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IN THIS ISSUE Letter from the Editors............................... 4 Director’s Message.................................... 5 Commentary............................................... 8 Retrospective........................................... 10 Feature..................................................... 12 Close-up................................................... 24 Future Directions...................................... 26 Student Spotlight..................................... 28 BMC Feature............................................ 30 Viewpoint................................................. 32 SURP Research Day................................. 38 Tips for Surviving Grad School................. 40 Book Review............................................ 42 Travel Bites............................................... 43

Types of Cancer Therapies

MAGAZINE STAFF EDITORS-IN-CHIEF

Anna Badner Lindsay Caldarone

EXECUTIVE EDITORS

Beatrice Ballerin Jonathon Chio Meital Yerushalmi Natalie Osborne

JOURNALISTS & EDITORS

Aadil Ali Aaron Wong Alaa Youssef Aravin Sukumar Arpita Parmar Arman Hassanpour Chantel Kowalchuk Cricia Rinchon Jessie Lim Josh Rapps Melissa Galati Mirkamal Tolend Muhtashim Mian Pontius Tang Priscilla Chan Sarasa Tohyama Stephanie Beldick Tazeen Qureshi Valera Castanov Yekta Dowlati Yena Lee

DESIGN EDITORS

Amanda Miller Chelsea Canlas Jerry Gu Lisa Qiu Patricia Nguyen

PHOTOGRAPHERS

Grace Jacobs Krystal Jacques Iris Xu Mikaeel Valli

SOCIAL MEDIA TEAM

Tahani Baakdhah Louise Pei

SPONSORSHIP TEAM

Carina Freitas

Other therapies Microbubbles – miniscule gas bubbles just 0.003 of a millimetre wide – are used to improve diagnostic ultrasound imaging because they are thousands of times more reflective than normal body tissues4 (read more on page 20).

Systemic therapy Surgery Surgery involves surgical removal of cancer (tumours)

Systemic therapy involves drugs that travel in the bloodstream throughout the body. Therapies include: Chemotherapy Attacks rapidly growing cells

Radiation therapy Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams or particles to kill cancer cells

Hormonal therapy Reduces cancer causing hormones in the body

Unlike traditional radiation therapy, radiosurgery uses a high, concentrated dose of X-ray treatment

Supportive therapies and palliative care This form of therapy can reduce side effects and improve the patient’s quality of life

Targeted drugs Attack specific sites on cancer or cells that help grow cancer Gene therapy Agents that disrupt the DNA of cancer cells (eg. modified viruses)

targeted at a specific site (eg. brain tumour) which minimizes radiation damage to surrounding tissue and limits side effects5 (read more on page 10). Oncolytic Virotherapy exploits the selective and infectious nature of viruses and turns them into therapeutic agents to target and destroy cancer cells6 (see page 18 to learn about a new vaccinia virus an IMS researcher is developing). In 2015, Canada ranked 11th out of 80 countries in an international ‘Quality of Death Index’ by the Economist’s Intelligence Unit. This index measures the availability and quality of end-of-life care from hospice and palliative care facilities7 (read more on page 16). Imaging technologies including CT, PET and MRI

Active surveillance A type of care that monitors cancer over time to decide whether to start treatment later

were traditionally used mainly to diagnose or monitor cancer. But advances in imaging technology and robotics are making real time, image-guided surgical removal of tumours a reality in the University Healthy Network’s Guided Therapeutics program (read more on page 22).

References 1. Mullan F. Seasons of survival: reflections of a physician with cancer. N Engl J Med [serial online]. 1985 [cited 2017 Oct 14];313: 270-273. Available from: DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198507253130421 2. Surveillance Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute. American Cancer Society, Surveillance and Health Services Research. 2016 [cited 2017 Oct 14]. 3. Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures 2016-2017. American Cancer Society. 2017 [cited 2017 Oct 14]. 4. Blomley MJK, Cooke JC, Ungar EC et al. Microbubble contrast agents: a new era in ultrasound. BMJ [serial online]. 2001 [cited 2017 Oct 14];322(7296): 1222-1225. 5. Nieder C, Grosu AL, & Gaspar LE. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases: a systematic review. Radiat Oncol [serial online]. 2014 [cited 2017 Oct 14]; 9: 155. Available from: doi: 10.1186/1748-717X-9-155 6. Gutierrez, AA. Embracing the Promise of Oncolytic Virus Immunotherapy. Drug Discovery & Development. 2017 [Cited 2017 Oct 14]. Available from: https://www.dddmag.com/article/2017/09/embracing-promise-oncolyticvirus-immunotherapy 7. Line, D. The 2015 Quality of Death Index, Ranking palliative care across the world: A report by the Economist Intelligence Unit. The Economist [newspaper online]. 2015 Oct 06 [cited 2017 Oct 14]. Available from: http://www.eiuperspectives.economist.com/healthcare/2015-quality-death -index

12 FEATURE INFOGRAPHIC By Chelsea Canlas

MScBMC Candidate

Copyright © 2016 by Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited. The IMS Magazine is a student-run initiative. Any opinions expressed by the author(s) are in no way affiliated with the Institute of Medical Science or the University of Toronto.

Cover Art By Jerry Gu MScBMC Candidate

IMS MAGAZINE FALL 2017 CANCER THERAPEUTICS 3

Profile for IMS Magazine

IMS Magazine Fall 2017  

The fall issue of the IMS Magazine for 2017, with a feature on Cancer Therapeutics.

IMS Magazine Fall 2017  

The fall issue of the IMS Magazine for 2017, with a feature on Cancer Therapeutics.

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