at lower temperatures are dropping from the red section toward the violet extremity of the spectrum, then, at first, the red light becomes visible with increasing temperature (the socalled Driper point, corresponding to 525C). At sufficiently high temperature the emitted light becomes white and consists of a set of all wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The radiation spectrum of the Sun is similar to the radiation spectrum of a black body at a temperature of 5800 K, and a considerable portion of released energy falls on the visible spectrum range. (This type of radiation is sometimes called 'white' noise as we see, quite wrongly.) More likely, owing to very long biological evolution, the human eye became most sensitive precisely in the spectrum region with maximum energy.

Above Equation can be presented in a more convenient form that allows us to avoid constructing the curves for each value of temperature; for this purpose equation (6.6) is divided by temperature to the fifth power:

This equation determines quantity

as a function of single

variable XT. The plot of such a dependence is presented in Figure 6.3; it substitutes a set of curves in Figure 2.

The Planck law for energy distribution in the black-body spectrum gives a maximum value of the intensity of radiation that can be emitted by any body at the given temperature and wavelength. This intensity plays a part of an optimum standard, with which the characteristics of real surfaces can be compared.

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But, more simply, approximate forms of the Planck law are sometimes applied. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that they can be used only in that range, where they provide acceptable accuracy.

1.8

The Wien Radiation Law If the term exp

then equation (6.8) is reduced to the

expression

which is known as the Wien radiation law. For the values of XT < 3000 urn K this formula gives an error within the limits of 1%.

1.9

The Rayleigh-Jeans Radiation Law Another approximate expression can be obtained by expanding the denominator in equation into the Taylor series. If XT is essentially greater than C2, then the series can be restricted by the second term of expansion, and equation (6.8) takes the form:

This equation is known as the Rayleigh-Jeans radiation law. This formula gives an error within the limits of 1% for the values of AT > 7.8 x 10 5 umK. These values are outside the range usually considered in IR thermal radiation, but they are of principal importance for the radio-frequency band. The frequency presentation of the Planck formula is usually applied in this band, and then the Rayleigh-Jeans law takes the widely used form:

1.10 The Wien Displacement Law Another quantity of interest, which relates to the black-body radiation spectrum, is the wavelength Am, to which corresponds the maximum of surface density of an emitted energy flux. As is shown by the dotted curve in Figure 6.2, this maximum displaces to the side of shorter wavelengths FOR MORE DETAILS VISIT US ON WWW.IMTSINSTITUTE.COM OR CALL ON +91-9999554621


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as the temperature increases. Quantity Xm can be found by differentiating the Planck function from equation (2.12) and by equating the obtained expression to zero. As a result, the transcendental equation is obtained

whose solution is as follows:

and represents one of expressions of the Wien displacement law. The values of constant C3 are given in Table A.4. According to equation as the temperature increases, the maxima of surface density of the radiation flux and its intensity displace to the side of shorter wavelengths in inverse proportion to T. If we consider the black-body radiation into a transparent medium (with refractive index ), then the Wien law takes the form of

where

is the wavelength corresponding to the maximum of radiation

in the transparent medium.

Of interest is the fact that the substitution of the wavelength from the Wien displacement law results in the following expression:

It follows from this relation, that the maximum value of radiation intensity increases in proportion to temperature to the fifth power. Generally speaking, it is this relation that was obtained by Wien in 1893.

It can easily be seen from the expression obtained that the maximum of spectral intensity of the microwave background of the universe at radiation temperature of 2.73 K will be approximately equal to 1 mm.

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1.11 The Stefan-Boltzmann law Integrating qx(T) over all wavelengths from zero to infinity (or, accordingly, qv{T) in the frequency presentation), we obtain by means of expressions for determinate integrals (Gradshteyn and Ryzhik, 2000) the surface density of the total black-body radiation flux q(T) as:

where the Stefan-Boltzmann constant a is equal (see Table A.4) to:

Similar expressions can also be obtained for the total radiation intensity:

and for the total volume density of radiation (for vacuum):

where a is called the radiation density constant (see Table A.4). Let us consider now the instructive example, associated with the relation of the amount of energy, emitted from the unit of black body's surface into vacuum within the whole frequency band and in the radio-frequency band separately. Using relations we obtain the total power, emitted by a black body from 1 square metre at room temperature (300 K), which is equal to 450 W. Now, using the Rayleigh-Jeans law we obtain the expression for the Stefan-Boltzmann law in the long-wavelength approximation, as follows:

From this expression we can easily obtain the estimate for the total power emitted by a black body from 1 square metre at T = 300 K throughout the radio-frequency band from zero frequency up to 10 nHz (the wavelength is 3 mm). It is equal to 10~4 W. Thus, the amount of energy falling on the whole radio-frequency band is 10~7 times lower than the total power of black-body radiation. In this case an even smaller part (10~9) of the total power will fall on the whole, for example, centimetre band. And, in spite of

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such small values of radiation power in the radio-frequency band, modern microwave remote radio systems successfully record such low levels of a thermal signal.

1.12 Correlation properties of black-body radiation From the viewpoint of the theory of random processes ,the spectral volume density of radiation energy uv{v) represents a spectral density of fluctuating strengths E{t) and H{t) of the thermal radiation field. This can easily be seen, taking which this field can be decomposed, the relation between the vectors of running planar waves is given by expression (1.11), all directions of strengths being equiprob-able. As a result of small transformations in (1.17), it can be seen that the electric and magnetic energies are equal, and E and H components in any arbitrary direction have identical correlation functions but are not correlated among themselves. Thus, the correlation properties can be considered with respect to any component of the electromagnetic field strength.

Let us find the correlation coefficient corresponding to the spectral density (6.1), i.e. the quantity

Where

Substituting here expression for the spectral density and calculating the integral, we obtain (Rytov, 1966):

is the Langevin function, and

=

where are hyperbolic sine and cotangent).

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The form of the correlation coefficient from the temporary lag is shown in Figure 4 and, as should be expected, it certainly does not look like the delta-function. First of all, we note that for

(which corresponds to

) the positive correlation is changed to a negative one. This implies that for temporary shifts

in

some fixed direction p will more frequently have at instants t and t + r the same sign, and for T>T0 the opposite sign. The temporary lag T0 can be put in correspondence to the spatial correlation radius A0 = CT0, which to an accuracy of numerical coefficient coincides with the wavelength Xm = 0.2(hc/kT) in the Wien displacement law. From the comparison of these expressions we can obtain the following important

Figure 4. Correlation coefficient of spectral black-body radiant energy density versus generalized

It can easily be found from this relation that the spatial correlation radius of the microwave background of the universe equals a quite macroscopic value, namely, A0 = 0.35 mm. It is interesting to mention, that earlier (in 1971) it was proposed to measure the velocity of solar system motion relative to the microwave ('absolute ether at rest') background by recording the variable part of the interferogram (in other words, the correlation coefficient (6.24)) just at the place where it changes its sign (near A0). At spatial distances greater than (4-5)A0 the correlation sharply drops, and the statistical process of emission at such scales can be represented as a non-correlated random (white) noise. Generally speaking, it is this circumstance which is often used in analysing thermal radiation.

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1.13 The Kirchhoff Law As we have noted above (Chapter 4), the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which represents one of the fundamental laws of statistical physics, establishes for an arbitrary dissipative physical system the relationship between the spectral density of spontaneous equilibrium fluctuations and its nonequilibrium properties and, in particular, the energy dissipation in a system. For the wave field of an absorbing half-space, i.e. for the field of radiation which can be recorded by an external (relative to the emitting medium) instrument, the solution of the fluctuation electro-dynamic problem directly results in the Kirchhoff law in the form of (4.20).

Before describing the properties of non-black physical bodies, it is useful to introduce the definitions of emissive ability and absorbing ability and also to consider the Kirchhoff law forms that are often used for analysing the emitting half-space (i.e. when there are two material media with a sharp boundary between them), as well as for analysing the radiation transfer processes in a transparent infinite medium (the atmosphere). In the first case (the planar version) the measuring instrument is inside one of media and measures the radiation of the other one. In the second case (the solid version) the instrument is directly inside the medium, whose radiation it just measures. Below we shall consider the first version in detail.

1.13.1 Emissive ability This characteristic, which is sometimes called the emissivity, indicates what portion of black-body radiation energy constitutes the radiation energy of a given body. The emissive ability of a real physical body depends on such factors as its temperature, its physical and chemical composition, its intrinsic geometrical structure, its degree of surface roughness, the wavelength to which the emitted radiation corresponds, and the angle at which the radiation is emitted. For remote microwave

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sensing problems it is necessary to know the emissive ability both in any required direction (the angular characteristics) and at various wavelengths (the spectral characteristics). In this case the degree of remote information capacity of angular and spectral characteristics is strongly distinguished, generally speaking, depending on the type of a physical object under study. This radiation characteristic is called the directional emissive ability (or the directional emissivity).

In calculating a body's total energy losses through radiation (as in heatand-power engineering problems) it is necessary to know the radiation energy in all directions and, for this reason, the emissivity, averaged over all directions and wavelengths, is used in such calculations. For calculating a complicated heat exchange through radiation between surfaces, the emissivities can be required, which are averaged only over the wavelengths and not over the directions. So, the researcher should possess the emissivity values, averaged in different ways, and they should be obtained, most frequently, from the available experimental data.

Recalling the definitions of spectral intensity of emission from the unit of a physical body's surface we shall define the directional emissivity as the ratio of the spectral intensity of a real surface

which

depends on body's temperature, physical and chemical composition, intrinsic geometrical structure and degree of surface roughness, as well as on the observation angle and working wavelength (frequency), to the black-body intensity

at the same temperature and at the same

wavelength (frequency) (6.2):

This expression for emissivity is most general, since it includes the dependencies on the wavelength, direction and temperature. The total and

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hemispherical characteristics can be obtained by appropriate integration (Siegel and Howell, 1972).

As far as the volumetric version is concerned, here we should note that the directional spectral emissivity of a unit homogeneous volume of the medium is equal to the ratio of intensity of radiation, emitted by this volume in the given direction, to the intensity of radiation emitted by a black body at the same temperature and wavelength.

1.13.2 Absorbing ability The absorbing ability of a body is the ratio of the radiation flux absorbed by the body to the radiation flux falling (incident) on the body. The incident radiation possesses the properties inherent in a particular power source. The spectral distribution of the incident radiation energy does not depend on temperature or on the physical nature of an absorbing surface (so long as the radiation, emitted by the surface, is not partially reflected back onto this surface). In this connection, in defining the absorbing ability (as compared to emissivity), additional difficulties arise, which are related to the necessity of taking into account the directional and spectral characteristics of incident radiation.

By the directional spectral absorptivity ratio of the spectral intensity of absorbed radiation

we shall mean the to the

spectral intensity of incident radiation at the given wavelength and from the given direction

In addition to the incident radiation dependence on the wavelength and direction, the directional spectral absorptivity is also a function of temperature, physical and physico-chemical properties of an absorbing surface. FOR MORE DETAILS VISIT US ON WWW.IMTSINSTITUTE.COM OR CALL ON +91-9999554621


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1.14 Summary In conclusion, we note that, as astrophysical investigations have shown, the Kirchhoff law can actually also be applied in cases where the radiation is not in full equilibrium with the substance, and its distribution over frequencies essentially differs from Planck's one. However, the Kirchhoff law is not applicable in cases where thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are strongly violated (nuclear explosions, shock waves, the interplanetary medium). This law is not suitable for determining the emissivities of sources

of

non-thermal

radiation

(synchrotron,

maser

radiation,

thunderstorm activity) and sources of quasi-deterministic radiation (radioand TV-broadcasting, communications).

1.15 Keywords Black Body: A black body is an ideal body which allows the whole of the incident radiation to pass into itself (without reflecting the energy) and absorbs within itself this whole incident radiation (without passing on the energy).

1.16 Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain The Ideal Black-Body Model: Historical Aspects. 2. Define a black body. 3. Describe Properties of a black body. 4. What are Black-Body Radiation Laws? 5. Discuss the Planck law (formula). 6. Explain the Wien radiation law.

1.17 References Hibbeler, R.C., Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 7th edition. PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,1995.

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Reif, F., Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics. McGraw-Hill Inc., 1965. Kittel, C. and Kroemar, H., Thermal Physics, 2nd edition. W.H. Freeman, 1980. Demarest, Engineering Electromagnetics. Prentice-Hall. Staelin, D.H., Morgenthaler, A.W. and Kong, J.A., Electromagnetic Waves. Prentice Hall, 1994. Kroemer, H., Quantum Mechanics for Engineering, Materials Science & Applied Physics. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1994

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Unit 2 Uncertainty Principle Structure 2.0

Objectives

2.1

Introduction

2.0

Objectives

2.1

Introduction

2.2

Historical Introduction

2.3

Uncertainty Principle and Observer Effect

2.4

Heisenberg's Microscope

2.5

Critical Reactions

2.6

Einstein's slit 2.6.1 Einstein's box

2.7

EPR Measurements

2.8

Popper's criticism

2.9

Refinements

2.10

Wave Mechanics

2.11

RobertsonSchrdinger relation

2.12

Other Uncertainty Principles 2.12.1 Energy-Time Uncertainty Principle

2.13

Summary

2.14

Keywords

2.15

Self Assessment Questions

2.16

References

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Objectives After studying this unit you will be able to:

Explain Uncertainty Principle and Observer Effect

Discuss Heisenberg's Microscope

Describe Critical Reactions

Define Einstein's slit

Discuss Einstein's box

Describe EPR Measurements

Discuss RobertsonSchrdinger relation

Explain Energy-Time Uncertainty Principle

2.1

Introduction Let us understand that in quantum physics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that certain physical quantities, like the position and momentum, cannot both have precise values at the same time. The narrower the probability distribution for one, the wider it is for the other.

In quantum mechanics, a particle is described by a wave. The position is where the wave is concentrated and the momentum is the wavelength. The position is uncertain to the degree that the wave is spread out, and the momentum is uncertain to the degree that the wavelength is illdefined.

The only kind of wave with a definite position is concentrated at one point, and such a wave has an indefinite wavelength. Conversely, the only kind of wave with a definite wavelength is an infinite regular periodic oscillation over all space, which has no definite position. So in quantum mechanics, there are no states that describe a particle with both a definite position and a definite momentum. The more precise the position, the less precise the momentum.

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The uncertainty principle can be restated in terms of measurements, which involves collapse of the wavefunction. When the position is measured, the wavefunction collapses to a narrow bump near the measured value, and the momentum wavefunction becomes spread out. The particle's momentum is left uncertain by an amount inversely proportional to the accuracy of the position measurement. The amount of left-over uncertainty can never be reduced below the limit set by the uncertainty principle, no matter what the measurement process.

This means that the uncertainty principle is related to the observer effect, with which it is often conflated. The uncertainty principle sets a lower limit to how small the momentum disturbance in an accurate position experiment can be, and vice versa for momentum experiments.

A mathematical statement of the principle is that every quantum state has the property that the root-mean-square (RMS) deviation of the position from its mean (the standard deviation of the X-distribution):

times the RMS deviation of the momentum from its mean (the standard deviation of P):

can never be smaller than a small fixed fraction of Planck's constant

Any measurement of the position with accuracy A.Y collapses the quantum state making the standard deviation of the momentum

AjP

larger

than h/2Ax

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Historical Introduction Werner Heisenberg formulated the uncertainty principle in Niels Bohr's institute at Copenhagen, while working on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics.

In 1925, following pioneering work with Hendrik Kramers, Heisenberg developed matrix mechanics, which replaced the ad-hoc old quantum theory with modern quantum mechanics. The central assumption was that the classical motion was not precise at the quantum level, and electrons in an atom did not travel on sharply defined orbits. Rather, the motion was smeared out in a strange way: the time Fourier transform only involving those frequencies that could be seen in quantum jumps.

Heisenberg's paper did not admit any unobservable quantities, like the exact position of the electron in an orbit at any time, he only allowed the theorist to talk about the Fourier components of the motion. Since the Fourier components were not defined at the classical frequencies, they could not be used to construct an exact trajectory, so that the formalism could not answer certain overly precise questions about where the electron was or how fast it was going.

The most striking property of Heisenberg's infinite matrices for the position and momentum is that they do not commute. His central result was the canonical commutation relation:

[x, P] = XP- PX = ih

and this result does not have a clear physical interpretation.

In March 1926, working in Bohr's institute, Heisenberg formulated the principle of uncertainty thereby laying the foundation of what became

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known as the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg showed that the commutation relations implies an uncertainty, or in Bohr's language a complementarity. Any two variables that do not commute cannot be measured simultaneously-the more precisely one is known, the less precisely the other can be known.

One way to understand the complementarity between position and momentum is by wave-particle duality. If a particle described by a plane wave passes through a narrow slit in a wall, like a water-wave passing through a narrow channel the particle diffracts, and its wave comes out in a range of angles. The narrower the slit, the wider the diffracted wave and the greater the uncertainty in momentum afterwards. The laws of diffraction require that the spread in angle A6 is about A / d, where d is the slit width and A is the wavelength. From de Broglie's relation, the size of the slit and the range in momentum of the diffracted wave are related by Heisenberg's rule:

In his celebrated paper (1927), Heisenberg established this expression as the minimum amount of unavoidable momentum disturbance caused by any position measurement[1], but he did not give a precise definition for the uncertainties Ax and Ap. Instead, he gave some plausible estimates in each case separately. In his Chicago lecture[2] he refined his principle:

But it was Kennard[3] in 1927 who first proved the modern inequality:

where h=h/2n, and CTx, Op are the standard deviations of position and momentum. Heisenberg himself only proved relation (2) for the special case of Gaussian states. [2].

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32

Uncertainty Principle and Observer Effect The uncertainty principle is often explained as the statement that the measurement of position necessarily disturbs a particle's momentum, and vice versai.e., that the uncertainty principle is a manifestation of the observer effect.

This explanation is sometimes misleading in a modern context, because it makes it seem that the disturbances are somehow conceptually avoidable that there are states of the particle with definite position and momentum, but the experimental devices we have today are just not good enough to produce those states. In fact, states with both definite position and momentum just do not exist in quantum mechanics, so it is not the measurement equipment that is at fault.

It is also misleading in another way, because sometimes it is a failure to measure the particle that produces the disturbance. For example, if a perfect photographic film contains a small hole, and an incident photon is not observed, then its momentum becomes uncertain by a large amount. By not observing the photon, we discover indirectly that it went through the hole, revealing the photon's position.

It is misleading in yet another way, because sometimes the measurement can be performed far away. If two photons are emitted in opposite directions from the decay of positronium, the momentum of the two photons is opposite. By measuring the momentum of one particle, the momentum of the other is determined. This case is subtler, because it is impossible to introduce more uncertainties by measuring a distant particle, but it is possible to restrict the uncertainties in different ways, with different statistical properties, depending on what property of the distant particle you choose to measure. By restricting the uncertainty in p to be very small by a distant measurement, the remaining uncertainty in x stays large.

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(This example was actually the basis of Albert Einstein's important suggestion of the EPR paradox in 1935.)

But Heisenberg did not focus on the mathematics of quantum mechanics, he was primarily concerned with establishing that the uncertainty is actually a property of the world that it is in fact physically impossible to measure the position and momentum of a particle to a precision better than that allowed by quantum mechanics. To do this, he used physical arguments based on the existence of quanta, but not the full quantum mechanical formalism.

This was a surprising prediction of quantum mechanics, and not yet accepted. Many people would have considered it a flaw that there are no states of definite position and momentum. Heisenberg was trying to show this was not a bug, but a featurea deep, surprising aspect of the universe. To do this, he could not just use the mathematical formalism, because it was the mathematical formalism itself that he was trying to justify .

2.4

Heisenberg's Microscope One way in which Heisenberg originally argued for the uncertainty principle is by using an imaginary microscope as a measuring device. [2] He imagines an experimenter trying to measure the position and momentum of an electron by shooting a photon at it.

If the photon has a short wavelength, and therefore a large momentum, the position can be measured accurately. But the photon scatters in a random direction, transferring a large and uncertain amount of momentum to the electron. If the photon has a long wavelength and low momentum, the collision doesn't disturb the electron's momentum very much, but the scattering will reveal its position only vaguely.

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If a large aperture is used for the microscope, the electron's location can be well resolved; but by the principle of conservation of momentum, the transverse momentum of the incoming photon and hence the new momentum of the electron resolves poorly. If a small aperture is used, the accuracy of the two resolutions is the other way around.

The trade-offs imply that no matter what photon wavelength and aperture size are used, the product of the uncertainty in measured position and measured momentum is greater than or equal to a lower bound, which is up to a small numerical factor equal to Planck's constant.[4] Heisenberg did not care to formulate the uncertainty principle as an exact bound, and preferred to use it as a heuristic quantitative statement, correct up to small numerical factors.

2.5

Critical Reactions The (probabilistic!) Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle were in fact seen as twin targets by detractors who believed in an underlying determinism and realism. Within the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, there is no fundamental reality the quantum state describes, just a prescription for calculating experimental results. There is no way to say what the state of a system fundamentally is, only what the result of observations might be.

Albert Einstein believed that randomness is a reflection of our ignorance of some fundamental property of reality, while Niels Bohr believed that the probability distributions are fundamental and irreducible, and depend on which measurements we choose to perform. Einstein and Bohr debated the uncertainty principle for many years.

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35

Einstein's slit The first of Einstein's thought experiments challenging the uncertainty principle went as follows:

Consider a particle passing through a slit of width d. The slit introduces an uncertainty in momentum of approximately h/d because the particle passes through the wall. But let us determine the momentum of the particle by measuring the recoil of the wall. In doing so, we find the momentum of the particle to arbitrary accuracy by conservation of momentum.

Bohr's response was that the wall is quantum mechanical as well, and that to measure the recoil to accuracy Î&#x201D;P the momentum of the wall must be known to this accuracy before the particle passes through. This introduces an uncertainty in the position of the wall and therefore the position of the slit equal to h / Î&#x201D;P, and if the wall's momentum is known precisely enough to measure the recoil, the slit's position is uncertain enough to disallow a position measurement.

A similar analysis with particles diffracting through multiple slits is given by Richard Feynman.

2.6.1 Einstein's box Another of Einstein's thought-experiments was designed to challenge the time/energy uncertainty principle. It is very similar to the slit experiment in space, except here the narrow window the particle passes through is in time:

Consider a box filled with light. The box has a shutter that a clock opens and quickly closes at a precise time, and some of the light escapes. We can set the clock so that the time that the energy escapes is known. To

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measure the amount of energy that leaves, Einstein proposed weighing the box just after the emission. The missing energy lessens the weight of the box. If the box is mounted on a scale, it is naively possible to adjust the parameters so that the uncertainty principle is violated.

Bohr spent a day considering this setup, but eventually realized that if the energy of the box is precisely known, the time the shutter opens at is uncertain. If the case, scale, and box are in a gravitational field then, in some cases, it is the uncertainty of the position of the clock in the gravitational field that alter the ticking rate. This can introduce the right amount of uncertainty. This was ironic, because it was Einstein himself who first discovered gravity's effect on clocks.

2.7

EPR Measurements Bohr was compelled to modify his understanding of the uncertainty principle after another thought experiment by Einstein. In 1935, Einstein, Podolski and Rosen (see EPR paradox) published an analysis of widely separated entangled particles. Measuring one particle, Einstein realized, would alter the probability distribution of the other, yet here the other particle could not possibly be disturbed. This example led Bohr to revise his understanding of the principle, concluding that the uncertainty was not caused by a direct interaction.[6]

But Einstein came to much more far-reaching conclusions from the same thought experiment. He believed as "natural basic assumption" that a complete description of reality would have to predict the results of experiments from "locally changing deterministic quantities", and therefore would have to include more information than the maximum possible allowed by the uncertainty principle.

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In 1964 John Bell showed that this assumption can be falsified, since it would imply a certain inequality between the probability of different experiments. Experimental results confirm the predictions of quantum mechanics, ruling out Einstein's basic assumption that led him to the suggestion of his hidden variables. (Ironically this is one of the best examples for Karl Popper's philosophy of invalidation of a theory by falsification-experiments, i.e. here Einstein's "basic assumption" became falsified by experiments based on Bells inequalities; for the objections of Karl Popper against the Heisenberg inequality itself, see below.)

While it is possible to assume that quantum mechanical predictions are due to nonlocal hidden variables, and in fact David Bohm invented such a formulation, this is not a satisfactory resolution for the vast majority of physicists. The question of whether a random outcome is predetermined by a nonlocal theory can be philosophical, and potentially intractable. If the hidden variables are not constrained, they could just be a list of random digits that are used to produce the measurement outcomes. To make it sensible, the assumption of nonlocal hidden variables is sometimes augmented by a second assumption that the size of the observable universe puts a limit on the computations that these variables can do. A nonlocal theory of this sort predicts that a quantum computer encounters fundamental obstacles when it tries to factor numbers of approximately 10,000 digits or more, an achievable task in quantum mechanics[7].

2.8

Popper's criticism Karl Popper criticized Heisenberg's form of the uncertainty principle, that a measurement of position disturbs the momentum, based on the following observation: if a particle with definite momentum passes through a narrow slit, the diffracted wave has some amplitude to go in the original direction of motion. If the momentum of the particle is measured after it goes

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through the slit, there is always some probability, however small, that the momentum will be the same as it was before.

Popper thinks of these rare events as falsifications of the uncertainty principle in Heisenberg's original formulation. To preserve the principle, he concludes that Heisenberg's relation does not apply to individual particles or measurements, but only to many identically prepared particles, called ensembles. Popper's criticism applies to nearly all probabilistic theories, since a probabilistic statement requires many measurements to either verify or falsify.

Popper's criticism does not trouble physicists. Popper's presumption is that the measurement is revealing some preexisting information about the particle, the momentum, which the particle already possesses. In the quantum mechanical description the wavefunction is not a reflection of ignorance about the values of some more fundamental quantities, it is the complete description of the state of the particle. In this philosophical view, the Copenhagen interpretation, Popper's example is not a falsification, since after the particle diffracts through the slit and before the momentum is measured, the wavefunction is changed so that the momentum is still as uncertain as the principle demands.

2.9

Refinements Entropic uncertainty principle While formulating the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics in 1957, Hugh Everett III discovered a much stronger formulation of the uncertainty principle[8]. In the inequality of standard deviations, some states, like the wavefunction

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have a large standard deviation of position, but are actually a superposition of a small number of very narrow bumps. In this case, the momentum uncertainty is much larger than the standard deviation inequality would suggest. A better inequality uses the Shannon information content of the distribution, a measure of the number of bits learned when a random variable described by a probability distribution has a certain value.

The interpretation of I is that the number of bits of information an observer acquires when the value of x is given to accuracy is equal to Ix + log2(). The second part is just the number of bits past the decimal point, the first part is a logarithmic measure of the width of the distribution. For a uniform distribution of width Ax the information content is log2Ax. This quantity can be negative, which means that the distribution is narrower than one unit, so that learning the first few bits past the decimal point gives no information since they are not uncertain.

Taking the logarithm of Heisenberg's formulation of uncertainty in natural units.

but the lower bound is not precise.

Everett (and Hirschman) conjectured that for all quantum states:

This was proven by Beckner in 1975[10].

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Derivations When linear operators A and B act on a function lp(x), they don't always commute. A clear example is when operator B multiplies by x, while operator A takes the derivative with respect to x. Then

which in operator language means that

This example is important, because it is very close to the canonical commutation relation of quantum mechanics. There, the position operator multiplies the value of the wavefunction by x, while the corresponding momentum operator differentiates and multiplies by -ih , so that:

It is the nonzero commutator that implies the uncertainty. For any two operators A and B:

which is a statement of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for the inner product of the two vectors A\ 4.) and B\ . The expectation value of the product AB is greater than the magnitude of its imaginary part:

and putting the two inequalities together for Hermitian operators gives a form of the Robertson-Schrdinger relation:

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and the uncertainty principle is a special case.

Physical interpretation The inequality above acquires its

where

is the mean of observable X in the state lp and

is the standard deviation of observable X in the system state lp. by substituting

for A and

for B in the general

operator norm inequality, since the imaginary part of the product, the commutator, is unaffected by the shift:

The big side of the inequality is the product of the norms of ,4 - (A) and B (B, which in quantum mechanics are the standard deviations of A and B. The small side is the norm of the commutator, which for the position and momentum is just.

Matrix mechanics In matrix mechanics, the commutator of the matrices X and P is always nonzero, it is a constant multiple

ih

of the identity matrix. This means that it

is impossible for a state to have a definite values x for X and p for P, since then XP would be equal to the number xp and would equal PX.

The commutator of two matrices is unchanged when they are shifted by a constant multiple of the identity - for any two real numbers x and p

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Given any quantum state lp, define the number x

to be the expected value of the position, and

to be the expected value of the momentum. The quantities x=x_I and P=P~P are only nonzero to the extent that the position and momentum are uncertain, to the extent that the state contains some values of X and P that deviate from the mean. The expected value of the commutator

can only be nonzero if the deviations in X in the state >!>) times the deviations in P are large enough. The size of the typical matrix elements can be estimated by summing the squares over the energy states |^:

and this is equal to the square of the deviation, matrix elements have a size approximately given by the deviation.

So, to produce the canonical commutation relations, the product of the deviations in any state has to be about ft.

This heuristic estimate can be made into a precise inequality using the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality, exactly as before. The inner product of the two vectors in parentheses:

is bounded above by the product of the lengths of each vector:

so, rigorously, for any state:

the real part of a matrix M is (M+M t)/2 , so that the real part of the product of two Hermitian matrices .YFis: FOR MORE DETAILS VISIT US ON WWW.IMTSINSTITUTE.COM OR CALL ON +91-9999554621


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while the imaginary part is

The magnitude

is bigger than the magnitude of its imaginary

part, which is the expected value of the imaginary part of the matrix:

Note that the uncertainty product is for the same reason bounded below by the expected value of the anticommutator, which adds a term to the uncertainty relation. The extra term is not as useful for the uncertainty of position and momentum, because it has zero expected value in a gaussian wavepacket, like the ground state of a harmonic oscillator. The anticommutator term is useful for bounding the uncertainty of spin operators though.

2.10 Wave Mechanics In Schrdinger's wave mechanics, the quantum mechanical wavefunction contains information about both the position and the momentum of the particle. The position of the particle is where the wave is concentrated, while the momentum is the typical wavelength.

The wavelength of a localized wave cannot be determined very well. If the wave extends over a region of size L and the wavelength is approximately A, the number of cycles in the region is approximately L / A. The inverse of the wavelength can be changed by about 1 / L without changing the number of cycles in the region by a full unit, and this is approximately the uncertainty in the inverse of the wavelength,

This is an exact counterpart to a well known result in signal processing the shorter a pulse in time, the less well defined the frequency. The width of a pulse in frequency space is inversely proportional to the width in time.

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It is a fundamental result in Fourier analysis, the narrower the peak of a function, the broader the Fourier transform.

Multiplying by h, and identifying

and identifying

The uncertainty Principle can be seen as a theorem in Fourier analysis: the standard deviation of the squared absolute value of a function, times the standard deviation of the squared absolute value of its Fourier transform, is at least 1/(16^).

An instructive example is the (unnormalized) gaussian wave-function

The expectation value of X is zero by symmetry, and so the variance is found by averaging X2 over all positions with the weight l|J( x )2, careful to divide by the normalization factor.

The Fourier transform of the Gaussian is the wavefunction in k space, where k is the wavenumber and is related to the momentum by DeBroglie's relation p=h:

The last integral does not depend on p, because there is a continuous change of variables

X

- X ~ IV/A which removes the dependence, and this

deformation of the integration path in the complex plane does not pass through any singularities. So up to normalization, the answer is again a Gaussian.

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The width of the distribution in k is found in the same way as before, and the answer just flips A to 1/ A.

so that for this example

which shows that the uncertainty relation inequality is tight. There are wavefunctions that saturate the bound.

2.11 RobertsonSchrdinger relation Given any two Hermitian operators A and B, and a system in the state Ď&#x2C6;, there are probability distributions for the value of a measurement of A and B, with standard deviations

. Then

where [A,B] = AB - BA is the commutator of A and B, {A,B}= AB+BA is the anticommutator, and (X) a is the expectation value. This inequality is called the Robertson-Schrdinger relation, and includes the Heisenberg uncertainty principle as a special case. The inequality with the commutator term only was developed in 1930 by Howard Percy Robertson, and Erwin Schrdinger added the anticommutator term a little later.

2.12 Other Uncertainty Principles The Robertson Schrdinger relation gives the uncertainty relation for any two observables that do not commute: . There is an uncertainty relation between the position and momentum of an object:

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46

between the energy and position of a particle in a one-dimensional potential V(x):

.

between angular position and angular momentum of an object with small angular uncertainty: [11]

. between two orthogonal components of the total angular momentum operator of an object:

where i, j, k are distinct and Ji denotes angular momentum along the xi axis.

. between the number of electrons in a superconductor and the phase of its Ginzburg-Landau order parameter[12][13]

2.12.1 Energy-Time Uncertainty Principle One well-known uncertainty relation is not an obvious consequence of the Robertson-Schrdinger relation: the energy-time uncertainty principle.

Since energy bears the same relation to time as momentum does to space in special relativity, it was clear to many early founders, Niels Bohr among them, that the following relation holds:

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but it was not obvious what At is, because the time at which the particle has a given state is not an operator belonging to the particle, it is a parameter describing the evolution of the system. As Lev Landau once joked "To violate the time-energy uncertainty relation all I have to do is measure the energy very precisely and then look at my watch!"

Nevertheless, Einstein and Bohr understood the heuristic meaning of the principle. A state that only exists for a short time cannot have a definite energy. To have a definite energy, the frequency of the state must accurately be defined, and this requires the state to hang around for many cycles, the reciprocal of the required accuracy.

For example, in spectroscopy, excited states have a finite lifetime. By the time-energy uncertainty principle, they do not have a definite energy, and each time they decay the energy they release is slightly different. The average energy of the outgoing photon has a peak at the theoretical energy of the state, but the distribution has a finite width called the natural linewidth. Fast-decaying states have a broad linewidth, while slow decaying states have a narrow linewidth.

The broad linewidth of fast decaying states makes it difficult to accurately measure the energy of the state, and researchers have even used microwave cavities to slow down the decay-rate, to get sharper peaks[14]. The same linewidth effect also makes it difficult to measure the rest mass of fast decaying particles in particle physics. The faster the particle decays, the less certain is its mass.

One false formulation of the energy-time uncertainty principle says that measuring the energy of a quantum system to an accuracy AE requires a time interval At > h /AE. This formulation is similar to the one alluded to in Landau's joke, and was explicitly invalidated by Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm

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in 1961. The time At in the uncertainty relation is the time during which the system exists unperturbed, not the time during which the experimental equipment is turned on.

In 1936, Dirac offered a precise definition and derivation of the timeenergy uncertainty relation, in a relativistic quantum theory of "events". In this formulation, particles followed a trajectory in space time, and each particle's trajectory was parametrized independently by a different proper time.

The

many-times

formulation

of

quantum

mechanics

is

mathematically equivalent to the standard formulations, but it was in a form more suited for relativistic generalization. It was the inspiration for Shin-Ichiro Tomonaga's covariant perturbation theory for quantum electrodynamics.

But a better-known, more widely-used formulation of the time-energy uncertainty principle was given only in 1945 by L. I. Mandelshtam and I. E. Tamm, as follows. [15] For a quantum system in a non-stationary state I iff) and an observable B represented by a self-adjoint operator D, the following formula holds:

where AyE is the standard deviation of the energy operator in the state | ?/,'), AyB stands for the standard deviation of the operator and {_}} is the expectation value of Q in that state. Although, the second factor in the lefthand side has dimension of time, it is different from the time parameter that enters Schrdinger equation. It is a lifetime of the state | â&#x2013; $) with respect to the observable B. In other words, this is the time after which the expectation value /g\ changes appreciably.

2.13 Summary

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The uncertainty principle can be restated in terms of measurements, which involves collapse of the wavefunction. When the position is measured, the wavefunction collapses to a narrow bump near the measured value, and the momentum wavefunction becomes spread out. The particle's momentum is left uncertain by an amount inversely proportional to the accuracy of the position measurement.

2.14 Keywords Uncertainty Principle and Observer Effect: The uncertainty principle is often explained as the statement that the measurement of position necessarily disturbs a particle's momentum, and vice versai.e., that the uncertainty principle is a manifestation of the observer effect.

2.15 Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain Uncertainty Principle and Observer Effect. 2. Discuss Heisenberg's Microscope. 3. Describe Critical Reactions. 4. Define Einstein's slit. 5. Discuss Einstein's box. 6. Describe EPR Measurements. 7. Discuss RobertsonSchrdinger relation. 8. Explain Energy-Time Uncertainty Principle.

2.16 References Hibbeler, R.C., Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 7th edition. PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,1995. Reif, F., Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics. McGraw-Hill Inc., 1965. Kittel, C. and Kroemar, H., Thermal Physics, 2nd edition. W.H. Freeman, 1980. Demarest, Engineering Electromagnetics. Prentice-Hall.

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Staelin, D.H., Morgenthaler, A.W. and Kong, J.A., Electromagnetic Waves. Prentice Hall, 1994. Kroemer, H., Quantum Mechanics for Engineering, Materials Science & Applied Physics. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1994.

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Unit 3 The Schrodinger Wave Equation Structure 3.0

Objectives

3.1

Introduction

3.2

Derivation of the Schrodinger Wave Equation 3.2.1 The Time Dependent Schrodinger Wave Equation 3.2.2 The Time Independent Schrodinger Equation

3.3

The Quantization of Energy

3.4

Solving the Time Independent Schrodinger Equation 3.4.1 The Infinite Potential Well Revisited

3.5

The Finite Potential Well

3.6

Scattering from a Potential Barrier

3.7

Expectation Value of Momentum

3.8

Summary

3.9

Self Assessment Questions

3.10

References

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3.0

52

Objectives After studying this unit you will be able to:

3.1

Explain Derivation of the Schrodinger Wave Equation

Discuss the Time Dependent Schrodinger Wave Equation

Describe the Time Independent Schrodinger Equation

Explain the Quantization of Energy

Describe solving the Time Independent Schrodinger Equation

Discuss the Infinite Potential Well Revisited

Describe the Finite Potential Well

Introduction Let us understand that so far, we have made a lot of progress concerning the properties of, and interpretation of the wave function, but as yet we have had very little to say about how the wave function may be derived in a general situation, that is to say, we do not have on hand a wave equation for the wave function. There is no true derivation of this equation, but its form can be motivated by physical and mathematical arguments at a wide variety of levels of sophistication. Here, we will offer a simple derivation based on what we have learned so far about the wave function.

The Schrodinger equation has two forms, one in which time explicitly appears, and so describes how the wave function of a particle will evolve in time. In general, the wave function behaves like a wave, and so the equation is often referred to as the time dependent Schrodinger wave equation. The other is the equation in which the time dependence has been removed and hence is known as the time independent Schrodinger equation and is found to describe, amongst other things, what the allowed energies are of the particle. These are not two separate, independent equations the time independent equation can be derived readily from the time dependent equation (except if the potential is time dependent, a development we will not be discussing here). In the following we will FOR MORE DETAILS VISIT US ON WWW.IMTSINSTITUTE.COM OR CALL ON +91-9999554621


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describe how the first, time dependent equation can be derived, and in then how the second follows from the first.

3.2

Derivation of the Schrodinger Wave Equation 3.2.1 The Time Dependent Schrodinger Wave Equation In the discussion of the particle in an infinite potential well, it was observed that the wave function of a particle of fixed energy E could most naturally be written as a linear combination of wave functions of the form

representing a wave travelling in the positive x direction, and a corresponding wave travelling in the opposite direction, so giving rise to a standing wave, this being necessary in order to satisfy the boundary conditions. This corresponds intuitively to our classical notion of a particle bouncing back and forth between the walls of the potential well, which suggests that we adopt the wave function above as being the appropriate wave

function

for

a

free

particle

of

momentum

. With this in mind, we can then note that

We now generalize this to the situation in which there is both a kinetic energy and a potential energy present, then

so that

where Ψ is now the wave function of a particle moving in the presence of a potential V(x). But if we assume that the results still apply in this case then we have

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which is the famous time dependent Schrodinger wave equation. It is setting up and solving this equation, then analyzing the physical contents of its solutions that form the basis of that branch of quantum mechanics known as wave mechanics.

Even though this equation does not look like the familiar wave equation that describes, for instance, waves on a stretched string, it is nevertheless referred to as a wave equation as it can have solutions that represent waves propagating through space. We have seen an example of this: the harmonic wave function for a free particle of energy E and momentum p, i.e.

is a solution of this equation with, as appropriate for a free particle, V(x) = 0. But this equation can have distinctly non-wave like solutions whose form depends, amongst other things, on the nature of the potential V(x) experienced by the particle.

In general, the solutions to the time dependent Schrodinger equation will describe the dynamical behaviour of the particle, in some sense similar to the way that Newtons equation F = ma describes the dynamics of a particle in classical physics. However, there is an important difference. By solving Newtons equation we can determine the position of a particle as a function of time, whereas by solving Schrodingers equation, what we get is a wave function Ψ(x,t) which tells us (after we square the wave function) how the probability of finding the particle in some region in space varies as a function of time.

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It is possible to proceed from here look at ways and means of solving the full, time dependent Schrodinger equation in all its glory, and look for the physical meaning of the solutions that are found. However this route, in a sense, bypasses much important physics contained in the Schrodinger equation which we can get at by asking much simpler questions. Perhaps the most important simpler question to ask is this: what is the wave function for a particle of a given energy E? Curiously enough, to answer this question requires extracting the time dependence from the time dependent Schrodinger equation. To see how this is done, and its consequences, we will turn our attention to the closely related time independent version of this equation.

3.2.2 The Time Independent Schrodinger Equation We have seen what the wave function looks like for a free particle of energy E - one or the other of the harmonic wave functions - and we have seen what it looks like for the particle in an infinitely deep potential well though we did not obtain that result by solving the Schrodinger equation. But in both cases, the time dependence entered into the wave function via a complex exponential factor exp[-iEtW This suggests that to extract this time dependence we guess a solution to the Schrodinger wave equation of the form

i.e. where the space and the time dependence of the complete wave function are contained in separate factors1. The idea now is to see if this guess enables us to derive an equation for Mx), the spatial part of the wave function.

If we substitute this trial solution into the Schrodinger wave equation, and make use of the meaning of partial derivatives, we get:

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We now see that the factor

56

cancels from both sides of the

equation, giving

If we rearrange the terms, we 2 m d up with

which is the time independent Schrodinger equation. We note here that the quantity E, which we have identified as the energy of the particle, is a free parameter in this equation. In other words, at no stage has any restriction been placed on the possible values for E. Thus, if we want to determine the wave function for a particle with some specific value of E that is moving in the presence of a potential V (x), all we have to do is to insert this value of E into the equation with the appropriate V (x), and solve for the corresponding wave function. In doing so, we find, perhaps not surprisingly, that for different choices of E we get different solutions for ψ(x). We can emphasize this fact by writing ψE(x) as the solution associated with a particular value of E. But it turns out that it is not all quite as simple as this. To be physically acceptable, the wave function ψE(x) must satisfy two conditions, one of which we have seen before namely that the wave function must be normalizable and a second, that the wave function and its derivative must be continuous. Together, these two requirements, the first founded in the probability interpretation of the wave function, the second in more esoteric mathematical necessities which we will not go into here and usually only encountered in somewhat artificial problems, lead to a rather remarkable property of physical systems described by this equation that has enormous physical significance: the quantization of energy.

3.3

The Quantization of Energy At first thought it might seem to be perfectly acceptable to insert any value of E into the time independent Schrodinger equation and solve it for #E(x).

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But in doing so we must remain aware of one further requirement of a wave function which comes from its probability interpretation: to be physically acceptable a wave function must satisfy the,normalization condition,

for all time t. For the particular trial solution introduced above

the requirement that the normalization condition must hold gives, on substituting for Ψ(x,t), the result2

Since this integral must be finite, (unity in fact), we must have in order for the integral to have any hope of converging to a finite value. The importance of this with regard to solving the time dependent Schrodinger equation is that we must check whether or not a solution

obtained for some chosen value of E satisfies the

normalization condition. If it does, then this is a physically acceptable solution, if it does not, then that solution and the corresponding value of the energy are not physically acceptable. The particular case of considerable physical significance is if the potential V(x) is attractive, such as would be found with an electron caught by the attractive Coulomb force of an atomic nucleus, or a particle bound by a simple harmonic potential (a mass on a spring), or, as we have seen a particle trapped in an infinite potential well. In all such cases, we find that except for certain discrete values of the energy, the wave function worse, diverges,

does not vanish, or even

. In other words, it is only for these discrete

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values of the energy E that we get physically acceptable wave functions or to put it more bluntly, the particle can never be observed to have any energy other than these particular values, for which reason these energies are often referred to as the allowed energies of the particle. This pairing off of allowed energy and normalizable wave function is referred to mathematically as

being an eigenfunction of the

Schrodinger equation, and E the associated energy eigenvalue, a terminology that acquires more meaning when quantum mechanics is looked at from a more advanced standpoint.

So we have the amazing result that the probability interpretation of the wave function forces us to conclude that the allowed energies of a particle moving in a potential V(x) are restricted to certain discrete values, these values determined by the nature of the potential. This is the phenomenon known as the quantization of energy, a result of quantum mechanics which has enormous significance for determining the structure of atoms, or, to go even further, the properties of matter overall. We have already seen an example of this quantization of energy in our earlier discussion of a particle in an infintely deep potential well, though we did not derive the results by solving the Schrodinger equation itself. We will consider how this is done shortly.

The requirement that

is an example of a

boundary condition. Energy quantization is, mathematically speaking, the result of a combined effort: that Ď&#x2C6;(x) be a solution to the time independent Schrodinger equation, and that the solution satisfy these boundary conditions. But both the boundary condition and the Schrodinger equation are derived from, and hence rooted in, the nature of the physical world: we have here an example of the unexpected relevance of purely mathematical ideas in formulating a physical theory.

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3.4

59

Solving the Time Independent Schrodinger Equation 3.4.1 The Infinite Potential Well Revisited Suppose we have a single particle of mass m confined to within a region 0 < x < L with potential energy V = 0 bounded by infinitely high potential barriers, i.e.

for x < 0 and x > L. The potential experienced by the

particle is then:

In the regions for which the potential is infinite, the wave function will be zero, for exactly the same reasons that it was set to zero that is, there is zero probability of the particle being found in these regions. Thus, we must impose the boundary conditions

Meanwhile, in the region 0 < x < L, the potential vanishes, so the time independent Schrodinger equation becomes:

To solve this, we define a quantity k by

so that Eq. can be written

whose general solution is

It is now that we impose the boundary conditions, Eq. to give, first at x = 0:

so that the solution is now

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Next, applying the boundary condition at x = L gives

which tells us that either A = 0, in which case

, which is not a

useful solution (it says that there is no partilce in the well at all!) or else sin(kL) = 0, which gives an equation for k:

We exclude the n = 0 possibility as that would give us, once again and we exclude the negative values of n as the will merely reproduce the same set of solutions (except with opposite sign4) as the positive values. Thus we have

where we have introduced a subscript n.

Thus we ses that the boundary conditions, have the effect of restricting the values of the energy of the particle to those given by Eq. .The associated wave functions that is we apply the normalization condition to determine A (up to an inessential phase factor) which finally gives

3.5

The Finite Potential Well The infinite potential well is a valuable model

V(x)

since,

with

the

minimum amount of fuss, it shows immediately the way that energy quantization as potentials do not occur in nature.

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However, for electrons trapped in a block of metal, or gas molecules contained in a bottle, this model serves to describe very accurately the quantum character of such systems. In such cases the potential experienced by an electron as it approaches the edges of a block of metal, or as experienced by a gas molecule as it approaches the walls of its container are effectively infinite as far as these particles are concerned, at least if the particles have sufficently low kinetic energy compared to the height of these potential barriers.

But, of course, any potential well is of finite depth, and if a particle in such a well has an energy comparable to the height of the potential barriers that define the well, there is the prospect of the particle escaping from the well. This is true both classically and quantum mechanically, though, as you might expect, the behaviour in the quantum mechanical case is not necessarily consistent with our classical physics based expectations. Thus we now proceed to look at the quantum properties of a particle in a finite potential well.

In this case, the potential will be of the form

i.e. we have lowered the infinite barriers to a finite value V. We now want to solve the time independent Schrodinger equation for this potential.

To do this, we recognize that the problem can be split up into three parts: x < 0 where the potential is V, 0 < x < L where the potential is zero and x > 0 where the potential is once again V. Therefore, to find the wave function for a particle of energy E, we have to solve three equations, one for each of the regions:

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The solutions to these equations take different forms depending on whether E < V or E > V. We shall consider the two cases separately.

First define

,

Note that, as V > E, a will be a real number, as it is square root of a positive number. We can now write these equations as

Now consider the first of these equations, which will have as its solution

where A and B are unknown constants. It is at this point that we can make use of our boundary condition, namely that

. In

particular, since the solution we are currently looking at applies for x < 0, we should look at what this solution does for diverge, because of the term

. What it does is

. So, in order to guarantee that our

solution have the correct boundary condition for

we must have A

= 0. Thus, we conclude that

We can apply the same kind of argument when solving Eq. for x > L. In that case, the solution is

but now we want to make certain that this solution goes to zero as To guarantee this, we must have D = 0, so we conclude that

Finally, at least for this part of the argument, we look at the region 0 < x < L. The solution of Eq. for this region will be

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but now we have no diverging exponentials, so we have to use other means to determine the unknown coefficients P and Q.

At this point we note that we still have four unknown constants B, P, Q, and C. To determine these we note that the three contributions to ^x) do not necessarily join together smoothly at x = 0 and x = L. This awkward state of affairs has its origins in the fact that the potential is discontinuous at x = 0 and x = L which meant that we had to solve three separate equations for the three different regions. But these three separate solutions cannot be independent of one another, i.e. there must be a relationship between the unknown constants, so there must be other conditions that enable us to specify these constants. The extra conditions that we impose, are that the wave function has to be a continuous function, i.e. the three solutions:

should all join up smoothly at x = 0 and x = L. This means that the first two solutions and their slopes (i.e. their first derivatives) must be the same at x = 0, while the second and third solutions and their derivatives must be the same at x = L. Applying this requirement at x = 0 gives:

and then at x = L:

If we eliminate B and C from these two sets of equations we get, in matrix form:

and in order that we get a non-trivial solution to this pair of homogeneous equations, the determinant of the coefficients must vanish:

which becomes, after expanding the determinant and rearranging terms:

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Solving this equation for k will give the allowed values of k for the particle in this finite potential well, and hence, using Eq. in the form

we can determine the allowed values of energy for this particle. What we find is that these allowed energies are finite in number, in contrast to the infinite potential well, but to show this we must solve this equation. This is made difficult to do analytically by the fact that this is a transcendental equation - it has no solutions in terms of familiar functions. However, it is possible to get an idea of what its solutions look like either numerically, or graphically. The latter has some advantages as it allows us to see how the mathematics conspires to produce the quantized energy levels. We can first of all simplify the mathematics a little by writing Eq. in the form

which, by comparison with the two trigonometric formulae

we see that Eq. is equivalent to the two conditions

The aim here is to plot the left and right hand sides of these two expressions as a function of k (well, actually as a function of

), but

before we can do that we need to take account of the fact that the quantity a is given in terms of

, and hence, since

, we have

where

As we will be plotting as a function of

, it is useful to rewrite the above

expression for

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Thus we have

We can now plot

as functions of

various values for k0. The points of intersection of the curve

for with

the tan and cot curves will then give the kL values for an allowed energy level of the particle in this potential.

This is illustrated in Fig. (.2) where four such plots are given for different values of V . The important feature of these curves is that the number of points of intersection is finite, i.e. there are only a finite number of values of k that solve Eq. (6.52). Correspondingly, there will only be a finite number of allowed values of E for the particle, and there will always be at least one allowed value.

Figure 2: Graph to determine bound states of a finite well potential. The points of intersection are solutions to Eq.. The plots are for increasing values of V , starting with V lowest such that

, for which there is

only one bound state, slightly higher at

, for which there are two

bound states, slightly higher again for

where there are three

bound states, and highest of all,

for which there is four bound

states.

To determine the corresponding wave functions is a straightforward but complicated task. The first step is to show, by using Eq. and the equations for B, C, P and Q that

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from which readily follows the solution

The constant B is determined by the requirement that ^(x) be normalized, i.e. that

which becomes:

After a somewhat tedious calculation that makes liberal use of Eq., the result found is that

The task of determining the wave functions is then that of determining the allowed values of k from the graphical solution, or numerically, and then substituting those vaules into the above expressions for the wave function. The wave functions found a similar in appearance to the infinte well wave functions, with the big difference that they are non-zero outside the well. This is true even if the particle has the lowest allowed energy, i.e. there is a nonzero probability of finding the particle outside the well. This probability can be readily calculated, being just

3.6

Scattering from a Potential Barrier The above examples are of bound states, i.e. wherein the particles are confined to a limited region of space by some kind of attractive or confining potential. However, not all potentials are attractive (e.g. two like charges repel), and in any case, even when there is an attractive potential acting (two opposite charges attracting), it is possible that the particle can be free in the sense that it is not confined to a limited region of space. A simple example of this, classically, is that of a comet orbiting around the sun. It is possible for the comet to follow an orbit in which it initially moves towards the sun, then around the sun, and then heads off into deep space,

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never to return. This is an example of an unbound orbit, in contrast to the orbits of comets that return repeatedly, though sometimes very infrequently, such as Halleys comet. Of course, the orbiting planets are also in bound states.

A comet behaving in the way just described - coming in from infinity and then ultimately heading off to infinity after bending around the sun - is an example of what is known as a scattering process. In this case, the potential is attractive, so we have the possibility of both scattering occurring, as well as the comet being confined to a closed orbit - a bound state. If the potential was repulsive, then only scattering would occur.

The same distinction applies in quantum mechanics. It is possible for the particle to confined to a limited region in space, in which case the wave function must satisfy the boundary condition that

As we have seen, this boundary condition is enough to yield the quantization of energy. However, in the quantum analogue of scattering, it turns out that energy is not quantized. This in part can be linked to the fact that the wave function that describes the scattering of a particle of a given energy does not decrease as

so that the very thing that leads to

the quantization of energy for a bound particle does not apply here.

This raises the question of what to do about the quantization condition, i.e. that

If the wave function does not go to zero as

, then it is not

possible for the wave function to satisfy this normalization condition the integral will always diverge.

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So how are we to maintain the claim that the wave function must have a probability interpretation if one of the principal requirements, the normalization condition, does not hold true? Strictly speaking, a wave function that cannot be normalized to unity is not physically permitted (because it is inconsistent with the probability interpretation of the wave function). Nevertheless, it is possible to retain, and work with, such wave functions, provided a little care is taken. The answer lies in interpreting the wave function so that

particle

, though we will not be

developing this idea to any extent here.

To illustrate the sort of behaviour that we find with particle scattering, we will consider a simple, but important case, which is that of a particle scattered by a potential barrier. This is sufficient to show the sort of things that can happen that agree with our classical intuition, but it also enables us to see that there occurs new kinds of phenomena that have no explanation within classical physics.

Thus, we will investigate the scattering problem of a particle of energy E interacting with a potential V(x) given by:

Figure 3: Potential barrier with particle of energy E < V0 incident from the left. Classically, the particle will be reflected from the barrier.

In Fig. (3) is illustrated what we would expect to happen if a classical particle of energy E<V0 were incident on the barrier: it would simply bounce back as it has insufficient energy to cross over to x > 0. Quantum mechanically we find that the situation is not so simple.

Given that the potential is as given above, the Schrodinger equation comes in two parts: \

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where E is, once again, the total energy of the particle.

We can rewrite these equations in the following way:

If we put then the first equation becomes which has the general solution where A and B are unknown constants. We can get an idea of what this solution means if we reintroduce the time dependence

i.e. this solution represents a wave associated with the particle heading towards the barrier and a reflected wave associated with the particle heading away from the barrier. Later we will see that these two waves have the same amplitude, implying that the particle is perfectly reflected at the barrier.

In the region x > 0, we write so that the Schrodinger equation becomes which has the solution

where C and D are also unknown constants. The problem here is that the exp(Îąx) solution grows exponentially with x, and we do not want wave functions that become infinite: it would essentially mean that the particle is forever to be found at x = â&#x2C6;&#x17E;, which does not make physical sense. So we must put D = 0. Thus, if we put together our two solutions for x < 0 and x > 0, we have

If we reintroduce the time dependent factor, we get

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which is not a travelling wave at all. It is a stationary wave that simply diminishes in amplitude for increasing x. We still need to determine the constants A, B, and C. To do this we note that for arbitrary choice of these coefficients, the wave function will be discontinuous at x = 0. For reasons connected with the requirement that probability interpretation of the wave function continue to make physical sense, we will require that the wave function and its first derivative both be continuous6 at x = 0.

These conditions yield the two equations which can be solved to give

and hence Figure 4: Potential barrier with wave function of particle of energy E < V0 incident from the left (solid curve) and reflected wave function (dotted curve) of particle bouncing off barrier. In the clasically forbidden region of x > 0 there is a decaying wave function. Note that the complex wave functions have been represented by their real parts.

Having obtained the mathematical solution, what we need to do is provide a physical interpretation of the result.

First we note that we cannot impose the normalization condition as the wave function does not decrease to zero as x - -oo. But, in keeping with comments made above, we can still learn something from this solution about the behaviour of the particle.

Secondly, we note that the incident and reflected waves have the same intensity

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and hence they have the same amplitude. This suggests that the incident de Broglie wave is totally reflected, i.e. that the particle merely travels towards the barrier where it bounces off, as would be expected classically. However, if we look at the wave function for x > 0 we find that

which is an exponentially decreasing probability.

This last result tells us that there is a non-zero probability of finding the particle in the region x > 0 where, classically, the particle has no chance of ever reaching. The distance that the particle can penetrate into this forbidden region is given roughly by 1/2a which, for a subatomic particle can be a few nanometers, while for a macroscopic particle, this distance is immeasurably small.

The way to interpret this result is along the following lines. If we imagine that a particle is fired at the barrier, and we are waiting a short distance on the far side of the barrier in the forbidden region with a catchers mitt poised to grab the particle then we find that either the particle hits the barrier and bounces off with the same energy as it arrived with, but with the opposite momentum - it never lands in the mitt, or it lands in the mitt and we catch it - it does not bounce off in the opposite direction. The chances of the latter occurring are generally very tiny, but it occurs often enough in microscopic systems that it is a phenomenon that is exploited, particularly in solid state devices. Typically this is done, not with a single barrier, but with a barrier of finite width, in which case the particle can penetrate through the barrier and reappear on the far side, in a process known as quantum tunnelling.

3.7 Expectation Value of Momentum We can make use of Schrodingers equation to obtain an alternative expression for the expectation value of momentum .This expression is

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We note that the appearance of time derivatives in this expression. If we multiply both sides by ih and make use of Schrodingers equation, we can substitute for these time derivatives to give

The terms involving the potential cancel. The common factor ft2/2m can be moved outside the integral, while both sides of the equation can be divided through by ih, yielding a slightly less complicated experssion for (p):

Integrating both terms in the integrand by parts then gives

As the wave function vanishes for

, the final term here will vanish.

Carrying out the derivatives in the integrand then gives

Integrating the first term only by parts once again then gives

Once again, the last term here will vanish as the wave function itself vanishes for x â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x17E; term and we are left with

This is a particularly significant result - it shows that the expectation value of momentum can be determined directly from the wave function - i.e. information on the momentum of the particle is contained within the wave function, along with information on the position of the particle. This calculation suggests making the identification

which further suggests that we can make the replacement

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so that, for instance

and hence the expectation value of the kinetic energy of the particle is

We can check this idea by turning to the classical formula for the total energy of a particle

If we multiply this equation by

and make the

replacement given in Eq. (we end up with

which is just the time independent Schrodinger equation. So there is some truth in the ad hoc procedure outlined above.

This association of the physical quantity p with the derivative i.e. is an example of a physical observable, in this case momentum, being represented by a differential operator. This correspondence between physical observables and operators is to be found throughout quantum mechanics. In the simplest case of position, the operator corresponding to position x is itself just x, so there is no subtlties in this case, but as we have just seen this simple state of affairs changes substantially for other observables. Thus, for instance, the observable quantity K, the kinetic energy, is represented by the differential operator

while the operator associated with the position of the particle is x with In this last case, the identification is trivial.

3.8

Summary However, for electrons trapped in a block of metal, or gas molecules contained in a bottle, this model serves to describe very accurately the

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quantum character of such systems. In such cases the potential experienced by an electron as it approaches the edges of a block of metal, or as experienced by a gas molecule as it approaches the walls of its container are effectively infinite as far as these particles are concerned, at least if the particles have sufficently low kinetic energy compared to the height of these potential barriers.

3.9

Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain Derivation of the Schrodinger Wave Equation. 2. Discuss the Time Dependent Schrodinger Wave Equation. 3. Describe the Time Independent Schrodinger Equation. 4. Explain the Quantization of Energy. 5. Describe solving the Time Independent Schrodinger Equation. 6. Discuss the Infinite Potential Well Revisited. 7. Describe the Finite Potential Well.

3.10 References Hibbeler, R.C., Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 7th edition. PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,1995. Reif, F., Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics. McGraw-Hill Inc., 1965. Kittel, C. and Kroemar, H., Thermal Physics, 2nd edition. W.H. Freeman, 1980. Demarest, Engineering Electromagnetics. Prentice-Hall. Staelin, D.H., Morgenthaler, A.W. and Kong, J.A., Electromagnetic Waves. Prentice Hall, 1994. Kroemer, H., Quantum Mechanics for Engineering, Materials Science & Applied Physics. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1994.

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Unit 4 Waves And Particles Structure ________________________________________________________________ 4.0

Objectives

4.1

Introduction

4.2

Wave Particle Duality in Light

4.3

Wave Particle Duality in Matter 4.3.1 Significance of Wave Particle Duality

4.4

Wave-Particle Duality 4.4.1 Wave-Particle Duality: Light

4.5

De Broglie Waves 4.5.1 The de Broglie relations

4.6

Elementary particles

4.7

Neutral atoms

4.8

Waves of molecules 4.8.1 Spatial Zeno effect

4.9

Summary

4.10

Keywords

4.11

Self Assessment Questions

4.12

References

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Objectives After studying this unit you will be able to:

4.1

Explain Wave Particle Duality in Light

Discuss Wave Particle Duality in Matter

Describe Significance of Wave Particle Duality

Define De Broglie Waves

Discuss The de Broglie relations

Elaborate Waves of molecules

Introduction Let us understand the wave particle duality principle of quantum physics holds that matter and light exhibit the behaviors of both waves and particles, depending upon the circumstances of the experiment. It is a complex topic, but among the most intriguing in physics.

4.2

Wave Particle Duality in Light In the 1600s, Christiaan Huygens and Isaac Newton proposed competing theories for light's behavior. Huygens proposed a wave theory of light while Newton's was a "corpuscular" (particle) theory of light. Huygens' theory had some issues in matching observation. Newton's prestige helped lend support to his theory, so for over a century his theory was dominant.

In the early nineteenth century, complications arose for the corpuscular theory of light. Diffraction had been observed, for one thing, which it had trouble adequately explaining. Thomas Young's double slit experiment resulted in obvious wave behavior and seemed to firmly support the wave theory of light over Newton's particle theory.

A wave generally has to propagate through a medium of some kind. The medium proposed by Huygens had been luminiferous aether (or in more FOR MORE DETAILS VISIT US ON WWW.IMTSINSTITUTE.COM OR CALL ON +91-9999554621


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common modern terminology, ether). When James Clerk Maxwell quantified a set of equations (called Maxwell's laws or Maxwell's equations) to explain electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) as the propagation of waves, he assumed just such an ether as the medium of propagation, and his predictions were consistent with experimental results.

The problem with the wave theory was that no such ether had ever been found. Not only that, but astronomical observations in stellar aberration by James Bradley in 1720 had indicated that ether would have to be stationary relative to a moving Earth. Throughout the 1800s, attempts were made to detect the ether or its movement directly, culminating in the famous Michelson-Morley experiment. They all failed to actually detect the ether, resulting in a huge debate as the twentieth century began. Was light a wave or a particle?

In 1905, Albert Einstein published his paper to explain the photoelectric effect, which proposed that light traveled as discrete bundles of energy. The energy contained within a photon was related to the frequency of the light. This theory came to be known as the photon theory of light (although the word photon wasn't coined until years later).

With photons, the ether was no longer essential as a means of propagation, although it still left the odd paradox of why wave behavior was observed. Even more peculiar were the quantum variations of the double slit experiment and the Compton effect which seemed to confirm the particle interpretation.

As experiments were performed and evidence accumulated, the implications quickly became clear and alarming:

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Light functions as both a particle and a wave, depending on how the experiment is conducted and when observations are made.

4.3

Wave Particle Duality in Matter The question of whether such duality also showed up in matter was tackled by the bold de Broglie hypothesis, which extended Einstein's work to relate the observed wavelength of matter to its momentum. Experiments confirmed the hypothesis in 1927, resulting in a 1929 Nobel Prize for de Broglie.

Just like light, it seemed that matter exhibited both wave and particle properties under the right circumstances. Obviously, massive objects exhibit very small wavelengths, so small in fact that it's rather pointless to think of them in a wave fashion. But for small objects, the wavelength can be observable and significant, as attested to by the double slit experiment with electrons.

4.3.1 Significance of Wave Particle Duality The major significance of the wave particle duality is that all behavior of light and matter can be explained through the use of a differential equation which represents a wave function, generally in the form of the Schrodinger equation. This ability to describe reality in the form of waves is at the heart of quantum mechanics.

The most common interpretation is that the wave function represents the probability of finding a given particle at a given point. These probability equations can diffract, interfere, and exhibit other wave-like properties, resulting in a final probabilistic wave function that exhibits these properties as well. Particles end up distributed according to the probability laws, and therefore exhibit the wave properties. In other words, the probability of a

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particle being in any location is a wave, but the actual physical appearance of that particle isn't.

While the mathematics, though complicated, makes accurate predictions, the physical meaning of these equations are much harder to grasp. The attempt to explain what the wave particle duality "actually means" is a key point of debate in quantum physics. Many interpretations exist to try to explain this, but they are all bound by the same set of wave equations ... and, ultimately, must explain the same experimental observations.

4.4

Wave-Particle Duality Publicized early in the debate about whether light was composed of particles or waves, a wave-particle dual nature soon was found to be characteristic of electrons as well. The evidence for the description of light as waves was well established at the turn of the century when the photoelectric effect introduced firm evidence of a particle nature as well. On the other hand, the particle properties of electrons was well documented when the DeBroglie hypothesis and the subsequent experiments by Davisson and Germer established the wave nature of the electron

The Photoelectric Effect The details of the photoelectric effect were in direct contradiction to the expectations of very well developed classical physics.

The explanation marked one of the major steps toward quantum theory. The remarkable aspects of the photoelectric effect when it was first observed were: 1. The electrons were emitted immediately - no time lag! 2. Increasing

the

intensity

of

the

light

increased

the

number

photoelectrons, but not their maximum kinetic energy!

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3. Red light will not cause the ejection of electrons, no matter what the intensity! 4. A weak violet light will eject only a few electrons, but their maximum kinetic energies are greater than those for intense light of longer wavelengths!

Analysis of data from the photoelectric experiment showed that the energy of the ejected electrons was proportional to the frequency of the illuminating light. This showed that whatever was knocking the electrons out had an energy proportional to light frequency. The remarkable fact that the ejection energy was independent of the total energy of illumination showed that the interaction must be like that of a particle which gave all of its energy to the electron! This fit in well with Planck's hypothesis that light in the blackbody radiation experiment could exist only in discrete bundles with energy E = hν

4.4.1 Wave-Particle Duality: Light Does light consist of particles or waves? When one focuses upon the different types of phenomena observed with light, a strong case can be built for a wave picture:

Interference

Diffraction

Polarization

By the turn of the 20th century, most physicists were convinced by phenomena

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lke the above that light could be fully described by a wave, with no necessity for invoking a particle nature. But the story was not over.

Phenomenon

Can be explained in terms of Can be explained in terms of waves.

particles.

Reflection Refraction Interference Diffraction Polarization Photoelectric effect

Most commonly observed phenomena with light can be explained by waves. But the photoelectric effect suggested a particle nature for light. Then electrons too were found to exhibit dual natures.

Most commonly observed phenomena with light can be explained by waves. But the photoelectric effect suggested a particle nature for light.

4.5

De Broglie Waves In 1924 a young physicist, de Broglie, speculated that nature did not single out light as being the only matter which exhibits a wave-particle duality. He proposed that ordinary ``particles'' such as electrons, protons, or bowling balls could also exhibit wave characteristics in certain circumstances. Quantitatively, he associated a wavelength

to a particle of mass m

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=

.

Since the momentum of such a particle is p = mv , mathematically this relation is equivalent to Eq. for the momentum of a photon in Compton scattering. However, we should emphasize that these two equations have a very different physical content.

Relatively straightforward tests are offered by diffraction and interference if a beam of such ``particles'' were shone at a diffraction grating and a diffraction pattern of a series of light and dark fringes results, then one would be forced to adopt the wave picture for this phenomena. We recall that for a good diffraction pattern to result the size of the diffraction slits should be of the same order as the wavelength of the light used. As we shall see in some examples later, for macroscopic objects such as bowling balls this would require sizes of slits of the order of 10- 34 m or so, which is much outside present-day technology. However, for electrons the sizes of slits required are of the order of 10- 11 m or so, which are readily available. Thus, it is possible to verify the wave nature of electrons in such diffraction experiments, and indeed this property is the principle behind the relatively common electron microscope. Therefore, Nature seems to be symmetric, in that light and ordinary ``particles'' exhibits this wave-particle duality.

4.5.1 The de Broglie relations The de Broglie equations relate the wavelength momentum and energy

and frequency

to the

, respectively, as

and

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where is Planck's constant. The two equations are also written as

where

is the reduced Planck's constant (also known as

Dirac's constant, pronounced "h-bar"), is the angular wavenumber, and is the angular frequency.

Using results from special relativity, the equations can be written as

and

where

is the particle's rest mass,

is the particle's velocity,

is the

Lorentz factor, and is the speed of light in a vacuum.

4.6

Elementary particles In 1928 at Bell Labs, Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer fired slowmoving electrons at a crystalline nickel target. The angular dependence of the reflected electron intensity was measured, and was determined to have the same diffraction pattern as those predicted by Bragg for x-rays. Before the acceptance of the de Broglie hypothesis, diffraction was a property that was thought to be only exhibited by waves. Therefore, the presence of any diffraction effects by matter demonstrated the wave-like nature of matter. When the de Broglie wavelength was inserted into the Bragg condition, the observed diffraction pattern was predicted, thereby experimentally confirming the de Broglie hypothesis for electrons.

This was a pivotal result in the development of quantum mechanics. Just as Arthur Compton demonstrated the particle nature of light, the DavissonGermer experiment showed the wave-nature of matter, and completed the

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theory of wave-particle duality. For physicists this idea was important because it means that not only can any particle exhibit wave characteristics, but that one can use wave equations to describe phenomena in matter if one uses the de Broglie wavelength. Since the original Davisson-Germer experiment for electrons, the de Broglie hypothesis has been confirmed for other elementary particles.

The wavelength of a thermalized electron in a non-metal at room temperature is about 8 nm.

4.7

Neutral atoms Experiments with Fresnel diffraction[3] and specular reflection[4][5] of neutral atoms confirm the application of the de Broglie hypothesis to atoms, i.e. the existence of atomic waves which undergo diffraction, interference and allow quantum reflection by the tails of the attractive potential . Advances in laser cooling have allowed cooling of neutral atoms down to nanokelvin temperatures. At these temperatures, the thermal de Broglie wavelengths come into the micrometre range. Using Bragg diffraction of atoms and a Ramsey interferometry technique, the de Broglie wavelength of cold sodium atoms was explicitly measured and found to be consistent with the temperature measured by a different method.. This effect has been used to demonstrate atomic holography, and it may allow the construction of an atom probe imaging system with nanometer resolution. The description of these phenomena is based on the wave properties of neutral atoms, confirming the de Broglie hypothesis.

4.8

Waves of molecules Recent experiments even confirm the relations for molecules and even macromolecules, which are normally considered too large to undergo quantum mechanical effects. In 1999, a research team in Vienna demonstrated diffraction for molecules as large as fullerenes[10]. The

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researchers calculated a De Broglie wavelength of the most probable C60 velocity as 2.5 pm.

In general, the De Broglie hypothesis is expected to apply to any well isolated object.

4.8.1 Spatial Zeno effect The matter wave leads to the spatial version of the Zeno effect. If an object (particle) is observed with frequency

in a half-space (say, y

< 0), then this observation prevents the particle, which stays in the halfspace y > 0 from entry into this half-space y < 0. Such an "observation" can be realized with a set of rapidly moving absorbing ridges, filling one half-space. In the system of coordinates related to the ridges, this phenomenon appears as a specular reflection of a particle from a ridged mirror, assuming the grazing incidence (small values of the grazing angle). Such a ridged mirror is universal; while we consider the idealised "absorption" of the de Broglie wave at the ridges, the reflectivity is determined by wavenumber k and does not depend on other properties of a particle.

4.9

Summary In the early nineteenth century, complications arose for the corpuscular theory of light. Diffraction had been observed, for one thing, which it had trouble adequately explaining. Thomas Young's double slit experiment resulted in obvious wave behavior and seemed to firmly support the wave theory of light over Newton's particle theory.

4.10 Keywords De Broglie Waves : In 1924 a young physicist, de Broglie, speculated that nature did not single out light as being the only matter which exhibits a wave-particle duality.

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4.11 Self Assessment Questions 1. Explain Wave Particle Duality in Light 2. Discuss Wave Particle Duality in Matter 3. Describe Significance of Wave Particle Duality 4. Define De Broglie Waves 5. Discuss the de Broglie relations 6. Elaborate Waves of molecules

4.12 References Hibbeler, R.C., Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics, 7th edition. PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,1995. Reif, F., Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics. McGraw-Hill Inc., 1965. Kittel, C. and Kroemar, H., Thermal Physics, 2nd edition. W.H. Freeman, 1980. Demarest, Engineering Electromagnetics. Prentice-Hall. Staelin, D.H., Morgenthaler, A.W. and Kong, J.A., Electromagnetic Waves. Prentice Hall, 1994. Kroemer, H., Quantum Mechanics for Engineering, Materials Science & Applied Physics. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1994

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