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I ns t i t ut eofManage me nt & Te c hni c alSt udi e s

ADVERTI SI NG

MANAGEMENT

MARKETI NGMANAGEMENT

www. i mt s i ns t i t ut e . c om


IMTS (ISO 9001-2008 Internationally Certified) ADVERTISING MANAGEMENT

ADVERTISING MANAGEMENT

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ADVERTISING MANAGEMENT CONTENTS:

UNIT-I

01-14

Advertising, Types of advertising, Trade and Technical Press, Co-operative, Retail Advertising, Organisation of Retail Advertising, Classification of Retail Advertising:

UNIT-II

15-57

Advertising copy, Headlines and Visualization, Visualization and development of AD, Use of smiles and metaphors, Visualization tips, Types of layout, Advertising and psychology, Types of Purchase Decision Behavior, Consumer Motivation and Advertising

UNIT-III

58-102

Advertising Campaign, Basis of Campaign Planning, Types of Advertising, Broadcasting media.

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UNIT - I Advertising is a form of mass communication. It involves process of transmission of information by the manufactures a seller of a product or service to modify or stimulate the behaviors of the buyer to buy a particular product. The term ‘Advertising’ is derived from the Latin Word ‘Advertene‘which means ‘to turn the mind’ to . Advertising diverts the attentions of the buyers to a product or service. Advertising is defined as 1.

“Advertising is communicating with and influencing some one to do something - usually to buy a product or service and often something to think about.”

2.

“Advertising is paid, non- personal communication through various media by business firms “- Dunn.

3.

“A form of paid announcement intended to promote the sale of commodity or service, to advance an idea or to bring about some other effect, desired by the advertiser - Encyclopedia Britannica.

4.

“Any paid from of non- personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified Sponsor” - The American Marketing Association.

Advertising can be .in any form of presentation such as sing, symbol or illustration in print media, a commercial on radio or television, Poster etc. Thus advertising is the communication link between the seller and the buyer. The basis task of advertising is to communicate information efficiently to groups of individual that could number in hundreds or millions. It performs an important economic function for both the

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advertiser and the audience. It provides the advertiser with a merchants for communicating economically with the audience. Advertising is a commercial transaction involving payment to a third party (i.e.,) one or more the media. Advertising is mass communication, for it informs and influences a large number of people. It is aimed at a big groups or purchases or potential purchases. The medium of advertising selected by the sponsor or the beneficiary. Each medium of advertisement offers its own advantages, costs and drawbacks. Each is selected after due consideration of the potential market costs, expected benefits and availability. Advertising is an effective method of reaching people with product information. Advertising according to “Wright Winter and Zeigier� is controlled, identifiable, information and persuasion by means of mass communication media. It is considered as controlled information because it has to use the time, space and context of the message effectively and economically. It is controlled because it is direct at a particular group. It is identifiable because it identifies the product and the source of the product. Persuasion is the main object of adverting. It is creative and informative and is designed to attract prospective buyers. Thus it is an important aspect of Mass communication. The

reasons

of

advertising

are

many

and

varied.

An

advertisement may be used to: a)

Urge and remind people to buy a product or service, or do something or think something.

b)

Announce a new product or service.

c)

Announce a modification ( Price, ingredient, special offer etc).

d)

Educate the public.

e)

Challenge competition.

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f)

Enter new markets, retrieve lost sales and maintain it.

g)

Recruit staff.

h)

Announce a sponsorship.

The objectives of advertising are two fold: 1. As a marketing tools. 2. As a means of persuasion It has some other objectives as well 1. Introduce New Product: Advertising introduces a new product to potential customers. The customers are informed about the attributes, qualities and prices of the product. If the potential prospectus are made aware of the new product then it may gain sales momentum. Sometimes after evaluating the results of his advertisement the producer starts production and such advertising gives an edge to the new product over the existing products. Market studies reveal the desires of the people and the extent to which the new products can be sold in the market. 2. Sustain the established product: Retaining the market share of the established product can be done through Advertising. Brand loyalty is maintained through effective advertising. Effective advertising methods must be followed t persuade a large number of consumer not to shift to other products but to be loyal to the established product. Product marketing is retained by the image of the producer is maintained by advertising and other marketing practices. Product life cycle is analyzed before an effective advertising campaign is started. 3. Help middleman : Advertising is designed to help middlemen to achieve better performance. They are given information on the name of shops, relatives where the advertised product would be available at a lower cost along

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with be available at a lower cost along with newsletters coupled with newspaper advertisement the attributes of the product, its price and packaging help middlemen to enhance its sales. 4. Increase the share of market: Advertising increases the share of market. The behavioral study of customers indicates to the producer how to increase the share of the product in the market. The weaknesses and I problems of competitors are evaluated before the strategy of market expansion through advertisement is implemented. 5. Demarket the target group: Advertising should be made only in the targeted segments. If the market segment is not known, advertising will become futile, the target segments should be effectively approached by the advertiser. A segment study reveals the various segments of shows the market how to approach and influence people to purchase the advertised products. 6. Increase public welfare: An inherent purpose of an advertisement is in increasing of the welfare of the public, the moral and ethical values should be stressed. It also informs the public how to maintain public hygiene, educates them n the conservation of energy, makes the environment free from pollution etc. Types of advertising The nature and purpose of adverting differ from one industry to another and various situations. The targets of an organizations advertising efforts often vary, as do its role and function in the marketing programs advertiser may seek to generate immediate response or action from the customer another may want to develop awareness or a positive image for its products over a longer period, to have a letter understanding of the nature and purpose of advertising let us designs the various type of

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Consumer advertising: Consumer advertising is that type of advertising that is directed the ultimate consumer. Most of consumer goods manufacturing companies are in a highly competitor field and engage in advertising. Consumer non durables are frequently brought. The advertising here tries to establish a competitive advantage while advertising their brands. Consumers durable are appliances which save us for a long time. They are also advertised by making use of both emotional and rational appeals. Industrial advertising: This advertising is meant for individuals in business that buys or influences the purchase decisions of the industrial products used to manufacture other goods. Industrial products include plant and machinery and equipment. Industrial products also include such items which become part of other products like the raw materials, semimanufactured goods and components. Some like insurance and accountancy are also considered industrial products as they assist the furtherance of business. Industrial advertisers are sometimes referred to as “Secondary Suppliers” .Their promotional activities. Often making good use of public relations technique such as press relations, videos and technical seminars are called “back selling”. An Industrial product is bought by a very elaborate process affected by a number of variables. The advertising is thus very complicated. Most common objectives for industrial product advertising are to inform, to bring in order, to stimulate queries, to compared the marketer’s name on the buyer’s panel of sources. It also seeks to influence the buying persons in the purchasing organization whom sales people cannot access.

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Industrial Advertising is prepared in the form of messages inserted in trade journals and at time in lay press. It motivates the distributors. It also seeks to build up a corporate image. It reminds the final consumers about the role the industrial marketer plays in their lives by offering products which a customer finally ends up using. The basic appeals used are rational. The appeals to patronized are mostly emotional. The copy gives facts and figures. It is specific and gives evidence. Apart from trade journals, other media used for industrial product advertising are catalogues, brochures, direct mail, exhibits etc. Trade and Technical Press: They bring industrial advertisers and their markets close together.

a) Controlled Circulation Journal (CC journal) This enables advertisers to gain great generation of market since a free list is inevitably larger then that of subscriber to a journal. CC journals are not distributed indiscriminately and in order to attain an Audit Bureau of Circulations figure, the mailing list has to be substantially based on requests from readers. Corporate Advertising: It is directed towards the complete institution with the aim to increase the good will of the institution rather than on a specific brand in the eyes of the customers, shareholders, employees, suppliers etc. Institutional advertising is often closely related to the public relation function of the enterprises. One recent example of institutional advertising was Mafatlal Group’s Campaign bearing on the great sons of India, festivals, its seasons, and how they as a group follow the same high traditions.

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Thus institutional advertising is indirect, subtle and affects on basis attitudes. The organization may reveal its history and may try to build awareness about itself. The ad copy may be directed to a potential market or to any of the interest groups like employees, shareholders, government etc corporate Advertising cultivates or tries to promote a spirit of friendliness towards it among the public. Institutional or corporate advertising aims at building a posture image for the firm in the eye of internal and external public. It does not attempt to sell anything directly. However, it does a lot of good to the organization as a whole, it forcefully tells how the organization is a socially responsible institution, it also tells about the nationalistic learning of the organization. It shows how its actions are consistent with overall national

objectives

like

environmental

protection,

employment

generation, literacy loss prevention, health for all etc. This advertising is integrated to public relations function of the organization. Institutional advertisements may be addressed

either

to

consumers or other groups like governments suppliers, financial institutions etc. Effective corporate advertising evokes a positive response amongst the target advertising may introduce products indirectly or may introduce the sales people indirectly. Institutional

or

corporate

advertising

can

be

formative,

persuasive or reminder oriented. The objectives of corporate advertising are • to make the company known • to make its products known • to make its achievements known • to make its values known • to make low- political /economic/moral statements.

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Many companies are faceless entitles. Corporate advertising gives a face to the company. It causes seismic change in people & reactions to one company’s products, sales force and job offers. Corporate advertising establishes a relationship and is not merely tom to mining of our achievements. Receptively to corporate Advertising: Mostly, people by and large are not ready to receive this genre of advertising. The sterile information is hardly relevant to many. The recall rates are low. Except boosting the chairman’s ego, they are not of much use. While designing corporate adhesive should pay heed to the type of response all want. Corporate communication is single - tract. It asks for no action on the part of audience. Corporate adds are difficult to evaluate. Corporate Advertising by SAIL: Steel Authority of India (SAIL) has recently released its corporate advertisements which remind us that there is a little bit of SAIL in everybody’s life example Doctor’s stethoscope or a baby’s diaper pins or a house- wife’s bunch of keys etc. Comparative Advertising: It compares specific product attributes with competitor’s brands today comparative advertising is widely used. Here the advertiser put the competitor’s name

(Some times not) and tells the benefits of his and

competitor’s offerings. Negative comments concerning competitors are viewed as unprofessional or unethical trade. Trade Advertising: Trade advertising is addressed distributors who may consist of agents, wholesalers, brokers, retailers, direct response marketers, importers and exporters, by the manufacturer, producer or supplier trade

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advertising will urge the distributor to buy stock, either direct or when a representative calls, offering introductory discounts, special trade terms, display material, cooperative advertising schemes etc. This in turn will be backed up by editorial write ups in the press. The purpose of trade advertising is to secure distribution that is to “sell in� to the trade and to gain repeat order. It appeals has a totally different objective to that of consumer advertising, it promotes not the benefits of the product but the benefits of selling the product. The media of trade press, direct mail and trade exhibitions are the most commonly used, but TV is used occasionally and TV contractors offer special merchandising schemes by which retailers are told of forthcoming TV Campaign. An excellent form of trade advertising is the big broadsheet which

reproduces

full-

size

specimens

of

forthcoming

press

advertisements and stills from TV commercials. Broadsheets are direct mailed some weeks before the launch or the special promotion trade Advertising helps to create good relations between the sales force and buyers. Trade exhibition are usually limited to bona fide trade visitors. Tickets being issued in trade journals or by a presentation of a business card. Some exhibitions regard trade exhibitions as goodwill missions, blend of trade advertising and dealer relations aimed at cementing good relations. Trade relations also include education and training, the sales assistant being taught the uses and applications of a product and also being trained in selling and servicing the product. The objective is to inform, educate and help the trade to sell the product and this may be done by suggesting promotional ideas such as window, and more display and by reporting methods adopted by enterprising stockiest.

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Lifestyle: To identify more meaningful segments in the market, consumers are grouped according to cluster of attitudes, values and behaviour patterns they hold in common such descriptions are referred to as lifestyle. As Boyd and Levy observed. “Everyone life has a style of some kind, and his wisher to develop it, sustain it and show it make it a coherent and visible thing that other people can recognize, because of the coherence and visually of life styles, those who share them are likely to react similarly to marketing communication to buy the same or similar products. Lifestyle change over time and while advertising attention must be given to the changes in lifestyle which present both problems and opportunities to advertisers in targeting their communication messages. Identifying those who follow a particular lifestyle, whether old or new is naturally important to the advertiser. Co-operative: The four types of co-operative advertising are: 1. Cooperative Society: This is really only a form of retail advertising Earlier this cooperative society operated on the Rockdale principle of the customer being a shareholder who received a dividend on purchases. Today, the co-ops are few in number and, are either supermarkets or stores which remain open for long hours resembling the 7 - 11 stores. 2. Joint advertising: Joint advertising placed by a trade association a national export organization or a publicity committee set up on behalf of an industry. Members contribute to a pool for joint advertising purposes. Examples of these 3 versions are the advertisements for the Brick development Association, the Joint venture overseas trade and Industry and those of

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the National Milk Council which among other things sponsored the Milk Cycling Race. 3. Mutual Advertising Schemes: This form of advertising occurs when two or more firms combine their advertising, as in the case of fashion houses and department stores, packaged holidays and swimsuits. There are also joint sales promotion schemes like Kelhoggs AllBran and paint offer and cross couponing he exchanged towards the price of another manufacturer’s product. 4. Dealer Support Schemes: This scheme is also known as cooperative scheme; the manufacturer may either subsidize the cost of the stockist’s local advertising, usually on a 50-50 basis, or supply free advertising material such as camera ready art work and copy with space etc. This will be seen in many advertisements for motor, car dealers which carry pictures of the vehicles and logos of their makers. Such material is also supplied for use in catalogues, direct mail shots and on letter headings. Retail Advertising: Most retailers are selling other people good, even when they have their own label or house brands. Retail advertising is therefore largely to do with creating turnover and goods must not be left merely to decorate the shop. Retail advertising has four objectives: I. to sell the stocks II. to establish the identity or character of the store a kind of image advertising

and it is interesting to note how

different shops selling similar merchandise

also have

distinct characters. III. To identify the location

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IV. To attract personal, telephone or direct response shoppers. Modern shopping may have special attractions such as one stop shopping, encouraged by the popularity of the motor car and provision of parking facilities so that a whole week’s shopping can replace daily shopping. Retail advertising has to work very hard, even harder than a persuasions advertisement for a manufacturer. Such advertising is crucial to the success and survival of a shopkeeper. not only does the retailer have to buy skillfully and provide good service for customers, but it is necessary to understand how advertising can achieve the four objectives set out above. Farm Advertising: The producers of agricultural goods may advertise their products for purchase by agriculturists and farmer for farming purposes. They may purchase some articles for consumption purposes but these are not included under agriculture products. Only those products which are used in cultivation animal husbandry, horticulture, sericulture and any other form of farm advertising are included under farm advertising. Fertilizers, petroleum, livestock feed, seeds, animal health products, antibiotics, pesticides,

herbicides,

machinery

&

equipment,

these

are

the

components of farm advertising. All these products and services which are bought by agriculturists and farmers for their farming and agricultural act tier are advertised so that the prospective farmers may select those that would serve their purpose. Organisation of Retail Advertising: Advertising Officer: Retail advertising differs from organization to organization, time to time and place to place the main aim of a retail store is to persuade people to shop in the store. Retail advertising may relate to the selection

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of merchandise, the grant of higher credit and brand display at the store. The retailer is interested in selling all the merchandise rather than only one brand. He adopts advertising technique to popularize all the brands. Retail advertising is discussed under the classification of retail. Classification of Retail Advertising: Retail advertising may be in the form of a large store advertising, a small store advertising and mail- order advertising. a) Large - store Advertising: In a big company, retail advertising is an independent organization. The head of advertising department may be known as the advertising director with an independent budget and executive functions. The plan prepared and the budget estimated are finally accepted by the top executives who co- ordinates the plan and budget for the whole company. He may appoint several persons for the execution of advertising plans. He prepares the layout and design for the print and broadcast media. He may take the assistance of an advertising agency in case of need and in accordance with requirements of media advertising. He may appoint several persons for the execution of advertising plans. He prepare the layout and design for the print and b) Small store Advertising: Generally speaking, small store uses less advertising than a large store. Many small stores do not know how advertising may be used. They have inadequate funds to buy space and time in the broadcast media. There are a few who can take up the job of advertising. Besides the selling functions, they perform advertising activities, the store manager performs the job of the retail store (i.e.,) purchasing, selling, finance, personnel and advertising. c) Mail- order Advertising: Some retail stores use mail to promote their sales. They announce the mail — order selling on the radio and television and in the

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N .P’s some have only a mail order business; but may consider mail order business as a supplement to retail store business. Booksellers and publishers send their books by mail while maintaining an independent store. One merchandise department generally handles the mail order business. Businessmen seldom call upon the assistance of specialists. Manufactures help them to prepare advertising materials. In announcing stock, an economic division may have to be made between types of products, or between departments of a big store. Conversely, the policy may be to offer a bargain or a ‘loss leader’. This will attract what is called ‘store traffic’:- the buyer of the special offer is being expected to buy other goods at regular prices. Retail advertising is more complicated than advertising by the manufacturers and reflects great social changes.

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UNIT - II ADVERTISING COPY: The term copy refers to a typewritten materials or spoken words. Copywriters are the persons who write the words for advertising messages. Print media used words and pictures that support and supplement each other. The radio uses sound and music as well as words. Copy in a broad sense includes all the elements of an advertising message - reading matter such as headlines, subheads, picture captions, slogans,

etc.

and

picture

matters

such

as

trade

marks, borders, illustrations, visual symbols, pictures etc.

Promotion copy has been discussed under approach to writing copy, the length of the copy, classification of copy, checklist of copy and media-wise copy. i) Approach to writing copy The headline explains the baby copy. The theme of the copy should arouse interest in the proposition, provide believable information and persuade the reader to see the product and try it out. The basic theme of copywriting is that the writer should start with the basic selling ideas which succeed in linking consumer benefit and product.

ii) Length of copy The length of the copy has an impact on the audience. A short copy is generally read by people. Long copy is avoided because only a part of it is generally read by them. The length of the copy should be such as to include all the facts required for advertising purposes.

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iii) Classification of copy Advertising copy is divided into the reason - why copy, the humour copy, the descriptive copy, the testimonial copy, the dialogue copy and the narrative copy.

Reason-why copy: The copy explains why the product should be purchased or preferred to other similar product. It is essential to give consumers the reasons-why they should buy the product. The audience is educated and told how to overcome a problem or prevent the emergency.

Why use Nirma - it offers an economical method of cleaning clothes", "Why people buy instant coffee, they have no time to wait for coffee" - these are some examples of the reason-why copy. Humour copy: The humour copy makes the audience happy and persuades them to purchase the product. The humour copy has been successful in attracting attention, facilitating comprehensions, reducing counter-agreements, increasing source credibility, creating a positive mood and increasing the effectiveness of message. Descriptive Copy The descriptive copy describes the products characteristics, as well the reward and promises. The description is made pleasant to attract attention. Confusion and ambiguity are avoided in a descriptive

Testimonial copy Testimonial copy has now been in use for a long time. It is used in music, motion pictures, sports and other visible fields. Some important persons are selected to demonstrate the virtues of the product.

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Dialogue copy Dialogue copy is interesting, convincing and persuasive. Dual dialogue defeats the very purpose of advertising. Well-balanced dialogue and an interesting theme are effective in influencing the audiences attitude and purchase decision.

Narrative Copy The narrative copy tells same interesting story. For example, Shalimar and the Mafatal group have been telling us about ancient legends and mythology.

HEADLINES AND VISUALIZATION The headline is an important element of the advertising message. About eight per cent of advertising success is attributed to headlines. The prime function of the headline is to gain immediate attention. The headline tells the. whole story in a few words which is developed by the text. Research has shown that the headline attracts suitable persons who are willing to purchase the advertised products.

The headline should have some effective characteristics. It should attract attention. It should contain effective words and have symbolic values. Headlines should be understood at a glance. Headlines are used not only in the print media but also in broadcasting media.

Headlines may be classified on the basis of presentation and content.

a) Presentation

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On the basis of presentation, headlines are divided into direct, indirect and both. Direct headlines are straight forward and informative. The headline can arouse interest, stimulate sales response and motivate people to purchase the product. Direct headlines are used to attract the attention of a particular segment of people to demonstrate whether the message is in line with their predispositions.

The indirect headline is useful for the audience which reads headlines by way of curiosity and lack of predisposition. Such people are attracted by indirect headlines which draw the attention of the people unintentionally. When their attention is captured by a word or picture in a headline, they read the headline. If they find the headline attractive, they read the text of the advertisement. Headlines are prepared to convey direct as well as indirect information. These headlines are moreattractive to curious readers as well as to the "predisposed" readers.

b) Content Headlines may be divided into news headlines, method headlines, question headlines, command headlines.

News headlines

,

News headlines are most effective when the product brands are new. The news should be interesting to the audience. Readers prefer to read product news when it promises something new

Method Headlines Headlines show the method of approaching people. "How to approach" is the promise which interests people. For example "How to

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use coffee", "How to Accept the Product", "How to tell your friend" are examples of method.

Question Headlines The question headlines are interesting because they stimulate people to answer various problems. The question headline is very provocative if it carries some interesting information or stimulating idea. For example, "Why wait for the next summer? Purchase the fan immediately."

Command Headlines Command headlines polietly ask the reader to do something. For example "Give your child Colgate to fight tooth decay". "Avoid chances of loss with a life policy". These are used to instruct the people to work in a specific way. The headlines should have the minimum possible length because long headlines are not read by the audience. Single word or single line headlines may be used very effectively. Generally speaking, not more than 10 words are used for to make up a headline. The headline and visualisation are used simultaneously to convey the message effectively. The headline in the print media is generally visualised on television to demonstrate the attributes of the product.

Benefit headline promises the audience that by using the product or service advertised, they will be certainly gaining experience. It need not have pun in it and should give a simple statement about product’s benefit. For example, “Italian elegance and style-experience in our business class the ‘made in Italy’ lifestyle” promise the audience a new experience. Another example is a Clearsil ad which says, “If you do not get the pimple free skin in 5 days, take your money back”. Both of

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these headlines highlight the benefits of using the product and not the features of the product.

Information headline informs the reader about the unknown fact or announces a news. The information must be credible, thought, “For the Elevators. For the Escalators. For the Corporate. Ladder that suddenly seems to child’s play”, the headline for Digjam Suitings and “This IT staff is armed and ready” for Microsoft are the appropriate examples of this category.

Copywriters use provocative headline mainly to provoke the readers’ curiosity by roiling their thought process. For example, the headline for Philips TV “You’ll never go back to ordinary TV” will make you curious to learn more about the product by reading the body copy. Sometimes the reader is lazy not to go further to read the body copy. In that case, let your visual be vivid and clear so that it can provide story appeal.

VISUALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF AD: In developing the ad, the most important activity is visualization – a process which starts the design of the advertisement and results into the development of a finished ad layout in print.

When we talk of visualization, we talk about the art in advertising. Here we are restricting this terms to print advertising. Visualization in the most simple words is the process of designing the advertisement. The ultimate outcome of the process of visualization is the layout.

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A visualiser decides about the inclusion of different elements at the beginning of his work. His questions are: Whether my advertisement will have headline? Whether there will be a sub-headline? Whether there would be a body copy? Whether to have illustration or a photograph? Whether to include slogan? Etc.

At the second step, he foresees how all these elements will be appearing in the copy.

The basic elements with which a visualizer works are: Headline, Sub-heads The body copy The illustration Logo signature

There may be elements like: Slogans Coupon Price Package Seal of approval Border Quality marks etc.

At the commencement of his work he becomes intimate with the copy. Really speaking the visualization process is shared by the copy.

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Really speaking, the visualization process is shared by the copywriter and the creative director of visualization. They decide whether the product should be featured; whether people should be featured; what they would be doing; will there be a background? Which type? Should photos be used? Or line illustrations and sketches? How large the headline should be? What components should make the final copy: the product? The address and name of the company? The picture?

Once he becomes clear about the components or elements he will include, he foresees their relevance to each other, to one another. How they would be placed in the copy? How the final product (advertisement copy) will look like?

Essentially it is a mental process of creating mental images of a well-balanced whole made up of different elements. On paper, he makes ‘thumbnails’ which are rough sketches of the various alternatives. This paper work is the starting point of the process of layout.

Visualizer operates under certain constraints; the space available, the type of paper on which advertisement will be printed, whether it is black and white or colour advertisement, the printing technology employed etc.

TRANSFORMATION FROM VISUALIZATION TO LAYOUT: Once a visualizer exercises himself mentally and puts his pencil to paper, the shape of layout begins to emerge. It is very difficult to say where the process of visualization ends and where the shape of layout beings. It is a smooth transition however, and we are moving from abstract ideas to concrete shapes. Each element is assigned a weight, depending upon its overall significance. Look any ad in print and see the

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basic percentage of space allotted to the headline, body copy and the visual, e.g., 30 p.c. for the headline, 50 p.c. for the visual and 20 p.c. for the copy. Each element is positioned. There is visual evidence on paper. The various possibilities are drawn separately-we call them thumbnail sketches or first roughs. They indicate the elements and their positions. Many such thumbnails when made give us an idea which one or more will best suit us, so that they can be made into larger sizes called roughs or visuals. These are made in actual ad sizes. All elements here are seribbled. As copy matter, only rough lines are put. Roughs are forerunners of comprehensive copies. Roughs give an exact idea about the proportions and placement of elements into larger sizes called roughs or visuals. These are made in actual ad sizes. All elements here are seribbled. As copy matter, only rough lines are put. Roughs are forerunners of comprehensive copies. Roughs give an exact idea about the proportions and placement of elements.

Comprehensives or comps are more finished form of roughs. The body copy is pasted. Headline lettering is done carefully. Photos and illustrations (actuals) are used. Comprehensive comes very close to final art work, which gives a finished advertisement complete with printer’s instructions from which the plates, the stereos or electrotypes are made. In copy comping, first greeking is done in which copy is passed into position. Secondly, there is copyfitting in which types copy is converted into typography.

For idea visualizations for radio and TV, we have to create first a script with a series of TV screens (frames) that can accommodate thumbnail visuals which vary from rough stick figures to photographs and comprehensive drawings suitable for client’s approval. This topic is further elaborated I the chapter on copywriting.

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VISUALIZATION AND CREATIVITY: In the visualization process, we require a flow of ideas – those ideas are obtained from many sources and using many techniques. We can pin down the problem and develop the advertisement copy accordingly. We can have a good data base or briefing before visualization. There can be some brain waves from the copywriter. We can employ Osborn’s Brainstorming technique. We do meditation from analysis and synthesis of ideas.

The steps in the visualization process are those involved in any creative process.

CREATIVE PROCESS IN VISUALIZATION: The following are the five principal stages in creative process:

Saturation: The manager becomes very intimate with the problem and its environment. Deliberation: A perfect knowledge of the environment and attendant data is essential for creativity. Incubation: The subconscious activity precedes a fresh approach. The creative mind forms a pattern of the problem by combining the scattered data. Then the conscious mind should be switched off from the problem and the subconscious mind is allowed to take over. The conscious mind is the seat of logic and the subconscious mind directs itself to problems which are of interest to the conscious mind. When the conscious mind is relaxed the subconscious mind works to give some of the best ideas.

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Illumination: Here an idea actually flashes across the mind of the decision-marker. Very often this happens while sitting in a cafeteria, driving a vehicle, strolling a leisurely fashion or in some such state of relaxation. Accommodation: The original idea is modified, reframed or polished and made to practical use.

Creative process demands free exchange of ideas, application of imagination to problems, group understanding and lack of conditioned thinking.

Creative persons are gifted or can be trained. They have ideational fluency, high I.Q., open mindedness, uninhibited personality with a sensitivity and flexibility. He sets problems for himself and seeks their solutions. He is independent in thought and action. Walter Mendes, Creative Director, Clarion says: “I visualize an advertisement first before I write it. The test of all good advertising is that you should be able to see the end product�.

Once the final copies are made, a presentation is made before the client. These presentations should be structured, keeping the objective of the communication and the audience in view.

We shall present a brief discussion of the sizes and shapes here. The copy writing forms the material of a subsequent chapter. The rest of the elements have been discussed in the chapters of layout. These elements should contribute to the basic objective of the communication.

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SIZE AND SHAPE: Different ad sizes in the print media are possible, the budget being the major constraint. Within the given size, we get allotted certain space which can take many steps, each shape being a device of nonverbal communication. A square shape shows a staid or static image. It also shows a formal image. Against this, a rectangular with longer side placed vertically shows dynamism, and with longer side placed horizontally, shows tranquility. The shape should be consistent with the message.

Let us consider how lines are interpreted. Horizontal lines show stability and a state of restfulness. Vertical lines show speed, growth and movement. Several vertical lines act as a barriers, and to some extent express strength and power.

Combined together, vertical and horizontal lines express a state of equilibrium and a sense of satisfaction.

Diagonal lines are thought to be challenging, and denote atmost speed. Diagonals also direct our eye movement.

Curves

show

elegance

and

beauty.

Triangles

have

a

combination of both dynamic and static and can also communicate caution against danger. Circles are likened to planets. They show continuity, eternity and peace. What they enclose command our attention immediately. There is a movement around the circumference.

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VISUAL THINKING: As children, we took the first opportunity to express our internal illusions with the help of pencils and crayons. In kindergarten classes, children love to feel the shapes and see the things in order to learn. Kids invent their own shapes on paper or in clay. The thought process in childhood is based on perception. As we grow older, we put inhibitions on our freedom of visual perception. The child in us which started scribbling at the slightest suggestion disappears.

What is visual thinking? It is a language whose effectiveness depends upon its flexibility and willingness to experiment. Winters and Milton suggest vizthink method as the first step in visual thinking. Vizthinking is essentially idea visualization. The copy should be conductive to vizthinking. There should be collaboration between the copywriter and the art director. Copywriters need not be artists, but they can think visually. They can do a little drawing, sketching, doodling or thumb nailing. In other words, we are recording mind’s perceptions by doing so.

Visualization is governed by the central selling message and the copy

appeal.

Marketing

research

also

provides

the

basis

for

visualization.

The ad should try to connect the idea with a proper visual. A single idea can be visually expressed in a number of ways. For example, love can expressed by an embrace, by a look, by caressing or by a kiss. We also have to choose between a description and a visual. Should a tandoori chicken dipped in butter be described in words? Can we instead give a picture -- either an illustration or a photograph of the chicken? The answers are no simple. But we can evoke greater response by

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combining a picture with carefully crafted copy. In isolation, both the picture and the words are not so effective. We should always try to express an idea in pictures in a number of ways. Later, the product is taken into account. The target audience is considered. Mother’s love for a baby is shown by a picture of mummy gently applying Johnson’s Baby Oil on the tender skin of the baby. The visualizer must have enough background information to visualize properly. The ultimate aim is to evoke response from the target audience.

The left-side of the human brain is seat of reasoning and verbal skills. It is responsible for processing the information step-by-step. The right side of the human brain provides with intuition. It process the information simultaneously. While we dram, the right hemisphere of the brain works overtime, suppressing the left. Instinctive products which are brought on a whim or a fancy like a perfume would be steeped into sensual appeals to the right hemisphere. A complex product like computer must be sold on the basis of reasoning that appeals to the left hemisphere of the brain. In emotional ads, the artist carries the larger burden of the appeal, with less emphasis on words. In rational ads, the copywriters are allowed full play of words, while the artist just gives definite and distinct pictures, may be outlines. It is, however, important not to over-emphasize the separation of the functions of either side. Music appeals to both the hemispheres.

USE OF SIMILIES AND METAPHORS: Thought process is transformed by figures of speech like similies and metaphors into more articulate information. These tools help us to organize our complex thoughts into a definite message. Abstraction becomes clearer. Similies are comparisons with the use of words of comparison, e.g., “You are a brave as a lion. Metaphors are comparisons which drop the comparative words, e.g., ‘You are a lion, ‘Similies and

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metaphors are used to ‘fit an idea’. In idea visualization, they are a part of word-picture association. VISUALIZATION TIPS: Use an illustration of a product alone, either a line drawing or a photograph against simple background, e.g., Bentex watch is shown alone with the headline ‘when was the last time you made a woman’s hand tremble? Use an illustration of a product in a setting, e.g., Mont Blanc pens are shown on a diary or a sofa-set is shown in a living room. Use an illustration of a product in use, e.g., cellular phone is being used by a

woman in a restaurant to talk to her beloved.

Similarly, model Anupama Verma uses Braun Silk Epil to get silky smooth legs Use an illustration of the benefit resulting from the use of the product, e.g., a woman’s hair with a bounce and shine with the implication that this is due to use of a shampoo with a conditioner. Use an illustration of the loss or disadvantage from not using the advertised product, e.g., Cease Fire, a fire extinguisher’s ad. The women’s happy home is shattered by a devastating fire, of course in her fantasy. Dramatize the headline. This is a strong visualization. In a wellconceived dramatization, it is difficult to say whether the concept of the headline came first or the concept of the headline came first or the concept of illustration e.g., BPL’s TEIO Large Screen TV ad has the headline ‘Live Thunder’ dramatized as a TV set with four wheels attached giving a look of a sports-car. Dramatize the evidence, e.g., Whisper sanitary napkins absorb ink on them, and yet give dry feel.

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Dramatize a detail. The illustration may emphasise a small area of the product or may enlarge a detail, e.g., Raymond’s trousers magnify special stitches at the pockets. Use a comparison, e.g., Luxol Silk Paint of Berger is compared with a flowing satin saree of a woman. Use contrast, e.g., before and after pictures as in a Bull worker ad – first a skinny chap who later becomes a muscular he-man. Use cartoons. Cartoons are used in print ads as well as in TV commercials. Recently Rasna TV commercial used animation of a dinosaur. Use trade – characters like Gattu for Asian Paints, tiger for Goodlass Paints, MRF man for MRF tyres and Maharaja for Air India. Use charts and diagrams while making rational appeals in scientific copy. In consumer good advertising, along with these, a less technical picture should also be used as a warmer. Use cross-section diagram, e.g., inside of a car. Use Symbolism, e.g., Merril Lynch uses a bull to show their bullish investment sentiments. Use abstraction, e.g., Wool-Mark to show pure quality of wool Use continuity strip. A series of photographs set like a film strip are used. Use mood-setting illustration. Here the product is romanticized. It may be set against a romantic landscape. Cosmetics use this approach. Use a product illustration in its package. Use illustration of components or raw materials of a product, e.g., Cadbury milk chocolate which combines ccocoa and milk.

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LAYOUT: A layout is a miniature sketch of the proposed advertisement. A rough layout is first prepared in which the headline and subheads are lettered in artwork and photographs are drawn or provided, and the position of the copy is indicated. The rough layout is tested and modified to prepare the final layout. The final layout is appended with many explanations and mechanical designs to give a comprehensive view. It refers to specifications for estimating cost, guidance for engravers and blue prints for advertisers. The functions of a layout, preparations of a layout, types of layout and qualities of effective layout are important considerations.

In visual communications illustrations are used to convey ideas and messages effectively. These illustrations are a very element in the presentation of the message through a print medium as well as a broadcasting medium. The functions of illustration, kinds of illustration and techniques of illustration are considered for visual presentation. THE LAYOUT There are many possible layouts and we will see the most prominent one among them. First let us highlight some general and basic tips while deciding on the layout. Your visual, headline and copy might be really good on their own when viewed or read separately, but what is the effect they are carrying when they are all put together. So enough hard work is to be done so that we have a very good overall effect. Since many more people will look at your visual than read your copy, make your photograph or illustration at least half of your ad whenever possible. Keep your headline near the visual so that the reader’s eye will flow to it naturally from the visual. If your headline is in an unusual place, it will probably never be read. Position your copy beneath the headline, laid out in two blocks two or three inches in length. Only about 5% of people will read you copy, whereas 30% will read your

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headline. By positioning your copy near your heading, you create a visual continuity, which will draw more people to the information you want to convey. Use a serif typeface for your copy whenever possible. Those little lines and swiggles on the letter make the reading easier and more pleasing to the eye. LAYOUT STAGES While designing an advertisement, the final development undergoes four stages. The designer uses thumbnails, roughs, dummies and comprehensives to establish the ad look and feel. In the next stage, he/she works in tandem with the artist to prepare mechanical, which is the final phase incorporating the visuals. THUMBNAIL SKETCH This is the first stage where the artist uses the rapidly produced sketches to visualize the very basic approach to position the various elements of ad. The objects are represented with boxes or squiggly lines to indicate the placement. From here, they are then developed to the next stage. ROUGH LAYOUT In this stage, the artist draws the actual size of the ad but ignores the details. It is used to make the decision. It is more like visualization which suggests the place of headline. Illustration and photographs are sketched and body copy place is finalized. Roughs are shown to the clients for cost estimation. COMPREHENSIVE The comprehensive layout or comp in short is the replica of the advertisement. It is quite elaborate with accuracy of the final, coloured photo and a glossy look. Comprehensive layouts are used for a formal presentation by the clients when they need a close-to-final version to show to persons who have to give to final approval. Art directors create a

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dummy, a mock-up for brochures, flyers and point-of-purchase displays serving the same functions as comp serves for print ads. MECHANICAL Once the ad is approved by the clients for the format and contents, the art director moves ahead with mechanical. This is the final stage of the ad where the ad is reproduced and colour keys, prints and films of the finished ad are created. The mechanical is referred to as paste-up as earlier kin absence of computers, the ad was manually pasted indicating the hue and positioning of colour. Now this is done on computer. At this time, the ad is ready for the production. Anytime during the designing process, before the final ink is out, the changes can be made. Some concepts of the print ad can be applied to television advertisement but with some modification. ALIGNMENT In refers to lining up the top, bottom, sides, middle of text or graphic elements on a page. Horizontal alignment includes flush-left (also called left-justified or ragged right), flush –right (also called rightjustified or ragged left), centered and fully justified. With vertical alignment, elements can be aligned vertically – top, bottom or middle (centre).

BALANCE It is principal of design that places elements on the page so that the text and graphic elements are evenly distributed. In layouts with an even balance, the graphics don’t overpower the text and the page doesn’t seem to tilt to one side or the other.

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RAGGED ALIGNMENT Ragged alignment of text normally refers to lines of text that are allowed to end naturally, leaving varying amounts of white space at the end of lines rather than forcing it to line up flush with the margin. Ragged right is the most common ragged alignment. BLEED When an image or element on a page touches the edge of the page leaving no margin, that image or element is said to bleed off the page. BLEED ALLOWANCE To allow for any deviations in cutting the paper to the finished page size, an element that bleeds off the page is typically extended about 1/8� beyond the trim lines (corner or crop marks). The inset image (Park Avenue ad) shows the bleed allowance for this two page spread. Notice that the full page bleed extends beyond the corner marks at the top, bottom, and left but not the center. But the problem arises is that for the elements that bleed off the page can sometimes add to the cost of printing if the printer uses a larger size of paper to accommodate the bleed allowance.

CAPTION It is a phrase, sentence or short paragraph describing the contents of an illustration such as a photograph or chart. The illustration on the next page shows a few ways the captions might appear. SIGNIFICANCE OF CAPTIONS After headlines and graphics, captions are the third most looked at portion of most of the printed pages. Captions give you an opportunity not only to explain the illustration but to summarize the story or article

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they accompany. A well-written caption gives the editor/publisher one more opportunity to pull the reader into the publication. A few ways to make captions more readable and to keep them from being mistaken for body copy are as follows: Use contrast (smaller typeface, sans serif captions with serif body copy, short centred captions, captions in colour) Set apart with spacing (keep separate from body copy but close to illustration, use rule lines to separate, place captions in margins) Group illustrations and captions (number the illustrations or provide a familiar pattern such as “left to right” or “clockwise from the top”) Keep it short (edit carefully, avoid long captions under wide paragraphs, if very long captions with very wide photographs is necessary consider using two columns with a sufficiently wide gutter for the caption text) Be consistent (same type, colour, alignment, etc. throughout a publication)

If you have lots of copy, break it up with interesting subheads. This will make your ad more inviting, more organized and easier to read. This is where the name of the organization belongs, along with the address and phone number. If you don’t have an organization, then think of a name that will help reinforce the message you’re trying to convey. This isn’t dishonest. Your organization doesn’t have to be incorporated or registered for it to be real.

TYPES OF LAYOUTS First, let us understand the meaning of page layout.

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Page layout (verb) is the process of placing, arranging and rearranging text and graphics on the page to produce documents such as newsletters, brochures, books, etc.

Page layout (noun) refers to the actual document page and its composition.

One method of making sure your ad gets read is to arrange elements in the order from top to bottom. However, your ad should also lead with its strongest element. Sometimes the visual may be secondary to the headline. In that case, you may decide to put the headline first. A caption may not be necessary at all times and often you want to include additional elements such as secondary illustrations or a coupon box. Perhaps, we just cannot do without mentioning the name of Mr. Ogilvy while talking of any aspect of advertising. He had come out with some basic variations of a standard layout. We will have a look at them with examples and then see other technical aspects of layout and design. While this isn’t the only way to design an ad, it is an easy way to implement successful formula for many types of products or services. LAYOUT-1 This is the basic design that follows the same 5 elements outlined below. From this basic layout, other variations are derived. Visual should at the top of the page. If you are using a photo, bleed it to the edge of the page or ad space. For photos, place a descriptive caption below. Put your headline next. Follow with your main ad copy. Consider a drop cap as a lead-in.

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Place your contact information (signature) in the lower right corner. That’s generally the last place a reader’s eye gravitates to when reading an ad.

LAYOUT – 2 This is the basic Ogilvy design but with copy in a three-column format and the addition of a coupon. Coupons attract attention and can increase response to your ad. It includes the following steps: 1. Visual should at the top of the page. 2. Place the Caption below the photos. 3. Put the Headline next. 4. Place main ad copy in first two columns of a three-column grid. Place your contact information (signature) at the bottom of the middle column. 5. In the third column put a coupon. Placing the coupon in the outside corner of you’re a make it easier to clip out. LAYOUT – 3 This is the basic Ogilvy design but with copy in a two-column format and the headline moved above the visual. Use this variation when the headline is the most important element of the message. It has the following steps: 1. Put the headline first. When your headline packs a gibber punch or is more important than the photo, put it at the top to grab the reader’s attention first. 2. Place the visual next 3. Place the caption below photo. 4. Place the main ad copy in two columns.

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5. Place your contact information (signature) at the bottom of the second column in the lower right corner. LAYOUT – 4 This is the basic Ogilvy design but with copy in a two-column format and the headline moved to the right side of the visual. This format equalizes the visual and headline as well as making more room for longer headlines or vertical images. It has the following steps: 1. Place the Visual first to the visual lends itself to a more vertical arrangement or if you want to equalize the important of the visual and headline, try this. 2. Place the headline next to the right of the visual. When you break your headline up into several lines like this, you’ll probably want to avoid headlines that are too long. 3. Put the caption below the photo. 4. Place the main ad copy in two columns. You might want to use a drop cap as a lead-in.. 5. Place your contact information (signature) at the bottom of the second column in the lower right corner. ILLUSTRATION: Illustrations are used to attract the target audience, communicate relevant ideas, arouse readers interest and make the message believable. Illustrations may be of several kinds. They may be product illustrations, partially or wholly; or illustration of the product in use, of the product being tested, or of the features of the product, reward, or testimonial. Illustrations may be photographs^ cartoons or diagrams. SLOGAN: A slogan may be defined as a “tabloid” sales argument. In outdoor advertising, it is, of course, of immense value, for the wording on a poster must be brief and direct. In press advertisement,

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too, it enjoys a popular vogue because it establishes some sort of continuity between the two forms of advertising. The position of the slogan in the layout must be determined by the importance of its relationship to the advertiser’s message. Generally speaking, a new slogan is given prominence and, where the slogan constitutes the advertiser’s dominating message, it is also prominent. But where the slogan is a regular “standby” of the message, its obvious place is in juxtaposition to the name plate or logo.

SPACE: Space may be used to describe the entire space in a publication bought by the advertiser or the white space remaining when the layout has been completed. In the latter sense-as a unit of layout-it comes in for detailed attention it the page which follow. SUB-HEADING: A sub heading is a secondary heading. It may be employed either to supplement and support the heading or to “pick out” the various selling points contained in the text. The conventional sub-heading, as exemplified in the editorial columns of a newspaper, is not now so popular as it was in the past. The truth is that the “decks” of sub-headings tend towards monotony, and their interest value is small unless the message is personal or vital to the reader. The use of numerous sub-headings in the modern proprietary medicine advertisements is significant in this connection. For the use of sub-headings, two guiding rules may be laid down: i)

Use them sparingly;

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Use them to pick out the selling points in the text only when the text is too “heavy” to invite attention otherwise.

TEXT: The “text” or the body of the advertisement is a term loosely applied to the general reading matter or copy. We may be permitted to think of the text as the panel or panels of type matter the advertisement may contain. The text should be set in panels neither too wide nor too narrow. The narrow type panel tires; the wide one repels all but the earnest readers. Typography enables the layout man to overcome partially the difficulties of measure-the wider the measure, the larger the type face employed. Again, lower case letters are easier to read than capital letters; expanded letters are easier than condensed letters, and roman letters are easier than italic letters. Leads (or space between lines) may also be employed for legibility. A type panel, leaded with discrimination, is more inviting than the same panel “set solid”. In this brief resume of each unit of layout, it has been impossible to treat each exhaustively-and this applies particularly to the unit of text. TRADE MARK: The trade mark is the word or design by which the commodity is defined. When the trade mark has been registered, there are very good reasons for its inclusion in the layout. Its position is entirely fluid. It may form the background or be embodied in the border; it may dominate the heading or the name plate. The trade mark, in fact, may show up in all our units with the exception of price and space.

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Yet while the trade mark is the layout man’s will-‘o-the-wisp, there is one rule that he must apply to its presentation-he must present it consistently. ADVERTISING AND PSYCHOLOGY: Advertising is a specific form of communication where the aspects of cost and corresponding benefit assume a special significance. In order to understand the way advertising can work it is necessary to give some attention to the basic processes of communication. In variably, one is tempted to go into the domain of psychology. It will neither be possible, nor necessary to discuss details of human psychology. It may suffice to realize that decision making in the area of business, or for that matter in the domain of non-commercial activity, will be influenced quite considerably by patterns of behaviour of concerned persons, individually and in groups. Human beings belong to different types and backgrounds which have an effect on their behaviour. Furthermore,

regardless

of

education,

training

and

group

or

organizational framework constraints, rationality may be expected only upto a limit. Man is simply not a totally rational being; psychology has nonetheless endeavoured to introduce some order to the selectivity and bias with which the processes communication. The roles people play in the context of consumer behaviour are given below: (a)

Initiator is one who determines that some need or want is unfulfilled.

(b)

Influencer is one who wittingly / unwittingly influences the decision to buy, the actual purchase and / or the use of the product.

(c)

Buyer is one who actually makes the purchase.

(d)

User is one who actually uses / consumes the product.

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Out of the above, we focus out attention on the role of a buyer, whose behaviour is overt and visible. Other role players affect him. Consumer behaviour, by definition, is a decision process and physical activity of making a purchase. The ultimate purchase activity is preceded by an interplay of several variables, and some of the variables also affect after the purchase has taken place. All these variables are a part of the decision process. The mental activity resulting into the final purchase may be complex and may happen over a period of time, or it may be quick and simple. Decision Process The consumer as a first step recognize, his unfulfilled need or want. It is called problem recognition. It actually leads to information search and evaluation. The information search can be deliberate or prolonged or can happen without the consumer being even aware of it. He can rely on past experience or can seek information from external environment, e.g., friends, shopkeepers and advertisements. The consumer evaluates the collected information to arrive at a purchase decision. The having decided to buy, he makes the actual purchase, making a choice regarding the outlet to buy, he makes the actual purchase, making a choice regarding the outlet to buy from. He consumes the product which either satisfies him, confirming correctness of his decision or dissatisfies him, leading to a search for alternative choices, and evaluation afresh. Individual Determinants Two individuals from one family may show entirely different purchase preferences. One may like Marathi or Kannada theatre, novels of Khandekar and Phadke, humour of P.L. deshpande, and Le Sancy soap. The other may like Debonair, English drams, and Mills and Boon romances and uses Neem soap. Why do they show variations, though the family environment is the same? The answer may be their individual

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motivation and involvement, attitudes, self-concept, personality, learning, memory, and information processing. Motivation and Involvement Each of us is unique. We have a unique set of needs, aspirations and motivations. Motivation is an internal force which stimulates action in response to some need, and sustain the same till the need is fulfilled. Physiological motivation satisfies biological needs of hunger and thirst. Psychological motivation satisfies social and prestige needs. Each one of us has both the physiological and psychological motivational force. We fulfill each of these motivations by different means. Someone seeks status by enrolling for an MBA programme, and someone else by acquiring membership of the best-known club in the town. There may be someone who becomes a Diner Card holder to satisfy his need for status, or may buy a Zen Deluxe car to do so. We may satisfy our thirst by plain water or by mineral water or by a soft-drink like Thums Up or Pepsi. Differing motivations are a function of differing level of personal involvements. Involvement here means relevance or importance of a product perceived by the consumer in a given situation. For a professional musician, the choice of a music system is a situation of involvement, since it helps him immensely in his profession. He will be motivated, therefore, to buy the best state-of-the-art music system, irrespective of the price-tag. For another consumer, a music system is just a means of recreation after office-hours, and just about any system which is convenient and moderately priced might suffice his need. High involvement leads to highly motivated state of mind. The behaviour process is directly different from that of low involvement and consequently low motivation. Attitudes Attitudes are predispositions towards people, objects, events. They are learned. Our orientation towards people, objects, events in

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guided by attitudes. Attitudes are learnt from our socialization process. A large section of Indian population have a negative attitude towards nonvegetarian dishes. Attitudes may change, e.g., we loved savings previously, but now prefer to splurge our income for a better life-style. Canned foods were frowned upon a few years ago. But now we have come to accept them. Attitudes influence purchase decisions. Investment in stocks is preferred by risk-taking individuals. Personality and Self-concept The sum total of unique individual characteristics make up a personality. It is what we are. It is the frame-work within which a consistent behaviour is shown. An individual’s personality makes him respond consistently to similar stimuli. Self-image or self-concept is our perception of ourselves in social context. One school of thought believes that consumer behave in a manner which is consistent with their self-concepts, that is: (i)

The kind of person one believes he / she is; and

(ii)

The kind of person one believes that others think he / she is. According to self-concept theory, consumers develop lifestyles that are in accordance with their self-concepts. The products should match our self-concept. Product image

should be close to self-image of target consumers, e.g., royalty endorsing worsted suitings project an image of class and exclusivity. This matches well with the self-concept of the target consumers. Learning and Memory In this age of information explosion, we tend to remember only relevant and important information. We tend to remember where we have a motivation to remember. Everyone is aware about the clutter of ads before Hindi movie is shown on the T.V. Now the husband remembers the ad of Dunlop tyres, the wife that of Dabar Amla Hair Oil

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and the daughter that of Rasna concentrate. This is because they all have a motivation for different products. Attitudes, motives, personality act as filters. They let in relevant information, keeping out the other information. Our retention is selective. Information Processing The same information may be evaluated in a different manner by different individuals. The response may also differ. External Environment The external environment consists of five components, called collectively social processes and all other remaining influences, are grouped under ‘miscellaneous influences’. (i) Culture Pupul Jayakar is eloquent on culture. What does one mean by culture? People associate manifestations – entertainment, music, art, dance forms with culture. These are elements of culture, but not, if I may use the word, the soup of creativity. Then what it is? I would say a certain milieu, a certain air that you breathe, the earth on which you tread, a sense of sacredness for things, a feeling within yourself of the sounds, and sights and tastes that surround – a sense of values, responsibilities and behaviour. This awareness is the basic source of culture where the creative is possible and manifests itself in painting, theatre, dance, music, literature and above all, in living. These are two environments of culture – the outer and the inner. When they come together, the creativity is alive and the highest cultural manifestations are at play. Culture is a complex term. It is the sum total of the process of socialisation – knowledge, beliefs, traditions, morals, art, customs, law and all other habits as a part of being one of the society. Culture is restricted to a particular society, and differs from society to society. Many of our action patterns and behaviour patterns are rooted in our cultural

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background, e.g., a feeling of gratification when we sustain our parents in old age, or when we save for a darling daughter’s wedding. Within a particular culture, there may be groups of people with distinct customs, tradition and behaviour, called sub-cultural groups. Thus all Indians have a common cultural heritage, but still Maharastrians as a group are far different from Kannadigs as a group and Palghat Brahmins are not the are not the same as Goud Saraswat Brahmins. Each sub-culture has a distinct life-style – food habits, dress habits, rites and traditions. These have definite inclinations for marketers and advertisers, e.g., Gharghanti or home grinding mill is promoted amongst Gujaratis in Chitralekha since they are fond of fresh chapattis from home-made flour. In the South, on the contrary, stone-grinders for rice items like Idlis and Dosas are being promoted. The promotion of pain balm has to take into account the fact that Northern Indains like a burning sensation after its application, whereas in the South it is not so. The branded spices should be formulated to suit the regional tastes.

(ii) Social Class Class means a distinct position in society and consists of people of more or less equal position. It is more related to income, and people of the same class show a distinct consumption pattern. Social classes are related to occupation also. From society to society, social classes differ. The standing of a social class does not remain the same over a period of time. The choice of residence, leisure time enjoyed, recreational habits, holidays availed of are all guided by the social class to which we belong. (iii) Social Groups Primary social groups such as family and our work-groups do affect our decisions of consumptions since we interact with them on a continuous basis. The interaction with primary groups is face-to-face. Impersonal, formal groups are the secondary groups which affect our consumption pattern.

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Politicians don Khaddar clothes as a result of social group influence. People from South Canara prefer Safaris. (iv) Family The greatest influence on an individual is the family which helps him to inculcate several values right from childhood. These tend to stay later. Family decisions are group decisions, and individual members contribute to it, though to differing extents. The break-up of joint family system to make way for a large number of single nucleus families also affects our consumption pattern, e.g., demand for creche. (v) Personal Influences All other factors of the external environment do affect consumers, but at the same time his own personality affects him greatly, e.g., his being an innovator makes him try new products. Besides, product rating depends upon the personality of the consumer, e.g.., for some, price may be a critical factor, and for others status symbol value may be most important. Miscellaneous Influences Olympics or Asiads make us go in for the TV sets. Sports events also lead to a greater consumption of sports goods. Situational effects like a premium offer also affect our purchase decisions. Lipton’s offering a mug autographed by the Tabla maestro Zakir Husain on each purchase of the Taj Mahal brand of tea when it completed 25 years must have tempted many to brand switch. Each of the variables affect other variables and in turn is affected by other variables. The external environmental influences do not affect decision

making

directly

but

they

filter

through

the

individual

determinants and indirectly affect the decision-making.

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Types of Purchase Decision Behaviour Consumer behaviour changes depending upon the nature or type of buying – a razor blade may be purchased without much fuss but a colour TV set purchase takes time and deliberation. The nature or type of purchase give rise to three types of buyer behaviour: (a) RR (routinised response) behaviour (b) LPS (limited problem solving) behaviour (c) EPS (extended problem solving) behaviour RR occurs where there is low product involvement, the consumer knows the brands available and criteria of choice, and the stakes are not so high in terms of price, e.g., bread, soft-drinks, pastes, soaps etc. Here the customer expects a consistent quality in the products. New customers are drawn by Sales Promotion and product improvements. LPS occurs when the consumer knows the brands available, but still needs additional information to make a correct choice, especially when a new or familiar brand confronts him. Thus Ariel or Surf Excel enzyme detergents must convince the housewife that they are superior to conventional detergents due to the presence of enzymes and so the housewife feels the necessity of searching additional information. The marketer here has introduced a new brand in a well-known product category. The promotion here should explain complete features of the new brand, and build up consumer’s confidence to facilitate the purchase decision. EPS occurs when a new product category comes on the scene. Here extensive information is needed on both the product category and the brand being made available, e.g., microwave ovens introduced by Kelvinator

first

explain

the

concept

of

microwave

cooking

as

distinguished from conventional cooking, and then sell the brand. Colour TV’s as a product category, a particular brand of colour TV (say Onida or

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Videocon) and a particular model (say PIP: Picture-in-Picture or Surround Sound System) do need information at three levels. Promotion should satisfy the needs of information at these three levels, and especially how the advertised brand has a unique set of positive attributes. This concept is most applicable to new products, may be new to consumers. For a tribal, even purchase of a toothpaste may involve EPS, whereas for us it is just RR. Consumer Motivation and Advertising Advertising has been influenced by most of the social sciences, but

it

is

psychology,

especially

behaviourist

psychology

and

psychoanalysis that have largely shaped the advertisers’ thinking about what makes people buy products and services. Behaviourism, an approach to social psychology advocated by Watson, B.F. Skinner and others, looks at human action in terms of stimulus and response. Skinner carried out laboratory experiments on white rats and found that the stimulus of food could lead to a suitable learning response. Advertisers frequently apply the stimulus-response model of learning to consumer behaviour. However, human learning and motivation is a much more complex phenomenon since intelligence, freedom of choice, and the cultural environment are involved in any decision process.

Motivation research (or M.R.) took off in the late “forties and early fifties, under the leadership of Dr. Ernest Dichter, president of the Institute for Motivational research Inc., and Louis Cheskin director of the Colour Research Institute of America. Both employed methods of psychoanalysis or ‘depth interviews’ to probe human motivation for material

goods.

Dr.Dichter

believed

the

successful

ad

agency

‘manipulates human motivations and desires and develops a need for goods with which the public has at one time been unfamiliar – perhaps undesirous of purchasing’.

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Ad persons who followed this new ‘depth’ approach to advertising saw three different levels of human consciousness, and these three levels were of interest to them. According to Vance Packard, the first level was the conscious, rational and logical level, where consumers know what is going on, and are able to tell why. The second and lower level is called the ‘subconscious’ level and involves the area where a person knows in a vague manner what is going on within his own feelings, sensations, and attitudes but would not be willing to tell why. This is the level of prejudices, assumptions, fears, emotional promptings, etc. The third level was where we not only are not aware of our attitudes and feelings but would not discuss them if we could. Exploring our attitudes towards products at these second and third levels became known as the new science of motivational analysis or research, or just plain M.R.

Dr. Ditcher advised advertisers: ‘To women don’t sell shoes, sell lovely feet’: Seek to reinforce the doctor’s self-image as the all-powerful healer, and put the spotlight on the doctor rather than overstress the medical qualities of the drug. Advertisers thus began to promise the satisfaction of ‘hidden’ psychological needs and to attach psychological and imaginary values to products rather than concrete uses. Packard identifies seven such hidden needs sought to be ‘sold’ by advertisers: (1) Emotional security (2) Reassurance of worth (3) Ego-gratification (4) Creative outlets (5) Love objects

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(6) Sense of roots (7) Immortality The majority of advertisements about consumer products in the Indian mass media attempt to satisfy one or two of these hidden needs. Study a few advertisements currently seen on television or in the press and find out which needs they cater. Study advertisements of icecreams, coffee, tea, fun foods and drinks, chocolates and sweets, cosmetics and detergents.

Human Needs as Basis for Appeals The basic concepts in marketing tell us that it is all about satisfying consumer wants and needs. Product and services are offered by the marketer to satisfy one need or the other. Most the of time, needs are well known; but sometimes it is the marketer who creates consumer demand. This is what we call creative marketing. Ultimately, all advertising appeals are created for the purpose of activating human needs and wants. The advertiser has to determine the needs at which the advertising message should be directed. Though it looks simple, it is, in fact, very difficult to arrive at the right human needs or wants which would be the basis for ad appeals. Psychologists themselves do not seem to agree upon what constitutes a set of basic human needs. However, there are some generally accepted standard lists of need structure, which provide some guidelines to the marketer for developing advertising appeals. The most popular and widely accepted need scheme is the one given by A.H. Maslow. Maslow’s basic human need structure states five levels hierarchically. They are: (i)

Physiological Needs or Creature Comforts (Hunger, Thirst, Sex, etc.): These are biological needs, such as food, water,

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sleep, and so on, and are the most potent of all human needs. These are therefore placed at the first level of the hierarchy. (ii)

Safety Needs (Security, Protection, etc.): These are based on the needs for physical safety and security, and stress such things as preference of the familiar to the unfamiliar and for the known to the unknown.

(iii)

Love Needs (Affection, Belongingness, etc.): These needs are at least partially fulfilled by marriage, parenthood and belonging to organisations, such as the Rotary, Lions and others.

(iv)

Esteem Needs (Self-Respect, Prestige, Social Approval, Achievement, etc.): As love needs become at least partially satisfied, the need for such things as prestige, self-respect, esteem and status emerge. The desire for achievement, independence and self-confidence are also part of these needs.

(v)

Self-Actualization Needs (Self-Fulfilment, Self-Experience, etc.): The desire for self-fulfilment, or becoming everything one is capable of becoming, is the essence of these needs. Included in them are aesthetic satisfaction, acquiring knowledge, and so on. Maslow’s hierarchy of the need structure is the most widely

accepted list of basic needs, a detailed knowledge of which is necessary for any advertiser. However, others have also given their own classification. Combs and Snygg are of the opinion that there is only one basic need – the need for maintaining or enhancing one’s self concept. Berelson and Stenier have given a list of primary and secondary human needs. The primary needs are physiological ones based on the biological functioning of every human being. The secondary needs, according to them, are those which are acquired or learnt, and are not necessary for

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the basic biological functioning of an individual. The primary needs include: (i)

supply Motives: Hunger and thirst

(ii)

Avoidance Motives: Avoidance of pain, fear, harm and other negative consequences.

(iii)

Species – maintaining Motives: Reproduction, mating and nutritive motives.

The secondary needs include: (i)

Acquired or Learned: It is believed that secondary needs are learned because of the satisfaction of primary needs. One learns that one can better satisfy one’s hunger-and-thirst need by acquiring property and other possessions;

(ii)

Recognition needs;

(iii)

Affiliation needs;

The following conclusions may now be drawn: (i)

Unsatisfied needs are motivators of behaviour and satisfied needs are not.

(ii)

Much of human behaviour is motivated by subconscious and unconscious needs. These are needs we do not or cannot consciously admit to ourselves. For example, in one of the ads of “Sir Shirts”, it was said: “This is the MAN SIR is made for.” A handsome man, together with his lovely girl, is shown in the picture. Man has an unsatisfied (and unconscious) need for exhibiting himself as a “he” man to his sweetheart. Wearing a Sir Shirt is presumably a symbolic way of satisfying this unconscious need.

(iii)

Generally, several needs operate simultaneously to cause a given behaviour response; but only some needs are more important in behaviour than others. These “key” needs

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should be identified and appealed to, directly and indirectly in the advertising message. Buying Motives We have already seen that needs motivate us. The carious buying motives are given here by way of illustration. Essentially, the advertisers appeal to some of these motives or needs in their as message. Different kinds of motives encourage people to certain goals. All of man’s actions are guided by his cognition, i.e., his apprehension, his awareness and his anticipation. When we ask a question: Why do people buy? We are in reality asking the question of motivation of buying. Motivation is thus concerned with the why of human behaviour. Motives arouse of an individual. In essence motives or needs are the mainsprings of action. Need or motive is something in an individual that prompts him to action. The following are the important buying motives. Unconscious Motivation: Freud invited our attention to the unconscious motivation. People are not really aware of everything they want, that they will often have tastes, biases or attitudes which strongly influence their buying behaviour. But they really cannot account for it. Power Motive: Power is a very strong motivator. We buy many things so that we can exercise power over others. Competence Motives: We have a desire to have job mastery and professional advancement. So a doctor buy many equipments according to competence motive. Affiliation Motive: Man is a sociable creature. We seek the company of others to gain some impersonal reward. The desire to be with other people for its own pleasure is also known. In many life-style advertising of products like cigarettes and soft drinks, we make use of affiliation motive.

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Security Needs: Investments decisions, medicines, insurance policies etc. are sold on the basis of this need. Hosieries, woolens, umbrellas, rainwear etc. also get purchased against this need. This need is operative both at the conscious and sub-conscious levels. Fear is used as negative appeal to emphasise this motive. Social Needs or Motives: Needs for belongingness is one powerful motive. We want to be a part of national mainstream. So we wish to buy packaged tours to Singapore, Europe, Nepal, Kashmir and other destinations. We want to be members of Diners Card or BOB Card or Cancard. We want membership of Rotary Club or Lions Club.

Esteem Needs or Motives: These are the motives of distinction, achievement, status and independence. Pride and vanity motives also fall in this category. These are important buying motives. Automobiles are sometimes bought because they give us social status. All premium products are sold against these motives. Physiological Needs or Motives: some of our motives are to survive-we buy food products because of this. We buy houses and flats also to survive. We buy textiles for protection and survival. These are all primary motives of buying. Comfort and Convenience: different kinds of furniture, interior décor, footwear, woolens etc., we buy for our comfort. Similarly, calculators and computers make it convenient for us to do our accounts, billings and all such other functions. Kitchen gadgets like grinder-mixers, fridges, cooking ranges etc. are bought against these motives. Envy: As Shakespeare has put it: ‘Envy, thy name is woman.’ Women envy the gorgeous dress others wear, the cosmetics others use, the complexion the next-door-neighbour has, and the ornaments the cousins have bought. Men also do not lag behind. Onida Colour T.V. is ‘the neighbour’s envy, but the owner’s pride.’ Wardrobes, cosmetics, fashionwear, designer dresses are all sold against this motivation.

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Fashion: Fashion over a period of time changes – in dress, in eating, in design, in make-up, in appearance etc. Certain things are considered to be in fashion and in style. Readymade garment, salwarkurta, trendy tops and tee-shirts are all sold on fashion grounds. Novelty: Newness itself is a strong buying motive. We now have adopted Odopik washing powder in place of earth or clay, Sanifresh toilet cleaner, Odonil air-freshners – all on the basis of newsness. After a time, newness wears off and we search for something else. We formerly applied Odomos as mosquito repellant on the body, but now we say Goodnight to the mosquitoes by using “Goodknight Heater.” Sex and Romance: As it is, sex is a primary need, like the hunger and thirst. Most of the personal care products, toiletries, textiles, cigarettes etc. are sold on this basis. Romance is a matter of feeling, a very exotic feeling. Romance could be in imagination also. Tourist destinations, honeymoon packages, jewellery etc. are sold on this basis. Of course, sex and romance are inter-related. Greed: this motive makes us save and economise. We also like to avail of discount sales, free gifts, price offs, premiums, coupons etc. because of this motive. Curiosity: This is also a good buying motive. We are interested to know about the known and the unknown things. Books, games, quizzes, new tourists destinations, dictionaries, encyclopedias, self-learning packages etc. are sold on this basis. The above list is only illustrative, and not exhaustive. A motive is a state of tension. It activates action towards a goal and sustains it till the goal is reached. Motivation can be conscious or unconscious. Motives make the behaviour of the individuals goaldirected. Of course, the means to achieve the goal may be different, e.g., you may achieve distinction by being a star athlete like Shiny Abraham or an ace gynaecologist like Shirodar. Motives are inside the individual – a mental state. Buying motives indicate our buying intentions. Maslow

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has classified human needs (the manifestation of motives) into five categories, as we have already seen. Appeals and Buying Motives: Both these are closely related concepts. Appeals are cues or provide stimulus. Appeals are made because there are buying motives leading to action. Appeals are developed thus on the basis of buying motives. Lower-priced Nirma has the price appeal, but it incorporates economy motive. Tonics give us energy but they incorporate health appeal. Tribhovandas Bhimji Zaveri gives exquisite jewellery. This beauty appeals to the buying motive of pride or possession.

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UNIT - III Advertising Campaign An

advertising

campaign

is

an

organised

series

of

advertisements having the same theme over a period of time. The various ad copies of the campaign, though self-contained and independent ads by themselves are still related themewise. The campaign may be multi-media but its theme is kept intact and it maintains a united approach. The independent ads used in a campaign are themewise similar, and this is deliberate. There is a psychological continuity due to unified theme. The physical continuity is provided by similarity of visuals and orals. The above-mentioned view of a campaign is, however, a narrow view. In a broad sense, ad campaign is a process where the advertising plan is integrated to the overall marketing plan and corporate plan. The advertising objectives are achieved by formulating advertising strategy, and then by formulating creative strategy which is implemented through media planning and media strategy. In this sense, ad campaigns are a part of strategic marketing process, and the final placement of the ads in specific media is a tactical decision.

Advertising effort does not remain erratic or spasmodic or opportunistic when we plan a campaign. All promotional efforts are tied to a campaign and do not come in conflict with it. The campaign has certain objectives to achieve. Co-ordination, balance timing, continuity and performance – all these favour an advertising campaign. Campaign can be national, local or regional. Pioneering campaigns introduce new products. Competitive campaigns emphasise competitive superiority to retain the present market or to expand it either

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by increasing the consumption or by weaning away customers of a competitive brand. We shall study the process of campaign planning or advertising planning. Types of Campaigns Primarily, we come across three types of campaigns. Multi-media campaigns put the message across in different media vehicles. Single-media campaigns remain confined to a single media. However, the theme is expressed through a variety of executions, each reflecting the basic proposition and personality of the brand.

Brand-building campaigns develop creative executing over a period of time, maintaining the consistency and relevance, and contributing to proposition, personality, presentation and positioning of the brand. The executions can be contemporized to make them relevant. Advertising Planning Advertising agency’s involvement increases as we travel from the formulation of objectives to the development of strategy and later to the development of specific plans. Advertising planning vary from agency to agency and within the agency from account to account. The variations depend on the size of the problem to be tackled, agency organisation and client-agency-relationship (CAR). The flow chart given in Fig. illustrates the sequence which is more or less followed in the planning of large accounts. The development of almost all media plan follows a similar pattern. Initial Planning Meeting The planning meeting at the initial stage is for developing an advertising / communication strategy. The meeting has representatives from client servicing department (account handling people), marketing /

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marketing research executives, creative people and media people drawn from the agency. In some cases, the client’s representatives participate in the initial planning meeting.

The purpose of this meeting is to evaluate in a formal manner the current state of the brand and its growth and progress in keeping with the brand objectives / intentions for the period under review. Tauber suggests that marketing research should be used for developing strategy right from the initial planning stage. The end-product of the initial planning meeting is a well drafted advertising strategy outlining the way in which the agency feels the brand’s target should be achieved. The draft strategy is submitted to the client for approval. In case, the client has differences regarding the draft strategy, they are sorted out. The draft is then finally approved. The approved advertising strategy becomes the basis of both the creative work and media work. In the next stage, the creative and the media department work separately, although it is necessary for them to confer as frequently as possible. During this stage the media plan for the current year is examined for its strengths and weaknesses. The changes that have taken place in the media scene, e.g., new satellite channels, tariff revision, new media options etc. are scanned and considered at this stage. Besides this, creative requirements might have a critical effect on the media plan. During this stage, a creative strategy is developed, which is derived from the advertising strategy.

The client servicing account people are in constant touch with the creative and the media people during this stage. Both the media strategy and the creative are submitted by the concerned people to the client. They present their case. Once the client

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approves the basic strategies, the detailed work commences. Media and creative people work in close co-operation. Look at the flow diagram. You will see a provision for recycling the process during any stage. There is a provision for rejection of decisions of any stage. Suppose in the absence of these, the creative and the media people go ahead to develop the whole campaign, and if the final proposal is rejected by the client or the agency’s PLANS BOARD, the time and effort would be wasted. The approval of the client at various stages ensures that the problem remains localized to a particular portion of advertising planning. A client in the dark may find that he disagrees with the initial advertising strategy, and thus further work will be wasted. Advertising Campaign Campaign is a military expression which indicates organised and planned operations of armed forces in the war. In advertising, it is used to mean organised and planned use of advertising for accomplishing a definite purpose. What is an Advertising Campaign? An advertising campaign is an organised series of advertising messages with identical or similar message over a particular period of time. It is an orderly planned effort consisting of related but selfcontained and independent advertisements. Though the campaign is conveyed through different media, it has a single theme and a unified approach. In a broad sense, a campaign is a co-ordinative effort of promotion of a particular product/service during a particular period of time to attain pre-decided objectives. Advertising effort does not remain erratic or spasmodic or opportunistic when we plan a campaign. It is a concrete advertising plan consisting of several advertisements, and has a time-frame of a few weeks, or months or years. All promotional effort is tied to a campaign

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and does not come into conflict with it. The campaign tries to accomplish certain objectives or tries to destroy certain objectives. Why to Advertise in Terms of a Campaign? Buyers are forgetful of erratically appearing ads. Often due to a clutter of large number of advertising messages, they overlook several of them. It is, therefore, better to approach them in the form of a campaign which is sustained advertising effort. Part of our advertising effort goes waste at any given point of time, since some buyers are not real prospect at a point of time the advertisement appears. New prospects emerge over a period of time. Campaigns force us to look on advertising effort restrospectively so as to improve it. Co-ordination, balance, timing, continuity and performance – all favour for an advertising campaign. How long should a Campaign be? Campaigns are of varied length – say a seasonal campaign of cough syrup or Vicks VapoRub or woolen garments or it may last the whole year. The logic behind yearly campaigns is that they coincide with accounting year, at the end of which sales and profits are computed. There are several advertisers who keep a campaign running without any change for two or even for three years. All of you are familiar with the Lux soap campaign where it is promoted as a beauty soap of cinema stars, cohere the present queen bee of Hindi films endorses it. The factors which affect the duration of campaign are the types of product offered, the nature of advertiser’s marketing programme, seasonality of sales, media policies and the competitor’s advertising. Basis of campaign The geographical spread of a campaign can be the basis. The campaign can be limited to a local market, or one entire region. It can be

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a national campaign too. National campaign is ruled out for test marketing and for small-budget companies. Pioneering campaigns introduce new products. Competitive campaigns emphasise competitive superiority to retain the present market and to expand it either by increasing the products consumption or by wearing the customers away from a competitive brand. Campaigns can be classified in terms of media, e.g., direct-mail campaign, newspaper campaign, TV campaign etc. Campaign’s purpose can be the basis of classification, e.g., direct-action campaign where a customer is expected to buy a product or indirect-action campaign. Some campaigns promote products, while some build up a corporate image. Campaign Planning Campaigns, a term borrowed from military science, is an organised and carefully planned use of paid publicity for fulfilling definite purpose.

Campaign planning is broader than mere creation of individual advertisement. The basis of any campaign is the consumer behaviour and the market profile. The demographic and psychographic study of the right target audience with the right type of appeals. Campaigns are governed by the following parameters: (i)

The total advertising budget

(ii)

The media availability

(iii)

The consumer profile

(iv)

The product profile

(v)

The campaign’s duration and its timing

(vi)

The advertising and marketing objectives

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(vii)

The distribution channels

(viii)

The marketing environment including pressure groups and competitors

(ix)

A review of previous advertising / promotional effort

(x)

The creative considerations

(xi)

The new plans Some factors like the demographic study of the consumers, the

media availability and the competitors’ activities are uncontrollable factors. They are called the limiting parameters or the constraints. It is extremely important to plan the advertising of a product, a service or institution, since the costs of advertising are so high. A fullpage advertisement in The Times of India or The Indian Express cost over a lakh rupees; a 10-second ad before a soap opera on television costs over one lakh rupees. This is, of course, besides the costs production. Careful planning at every stage of the process (campaign planning, media planning) is essential if the advertiser’s budget is to be spent purposefully. Advertising planning involves making certain what the specific objectives are, what is the nature of the message to be conveyed (the Unique Selling Proposition, for example), and the budget to cover production and media costs. It also involves pre-testing to find out how a sample of the target audience ‘reads’ the advertisement. Sometimes, an ad can turn people off by its language or illustration. Media planning is the selection of appropriate media or a combination of media for ‘placement’ of advertisements. Thus ads targeted at women are placed in women’s pages of weekend newspapers, though it needs to be remembered that women read other magazines too. For women executives, there is the Executive women’s Digest, and for upperclass men, monthly magazines like Debonair and

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Gentlemen. Curiously products and diets for slimming appear in magazines like Health and Nutrition. The following points need to be kept in mind while planning an advertising campaign: 1. Identify the Problem: Why have sales fallen? What do you expect from the campaign? Just higher sales, or a better ‘image’ for the brand or the company, or the need to educate the consumer? Answers to these questions would help determine the Unique Selling Proposition (USP) and to ‘position’ the product. 2. The Budget: How much is a client prepared to spend on the campaign? Are his funds limited? 3. Pre-Testing: Consumer and product research to find out the habits of consumers, their needs, values, living standards; their present reactions to the product and how it is advertised. What feedback is available from the public or the target audience? 4. Target

Audience:

Children?

Teenagers?

Upperclass

housewives? Working Women? Middle class households? The Aged and Retired? Yuppies? 5. Media Selection: Which is the most effective medium (or combination of media) for talking about the product or service? Among the effective media, which particular vehicle (or combination of vehicles) would reach the target audience? Determine the ‘media schedule’ depending on the advertising rates for each medium. 6. The Language: Hindi and the regional languages are more widely understood than English; why do advertisers still insist on using English? Do not merely translate ads conceived in English into the Indian languages. Would a bilingual ad tell the story more interestingly?

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7. The visual and the Copy: Would they be ‘read’ as you intend them to be by the target audience? Or, are they too high-brow? How relevant is the use of Western images? The golden rule among ad folk is: KISS (Keep it simple, stupid). 8. Timing and Duration:

Choose appropriate seasons for

launching new products. (Remember the launch of Go-Kool ice cream during a cold-wave in the north?). Use ‘reminder’ ads during other seasons. 9. Post-Testing: This is necessary to gauge consumer reaction to the ad campaign. 10. Effects on Sales: This is the acid test of the success of any ad campaign. The ad might have been ‘creative’, won many awards, but did it lead to purchase? Look at other marketing factors too. Why to Plan Campaigns? Campaigns are to be planned with the following objectives in mind: (i)

To determine the market and its potential

(ii)

To obtain the consumer profile

(iii)

To study the consumer psychology

(iv)

To know the frequency or size of buying

(v)

To decide about the channels and their satisfactory operation

(vi)

To bring about product modifications

(vii)

To determine the geographical scope of the campaign

(viii)

To do the media planning

(ix)

To develop a central idea or core idea around which the selling points revolve. The idea has to be discovered. The

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strength of this idea forms the basis of effective campaign planning. (x)

To determine the fundamental human desire to which the advertisement will appeal.

(xi)

To determine the type of copy

(xii)

To determine the scheduling and space buying

(xiii)

To prepare the actual ad copies with a dominant central idea which has been effectively presented and laid out. So that it appeals to the motives. The consistency is maintained.

(xiv)

The placement of the copy in the media to run the campaign

(xv)

To do the budgeting for the campaign

(xvi)

To co-ordinate with the general administration, sales staff and other promotional activities.

Basis of Campaign Planning Information distilled over a period of time from past activities including advertising / selling at the agency forms the basis of campaign planning. The secondary data available and the primary data generated by research guide any campaign.

The three-word recipe our efforts or budget. We have to be dominant in either of our approach, say an appeal used or in a market or in a media. It is not sufficient to stop after a single impact or to jump from one advertising objective to another or from one set of media to another. The message should be continuous and should remind regularly over a period of time. Marketing

Research

provides

quantitative

guidelines

for

campaign and motivational research provides qualitative guidelines for a campaign. Research feedback also makes review and retrospection possible.

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Three Phases of Campaign Creation There are three phases involved in the creation of any campaign: I. Strategy development Phase, II. The Briefing Phase and III. The Creative Phase. I. Strategy Development Phase This

phase

decides

the

objectives

and

contents

of

communication. It analyses the research data and decides positioning of a brand. The strategy formulation is in modern day’s agencies a team effort. The creative persons form a part of this team not as a creative person but as a mind. There are brain-storming sessions. The ideas are thrown up by the team. These ideas ultimately make up the strategy. The brilliant in the team pick up one or two ideas generated and develop them. Our strategy should give us a competitive edge. Al Ries and Jack Trout started focusing on the strategy side of advertising business in the late 60’s when they first started writing about positioning. Everybody else was talking about creativity, whereas they decided to talk about strategy. They found that clients did not want to buy strategy from an ad agency. We want the students to appreciate the importance of strategy development phase. If the strategy is wrong, no amount of creativity will help. If the strategy is right, despite the poor creative work, we can sell due to right strategy. However, right strategy and creative campaign is a winning combination. Mere creativity and no strategy never works. To your client, you should tell what you are trying to achieve in your communication. The strategist is the left-brain oriented, very linear in thinking, very logical in deduction. The strategy formulation leads to an advertising brief. ‘If you want to catch fish, you have to think like a fish. If you want to cat a consumer, you have think like a consumer. That’s the first principle.

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What most companies do is they think like themselves. They spend all their time with themselves’ (Al Ries and Jack Trout). II. Advertising Brief to the Creative As a matter of fact, the client has to brief the agency about the strategy. However, most of the time this does not happen. The agency is supposed to brief itself. The strategy formulated is communicated to the creative people. They are briefed about how to create the advertising the product needs. The strategy should be communicated with clarity. The strategist should be a good motivator for the creative team. Proper briefing is going half-way as far as creativity is concerned. Bad brief to the creative team results into bad work. Good brief ensures good work. Within the creative team, the copywriter and visualiser work together and it is difficult to attribute the final product to either of them. Yes, when they are working, there are personal sparks of creativity. Please appreciate that briefing completes half the job. Creative campaigns are creative due to a good brief. It is critically very important to question the brief. Very often, a brief is a set of cliches. We have to get the real situation. Creative brief of strategy contains a key consumer insight. If the brief acquaints you with the consumer, and how his mind works, it has the seeds of creativity in it. It gives stimulus to creative team. Success of failure of the advertisement is largely dictated by the brief. III. The Creative Phase Here the lateral thinkers come on the scene. They leap from a single uni-directional idea of the strategist to an advertising idea that will add value to the product-brand. The creative persons are supposed to be right-brained – lateral thinkers; unrational thinkers as against accounts director who is left-brained, i.e., logical. They make connections which

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had not existed before. They rearrange the order of the things. They create abruptions in the consumer mind. There should be a beautiful marriage between the strategy and the lateral thinking by the creative people. The creative director’s post has become a more responsible one. He does not remain content with a clever copy or stimulating visuals. He is required to understand the product and its market completely. He is now an overall ad man, an all-rounder. He participates in research and has active role in positioning. He does not follow a policy of art for the sake of art any more. He sits at briefings alongside the client servicing people. Creatives are involved in the whole campaign – right from the concept to the commissioning stage. MEDIA SELECTION Each advertising medium has different characteristics and is seen or heard by different segments of the population, no one is superior to the others. A particular medium is more suitable for a specific purpose. For some purposes, one medium may be superior, for other purposes, the same medium may be unsatisfactory and unproductive. The selection of a medium requires a large number of considerations, such as media strategy, the use of the print media, television and radio media, and other advertising media and approaches to media selection. 1. MEDIA STRATEGY An effective media strategy is based on sound and precise marketing direction and marketing considerations. The media strategy is developed within the framework of the marketing strategy. Marketing objectives are attained with the use of media strategy. The marketing strategy plays a definitive role to achieve marketing objectives, while the media strategy spells out what role and how the media plan will assist in the accomplishment of marketing strategies. The developing and determining of media strategy involves a consideration of media objectives, the factors affecting media use, the form of the strategy, the

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determination of media strategy, the use of computers and models in media strategy. i) Media Objectives Developing media objectives is the initial step in developing a strategy. The media objectives are the goals to be reached through a proper use of media resources. A media strategy indicates how media characteristics or tools will attain those goals. Media objectives are developed within the limits of the marketing objectives. This is the reason why media objectives are formulated only after the marketing objectives have been determined by management. The basic media objective is to introduce a new product, build a high level of product awareness and promote a trial use of it among the primary target audience. The media objective varies with the life cycle of the product. The media objectives are reach, frequency and continuity respectively for the early maturity and dealing stages of the product life cycle. The advertising or media objective is analysed in the light of constraints and components. a)

Constraints. The objectives are controlled by the budget available for

advertising. In the beginning a significant amount is available, but at the later stage of the 'product life cycle' only a small proportion is allocated to advertising.

The

effect of

budgeting

on

advertising

has

been

acknowledged by every organisation. The positioning of the product also influences the objectives. If the producer is willing to challenge the leader, he will spend more money on advertising. The reach, frequency and continuity objectives of advertising are affected by the budget and positioning of the products. Management attitudes also affect the formulation of objectives. The availability of a particular medium controls media objectives.

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72

Components Media objectives have different components viz. specification of

the target market, geographical location of the market, reach and frequency, continuity or timing, creative requirements and potential market coverage level. Selectivity, penetration and coverage, flexibility, cost, editorial environment, production quality, permanence, trade acceptability and merchandising co-operation are considered while formulating media objectives. These objectives have been broadly divided into reach, frequency and continuity. Reach is the number of different persons exposed to a particular medium during a specified time. Frequency is the number of times during the period a particular part of the population is exposed to the message. Continuity refers to the advertising schedule over a planning period. It relates to the timing of media insertions. The reach, frequency and continuity are also related to product life cycle strategies. FACTORS AFFECTING MEDIA USE In developing a media strategy, the factors affecting the use of media should be considered. The important factors are the product, market, channel, message, media and budget. a)

Product The product life cycle influences the media use. There are three

stages of the life cycle, introduction, growth and maturity. The choice of media is dictated by these stages. In the first stage, the promotion of awareness of the customers is essential. In the maturity stage, the choice of the media reaching people selectively will be more appropriate. The declining stage needs a cheap and continuous reminder through a medium. The type of product that is advertised determines the media use, consumption goods require continuous and cheap advertising while industrial goods need selective and intensive advertising.

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73

Market The media should deliver the message to the potential

customers effectively and economically. Advertisers have to discover the potential market, since the potential market is not very certain, duplication is observed in media use. An effective and efficient media mix is adopted to reach the market. Media reach is an important factor, determining media use. The availability is decided on the basis of demographic compatibility, geographical location and media position. Demographic compatibility is considered on the demographic profiles. The socio-psychological variables and product usage variables are also evaluated to assess media use. The geographical location of the media plays a significant role in the decision on media use. The media near the market are more useful than other media. The right time, the right position and the right place are considered when deciding upon media use to reach the potential market. Media

characteristics

are

compared

with

the

market

characteristics to determine their comparable characteristics. Availability, flexibility, cost, utility, \permanence, acceptability, co-operation, etc. these are the important characteristics (i.e.) age, sex, values, attitudes, interests, opinions, personality. Conformist or non-conformist tendencies and life style - all these are considered when deciding upon media use. c)

Channel The channel of distribution is considered when deciding upon

media use. Television and nationally circulated magazines are considered when deciding upon the selection of media use. The National vs. Regional Print media vs. Electronic Media viewing vs. Listening: Spot vs. Outdoor - these are the several complex considerations for media use. The distribution of the product, the various persons involved in the channel, the messages to be carried from one step to another -these two are considered when deciding upon media use.

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74

Message The type of message to be communicated determines the type of

media to be used". If the message is developed to demonstrate the products identity, it will not use the radio, it will use television and the print media. Colour and picture are used by magazines. Industrial products are advertised in industrial magazines, while consumer products are advertised in house magazines. If the message is composed only of words it can be delivered by newspapers and magazines. The radio has greater impact on the interior villages than the newspaper and television because people in villages listen to the radio and do not purchase a newspaper. The language in use in a particular market area should be the determining factor in the selection of a print medium. e) Media There are different types of media - mass media and individual media. Thousands of different items, such as calendars, pens, diaries are used for advertising purposes. The characteristics of a medium are the deciding factors. The media discussion is based on several other factors, such as market variables, characteristics of each medium, the needs of the market, and so on. The medium is used to give directions to retailers with the package of the product.

f) Budget The advertising budget determines the media use. The expenses are allocated on the basis of the need and capacity of the organisation. The budget is based on sales, production and market potential. It is generally a fixed percentage of sales. Producers do not want to spend beyond the planned expenditure.

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iii) Form of Media Strategy The media strategy has been formulated in the light of different considerations - exposure, segmentation effect, media option, source effect and repetition. a) Exposure The first form of media strategy is to evaluate the extent of product exposure through media use. The number of readers of a particular magazine. TV viewers, readers of newspapers and bill boards etc. are assessed by advertisers to formulate strategy for the media use. The exposure strategy leads to the choice of media class and timing. Some media class are highly exposed to the audience. Some newspapers carry extensive advertising and that, too, at a particular time. In India advertisements during weekends are more common because people have the time to read them. The number of persons reading a particular newspaper and magazine in a particular area is evaluated by the advertiser. The number of persons listening to the radio and the number of persons viewing television are estimated by using a particular medium. The cost per thousand (CPM) is calculated to decide upon the exposure strategy.

Television exposure is calculated in Gross Rating Point (GRP) which is the percentage of the audience turned commercials.

b) Segmentation Effect Adverting should be clear about the target segment. If it is addressed and delivered to a not –target group or segment it would be ineffective. The women Era mangazine, the cost of advertising audience or segment or persons will be low in the former case than in the other magazines because the other magazines have no target audience or have only a small target audience. Life styles, demographic data,

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economic status, etc. are important factors in the decisions on segments. The segmentation effects are analysed for the adoption of a media strategy.

The

segmentation

strategy,

includes

demographic,

psychographic and economic factors.

c) Source effect The term source effect refers to the measurement of the qualitative value of media options. The source effect is also known as media option source effects, which may be of 3 types, viz. media class source effect, media option characteristics and the vehicle source effect. For example, advertising on television achieves greater exposure than a newspaper. The media option characteristics are related to the size, time, length, colour and location. A full cover page is more effective than a half-cover exposure. A thirty-second television intervention is more effective than a 10-second exposure. Red and blue colour exposure influences more people than white and black exposure. The vehicle source effect relates to the impact of one vehicle in relation to the impact of the other vehicle. Big poster and slow vehicle have greater impact on the audience than the small and fast vehicle. The differences between influences may also be caused by environment quality. The source effect is also influenced by the quality of the magazine, the place of the advertisement in the magazine and the opinion column in the magazine. d) Repetition Repetition is multiple exposure by advertising. More exposure means greater impact on the audiences. But too many repetitions spoil the basic purpose of adverting because people develop an allergy to repetitive advertising. Therefore, advertisement should an allergy at suitable time intervals. It is assumed that each exposure will make an equal impact .The advantages of repetition are achieved by reach, frequency continuity, coverage and gross rating points.

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Reach The term "Reach" refers to the number of persons or households exposed to a particular medium.

If the number of audience firstly

viewed the media is three in a week and the total population viewing the media is

30

in a week,

the reach will be10percent of the

population. Frequency Frequency is the number of times that an individual is exposed to a particular advertisement. It is a term used to describe how many times particular segments of the audience are exposed to the message. The frequency or reach is calculated for a proposed medium schedule. Most frequency figures are usually average rather than absolute numbers because the measurement of absolute number is difficult. The frequency distribution refers to the average. Continuity Continuity relates to the timing of media insertions. The continuity of an advertisement will be high during the festival seasons. The message may be scheduled everyday throughout the period of advertising or may be heavily concentrated in the first three week or the latter part of the period. Insurance companies issue reminder ads in the first week of the month because people get the salary in the first week of the month. Coverage The term "coverage" refers to the medium covering the audience It is the percentage of the total market covered by a particular medium. The coverage is estimated to find out the potential of the medium. It is the capacity of the medium to reach the people. Market coverage is the primary meaning of coverage. It indicates how many potential purchasers are exposed to the advertising media, viz. television, radio, newspaper, etc.

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Gross Rating Points Gross Rating Points (GRP) are the gross weight of an advertising effort at the target effect of a medium on the market.

It

shows the frequency of a particular reach. The total frequency of all the reaches is the Gross Rating Point. Gross Rating Points - Reach x Average Frequency If the reach of television in /d week is 15 per cent of the target market and the average audience views the advertisements 20 in 100 exposures, it means on an average an audience views an advertisement 20 times, although 100 exposures have been made during a week. On the other hand, television advertising in the area has covered only 15 per cent of the population during the week. Thus. Gross Rating Points = 15 x 20 = 300 iv) Determining Media Strategy A media strategy is determined in the light of marketing strategies, viz. new product strategies, market share strategies, test marketing strategies, product cycle strategies competition strategies and advertising budget strategies. The media strategy is a supportive strategy of all these strategies. Therefore the media or advertising strategy may play a significant role in the formulation of marketing strategies. The media strategy may be determined, keeping in view these strategies. Product life cycle, competition and budgets- these are the

important

determinants

of a media strategy. The media strategy includes media mix, media scheduling and media planning. Media Mix The first step in media strategy determination is ID find out a suitable combination of

several media. The vehicle, television,

newspaper, radio, magazine, etc. are combined to " attain the media objectives. Several forms of combination may be there, but only the mast

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suitable form of combinations is adopted. The combination is selected on the basis of repetition, adequate coverage, and seasonal changes and so on. The advertiser has to determine which mix of print or broadcast media will be the most suitable to meet the objectives of reach, frequency and continuity. The target market is achieved by an appropriate media mix. The target market to be achieved capabilities, and costs of each medium are evaluated to arrive at a suitable mix. A combination of reach, frequency and continuity of some media mix may be more costly than that of the other mixes but their role and importance in these terms may be more highly appreciated than those of cheaper mixes. The target market is defined on demographic, psychographic and geographic bases. The media mix to reach these segmentations is evaluated before formulating a particular media strategy. The information pertaining to the target market and the potential of the media mix are gathered by primary research by media location and specialised agencies. b)

Media Scheduling Advertisers have to schedule the advertising campaign over

time. The more dominant media are adopted first, followed by less effective media over a period of time. All the media are scheduled on the basis of dominance. The gap between one campaign and another campaign should be logically designed to make advertising more effective Media scheduling should be designed in the light of seasonal requirements. For example a soft drink should be more in summer than in winter. Products with a short repurchase cycle require a more constant level of advertising than the products that are infrequently purchased. Media scheduling is arranged on the basis of product life cycle, competition, advertising activities and other factors relevant to the advertising schedule.

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80

Media planning Media planning is a continuous process throughout the entire

advertising campaign. The media plan includes media objectives, target market, media type, media vehicles and media schedules. These components have been discussed in previous sections. The media plan is

evaluated

qualitatively

and

quantitatively.

The

quantitative

measurement may be of the cost of delivering a message or a series of messages to a target market. The qualitative aspect relates to the measurement of the impact of messages on the target market. Media effectiveness is evaluated by measuring vehicle distribution, vehicle exposure, advertising exposure, advertising perception, advertising communication and consumer response. v) Use of computers and models The use of computers and models in determining media strategy in increasing as a result of the increased size and complexities of media schedules. The computer has been used since the late fifties. Market segmentation, product positioning, media complex, media agency etc. are easily decided by computers. The media models are linear programming

models,

heuristic

models,

simulation

models.

The

prospective customers along with the alternative media schedules are placed in the computer and each schedule is evaluated in terms of its reach to the potential customers. PRINT MEDIA The print media have their own charm and effectiveness. It provides detailed advertising information. They reach quality audience in terms of income, occupation and education. The print media use printed letters and words, typed letters, cyclostyled circulars. They are also known as publication media. The print media have been divided into newspapers, magazines and direct mail advertising.

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i) NEWSPAPERS The newspaper is a local advertising medium. It has local coverage in the sense that it reaches almost all homes within the given area of its circulation. Newspapers are generally published on a daily basis. Very few are published as weeklies. It has been observed in India that about 40 percent of families living in urban areas read some sort of a newspaper. Generally speaking, vernacular newspapers are very common in semi-urban areas. There are many national newspapers, some state level newspapers and some local newspapers. Newspapers have been analysed under classification, advantages, disadvantages, types of advertising, rate structure and exposure to customers. a) Classification: The Newspapers may be classified on the basis of audience, size, frequency and supplements. Audience There are general newspapers and special newspapers. The general newspapers cater to the needs of the people in all walks of life viz. businessman, politicians, sportsmen and those interested in movies. The Hindustan Times and The Times of India have a very large circulation and they cover all sorts of news. ,The special newspapers such as The Economic Times, The Financial Express and India Today are specialised newspapers because they serve business and political news. There are a large number of newspapers which are specialised and serve the specific interests of the readers. Size The size may be the standard size or the tabloid size. The standard size has 8 columns to the page (12) 300 lines in depth, while the tabloid has 6 columns (i.e.) 200 lines in depth. The standard size is that of The Hindustan Times and The Times of India, while the tabloid is about half the standard size. The Illustrated Weekly, Blitz, etc. Advertisers have to bear in mind the question of size. Newspapers charge for advertising on the basis of columns and formats.

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Frequency The newspapers are classified into two broad categories on the basis of frequency, viz. dailies and weeklies. The dailies are published everyday while the weeklies are published once in a week Supplements Many newspapers issue supplements the dailies issue Saturday and Sunday supplements. Some dailies issue only sunday magazines. Regular supplements are issued by dailies, sometimes, the dailies issue some special supplements. Such as Independence Day supplements on the progress of a particular state or public enterprise or trade or industry. Advantages Newspapers offer a number of advantages to advertisers. They are more flexible than other media. The number of pages in a news paper can be increased or decreased, according to needs. Advertisers can buy more or less space. They can use the newspapers for test marketing for new products or for existing products. Mass coverage is provided by newspapers. The daily newspapers can recognise the name and fame of the product and company. Since a large number of people read newspapers, the advertisers can achieve a daily exposure of their products. The coverage of newspapers is wider than that of other print media. Disadvantages Newspapers suffer from some limitations and disadvantages. The

competition

for

advertising

is

intense.

The

newspaper

advertisements have a short life. They become routine ads and people lose interest in them. Advertisements make only a general impression on the mind. The general nature of the newspaper makes it difficult for it to pay much attention to specialised advertising.

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Types of Advertising Advertising may be display advertising, classified advertising and special advertising. Display Advertising Display advertising is placed on the news and feature pages of a newspaper. It uses a variety of space sizes, layout designs, type faces and size of pictures. Display advertising may be general advertising or retail advertising. Classified Advertising Classified advertising may be regular or display, classified advertisements draw more attention of the people. Some read only the classified items. Classified advertisements are arranged under subheads based on product, company, utilities, the sale of news and old houses, etc. Special Advertising Some special commodities and products are advertised under specific advertisement columns. Sometimes, a few pages are devoted only to advertisements. They are well planned and are in colour to draw the attention of readers. Advertisements are more effective if they are specially intended for certain types of readers viz. sportsmen, women, professionals, etc.

.

Rate Structure The rate structure varies on the basis of space, colour and size. The standard rate for advertisements is on the basis of the column inch (i.e.) slightly less than two inches wide and one inch in depth. Twenty rupees per square inch may be charged for the purpose. Some newspapers charge the rate per line in one column.

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Run-of-paper rate This rate is a flat rate charged for a black and white page. This is the basic (agate) line rate which can apply to any page. It is the minimum rate which can be increased by the offer of other services. This rate is also known as the ROP rate. Retail Rate Newspapers charge a retail rate to producers. The general rates are higher if the advertisements are received from advertising agencies. The retail rate is lower than the general rates. Retail advertisements are read by a larger number of people than the wholesale (general) advertising, newspapers offer a commission on wholesale advertising.

Position Rate Advertisers have to pay a higher rate for some favourable place and space in the newspaper. The ad on the first page attracts a higher rate than the ad .on the second and subsequent pages. Colour Rate The colour rate is higher than the ROP black and white rate because the newspapers incur extra cost and advertisers draw the attention of a large number of people. The printing of colour on the advertising page may be done by advertisers in many cases. Split-Run Rate Sometimes, advertisements are split into two pages to draw the attention of consumers. Some part is published on one page, the other part is published on another page. The message may be different in the split pages. The split-run rates are more in absolute but less in comparison to individual advertisements, for newspapers may offer some discount.

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Local Rate The newspaper charges a lower rate for the local edition and a higher rate for the national edition. If the local rate is compared with the national rate on the basis of the million rate, the actual rate will be lower in the national edition.

,

Supplementary Rate A newspaper charges higher rates for advertisements in its supplements

which

appear

on

Saturdays

and

Sundays.

The

supplements are printed on better quality paper. The contents are read by a large number of persons because they have more time to spare on Saturdays and Sunday, ii) MAGAZINES The second form of print media is the magazine. It offers specialised information to a special audience. Newspapers appeal to people in a particular locality, but magazines reach special types of people in all localities. Magazines are subscribed to by those people who have certain tastes, they may be interested in movies, households, sports, politics, industry. These magazines are specialised publications, filmfare gives interesting stories on many films, actors and actresses, cosmetic products, dress and jewellery can be advertised in this magazine. Similarly, Business Today, Business World etc. carry information pertaining to industry and business. Industrial goods, raw materials, machines etc. can be advertised through these magazines. a) Classification Magazines may be classified on the basis of audience, regions, frequency and publication. Audiences. Magazines may be classified on the basis of editorial appeal or audience or readers. They may be consumer magazines, farm magazines or business magazines

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Consumer Magazines Consumer magazines serve the interests of consumers-men, women, children. There are specific magazines serving the interests of all types of consumers. The Manorma, Grihsobha, Women's Era etc. are consumer magazines, Sports Today publishes several attractive photographs of sports events the world over. Advertising of sports goods in sports today is more productive than advertising in other magazines. A large number of magazines are published to serve the interest of a community, language group, state group and so on. Farm Magazines Farm magazines in India are not very popular inspite of the ;

expansion of agricultural techniques and inputs and though agricultural production has increased considerably. The agriculture Research Institutes in India have started publications of farm maganizes. Krishi, Udyan, Sahakarita, etc. are important farm magazine in India.

Business Magazines The number of business magazines in India has increased in recent years. They provide sufficient information on business policies, business strategies, government export and import policies, industrial licensing, magazines

management may

be

consultants

trade

opinions

magazines,

and

industrial

soon.

These

magazines

or

professional magazines. Business today, commerce, capital etc. are trade

and

business

magazines

while industrial times, Industrial world etc. are industrial magazines, science, space, etc. provide professional information. Advertisements for employment in industry and business are generally inserted in these magazines. Many professional magazines, such as Doctor, Indian Marketing Journal, Indian Management Chartered Accountant, etc. provide expert opinion on and suggestions to, industrial business and professional peoples.

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Region On the basis of regional publications magazines may be divided into national magazines, regional magazines and local magazines. Many specialised magazines have nation wide circulation. They serve the interests of specialised people living in any part of the country. Some magazines such as commerce and industrial times, are in demand in foreign countries as well. The circulation of some magazines is restricted to a particular region, community on religion. Bengali magazines have circulation only in the eastern part of the country. Frequency On the basis of frequency, a magazine may be a weekly, a biweekly, a monthly a quarterly, a semi-annual or an annual. The weeklies are very popular in India. Seasonal new products may be advertised in weeklies. Sports magazines have a wide circulation during the cricket tests and other sports seasons. Advertising of sports goods in these magazines often yield good results. Publications The magazine may be an independent publication, an insertion or newspaper magazine supplement. The independent magazines have their separate organisation and they collect, assimilate and publish the information. Magazines have become recognised journals and their organisations are known by the name of the magazines. The insertions are publications of the advertisers. Advertisers are given space in magazines, which print their according to their needs and policies. iii) Direct Mail Direct mail may be considered as a mass medium, because the same information is sent to a large number of persons. The direct mail is next in importance to television and newspapers in terms of quantity, quality and cost. The success of mail advertising depends on the content and postal efficiency.

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Types of Direct Mail The term "direct mail" is a comprehensive term including any mail from a post card to a catalogue containing several pages. There may be a large number of direct mails but important mails are given below. i) Post Card The post card can be used by printing the message of advertisement on it. The advertiser can use his own paper of post card size by affixing the prevailing rate of postal stamps on it. A reply paid post card with the sender's address can be used to get a response or feedback from the prospect. The franking machine for stamping purposes can be had from any post office. ii) Leaflet A leaflet is a single printed sheet. It is used to explain the message fully. The printed leaflet running into a few pages may be inserted in an envelope bearing the requisite postal stamp. iii) Booklet A booklet is a leaflet running into several pages. When information is voluminous, the booklet is used to carry it. The booklet refers to the attributes of the product, the method of using and maintaining it and other relevant information pertaining to the product and the company. iii) Catalogue The catalogue contains many pages. It is used as a reference book and for a longer period. It is given to consumers free of charge. The catalogue contains a reply card which may be sent by consumers as a feedback. It is sent only to seal prospects. Advantages and Disadvantages

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The direct mail has the advantage of extreme selectivity, intensive coverage, speed, flexibility of format, and carries personal and complete information. The producer can inform his customers and dealers as often as he likes. The speed and flexibility depend on the product advertised, the company and the advertiser. A personal attachment is felt by the consumers or prospects to whom the mail is directed by the advertiser, manufacturer or retailer. Direct mail suffers from certain disadvantages such as high cost per reader, it is not every effective, it is least motivational, and it creates the impression that the company is not well off and that its product is not quite satisfactory. The mailing techniques draw less attention and consideration by consumers.

3. BROADCASTING MEDIA The broadcasting media gives opportunity to the owner of television or radio who can view or listen to the advertising programmes at a fixed time anywhere within the range of their frequencies. No purchasing and reading efforts are involved. Broadcasting provides a more efficient and effective medium of communication than the print media. In a particular city, only a few magazines and newspapers may be

popular;

but

radio

and

television

channels

may

be

very

common is more than one city and place. The broadcasting media reach the interior places where newspapers and magazines cannot enter.

i) RADIO The radio became an established medium of advertising in 1920. The number of radio sets has increased too many. Radio commercials or advertising have adopted new techniques of advertising by broadcasting music, songs and other entertaining programmes. Frequency Modulation (FM) and Amplitude Modulation (AM) have extended its operations to a

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larger section of the population. The structure of a radio programme should be attractive and sound. Radio advertising may take the form of live, taped or transcribed programmes. While selecting the radio for advertising proposes,. the power of the radio signal transmission is considered. The frequency, antenna system, local conditions and geographic conditions are assessed before a particular radio station is chosen for advertising purposes.

Radio transmitters use mainly the Amplitude Modulation (AM), although the Frequency Modulation (FM) has also some use in advertising. The FM sound waves go in straight lines and are not effective for the coverage of distant places. The AM sound waves go up and return to earth with greater power. The AM can be clearly heard at night. The use of satellite has increased the power of every station because of the use of the AM system.

The radio offers a variety of programme together with advertisements. It offers something to every type of listeners viz., children, the aged, the young, businessmen, farmers in the form of drama, song, music, or movie. Many researchers in radio advertisements have indicated suitable types of radio programmes to attract a large number of listeners. Radio stations also invite feedback letters to improve programmes.

Radio advertising offers several advantages, viz. immediacy, low cost, flexibility, mobility and audience selection. The radio provides immediate solutions of doubt and the advertising. The advertising cost per thousand is very low. Advertisers can change the message or tone or advertising content from time to time.

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Radio advertising concentrates only as a particular message because of the time constraints. In many countries, the medium is owned by the government which does not permit all types of advertising. Radio advertising cannot be used for reference.

ii) TELEVISION Television has become an important medium of advertising. It has been functioning since 1950. In many countries, the expenditure on television

advertisement

has

increased

tremendously.

Television

advertisements are carefully and judiciously selected to avoid wastage and high cost because a television programme, set once, cannot be discontinued easily.

Television is used to demonstrate the methods of use of the product. It may be technically complicated but visually easy to follow. It is scheduled in regular network shows, spot announcements and spot programming. The sponsorship of a programme may be by any company or manufacturer, who may sponsor the whole or a part of programme. The programme may be sponsored at two or three strategic positions. Many advertisers share the sponsorship of programme with other advertisers.

Station selection, station frequency and market areas are considered for advertising purposes. With the introduction of Community Antenna Television (CATV) cable television, pay cable and superstitions have become important forms of television advertising. Television advertising are network, spot and local advertising. The network strategy covers the entire country or a part of the country. The network may be divided into local, regional and national categories. The national network covers almost the entire or a very large part of the country. The cost of

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the national network is cheaper per station because a larger number of stations are covered at the same cost.

Television advertising offers a large number of advantages impact, mass coverage, repetition, flexibility, prestige and so on. Television has a long-lashing impact on the minds of consumers. It has moving sights and a speaking voice. Since a majority of the population have television, its coverage is widespread. People spend several hours in watching television programmes.

Television advertising suffers from some disadvantages such as fleeting messages, costs, mortality, distrust and lack of selectivity. When a television programme is loaded with advertisements, people do not like to watch them. Advertising on television becomes automoded after some days. It require resetting and recomposition. Mass advertising is less effective, because it does not reach selected audiences. Television advertising is charged on the basis of time. The mornjng rate is higher than the day-time advertising rate. -Advertising cost on Saturdays and Sundays is higher than on week days.

4. OTHER ADVERTISING MEDIA There are numerous advertising media but some of the most popular are describe here. They may be classified as out door advertising, transit advertising, point of purchase displays, direct advertising, speciality advertising and miscellaneous media.

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a) OUTDOOR ADVERTISING The outdoor advertising includes posters, painted advertising and spectaculars. It is a very useful device to reach the potential customers at the point.

Posters Te advertising message is printed or lithographed on sheets which are pasted on the structure developed for the purpose or on any wall or shed. The posters may be of different sizes and colours with modern printing machines larger sheets are used for advertising purposes. Poster panels may be illumined for the benefit of the night traffic. The illuminated posters can be effectively used in cities and densely-populated areas.

Painted Advertising A painted advertisement is more useful than posters because of its size and colour. The painting attracts people easily and conveys the message effectively to consumers. It may be in the form bulletins and painted walls. They are more attractive than posters because of the use of extension letters, figures, packages and mechanical devices. The dramatic three- dimensional effects and illuminated painted structures have created a greater impact on the minds of the prospective consumers. Spectaculars The spectaculars are large illuminated and animated signs. These are fit for high traffic locations. Outdoor advertising is useful because it reaches a very large number of consumers. Since they remain permanently at the site, there is a possibility that some would notice it some time everyday. It is flexible

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because it can be located at any place, depending on the potential of the market. Outdoor advertising suffers from some limitation consumers cannot be told in detail about the product quality and uses. Within second the vehicle passes by it and the reader cannot get a complete idea of what the advertisement conveys. b) TRANSIT ADVERTISING Transit advertising is carried by vehicles-buses, sub-ways, rapid transit and commuter vehicles. There are three types of transit advertising, viz. car-cards, outside displays and station posters. Posters The advertising message is printed or lithorgraphed on sheets which are pasted on the structure developed for the purpose or on any wall or shed. The posters may be of different sizes and colours with modern printing machines larger sheets are used for advertising purposes. Poster panels may be illumined for the benefit of the night traffic. The illuminated posters can be effectively used in cities and densely-populated areas. Painted Advertising A painted advertisement is more useful than posters because of its size and colour. The painting attracts people easily and conveys the message effectively to consumers. It may be in the form bulletins and painted walls. They are more attractive than posters because of the use of extension letters, figures, packages and mechanical devices. The dramatic three- dimensional effects and illuminated painted structures have created a greater impact on the minds of the prospective consumers. Spectaculars The spectaculars are large illuminated and animated signs. These are fit for high traffic locations.

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Outdoor advertising is useful because it reaches a very large number of consumers. Since they remain permanently at the site, there is a possibility that some would notice it some time everyday. It is flexible because it can be located at any place, depending on the potential of the market. Outdoor advertising suffers from some limitation consumers cannot be told in detail about the product quality and uses. Within second the vehicle passes by it and the reader cannot get a complete idea of what the advertisement conveys. b) TRANSIT ADVERTISING Transit advertising is carried by vehicles-buses, sub-ways, rapid transit and commuter vehicles. There are three types of transit advertising, viz. car-cards, outside displays and station posters. Car Cards Car cards are small advertising messages. A 22 x 21 inch interior card has become the standard. A car card is like an outdoor poster. The length of audience exposure is increased from 5 seconds to 30 minutes, because the car and other vehicles move parallel for some time. Car advertising can achieve a high level of repetition and in-depth reading. Outside Displays Outside displays are of varying types and sizes. The larger the size, the larger the number of units. The cost of display is calculated on the basis of the number of displays in one unit of advertising. Station Posters Posters are installed at bus and railway stations. A variety of shapes and sizes are available for display purposes. Transit advertising has a substantial reach potential. The colour and label may be used effectively to influence the population. It is a

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useful medium to influence housewives and school and college students. It penetrates a specific market. c) POINT-OF-PURCHASE DISPLAYS Point-of-purchase displays persuade prospects to buy a particular product or service. The customers decide whether to buy the product or not when they enter the market. The point-of-purchase displays influence consumers at a particular point and time. The point-ofpurchase (POP) advertising is more advantages for impulse items, i.e. purchasing on impulse without preplanning. There are numerous forms of point-of-purchase displays. They may be signs, window displays, wall displays, display cards, light and sound displays, racks, plaques, wall clocks, cartoons etc. Window displays have attracted consumers coming to shops and the pedestrian traffic passing by the shop. Display cards may be elaborate like magazine advertising. Window cards, counter cards, etc. have become common forms of POP displays. These displays are mounted on wood, metal or plastic. Point-of-purchase advertising is used for consumption goods, because purchasers are influenced by spot advertising. Many buyers do not plan purchases in advance. They purchase only those items which come to their notice at the time of purchase. d) DIRECT ADVERTISING Direct advertising includes all forms of printed advertising delivered directly to the potential customers. These publications are handed over to the retailer to distribute the message from door to door. When these publications are delivered through the post offices, it is known as direct mail advertising. The producer sends the pamphlets and literature to the wholesaler who in their turn hand then over to retailers for the ultimate consumers. Booklets, brochures, etc. are used for direct advertising.

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e) SPECIALITY ADVERTISING Speciality advertising or advertising of specialities includes a variety of items. It bears the name and address or slogan of the business firm. There may be numerous types of speciality advertising or remembrance advertising - the calendar diary, note book, gift, key ring, novelties, matchbook, executive files, scales, pencils, etc. This kind of advertising has been very effective because it reaches the real consumers. f) MISCELLANEOUS MEDIA Producers or advertisers adopt some other methods of advertising. Cinema, directories, yellow pages, donation, sponsoring of some games or sports, participation in religious meetings, fairs and exhibitions, balloons, dances, dramas, free services at hospitals, educational institutions etc. - these are some of the several media of advertising which are employed by producers and marketing men.

Advertising Agency An advertising agency is a specialized institution performing advertising functions for remuneration. There are a large number of advertising agencies in India which organs and pain advertising activities for producers and marketers. The role of the advertising agency has been accepted because it provides specialist services to the companies which have inadequate service of experts for the promotion of their goods and services. Functions of Advertising Agency The advertising agency performs all the managerial functions. Some of these are planning, creation and execution, co-ordination, accounting, media, research and internal control. Planning:

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The advertising agency plans the advertising campaign. The management delegates the responsibility of advertising planning and execution to the agency. The agency must have a fair knowledge of he firms products, its history, the present market conditions, distribution methods, price level and other conditions. A successful advertising programme is built on the basis of these data. Creation and Execution Specific advertisements are created. The advertising copy is written; the layout is prepared; illustrations are drawn; photographs are finalized and a correct mechanical form for running it in the selected media is produced. The advertising agency prepares a suitable advertising copy for insertion in all the media. Co-ordination The advertising agency co-ordinates several activities. It often works with the client’s sales force and distribution network to ensure the long run success of the advertising programme. The combined efforts of sales persons, distributors and retailers ensure maximum sales Idlers, media copy and decisions are co-ordinated properly to project and employment the advertising programme. Accounting The

advertising

agency

maintains

proper

accounts

in

cooperation with the client. The account executives see to it that the agency keeps to the stated plan. The accountant is in charge of the administration of the advertising programme of the agency side the amount of fee received from the client and the payment of taxes, bills and other charges are accounted for by the government. Media The advertising agency selects the media or a set of suitable media or a set of suitable media for the client to reach the right type of audience which is an important factor in media selection. The rates,

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circulation population audience, income and other important information are collected for the purpose. The media experts know all about the media and their coverage. They prepare the schedule of advertising publication, data on printing and the time available from television radio. Research Research is a key function in an advertising campaign. The decisions on creativity and media selection are taken on the findings uncovered for research. Research makes every decision systematic and logical, based as it is on facts and figures. Internal control The advertising agency manages it employees, financies and other resources effectively and economically. It conducts the business behind the seems and exercises proper control over activities and funds. Public relations, sales promotion functions and client contacts are maintained by the management for the effective operations of the advertising agency. Fest your knowledge 1. What are the main elements of creative strategy? 2. Explain the different form and steps in media strategy 3. Discuss corporate advertising. 4. Name of four types of co-operate Advt. 5. Explain in details retail adverting. 6. Discus the methods used in evaluating advertising 7. Discuss post testing techniques in advertising. 8. Explain the functions played by an advertising agency and re search organization in facilitating advertisement. 9. What do you mean by industrial advertisement?

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Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity This is a multi-media central agency for publicising policies, projects and achievements of GOI in the field of economic and social development. It caters to all departments of government (except Railways), Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) and Autonomous Bodies in the following areas: . 1)

It issues regular recruitment advertisements for various departments;

2)

Public awareness advertisements on different campaigns like Income Tax, Environment Protection, the Girl Child, Indian Air Force, New Economic measures, Gold Import Policy, are released in important newspapers;

3)

Primed publicity material like folders, posters, brochures on various themes like Drug abuse, Solar cooker, Eighth five-year plan, Nehru Rozgar Yojana, besides booklets containing speeches of the Prime Minister on important occasions like SAARC Summit etc. are also brought out;

4)

Exhibitions are organized even in rural areas for the benefit of backward people and also on special occasions like Adhi kumbh Mela or the Golden Jubilee Celebrationof Quit India to create awareness;

5)

The out-door publicity unit bunches major campaigns on special occasions like Independence Day, Consumer Day and so on;

6)

The Audio-visual cell produces and telecasts audio an video sports on various themes in various languages;

7)

In addition, special campaigns are also carried out for disseminating information and publicizing themes like national integration, communal harmony etc. on a nationwide basis.

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IMTS Marketing Management (Advertising management)  

IMTS Marketing Management (Advertising management)

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