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University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario volume 16, number 33 friday, february 20, 1976

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Up your B/U’s .................... Imperialism & starvation ........... Value of research ................ Chou En-jai remembered ..........

New program

.p.3 .p. 12 .p. 20 .p.22

to be studied

tion. The human relations and counselling studies department will be chopped and its programs phased out, the UW senate decided in a 38-4 vote on Monday. But the presence of about 100 concerned professors and students prompted senators to ask academic vice-president Tom Brzustowski to develop an interdisciplinary program similar to the ill-fated department. The vice-president will report back to senate after he has prepared such a program which will

eds A lot was said during the recent presidential and council election about opposing the cutbacks, On Monday Maxwell Henderson one of the main voices behind those cutbacks comes to campus, but the student federation is mounting no opposition. Henderson is now well known for his part in drawing up the provincial government’s Special Program Review Report, which among other things recommends a 65 per cent tuition increase for students or massive staff reductions. The report is commonly referred to as the Henderson Report. When education minister, Harry Parrot was here Feb. 3 to explain the government’s stringent plans for the universities, the federation organized a rally and voiced strong opposition. But federation president, John Shortall, told the chevron on Tuesday that he didn’t think opposition to Henderson would be appropriate. Henderson has been invited to speak in the second part of the Hage y lectures, which are sponsored annually by the university and the faculty association, in honour of Dr. J.G. Hagey UW’s founding president. The theme of this year’s lectures is “Canada in the Year 2,000” and Henderson is to speak on his attempts to encourage social programs, when he was auditor general.

attempt to replace human relations and avoid the department’s pitfalls, the senate motion indicates. Though their department is slated for closure, students majoring in human relations and counselling studies will be allowed to finish their degrees. No new students will be admitted to the department next fall. The details involved in closing down the department will only be ready by the May or June meeting, Brzustowski said Wednesday. Senate reached its decision following a three-hour debate, and

after postponing the department’s fate last month to ahow objections to a task force report calling for the closure of human relations. The task force, chaired by graduate dean Lynn Watt and comprised of five professors and one student, recommended the departments be scrapped because of questionable academic standards and continued strife among faculty. Jonah Goldstein, a human relations teacher, said on Monday that the task force evaluated the department with the same criteria used in other departments and

cutbacks? Shortall doesn’t think that a demonstration against Henderson would be productive. He said that though the report has been dubbed with the former auditor general’s name it is really the work of provincial treasurer Darcy McKeough. McKeough was chairman of the committee, but according to Shortall, he refused to put his name to it and instead Henderson’s name is being used in an attempt to give it some public acceptability. Shortall pointed out that Henderson is not a member of the government and is only one of seven authors of the report. He also said that though the notorious document bears the title ‘Henderson’ in these parts, up north it comes under the name McKeough, and the Ontario Federation of Students (OFS) addresses the work as ‘The Henderson-McKeough Report’. But no matter what it is called and who is responsible Shortall said that there are constraints on the federation taking any action next week. He said that people are exhausted after the recent election campaigns. Also the resources of the federation are reduced because of reading week, and generally, he said, people are trying to catch up with their work and prepare for midterm exams. The president hopes action against the cutbacks will pick up

when the new council takes office in March. The present council failed to get quorum last Sunday when only seven of 22 councillors turned up for the-meeting. President elect, and current board of education chairperson Shane Roberts, also feels a demonstration against Hend,erson wouldn’t be appropriate. He said Parrott came to talk specifically about cutbacks but that as far as he knew this was not Henderson’s topic. He too pointed out that Henderson is only one of a group who produced the report and that how much it reflected his views was not clear nor, Roberts feels, is that information likely to come out during the Hagey lecture. . But though Henderson could leave campus unscathed by a student demonstration both Shortall and Roberts say they are going to fight the cutbacks. The current president, who is also OFS president, said he hopes a provincial plan of action will come out -of the OFS plenary scheduled for the end of the month. And the president elect said that though his first task on taking office will be to organise the new council and its budget, fighting the cutbacks is a priority. He said he will be bringing plans to council on how he feels this can be done. -neil

docherty

overlooked its interdisciplinary na- partment has a “good nucleus of professors to reach its original ture . goals .” “On the one hand, the department is told to be interdisciplinary The department’s objectives included training in family and group and on the other, it is told to meet counselling, therapeutic counselthe demands of an orthodox deling and teaching skills when it was partment. It can’t do both.” Goldstein said the department established in. 1972 as an off-shoot of the psychology school. These tries to “induce students to think critically about all the social roles areas were intended to be taught which they might get into,” and he by experts from a wide range of wondered what would happen if fields. Barret-Lennard asked senate to the program is eliminated. He charged senate with finding try his proposal to salvage the dean alternative to the program partment which consists of an apwhich would give students a praisal of human relations by experts “in relevant fields.” This rechance to critically examine their view could be concluded by Defuture roles in society. “What the senate will achieve cember of I977 and its conclusions to the viceby closing down the department is would be forwarded president, he said. the quiet of the desert and reduced “This alternative will preserve friction.” The relationship among faculty the interests of graduating students as it won’t place into question the in the department is now excellent and during the last three years, validity of their degrees.” The professor also suggested the “students have been provoked to department hire experts in comexamine things on their own,” munity studies and in interdiscipliGoldstein said. nary research to improve its progThe professor said the departrams in areas cited as weak by the ment found it difficult to recruit task force. teachers who would meet the In response to both professors’ standards of an orthodox program, changes and suggestions, Watt though potential candidates met told senate the task force felt the other standards. One such candidate was deeply department should be shut down involved in community developdespite objections from students and faculty. ment but couldn’t be hired because he hadn’t done formal research, “The task force still has no conGoldstein said. fidence that the present departAnother problem the department can form a nucleus to reach ment faced was the loose outline of its stated objectives.” its course descriptions which was Watt said the department had caused by its interdisciplinary nabeen warned twice that its future ture, Goldstein said. “We had to was in jeopardy. And though the make our course descriptions department was given a second nebulous to prevent them from apchance in early 1973 and again in pearing to be like those offered in spring of 1974, it didn’t “take conother departments. ” structive action to strengthen itself Godfrey Barret-Lennard , and its programs,” he said. another human relations profes“ There’s no useful purpose sor: questioned the task force’s served by giving the department a expertise in examining the desecond chance for the third time.” partment and then “making a deThe task force says a difference finitive statement” regarding its in philosophy has split the future. department’s faculty in two “I really can’t see how a group . “diametrically opposed” camps e of people can make a definitive “The division is one of fundamenstatement without having the tal philosophy and one that most of necessary expertise in the area.” the faculty involved believe to be As for the division among fainsoluble.” culty , Barret-Lennard said the de--john morrb


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Friday Don Carr. Multicolour lithographs and drawings. UW Art Gallery. Hours: Mon-Fri 9-4pm, Sun 2-5pm, till March 7th.

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Campus Centre Pub opens 12 noon. Disco from g-lam. $25 after 9pm.

Friday & Saturday

Federation Flicks-Monty Python and the Holy Grail. 8pm. AL 116. Feds $1, Others $1.50. Le Groupe De La Place Royale. Admission $5, Students and seniors $2.50. 8pm. Humanities Theatre. Box office ext. 2126. ,

Platters NEXT WEEK Wednesday

. Herman’s

Saturday Garage Sale. Woman’s Place, 25 DuPont St., Waterloo. Furniture china etc. 1 Oam-6pm.

- Saturday

U of W Intramural Table Tennis Tournament. C.S.A. award. Levels A & B. Come to play or to watch. until 5pm. Everyone welcome 11:30am. PAC main gym.

Hermits

(on tour from England)

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Campus Centre Disco from g-lam.

Pub opens 7pm. $.25 after 9pm.

Federation Flicks-Monty Python and the Holy Grail. 8pm. AL 116. Feds $1, Others $1.50. Le Groupe De La Place Royale. Admission $5, Students and seniors $2.50. 8pm. Humanities Theatre.

Sunday Rehearsals--Little chestra. 7pm. AL 6.

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Federation Flicks-Monty Python and the Holy Grail. 8pm. AL 116. Feds $1, Others $1.50.

VE3UOW Meeting. E2-2355.

Tuesday.

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4:30pm.

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Amatuer Radio Clu All welcome. 4:30pn Choir. 7pm. A

Professor HuertasJourda will be gi\ ing a lecture dealing with existentialisr or phenomenology. He is current1 teaching Philosophy at WLU. Everyon is Welcome. Sponsored by the P.U./ 7:30pm. Graduate Lounge HH.

K-W Chamber Music Society. Stratford Ensemble. 8pm. Waterloo Collegiate. Further‘ info 576-0417 or 578-0711.

Three On The Flip Side. The Real Ir Spector Hound, A Day For Surprise: and Bland Hysteria. 8pm. Theatre ( the Arts. Admission $2, Students an seniors $1.25.

Monday

Wednesday

Campus Centre.Pub opens 12 noon. Disco from g-lam. $.25 after 9pm.

Campus Centre Pub opens I2 noor Disco from 9-l am. $.25 after 9pm.

Para-legal assistance offers nonadvice. professional legal Call 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Hours: 1:30-4:30pm.

UW Jewish Students Organizatiol Discussion Group with Rabbi F Rosensweig. Topics concern “Ques tions Modern Jews Ask”. $.50 covers E delecatessen luncheon, 12 noon CC 113.

A writers’ gathering, activities include readings by well-known authors, workshops and informal discussions. Anyone can cdme at anytime. Phone Integrated Studies ext. 3636 for further info. Afternoons and evenings. Psych 1101.

Duplicate Bridge. No experience necessary, partnerships can be arranged. Master points awarded. All bridge players welcome. Grand Valley Car Club welcomes you to our next meeting. Waterloo County Fish and Game Protective Association, Pioneer Tower Rd., Off Hwy 8 between Kitchener and Hwy 401. 8pm.

University chaplains.

Chapel. Sponsored by UV 12:30pm. SCH 218K.

Para-legal assistance offers non professional legal advice. Ca 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Hours 1:30-4:30pm. and 7-l Opm. A writers’ gathering. For further inf call Integrated Studies ext. 3636. Afte noons and evenings. Psych 1101. Rehearsals-Concert AL 6.

Campus Centre Pub, opens 12 noon. Disco from g-lam. $25 after 9pm.

Band. 5:3Opn

Chess Club Meeting. Everyone come. 7:30pm. CC 135.

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Three On The Flip Side. 8pm. Theatr the Arts. Admission $2, Students ant seniors $1.25. Gay Coffee

Tuesday

House.

8:30pm CC 110.

Free Movie-The Magician wit Bergman and Max Van SydoM 1O:I 5pm. Campus Centre Great Hal Sponsored by Campus Centre Board.

Para-legal assistance offers nonprofessional legal advice. Call 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Hours: 1:30-4:30pm.

Thursday

A writers’ gathering, activities include readings by well-known authors, workshops, and informal discussions. Anyone can come at anytime. Phone Integrated Studies ext. 3636 for further info. Afternoons and evenings. Psych 1101.

Para-legal assistance offers non professional legal advice. Ca 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Hours 1:30-4 :30pm.

Native American Film Series. Canada and the American Revolution, The War of 1812, and Race of the Snowsnakes. 2pm. National Film Board Theatre, Suite 207, 659 King Street East, Kitchener. Free admission. Sponsored by WLU SocAn. Annual C.A.P. Lecture: Dr. D.W. Sprung will be speaking on “Scattering Experiments and the Interpretation of Their Results.” Everybody is welcome. Please plan to attend. 3:30pm. Phys. 145.

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Rehearsals-Concert 116.

Applications for Crafts Fair. This time only bring samples. Fair held March 15-19. Further info call Susan Phillips ext. 3867.

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meets 113.

february

Campus Centre Pub opens 12 noor Disco from 9-I am. $25 after 9pm.

Opportunities in Real Estate will bc discussed at a Career Information Talk 3:30pm. NH 1020. Sign-up Caree Planning & Placement. Waterloo Christian Fellowship 4:30-Study of Basic Christianity b John stott, 5:I 5-Supper, 6Selection and election of officers fc next year, and Wayne Carrick speakin! on “More than the University.” CC1 13 Christian Science Organization Everyone is welcome to attend thest regular meetings for informal discus sions. 7:30pm. Hum 174.

Nipissing College of Education will present a Career Information Talk on admissions. 3:30pm NH 1020. Sign-up Career Planning & Placement.

Three On The Flip Side. 8pm. Theatre of the Arts. Admission $2, Students ant seniors $1.25.

The Way of Joy is Love. The Way of release from fear and worry is Love. The Way of Freedom is Love. The Way of Love is Love. The Ontology Club

K F Gauss Foundation Films Seventh Seal-Bergman, Betweer Time & TimbuktuVonnegut. Admis sion $.74. 8pm. MC 2066.

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friday,

february

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‘20, 1976

the chevron

3

UW gets $48=million The university *won’t be firing academic budget such as library increase in enrolment added to inanyone for financial reasons- next books, equipment replacement, flation would necessitate careful _ supplies, and travel. budgeting by universities .” year because it has enough money to make ends meet, twoUW offi“Hopefully, we’ll be able to redThe minister-added that Ontario cials said Wednesday. ress ‘the situation in the non“rates best in accessibility to Both were commenting. on a academic portion of the budget. post-secondary education across provincial government announcewhich has been eroded by inflation Canada, and we must now fight to maintain both accessibility and ment made Tuesday which in- during the last few years.” _ creases the per student underHowever, Gellatly said though._ quality. ’ ’ graduate grant by 9.5 per ‘cent for the total income to the university Contacted about the 1976-77. government’s statement, . Grant will jump 15.2 per cent over last Tom Brzustowski, academic year’s, the real increase will be 11 Clarke, secretary of the Council of Universities, said when vice-president, said he’s happy to 12 per cent after “the growth in Qntario with the government’s decision as student numbers is taken into acone takes into account the increase he-expected universities to receive in enrolment the per cent studejt’ count.” grant can only increase by 7 per less funds than other provincial From 1970 to this year, enrolsocial services. ment has increased 25 per cent I cent. He said this is caused by the fact “The increase in funds is better while*government grants have lagthat tuition fees, the second major than I had expected and I hope no ged behind, the vice-president more staff positions will have to be said. source of university revenue, reeliminated. T’ mains frozen by the government; The government announcement The university will therefore be said theper student grant will inNevertheless, universities are aware that they been “accorded a allowed to replace any staffers . crease to $2,312 from $2,111 last who leave and won’t have to cut year and for graduate students the high priority relative to other so- ~ by the government, out the positions, Brzustowski ex- grant will be $2,255. The total al- . cial services” plained. lotment to UW will be $48million Clarke said. However, the vice-president compared to $46.5-million last Still, the “cost revenue squeeze will be marked” and universities cautioned against department year. -Harry Parrott, the minister of -will still have to make ends meet, chairmen hiring people to replace others automatically, saying that colleges and universities, warned the secretary added. new appointments will still have to on Tuesday that “the effect of the -john mods be made according to needs. That -means a departm-ent with a falling student enrolment won’t be allowed to replace a professor who leaves since the program may have too many teachers, Bruzustowski said. Instead, a new position could be - Who says [his weather is for the ducks? photo by jim cart& added to another department with = a climbing enrolment and where there’s a need for more teachers, the vice-president said. Asked if the university-imposed freeze on faculty appointments will be lifted in view of ,the government increase in grants, Brzustowski said it might be “selecSUDBURY (CUP)-Tuition fees will not be increased but 30 staff positively lifted” and department tions will be eliminated in 1977 if the budget committee’s report is ap- chairmen will still have to assess proved by the board of governors at Laurentian University. their .needs when contemplating further hirings. The committee has termed it a “surgical budget” as it trimmed $500,000 from the estimated 1976-77 costs. Bruce Gellatly, finance viceThe report stated that the expected 1975-76 deficit of $300,000 can’t be president, was also pleased with repeated because there are no operating reserves remaining in the the slated increase in provincial university’s coffers.. grants, saying “it’s an improve“The 19’75-76 budget, if repeated in real terms, would cause the presment over the level we’ve been re’ent rate of<deficit to increase to $500,000 in the year 1976-77. Such a ceiving for the last few years.” deficit would lead to rising interest charges ‘which would make future He added that he hasn’t had budgeting increasingly difficult, if not impossible.” time to work out the university ‘. Of the 30 staff positions slated for dismissal, three are considered ‘budget for next year but by the , faculty redundancies, and nine are non-renewals of sessional contracts. March senate meeting a draft copy The biggest cut, however, is an elimination of 18 support staff positions. will be available. Tuition will remain the same as last year, but the committee hints that Gellatly cpnfirmed Brzustowski’s remarks about next year, saya subsequent year would see a 25 per cent increase. The committee has also proposed that student athletic fees be in- ing “there’ll be no staff reductions at all in 1976-77.” creased by $10 and health services fees by $5, for the coming year. He said the increase in funds Budget constraints are expected to become a permanent feature, the will. allow the university to put committee reports, as the board of governors has insisted that the commore money into the non_. mittee balance the future budgets. -_ ! II

Laurentian -may cut 30 staff next year \

Legal. .action threatened in-. case of missing t-Shirts Legal action may be taken against the trustees of the‘sanford Fleming Fund if a cheque, payable to that fund, is cashed, according to Math Society president Gary Dryden ., The cheque was delivered to D.S. Scott ofchemical engineering for the return of approximately 500 T-Shirts and a number of trophies, stolen from the Mathsoc office last week. The T-shirts have not been returned, Dryden said. /-He added that Scott ,was informed of the possibility of legal action, when the c,heque was delivered to him, on the-grounds that the money was “extorted”. The Sanford Fleming Fund was established to provide bursaries scholarships for underand graduate engineering students .’ It is named after the engineer ‘*

who laid the plans for the Canafeels security is treating it as a dian Pacific Railway. _ . prank. Scott has denied having any As a result, he said, the security knowledge of the theft. department has been informed that As a result of the theft, Dryden Mathsoc may call in off-campus says, Mathsoc is planning to install help (city police) to hasten progsecurity. precautions in. their of- ress in the investigation. fices. A locking cabinet has alAccording to an article appearready been bolted down in the ofing fi Math News, Artsoc supports fice, he said. Mathsoc in this action. Artsoc He added the society also plans -president Bruce Rorrison went so to invest in a chain link and barbed ’ far as to suggest the RCMP be calwire fencing to block the crawl led in to handle the case. space over the door and a locked Randall S. McDougall, of Math- * plexiglass trophy ctise. sot, -told the chevron that security In addition;‘ ‘Dryden said they spent’ approximately 20 minutes are also considering the installataking information on the theft tion of an .alarm system on the from him the day after the items door. He said the security precauwere stolen but Dryden says they tions will cost the society over have done nothing since. Neither Scott nor security direc$500. Although Mathsoc is treating the tor Al Romenco were available for matter seriously and not simply as comment before the paper went to another press. episode in the Mathsoc-Engsoc rivalry, Dryden -graham gee

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Found Travelers’ cheques. 743-2088, 7-1 Opm.

Contact

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Pregnant & Distressed? The Birth Control Centre is an information and referral centre for birth control, V.D., unplanned pregnancy and sexuality. For all the alternatives phone 8851211, ext. 3446 (Rm. 206, Campus Centre) or for emergency numbers 884-8770.. ,

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7-1 Opm, some-afternoons. Counselling and information. Phone 8851211, ext. HELP-745-l 166-We Care. Crisis intervention and confidential listening to any problem. Weeknights 6pm. to 12 midnight, Friday 5pm to Monday lam: Grad Students and Faculty: Experienced copy-editor will prepare your non-technical manuscripts for submission. Grammar, style, spelling, etc. corrected. Special rates for foreign students. 884-8021. Will do light moving with a small pickup truck. Call Jeff 745-1293. I would’like to receive letters from anyone interested in writing. I have no -. family or friends and I am in prison. Please write: Ken Waybright - no. 140-099, P.O. Box 787, Lucasville, Ohio. 45648.

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Needed desperately - a ride from Galt to University, especially for 8:30 classes on Tuesday and-Thursday mornings. Call Carole 621-6968.

Typing Fast accurate typing. 40 cents a page. IBM Selectric. Located in Lakeshore village. Call 8846913 anytime. Will do student typing, reasonable‘ rates, Lakeshore village, call 885Y1 863. Typing: neat and efficient. Experienced. Reasonable rates. 884-l 025. Ask for Judy.

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february

20,'1976

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, The biggest problem facing a naive offender in prison is a lack of dentity and a loss of dignity. This view was strongly preval:nt in talks on natives in prison #en at UW on Monday by former native inmates Bobby Woods, vern Harper and Carolyn Nawell. Bobby Woods, who spent about !O years in different Canadian )enitentiaries, pointed out reasons vhy natives commit crimes. “They do not have the kind of :ommunity identity other ethnic. groups have. This has made it so nuch more difficult for natives to ‘eel a part of ‘society. ” Furthermore,. “we were never aught our own history‘ and were ‘orbidden to speak our own language in school,” added Woods. Because of this lack of identity 2nd lack of cultural background in the city, the native has no one to help him “ease the tensionanxi:ty, and cultural shock” he feels, said Woods. Consequently, the native seeks *efuge in booze and becomes an offender of the law.

According to Woods, this is why native crimes occur mainly in cities and towns, and rarely in the reserves. He noted that probably 95 per cent of the native offenders “are in jail because they are drunk.” In prison, a native inmate is given little opportunity to learn new skills that will give him a sense of accomplishment or that will provide a better position for him in society once he is free, Woods observed. Usually, the native inmate “is just a common laborer,” he said. He “won’t be found in a machine shop in prison, since he hasn’t had that kind of education.” Prison school programs are poor, usually just providing corwoods respondence courses, added. , The public sends offenders to prison, hoping to reform and rehabilitate them, butthis does not happen because of the way in which the prison system is now designed, said Woods.

A man completing his first _ prison sentence does not come out “with open arms to welcome society,” said Woods. In contrast, he becomes “a mean, ugly person who acquired that attitude from the prison envi-~ ronment.” Woods noted that emphasis seems to be placed on building more and bigger prisons rather than on changing the system and redesigning programs. - ’ Because of this severe lack of identity and dignity for inmates, a group called Prisoners’ Rights was formed to “fight for basic human rights and make changes in the whole juridicial system 1 in said Woods. Canada,” Prisoners’ Rights is- a nongovernment, self-help organization in which Woods, Harper .and Nawell are active members. It bases its strength upon arousing the public through pamphlets, letters, and speeches, written and told by former prison inmates about the demo&zing condition of penal institutions.

UIW seeks support of labor c The UIW sent out close to 200 The Kitchener-Waterloo local of invitations to the Saturday meeting ;he Union of Injured Workers has in an effort to give working union aunched a campaign for recognimembers more information about ;ion and support from the labor novement and community in the. the function and services of the union, and to heal what has been Twin Cities. called a rift in the labor movement. At a meeting Saturday of injured “We’re under attack by the Onworkers, labor representatives and tario government and this action ndividuals from community-orby the Kitchener labor cou,ncil just ganizations , UIW local president Erhard Kienitz explained that insplits the labor movement,” said ured workers in the area need a Philip Bigins, a founding member of the UIW, and steelworker reprecreation centre, and the organiz&ion requires money to maintain resentative to the Toronto and disthe executive body.. trict labor council. “The action The local has asked the ’ must be rescinded.” Kienitz read a letter from Sam Kitchener-Waterloo labor council for support, but in a surprise deciFox, president of the Toronto sion last week the council voted labor council, voicing his support not to aid the 45member local. for the UIW. Members of other

Math reducing

couricil

okays

&op

period

UIW locals in Southern Ontario explained how their own labor or.,gamzations in each centre pro-, vided aid to the UIW locals .The UIW has a four-point program for change in the Workmens’ Compensation Act, which now merely serves as “employers’ liability’ insurance”, UIW members say. The program includes .demands for: . -job security. or full compensation; -compensation indexed,+-the cost of living rate; -e . t$ -* -theright of injured workers to choose their own doctor, abolition of the compensation board doctors ; -enforcement of I the. existing legislation of safety and improvement of the legislation as well as. safety committees on the job. # Those who are . permanently . . dis-

~!~n~YfJffE!~

The Mathematics Faculty coun‘a random basis, according to A permanent back ‘injury will Long. He reviewed the ID num- . justif; zil approved Tuesday a student a pension of o&v $80 to proposal to reduce the course drop bers of the signatures and assured $120 per month, she explained. period to six weeks instead of a facouncil the signatures represented “If you become angry because culty proposed four weeks. a valid proportion of upper and you’ve been injured and you can’t Student rep. Rob White told the lower year students. get a decent compensation from council, “Most courses do not At this point in the debate betthe Workmens’ Compensation have a full load until the first midween the faculty’s proposed four Board, you’re said to have a ‘comterm which makes it difficult to week course drop period and the pensation neurosis ’ , ’ ‘she said. judge the content of the course.” students ’ proposed six week “There comes a time which course drop period, Peter Ponzo of those who have suffered injustice One math professor added, “Why should it not be possible to applied mathematics admitted the must do their own fighting.” drop a course at any time during curriculum committee simply pulOrville Thacker, president of the term. After all it’s just like led the “number four out of a the K-W labor council, insisted at the last council meeting that comcrossing a name out of a file.” hat’ ’ . pensation fights should be led by a However, Frank Tompa, a The debate soon ended with only seven professors ‘out of the political party. This apparently computer science professor felt was one reason why the executive “some students would use this more than 50 present voting rejection of the situation to drop courses that are against the. student proposed six recommended week course drop period. UIW’s appeal. not easy enough..” The chairman -michael gordon -larty hannant of the same department, Doug Lawson, agreed some “kind of inhibition” must be provided to prevent first and second year students from holding on to courses they Mass Schedule ’ know they can’t finish. Saturday 9:00 a.m. ‘Sunday’ IO:00 a.m. Council’s consideration of the four week course drop,period was 7:00 p.m. -7‘ II:30 a.m. challenged by student opinion as 7:00 p.m. - represented in a petition submitted ’ Sunday 12:30p.m. V.II East C&ad Lounge by student rep. John Long. The petition, containing “almost 200 signatures”, demanded that the council not approve the four week 12:35 course drop period. Professor Peter Brillinger of computer science challenged the Norm Choate CA., 884-4256 ‘ ‘representativeness” of the petition and asked how”the signatures Father&Bob Liddy CR 8844863 were collected. “How do we know or 884-8110 this represents student opinion,” he asked. The petition, collected by the math student society was done on

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A brotherhood and sisterhood group was also formed by natives inside Canadian prisons to help mitigate the identity crisis. It enables native inmates to work toge ther , make crafts, and talk about their culture. According to Carolyn NawelI, a former metis inmate of Kingston’s federal penitentiary for women, the sisterhood group “was the only thing that helped me keep my head together.” Nawell vividly recalled the gloomy month of February three years ago whenshefirst arrived at the cold, dark Kingston prison. She was put on the cleaning crew, since there were no other programs for her to join. The lack of activity in the prison created much idleness, she said. And this can “breed a lot of depression and self-destruction,” she added. Nawell also noted that “women seem to get a harsher sentence and a longer prison term than men do.” As a member of the Prisoners’ Rights committee, Nawell strongly called for a public inquiry into prisons. “You never hear about women being thrown into segregation without clothes,” she said. . Nawell also advocated an inquiiy into why so many women

International \

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have a hysterectomy in prison. She wondered whether women prisoners are used for medical experiments. For example, ’ some hysterectomies were performed vaginaly, she said, which is not the normal medical procedure. Nawell also had a hysterectomy while in prison, but was never given any adequate explanation as to why she needed it. She finally questioned why so many women have false teeth when they leave prison, even though they entered with perfectly good teeth. All three speakers are also members of the Allied Indian Metis Society (AIM), an organization formed to help native inmates get a parole and receive social and, educational help in the city. It consists of a Board of 20 di-. rectors, ‘comprising 10 members from penitentiaries, and 10 members from native people within the community. A new half-way house has just been set up by AIM in Toronto. Vern Harper closed the session by stressing how critical the next few years will be for native people. He anticipated all different native movements, including Prisoners’ Rights, coming together eventually to form a common ground and to “create a nation for natives.” isabella

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PHOTOS

Abby ,Hoffman spoke on Canadian attitudes to the Olympics at a meeting of the Canadian Federation of University Women of Waterloo-Kitchener in Waterloo on Tuesday. ‘ ‘Most Canadians, especially in English Canada, do not have good feelings about the Olympics in Montreal ,’ ’ said Hoffman. “After the political incident at Munich many people feel that the Olympics have growntoo large. ” There were more press at the Munich *’ Olympics than ’ athletes which made Munich the biggest TV studio in the world. “It isn’t surprising ’ that political groups

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which cannot get publicity through legitimate channels would be attracted to the Olympics,” she said. The Montreal Olympics has become just as big if not bigger than any other Olympics that has been staged. 1 . “I have found in previous Olympics that new enthusiasm for sport develops in the country that hosts the Olympics,” she said. When Hoffman returned from the Munich Olympics she and several fellow athletes formed the “Friends of the Olympic Spirit” and went on talking- tours throughout Canada to generate enthusiasm for the Olympics. The reaction

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Canadian track star Abby Hoffman while hoping that the Olympics are a success was critical -Of the stadium in Montreal. She said it was not neces. saSy for it to hake a roof and that “the Olympics are being used to supply Montreal with a flossy stadium for professional sport.” -photo by harry strothard

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was “Blah,” Hoffman said. The attitude grew more indifferent as she went west and “in Vancouver the, reaction was actively hostile because they were done ,out of the winter games.” In Victoria the response was “we won’t pay for it.” . “The general attitude across Canada was who’s going to pick up the tab?“, Hoffman said. The Western provinces tried to restrict lottery sales. “They weren’t counting on the attraction a million dollars can have ,” Hoffman said. When the premiers realizedthat their share of the ticket sales was going to Quebec they forgot their “principles” and allowed lottery sales so that their provinces could accrue their-10 per cent. “The fears concerning the financing of the Olympics have come true;” she said. “Drapeau said the games would be selffinancing and now the cost has trebled to over one billion. “Where could you . possibly -spend one billion on an Olympits?’ ’ , asked Hoffman. ‘ ‘ The Olympics are being used to supply Montreal with a flossy stadium for professional sport. “Olympics require an open air stadium and the Montreal Olympic Stadium has a retractable ‘roof which is unnecessary for the games but very desirable for pro.-fessional sport. ” The roof is responsible for a sizeable part of the. $500 million cost of the stadium. “The real problem was that construction should have begun in 1972-73 but there wasn’t enough money,” Hoffman said. “Montreal never really believed they would win the right to stage the games. “It was necessary for the Olym-

pits to. be a national effort but Canada was not behind the games, People I have spoken to were bound and determined that not one penny of theirs was going into it,” Hoffman said. Hoffman spoke on what it is that the Olympic games represent to an athlete. “Good professional sport is rarely more than good entertainment; ‘professional athletes are a commodity,” she said. “The public is not always interested in seeing the highest calibre of sports! they often prefer to watch fights. “A high level of performance and quality of athletic ability is displayed in the,Olympics.” Hoffman gave as examples oi .outstanding performances the gymnast Olga Korbut at Munich ir 1972 and long jumper Bob Beamor at Mexico City in 1968. “The Olympics display what human beings are sometimes capable of ‘doing,” said Hoffman. “Canada has not exactly set the world on fire in previous games,” Hoffman said. There are two key factors that Canadians use to ac count for this. * “Firstly there are only 20 million people in Canada and secondly they are so damned spread out, This is a poor excuse,” Hoffman said. “We haven’t embarrassed OI distinguished ourselves in the Olympics which is perhaps typically Canadian,” she said. “If you win five medals at Munich its not so bad but in our own country this year it won’t be so easy to defend.” *East Germany has about 17 l/2 million people and they won 66 medals at Munich compared to Canada’s five. “Many people claim that .East German athletes are used for political purposes and go to Siberia if they lose,” Hoffman said. “In my acquaintance with the East German athletes and travelling in East Germany, I’ve found that claim to be false.” East Germany considers sporting excellence important and en courages and supports its athletes, Hoffman added. She said Canada has been forced to prepare better for the 1976 games than it has in the past. A more mature and sophisticated approach has supplied the athletes with more competition at home ‘and abroad, foreign coaches have been employed, and better Canadian coaches have been developed here, Hoffman said. Training for the Olympic games is a full time occupation. Many athletes put in six to seven hours a day. In the past there was little assistance for the athlete while training. “The Canadian Olympic Association has provided some money and most athletes are now being looked after to some extent. The athletes are not getting rich, however, they usually get less than minimum or unemployment insurance wages while training,” Hoffman said. “I’m not making any predictions about medals for this summer but traditionally the host country has wonroughly twice as many medals as it has in previous Olympics. “Hopefully the money that has been spent on training athletes will motivate young people to‘ get involved with and participate in sports, ’ ’ Hoffman said. “I hope the games go well for Canada so that Canadians will feel strongly enough about amateur sport to support it in the future. ‘ ‘Having the Olympics in Montreal has brought top competition to Canada to compete with our athletes rin pre-Olympic meets whereas before we were off the beaten track: people now want to perform here,” Hoffman said. ,-judy

jansen


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Hhhvork: The working class, like charity, egins at home-specifically in he kitchen and in the bedroom. Because housework is unpaid York, it is a charity that women ffer up to capitalism. That is the belief of Selma ames, a member of the internaonal committee for wages for ousework in England who has active in the extraeen arliamentary left since 1945. She was speaking to the local /ages for housework collective at public meeting in Kitchener last ‘uesday, one of several stops while she is in Canada. “You walk into a house and it’s irty; you know somebody hasn’t lone her housework. If it’s clean ‘ou don’t notice it,“’ James renarked. “One thing that escapes me is LOW it has been possible for people m the left to look at that work and rot to make a connection between hat work and the way capitalist society is functioning.” The only way to make this abour visible is to demand wages or it, she said. “Being work, it is lot in our nature to do it.” James described a half hour of .elevision she helped produce which opened with shots of a woman doing traditional housework-washing dishes, floors and picking up toys. Then followed a sequence of women’s work-real work-such 2s nursing, cooking, sewing and a striptease “which of course was housework again,” she said. Following this was a discussion with two women from a battered wives centre whose husbands had told them: “You can never leave; where are you going to go? With those children. And no money.” An interview with women in the street was a “very embarrassing part of the film to make because the responses were so good. People thought it was a set-up,” James said. “After we had shown that women felt that they were entitled to wages for their work, there was only one question that remained: How can we get it?” .

There were scenes of meetings in the street “because women don’t have the time or freedom to come to meetings” and examples of mobilization on an international level such as May Day. “May Day is considered workers’ day and we women have not been considered workers up to now ,” James explained. But it was the general strike of women in Iceland which convinced her that wages for housework was possible. “Of 60,000 women in all of Iceland, 25,000 women went to a demonstration in Reykjavik.” Businessmen had to take their children to work with them because even their wives were on strike. James noted. ‘ ‘We had al ways misunderstood what a general strike was all about. We thought it was when the men come out. But it isn’t. It’s when the women come out.” In the past, when men have gone out on strike, women have had to work twice as hard at home to maintain the strike, she said. “So we’ began to redefine, not only what power we had to get what we want, but what the class struggle was about. ’ “Our position is so deeply rooted in the experience that - women are making, in the struggles that women are involved in, that we are not afraid of’ putting them off by what we say,” James continued. “But we feel that we can speak directly with them and that there is no contradiction between our own experience and theirs. “That is a very new way of making politics .” James described her past experience of being in an organization which feels that it has the “line” and is just waiting for the working class to catch up. “It’s very nice to feel that the working class is ahead and you are racing to keep up.” On the subject of sisterhood and feminism in, the late 196Os, James revealed a distortion in the myth about bra-burning. I

“It wasn’t only bras that they had begun to burn, they had tried to burn also a steno pad and a broom. Not only our sexual work but our work outside the home as officewives, as factorywives .” This was a good beginning, she said, but an ideology entered the feminist movement from the “socalled-left” stating that the path of liberation led out of the house into another job. This happened because there was no understanding of housework, James felt. “We know about the physical labour of women, but what is not so clear is the invisible labour all of us are doing in servicing other people,” she said. “We are everybody’s mother all the time. ,That is expected of us -presumed to be our natures.” The feminist movement was unable to see that women did this work because they had to, being always deeply dependent on men, James pointed out. “It was clearly a power men had over us which is the power on which the whole society is based; the power of money, of bread. “It’s all very clear when you go leafletting in front of a factory and you see who comes by automobile and who comes by bus. . . .If you know in London how they’re cutting back on transport and how long it takes to wait for a bus, you know that some of those women are screwing with men in order’ to get a car-ride. “Men not only have more wages than us outside the home, but they look upon us in exactly the same way as they look upon their own wives with one difference: they make passes at us there.” The family and the woman’s work in it seems to be somehow disconnected from the rest of socie ty , James remarked. “But capital doesn’t let us just do anything. When we are spending a great deal of time at something which they (the capitalists) approve of and encourage, they must be benefiting. Capitalism is

6

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1,

Income Tax Receipts Tuition

receipts

“Graduate

will be available for onstudents’ comcampus mencing March 1, 1976 at Cashier’s Off ice, Needks Off -campus

receipts dents

students’

will be mailed

statement

addresses.

who registered

students

didate shall not exceed $25. This sum does not include any material which may be prepared and sent by the chief returning officer.” The UW Gazette and the chevron will both post the results of the election as soon as the vote is tallied. The duty of senate is, “to establish the educational policies of the university and to make recommendations to the board of governors with respect to any matter relative to the operations of the university.”

who wish to

apply for the

position of Don in the Villages for the academic

for income

tax

Hall.

signed by at least 10 students in your constituency. The deadline for handing in nomination forms to the chief returning officer (university secretariat office-Needles Hall) is next Thursday at 4 p.m. The results will be known after March 10, and the election will be conducted in the form of a ballot maiIed to each eligible voter. As for campaigning, here are the rules : “No public campaigning shall take place until after the close of nominations. The amount that may be spent on behalf of any can-

t9 tee Stuin Jan.

& May 1975 received valid tax receipts at that time.

labor I

very much in the home.‘\ Women have been very carefully trained to do housework and to deny themselves because “you must think you are nobody -otherwise nobody would do housework at all.” To the degree that we stop doing it, “that self-denial turns into self-need, self-worth. We hate ourselves less. . . . We begin to think something of ourselves and therefore something also of other women. We begin to value our own time.” Money is ppwer, James noted, the power to refuse the work that is imposed on someone. She mentioned a hot-line show where a man called up and asked what wages for housework would mean for him. He was told: “It would mean that when your wife sleeps with you, you would know that she wants to.” She observed that when women fight for control of their bodies -for abortions, against sterilization or for the right to have children, they are limited in the struggle by the fact that it only involves women of child-bearing age. Similarly, on the issue of pensions, only those in a certain age group are concerned. “But when we fight for wages ‘for housework we have the power of both these struggles because we are not divided by age any longer. “We see that each of our particular struggles is for time and money and that we share the same needs. And therefore, coming together, we have a potential for power which we have never had before. ’ ’ Men, too, can be liberated from the kind of domination capitalism holds over them as a result of women being dependent on them if women fight for a wage, she said. ‘ ‘We liberate men also from hav-

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either Village Office, and must submit it to the

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ing a personal servant in us.” However, women must continue to meet on their own, not because they are afraid that men might influence them, but because “we have something to do that the men have not been able to do. They have not been able to see what our work consists of and how pervasive it is and how much capitalist society is dependent on us. “In other words, they have not been able to lead us anywhere. They have not been able to increase our power, and therefore they have not been able to seriously increase their own. “They will not learn by our arguing with them. They will learn by a show of power. The day be‘fore the Iceland strike we were not half as strong as we were the day after.” Women cannot organize as men organize because they have different working conditions, she explained. James refused to identify men as the enemy, defining them rather as representatives of a shared enemy: capitalism. But she didn’t agree either with those who consider capitalism the only enemy. “We say no, you have it wrong again. Men must unite with us and then they will win and we will too,” James said. “It is very difficult, when you are being beaten by a man to say ‘Brother, you are on the same side as me’. You have to beat back and you have to beat back in numbers. You must beat it into his head that, to the degree that he unites with you, he will win and you will too.” Selma James is the author of books available at meetings of the wages for housework collective at the Woman’s Place, 25 DuPont Street East on Thursdays at 7:30p.m.

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nounce him, but ‘the demands. shouted at him were quite diverse. They included: 1) We should fight the cutbacks by uniting all the faculty, students and staff who will will unite to fight the Ontario govThe Anti-Imperialist Alliance ernment; 2) We should have free has initiated a - series of public tuition and make the corporations forums ‘in order to explain the pay for it; 3) We should receive Marxist-Leninist viewpoint on a wages for school work. number of important topics. These Obviously, we will make no forums are also serving as the progress unless we can unite peobasis for a programme of serious ple around one demand ancexpstudy of the political economy of lain why certain political lines are Canada. wrong and only divide the people. Our task is to. unite the people in At the inaugural meeting held two weeks ago, two members of action against our common enemy, AIA gave an introduction to the U.S. imperialism and the Canadian monopoly capitalist class. To do forum series. this, we must use scientific The first speaker explained the analysis and convincing argument, importance of studying political which requires studying economy and investigating actual Tsetung in Canada and ’ the Marxism-Leninism-Mao conditions Thought in order to apply it. world in order to oppose the bogus The speaker gave a brief introtheories of the ruling class. duction to the work of Marx, The bourgeoisie (class which Lenin, Stalin and Mao Tsetung. owns the means of production and_ Marxism, the system of the views and teachings of Marx, is a exploits workers) tries to obscure science in the service of the worktruth and mystify the nature of the state and class struggle in order to ing class. Working during the of perpetuate its rule. Having a. free-competition 1 .:*tage monopoly not only in economics capitalism, Marx ‘and Engels analysed the contradictions within but also in the cultural superstructure, the ruling class uses the a commodity and within the media, the educational system and capitalist system and showed that even political parties such as the socialist revolution and dictatorNDP to peddle their wrong ideas ship of the proletariat (class of and purge the culture of progrespropertyless workers) were inevitsive ideas. Among the students able because of definite laws of sothey promote an ideology of selfcial development. serving careerism together with Lenin developed the ideas of pessimism and confusion. AccordMarx further. He worked in the ingly, we must re-educate the intelera of imperialism and socialist relectuals and try to win them over volution, when capitalism had to the side of the working class. reached its monopoly-stage, and We must lead in this work by re- when revolution was imminent. educating ourselves in MarxistLenin showed how imperialism Leninist theory. necessarily means world war and how it gives rise to opportunism Must unite within the communist movement The current situation at the that opposes Marxism and revolution. He also formulated the actual University of Waterloo also points strategy for revolution and fought out the need for more serious for a revolutionary political party study and investigation. When based on the scientific’ theory ‘of Harry Parrott visited here, many students and faculty united to de- Marxism. Stalin further developed Marxism-Leninism, applying it to / the problems of building socialism for the first time in one country, defeating fascism and preventing restoration of capitalism. Mao Tsetung Thought is the Marxism-Leninism of our era, the era of imperialism and socialist revolution when imperialism is heading for total collapse. Chairman Mao developed the strategy for protracted people’s war against imperialism, and he led’ in consolidating the dictatorship of the proletariat and defeating attempts to restore capitalism in China. His thought is the highest development of the philosophy of dialetical ’ materialism. The speaker pointed out that AIA upholds MarxismLeninism-Mao Tsetung Thought and adopts an uncompromising, doctrinaire position which allows no tampering with or revision of this theory. The theory has been proven- correct in practice. Our task is to apply it to our own condi‘, _ . ,I< tions .

AND UhlIVERSITIES

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: : I -XRltlCs OPEN lNVlTAT!ON \ *

Both the Liberal Party and the NDP Colleges and Universities &ics will be on campus next .week to meet with students. All interested students are invited to attend these se-s-.: ‘I :. sioris.. I. .:. ,:

John

:Sw&ney

20, 1976

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The following is a report by l&ug Wahlsten on th;! recent edu&tional forums organised by the AntiImperialist Alliance.

pifak studio 350 King St. W., Kitchener,

february

’ - Political .ecoriomy forums

- <‘% ONE OF A SERIES -~PLEASE.CLI~ AND SAVE

COFFEE ARABiCA

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Liberal Party-Colleges- &. Universities critic T&dtiy, Feb. 24,1:30PM q . En@inee&g~ Lecture Hall ‘Rfn. 211 David Warner NDP Colleges & Universities critic hiday, Feb. 27, 1:30PM. Campus Centre Rm. ;I 10 -r

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The next speaker explained the Marxist-Leninist position on the education cutbacks of the Ontario government. The Henderson Report on government spending blames the people of Ontario for demanding too much service, and it calls for drastic cuts in budgets for health, education and social welfare. Anyone who reads the newspapers knows that the Report is being implemented today. By blaming the people for the crisis in provincial finance, the government is mystifying the cause. Canada is a state monopoly capitalist system, and it is dominated by U.S. imperialism. This is the cause of the present crisis. In the 1960’s a large amount of finance capital was imported into Canada, mainly from the U.S., leading to rapid expansion of our economy. In order to service this expansion, of U .S . imperialism, the Canadian state used the people’s taxes to pay the costs for providing new roads, communication facilities, energy generation, education, etc. Large numbers of trained people were needed, and so the state made it relatively easy to attend university by building new schools such as U of W and providing -grants and loans. In the 1970’s, however, the crisis of U.S. imperialism deepened because of the monetary crisis, the loss in Indochina, the growing. unity of Third World countries against foreign exploitation, and contention with the new, expanding superpower , Soviet social-imperialism. At this time the bourgeoisie is desperately trying to shift the burden of this crisis onto the backs of the working class and people in Canada, including students and teachers. Expansion of the economy has ceased, and ,now more capital is leaving Canada in the form of interest and dividends than is coming in as investment. In order to facilitate this, the Canadian state is attacking the people, blaming them for the crisis in order to shift the burden of the crisis more completely onto their backs. First there was the Green Paper on immigration in February of -1975, which blamed immigrants for the housing shortage, unemployment, etc., and prepared conditions for increased exploitation of immigrant workers. Then there was the White Paper on inflation in October of 1975 and Trudeau’s current wage restraint programme, which blames trade unionists and other workers for inflation and restrain wages while prices and profits are permitted to soar. Now we have the Henderson Report and the education cutbacks, onC’e again blaming problems on the people and forcing us to pay the price. These forums will continue on a weekly basis, meeting every Thursday evening at 730 PM in Room 207 of Lthe ,. Arts ‘Lecture Hall. Posters will announce the topic each week.

act

Next Wednesday; in the Architecture Studio, a group of final year planning and architecture students will be involved in a simulation of the development approval process. The simulation is part of a course offered by the schools of architecture and urban and regional planning, which is being taught by professors- George Rich and Don McIntyre. In the afternoon, three development teams will present proposals to a technical planning board, made up of people playing the role of the planning director, zoning administrator; city engineer, public health officer, and , ?

The cutbacks and imperialism

others. The development proposals are based on projects of several fifth year architecture students. In the evening the planning board will hear presentations from the development teams, and the technical planning board. Throughout the entire process, three citizen groups will be giving opinions and presentations. All development proposals are for sites in Kitchener-Waterloo. The afternoon session will start at 1:30, and the evening at 7:00, in the Architecture Building on Philip Street. Anyone who is interested is welcome. .

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Recrea$iiicp7 move,’ ta/ledL ’.ill~gal,L : ,’ setting

- The recreation department’s “In other words, the university move off campus bypassed the administration is ruling by default proper channels of university decisince such a decision didn’t :go ~to sion making, UW student senator . the normal I channels for apAndrew Telegdi charged Wednesproval.” day. _The university senate should be He said the plan to relocate the *setting the priorities for space allodepartment on Phillip. Street by cation on campusand not the adnext September didn’t go to the ministration, Telegdi said. 1 Human Kinetics and %eisure “It’s not the role of the adStudies Faculty council, the senate ministration to. de&de these long range planning committee, priorities, it’s the role of senate.” and the senate executive commitThe senate should also be exatee for consideration. mining the university’s priorities Pbst’[as,’

against

‘OTTAWA-(CUP) The 22,000 member Canadian Union of Postal Workers has become the first -major trade union to officially call for a one-day national strike to oppose the federal anti-inflation measures. . I Speaking to an audience of about 750 at an ,anti-control rally here Feb. 10, CUPW vicepresident Jean Claude Parrot rei ceived a standing ovation when he called on the Canadian Labour Congress to orga,nize “a one-day strike across Canada in protest against wage controls. ” Other speakers at the meeting,

including Julien Major of the CLC and CUPE president Grace Hartman, had recited the usual refrain about wage controls being an at-tack on labour and the end of’fi=ee collective bargaining. But when Parrot’s turn at the podium came’ he began by stressing that talking about problems wasn’t good enough: “We must also talk about solutions”. He agreed with the other speak.ers who had detailed the injustices of the wage-control scheme, and went from there to conclude that the result will be to “change the direction of trade union politicsin.

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Arts Faculty (4 seats) .Don Otih: 102 votes. F’ranz wingender: 101. Donna Rogers: 98. . Bruce Roy&on: 82.

Kathy Ma& Patti Rudy Andy

Bergen: 62 Wills: 47. Gilbert: 40. / Poirier: 40. ’ Seibel: 34.

Engineering . \(3 seats)

John Lee: 17 votes.

Rick DeGrass: 12. c Ron Hatz: 12.

Integrated (1 seat)

Studies I 12 votes.

Doug Thompson:

Mike Wallis:

Faculty

4.

Mathematics (2 seats)

john Long; 112 votes. Selma Sahin: 78.

Ian Macmillan: 85. Jim Linnen: 46. l .

Harry Vanderzand: Gord Swaters: 26.

Enviromktal Studies Faculty (2 seats)

DaveMcLena: 88

Heather

Robertson:

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Faculty

Rowland Stow: 138 votes. Paul Buckham: 136. Mbnny Brykman: 93 -

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Rudy Peters: 44. ’ Steve Pamiak: 22.

91 votes.

The run-off between Rick DeGrass and Ron Hatz for the one remaining Graduate Studies seat will be held on Tuesday. Acclaimed were: Dave Daunt and Shelley Trupp for the Science Faculty; Stephen Prior for the co-op term Science seat; and Robert White and Elaine Manuel for the co-op term .Mathematics seat. Phillip Marquis and Peter Goodwin for Human Kinetics and Leisure Studies’; Cliff Maude for Renison College; &d Brian Miatello for St. Jeromes College. The following seats arestill vacant: one Science seat; one co-op term Environmental Studies seat; and one coop term Mathematics seat.

Gts centre

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Special Added Attraction 3 Theatre Passe Muraille’s

/ar

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. A musi@ play Starring Don Harron

*

‘The

‘A celebr’a’tion of an era’ story of an extraordinary

man’

Tugs &W&d Mar 2 & 3 - 8pm Theatre >f the AI ts e

---

Admissior $350, St1 lden /Se liars Box Office ext. 2126 rr

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was an urgent need for more de\ Partment space. Brzustowski said ’ he accepted Telegdi’s idea that senate should be the priorities at the university and to do this he would be encouraging the long range plan‘ning committee to assume a greater roleAs for recreation students protesting their department’s move, Brzustowski said hell1 try to do his best, to look after their complaints. “I’ll try to do whatever is possi-ble to. minimize- the (students’)

Senate after much debat,: detided against stalling the’ department’s relocation and defeated a motion calling for a task force to assess the slated move. Telegdi argued that such a task force could examine the recreation situation in addition to assessing the priorities of space at the univer&y. Ha stressed the adverse effects to students if the c department is moved, saying it won’t encourage relationships between teachers aanZl pupils as the classrooms will

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pr~e~d~some of the students’ ~.~tI$~dth~~~~s~f~~gripes include the nroblem of lar complaints, claiming the qualc&&it between the university and the Phillip Street location, the- ‘ity of education will deteriorate 1, since students will be- removed scheduling of classes, and equipfrom their professors. . ment transportation to classes held on campus. * The recreation department will ‘A report on the student ’ griebe entitled to 12,ooO sq. ft. in a~ vances will be ready for senate at yet-to-be-constructed warehouse its March meeting, Brzustowski on Phillip Street next to the,UW said. , architecture school. The department now occupies The protest . surfaced at Monday’s senate meeting when part of the sixth floor of the about 50 students presented their , mathematics building, - and its be taken over by the complaints and asked senators to officeswill prevent their department’s move. kinesiology school. -j&n yore .

this country.” Parrot said unions and labour politics “have been in a rut for too long”. In the past 30 years, he said, collective bargaining has been accepted by employers, and unions and employers have arrived at an understanding: provide pay increases for our members and we will “the orders, do yhat we are told, how we are told” to do it.” “But the Trudeau controls changed all this. The government has taken the side of employers, l ooeeiiieoeeooeee~eeeeeee~eeeeoeoeeeeeeeeeee~ and collective bargaining has been ‘\ killed dead inone stroke;” he, said. : “The deal we made with manage: ment has been broken.” : Jg g&& ‘y/B;&? Parrot said the CLCstand has been that the controls represent _: _ \ b “an attack on democracy”, but, 2 \ he commented, ‘61 lost’ -tiy ihi sions about democracy a long time ’ : ago.” . What is needed, he said, is a l= pre.smting works choreographed by ’ “new trade union strategy for l faculty and students Canada” based on “more militant, . : . more political unionism” engaging , : FRI. MAR. 5-8pm I in a “broader field of political ac- ,a tion” than in the past.i Humanities Theatre. Parrot said the CLC should be : Admission $2.00, students/seniors $1.25 given greater power and more re: Box’Office Ext. 2126 = sources so that the collective supl ’ port of organized labour can be z Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students thrown behind important strikes to l &A ensure victory for labour.

UW DANCE COMPANY

Graduate Students (2 seats)

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- regarding academic and non academic matters in both thexshort and long term, he added. about Asked yesterday Telegdi’s remarks, UW academic vice-president Tom Brzustowski I said according to the university act the administration is empowered to make decisions such ‘as the recreation department’s move off campus. He said there was “a lot of discussion” in recreation abou>t the move and the professors felt there

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ture; one which admits that some are going to end up “with the short end-of the stick” but which ensures that even they “have plenty

When Ehrlich closed the University of Ottawa’s eight-day Festival of Life Feb. 1 he gave the 1,000 people there a prediction: “Either birth rates go down or death rates will go up.”

t”‘eat”’ Economic

inequality

Thus Ehrlich joins the ranks of those who recognize that the main problem in the world is economic inequality, but who pose solutions to our problems which do nothing to challenge that fundamental inequality. On the surface Ehrlich plays the role of a dedicated scientist burdened with information which points to a hard-nosed solution he feels obligated to communicate and fight for. He almost quit the fight once, he says, to pursue laboratory research on butterflies and planetinsect inter-relationships but, encouraged by population control

“If we shared all food equally everyone would have just enough,” he conceded, observing however “there are two million to 20 million deaths each year due to maldistribution” of world food resources. He concluded that “people have not yet behaved like saints,” which he suggested was necessary for fair food distribution. Therefore, he contended that we should “try and design a world” that recognizes our unsaintly na-

e e

THREE ON THE FLIP SIDE 3 comedies

that are real rib ticklers

0 THE REAL 0 Stoppard 0

directed

INSPECTOR

by Maurice

HOUND

by Tom

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Evans

0 A DAY FOR SURPRISES by John Guare 0 and BLAND HYSTERIA by John Palmer 0 $ 0 0

20, 1976

aul Erlick

OTTAWA (CUP)-Crusading doomsday ecologist Paul Ehrlich says the -key to continued’ life on earth is to have less people.

0

february

directed by Tom Bentley-Fisher FEB. 24 - 28 8 pm. Theatre of the Arts Admission $2.00, students/seniors Box Office ext. 2126 Creative Arts Board, Federation

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progress in North continued.

America

he has

While the story he tells of mass starvation and nuclear war based on a struggle for a piece of the world’s diminishing food and resources is indeed grim, his solutions, based on facts compiled from over 15 years of scientific research, seem astonishingly simple, shortsighted, if not chauvinistic. The story goes like this: World population has doubled to four billion since 1930 and is expected to double again by the year 2000. While world food production has been rising it’s likely to drop in absolute terms because weather from 1930 to 1960 was the best for agricultural production in the last 1,000 years. With a return to normal weather-more variations and fluctuations-the risk of crop failures around the world is high. For instance, last year the Russian grain belt production fell short by 79 million metric tons. Should a similar situation occur alongside a production shortage in the U.S. grain belt, and failure of the Indian monsoon, millions would starve. A study quoted by Ehrlich points to a 20-year drought cycle in the U.S. mid-west. Early weather reports indicate it might start this year. And another study shows that the Indian monsoon fails every two years. The last time it failed was in 1974. To augment this, genetic variability in crop plants is running dangerously low because many countries are planting the same crops.

so if our food supply nal, Ehrlic h concludes

is margiwe must

reduce population. That will be no easy task, he says, because a Harvard demographic study proves even if average family sizes in nations with high birth rates dropped immediately to four, overall population would still increase 2.5 times before levelling off, simply from the pressure of existing numbers. One step in reducing population, says Ehrlich, is to “look at the factors that make people want to have large families and change some of these.” Economic necessity At the same time he admits that large families in poor nations are an economic necessity for individual family needs even though they inhibit overall economic growth. He attributes the population decline in North America to unemployment, a rise in the standard of living, and the success of the women’s liberation movement. It’s obvious Ehrlich already knows why some people “want to have large families .” Plus, he has observed the factors leading to population decline in North America. Yet he fails to mention how those solutions can apply to poor nations. By doing so he has effectively soothed the conscience of North America by washing their hands of the food and resource maldistribution problem. *’ He has lifted the burden of sharing from North American shoulders . But more importantly, he has skirted the issue of the political upheaval necessary to redistribute wealth in those poor nations, many of which are typified by extremely, wealthy elites. and impoverished masses. Global

triage

It is in this context that Ehrlich’s vehement opposition to the widespread use of nuclear power becomes clear. He raises the very real problems of nuclear waste disposal and risk of accidents, but hints at the future necessity of global triage and possible radioactive terrorism. (Triage refers to a sorting method used in the first world war in which seriously injured soldiers were left to die and those with minor injuries left to help them-

Tove is Beautiful33 “Carole will iou marry me?” -was it yes or no? The answer Christ asks, Will you follow me? Your answer, is it yes or no?

Rev. Eugene O’Reilly, C.S.S.R.

721 Coxwell

Avenue

Telephone

(416) 466-9265

Toronto

M4C 3C3

selves, thereby concentrating aid on those who hati a good chance of survival .) The issue was first raised during the Festival of Life by Canadian geneticist David Suzuki who rejected it, asking, ‘“Will we soon be talking about cutting off aid to the Third World?’ ’ Little did he know. When Ehrlich was asked what the probable cause of an increased death rate would be, if birth rates didn’t go down, he did not discuss food and resource shortages. Instead he said the cause would likely be nuclear war. In his address? he said if the world follows the wrong track af= fluent North America would literally be a “lifeboat”. He hastened to add that the lifeboat would be very vulnerable if deprived nations were armed with nuclear weapons. And to ensure the lifeboat doesn’t become overcrowded before the possible crunch comes, Ehrlich suggest the United States and Canada should restrict immigration “save for humanitarian reasons. ” ‘Clamps on upstream’ He also advocates government following a philosophy of “macro-control and microfreedom” by putting “the clamps on upstream”. instance , For government should decide how much petroleum a country can afford to use and then let the market decide what goods to produce. Unfortunately, Ehrlich overlooks the problem of widespread monopolistic control of oil resources, and the injustice of a distribution system based on ability to pay rather than need. While his concern for the environmental havoc the human race has caused is well-based in fact and his message that unless a proper ecological balance is struck it will mean the end of us all should be seriously considered, Ehrlich’s North American chauvinism has not allowed the need for a parallel political balance to enter his solutions. He says, “there’s a small probability of making it.” But if the rest of the world doesn’t pull through, it’s clear Paul Ehrlich stands on the side of “lifeboat” North America, and wants to ensure that its well-stocked. -kris

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frida)

-If

Gerry Coldly invited you to lunch one day you might think twice before accepting.. . Connolly is associate director of the American Freedom Corn Hunger Foundation. When he invites a group of people to a “banquet” he waits to serve the meal until stomachs a& growling and heads begin to ache Tom hunger. Then he serves one third of the guests juicy prime ribs, steaming baked potatoes and all: the trimmings.

The other guests are served rice and In an original way, and-on a minute . nolly succeeds in reproducing the eating the w&d’s population. A world where of the popdation is malnourished, half are hungry all the time, and 32 nations starvation.

tea. scale, Conpatterns of two thirds the people are close to

Death by starvation To most Canadian?, hunger is an occasional pang of a delayed meal or a skipped breakfast. But for an estimated 700 million people, hunger-is commonplace and the prospect of an agonizing de&th by starvation, a grim fact of life. In the past few years Third World countriG have united around the issue of food, bringing it into the limelight of international politics alongside the ‘ ‘energy crisis”. Last year’s World Food Conference in Rome demonstrated a new trend in international relations. Third World countries at the Conference, standing together, demanded a better deal in their trade relationships with the economically developed countries, including Canada. More recently, the 13%member United Nations Food and Agricultural Organizatitin ended its stormiest meeting in its 3O-year history. For the first time, the three-week conference saw confi-ontations between industrialized and developing n& * . tions . In a demonstration of growing Third World power the Palestine Liberation Organization was granted obse-mer status and Lebanon’s Edouard Saouma was elected to the six-year post as FA0 Director-General. The Third World countries are no longer conteilt , to talk of the world food problem in terms of tech” nical problems, such as fertilizer shortage, climatic changes, population growth, and inefficient farming methods. These cauntries realize that the FA0 and World Food conferences have been discussin& food while ignoring the economic and political bases of these technical problems, and for yeti more and more of their people have been d)ring of starvation.

Humaktarian

concern

At the Rome conference and the recent FA0 meeting, Cedian delegates continued to voice humanitarian concern for the plight of the starving masses and etiphasized the need for more solid food aid tocope with the short-term crisis of starvation. . ’ The Canadian delegations, like those from the US and other developed countries, carefully avoided discussing the political dimensions of the / food crisis. Third World countries, pn the other hand, challenged the wasting, hoarding and destruction of food resources and the recent cutbacks of food aid by the developed nations. They challenged on a, political level the trade and development polici& of the developed powers and the channeling of food resources from the Third World through international agribusiness to the de- veloped capitalist markets of Europe and North America. For these people know that the world food shortage is not a “technical problem”. Many food experts have admitted that in purely technical terms the world is capable of producing/ enough food to meet everyone’s needs. For example, to dispel one common myth, in the world as a

. Third- World people are becoming more aware that malnutrition and I food shortage is a result of I <imperialist control of food production and distribution by countries such _i as Ca.nada. I

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whole the production of food has outstripped increases in population numbers. The latest FA0 figures show that between and 1985 the world population can be expected grow at an annual rate of 2.1 per cent while world’s food pro@ction will grow by 2.7 per per year. From 1962-72, population growth annually 2.4 per cent while food production expanded per cent annually. But, if this is the case, tihy people still hungry?

the 1970 to the cent was 2.7 are

Maldistribution The fact is that the world food problem is primarily a problem of distribution. And it is becoming clearer that the controllers of food production and distribution in Canada are playing an important role in assuring that the majority of the world’s people go to bed hungry. Canada has a major export and import role in food prqducts which ties it directly to the economies of other countries. Don Mitchell, in his recent book The Politics of Food states that, “With a double role as both food colony and ‘food colonizer, Canada has a compli1 cated place in world food trade. In general Canada is dependent on the US for markets for food exports, and as ‘a supplier of food imports. “But Canada also plays the role of colonizer in relationship to resource exporting countries of the Third World. ’ ’ Canada is one of a group of developed capital&t countries, including the US, Europe and Japan, which consume a hog’s share of food relative to _world standards. It is estimated that 210 million Americans consume as much food in grain equivalent as the 1.5 billion people who live in the most populated nations, India and China. In total, the 20 per cent of the world’s population that live in the most industrialized countries consume as much food as the other 80 @er cent of the world’s population. In order to support the consumption habits of Canada an! the other industrialized countries, the world’s agricultural resources have been gradually converted toward the production of luxury and Qigh protein food commodities, such as sugar, meat, tea, coffee and f&s. Third World gountries qe drained to feed the already overfed populations of developed countries while their own populations are starving. This can be most clearly illustrated by the sugar industry in the US and Canada.

‘Sweet-tooth’

diet

Sugar is a luxury commodity which “sweet-tooth’? diet of the developed the North American diet, sugar and eluded in virtually every article of Gith the exception of fresh fruit and

caters to the countries. In grain are inconsumption vegetables.

Sugar is one of Canada’s major food imports, since only ,12 per cent of total market needs are filled by sugar beets in western Canada. . Canadian sugar refineries, ‘as part of the intemational sugar cartel, profit directly from the apartheid policies of South Africa and the exploitation of land resources and labour in other third world countries. Up to 1973, & International Sugar Agreement kept prices stable but low relative costs of production. This meant that the hiring of cheap black labour in South Africa and the exploitative labour conditions in other countries was encouraged. In Canada it was not profitable, even with migrant farm workers, to maintain the sugar beet industry. But this did not ‘mean that the North American price of retail sugar was necessarily a bargain. As in other segments of the food industry, large monopoly companies and cartels were controlling the price, and had the power to pass on inflationary price increases despite their overly cheap supplies. In Canada, the big three Eastern refineries of Atlantic Sugar, Redpath Industries, a@St. Lawrence Sugar are part of the international cartel of sugar refineries and have&vice been dragged into federal courts for alleged price fixing at artifiiially high levels, with little effect.

Sugar shortage When sugar prices rose in 1974, it was a result of speculation by the refineries themselves and petty speculators. It start&l from rumours of a world shohe of sugar, even though production at that time matched demands. . Fears of purchasing and hoarding by Arab countries, holding of supplies by refineries, and threatened cutback& in production by some sugar producing countries (where sugar plantations were almost all foreign owned), pushed prices up and panic spread thbughout the fall of 1974. me price rose corn $16 per hundred weight in August 1973, to $72 per hundred by December 1974. Since 60 per cent of the Canadian market for sugar is for industrial use in c&med fruits, soft drinks; confectionaries and baked goods, a jump in sugar prices affects a gr?at’many consumer items. The sugar refineries exploited the situation by placing the bulk of the supplies onto the market-at the real price. Eventually the panic subsided and the price of raw sugar,dropped to $40 per hundred weight or a 40 per cent wholesale decline in price. Meanwhile, in the stores the price dropped only 30 per cent. The refineries had go obligation to completely return to earlier prices for refined sugar.- When thev decided to increase their margin of profit, they had the power to decide what the price of refined sugar would be. The candy manufacturers, bakeries, canne.ries, ice cream plants and so on, naturally climbed on the

band wagon and tives remained al price of sugar fel This example 4 industry demons , food industry an4 into the world fo Canadiap suga sugar benefit filabour and at the horns. The food indur are-- intimately ca system of trade a the interests of Canadian govern the present ineql world.

’ ‘Bread t Along with sug Canadian diet is considered a Dali serves, with the viewed as the “k ’ And,itistrue tially to world foe umeasafoodelr plying, for instaw Yet, and here c than our capacity are least in need myths about fee world, 80 per ten European, Japant Since the dem: from these p&ma a great extent wh At thk momel cereal crops to r and’ beef and por What this has I vr;heat and other millions in need c forgotten in the I mands of Europe The Soviet UI capitalist powers contributing to tl the world market L

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The disastrous Sian government’ world. This deal pled, contributed World, and cre; Canada on bread products. The examples sugar prices in 19 tive years was t overall food price They represenl tion under capital the world food CI The large foot Canada such as tl family empire a Canada Packers capitalist countie food industry. It directly from the and other foodss In contrast to tl ship found in m;


976

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s with sugar addivels even after the lation in the sugar ;ely the Canadian consumer are tied i companies using n of third world bit the consumer at veloped countries state. Through a ; and protection of y companies the others, supports ion of food in the

?e globe lain constituent of has always been 1 world grain re:s of the prairies F the globe. ntributes substanare second in volnited States, supall wheat exports. h, we produce less e for markets that :. Contrary to the y masses of the ural exports go to :an markets. Id produce comes :rs, they control to ems produce. 1 is shifting from urimal feed grains

tries, the proportion of US ownership of the food and beverage and farm supply sectors in Canada is small. The dominant source of capital investment for agribusiness in Canada has been Canadian banks, investments and the network of Canadian capitalists centered in Toronto’s Bay Street. But the Canadian-based food corporations are no more responsive or accountable to the needs of the Canadian people or the people of the world than American branch plants.

Weston’s

monopoly

For instance, Weston is Canada’s largest corporation, and it has companies located in Britain, Australia, Ireland, Rhodesia and South Africa as well as representatives in many others. The monopoly consequently has a stranglehold on the Canadian economy and influences the world market. Weston’s involvement in South Africa and Rhodesia has been particularly rewarding and humanitarian considerations have disappeared. The exploited indigenous work force, and the racist governments that police it and keep it in place, have long made these nations a favoured haunt of multinational corporations such as Weston. Through large monopoly corporations such as Weston, and through government policies that pro-

from soybeans and peanuts. Food is the basis of profitability, as the examples of sugar and wheat have shown before. Canadian companies and governments have taken part in the raising of prices of staples such as sugar and wheat and the diversion of food products from countries where they are grown and needed. Canada has been a very important factor in tuming the agricultural resources of third world countries toward the production of “luxury” high protein food commodities to support the highly profitable marketing of cash crops such as sugar in the industrialized countries. In 1974, the Canadian Council for International Co-operation claimed that, “Rich countries export three million tons of average protein high profit grains to poor countries while four million tons of high protein foods flow from poor countries to rich countries each year. The rich have the power to command food from the market which is denied to the poor.” Through the export of capital, the use of tariffs, and other devices, the Canadian capitalists take part in the imperialist division of labour that creates a situation where people die of starvation in the, midst of plenty. Developing countries have to import many of their staple foods because most of the arable land is given over to “cash crops” such as cocoa, coffee, tobacco and peanuts. At the same time, Canada and the other developed countries control the distribution and use

a is a reduction in n and the starving n are very quickly ‘cry profitable deanese buyers. the other leading important part in price of grains in

b-Off’ at producer had a Juyers took part in “Great Grain Ripmarket and helped n less than $2 per i matter of twelve ente” the Russian ne on the Ameriumers of the Rusfelt all over the prices, which triships in the Third bmestic prices in roducts and meat rices in 1973 and ch in their respec;le contributor to le, are not unique. : of food distribuprimary source of Id monopolies in ies cartel, Weston Corporation and fend in advanced poly control of the ties which benefit s of wheat, sugar of foreign ;t resource

ownerindus-

d

tect the big companies, the affluent, developed countries dictate the flow of food items in the world mar-. ket. Despite all the rhetoric that you hear from Canadian government representatives at the food conferences, the lion’s share of the food and animal feed moving in the world market is streaming into the well-fed Western World. For example: one half of all beans and peas, nine tenths of the peanuts and three quarters of the

of staple crops such as soybeans, feed grains and rice.

Imperialist

corn

and other

13

these distributive problems have a political nature is illustrated by the case of China. Before the socialist revolution in China, the population was ravaged by problems of starvation and malnutrition. It was only through the socialist revolution that it was possible to bring about the end of an exploitative economic system that had served other country’s imperialist interests. By creating an economic system that provides a fairer distribution of goods among the people, the Chinese have been able to employ science and technology to their potential and it is in this way that they have reached the point of virtual selfsufficiency in food production. Despite the fact that the Chinese do not have a very high standard of living, both their diet and their general living standard are at an accceptable level.

Malnutrition:

unknown

in China

Because of their distribution system, starvation and serious malnutrition problems are unknown in China

today.

As the Chinese delegation pointed out at the World Food Conference, in the three previous years, China’s $2 billion in food imports of grain, mostly comprised of wheat, had been balanced by about $2 billion in food exports, mostly of rice, including food aid to other countries in Southeast Asia. Enforcing this policy of self-reliance, in which food trade mainly serves to create variety in their diets, has only been possible because of land reforms and collectivization after the revolution. This has been a most significant achievement in a country of 800 million people with a minimal amount of mechanization. In contrast to India, the Chinese example shows the crucial importance of political change in conquering the food problem. The two countries have about the same population size and massive agricultural lands. In the past 25 years they have both had the world’s scientific advances in agriculture available to them to improve their situation. While China has taken the political steps necessary to make scientific advances serve the population, India still has problems of starvation and malnutrition because class, caste, regional distinctions and other forms of oppression continue to exist. The people in power in Canada are very content to see the world food situation problem remain unchanged. The problem of maintaining high profit levels by cutting down on grain storage, the destruction of vast amounts of food, as was common during the great depression and more recently the case of the 28 million rotten eggs that were destroyed in Canada are good examples of agricultural waste and manipulation that is involved in maintaining an economic system that clearly does not meet the needs of the majority of the world’s population. In Canada, like India and the other countries of the world, food is an indispensable commodity. In Canada, there are different people in our midst dying of both overconsumption and malnutrition. This is the exact situation in the world at large. If one looks at some of the meetings and conferences that have taken place in the past two years-The Law of the Seas conference, the World Population conference, and the World Food conference-it is immediately clear that they have all been marked by debates between the developing countries, debates revolving around the issue of who has to get what resource from where, and how. The successful formation of a cartel by the OPEC countries to control their hard won oil resources has sparked similar moves by other countries around commodities such as bauxite and bananas. The Third World countries are now realizing that their strength lies in their unity against the countries that have exploited them. The great scientific and technical breakthroughs of the past decades have released a tremendous potential to feed the entire world-and feed it well. Yet, exploitative economic relations, inherent in capitalist and imperialist powers such as Canada and the remnants of feudalism in many parts of the world, prevent technical innovations from being effective in solving the food problem. These economic problems create inequality, poverty and prevent the people of the world fkom dealing with rapid population growth and starvation. The world food problem is a political problem, and will only be solved with a political solution.

-’

control

Third World people are becoming more aware that malnutrition and food shortage is a result of imperialist control of food production and distribution by countries such as Canada. The fact that these distributiveproblems are basic to other food production problems and that

The above piece was the McGill Daily) for magazine. It is reprinted Of the McGill Daily, the University.

written by Malcolm Guy (of the Science for the People from the Dec. 7 7, 7975 issue student newspaper at McGill


14

the chevron

friday,

MIDNIGHT SHOW SATURDAY NIGHT FEBURARY 21 ioNE

The

SHOWING

year

.

ONLY-’

20, 1976

Track teams .hit boards

I

The Warrior and Athena track teams took to the boards last Friday for the Star-Maple Leaf Indoor Games held in Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto. There were two sections of the meet, the colleges and university section, with representatives from across Ontario, Quebec, and New York, and -the invitational section, with international competitors. Mike Lanigan and Liz Damman both competed in the invitational section. Mike, who qualified in seventh spot for the Canadian Mile event, upset many athletes with his second place finish. (Paul Pearson, a former Warrior and now a National team member, was the winner.) Mike’s time was a fast 4~12.3. Liz Damman competing in the 50 yd. hurdles was fourth overall in a closely bunched finish. The winner was Sue Bradley from Toronto with a time of 6.6, while Liz was- one tenth slower. Ted McKeigan ran a very strong 2 mile but was not able to beat Mike Dyon of Toronto. Ted has been running very well all season, breaking personal r&cords in several events. He was also named the second fastest road runner,

is 2024,,,

jan R rated, rather

february

earlier this year,.by th& Metro Toronto Road Runners Association, which stages many races in To* ronto throughout the year. In the 50 yd. dashes Waterloo was again strong. Colleen Hunter with a swift finish managed to place. third with a time of 6.5, one tenth behind the winner. With some improvement in her starts, Colleen may be able to be the swiftest woman in Ontario universities. In the men’s division, Doug Denike was narrowly defeated in the 50 yd. dash to place third. There was less than a foot between him and the winner. In the heats; Doug had a very fast start $nd equalled the meet record of 5.4 but his final time was 5.5. Jeff Mohun and Steve Keating also ran this event. Jeff placed third in his heat and seventh overall. Steve, however, pulled his hamstring muscle five yards from the finish and hobbled across the finish. Hopefully, tgs will not Ikeep him out of the OUAA championships in three weeks. Dave Philp, who has had a slow start this year in the pole vault is now starting to improve. Dave managed a 13’1 and a half inch vault to place 6th.

He hopes to improve his vaultitig by training during “slack week” in the Toronto Armories which has the facilities that Waterloo lacks. John ooyle had difficulty with , the tight Gardens’ bends but still held on to place 6th in the 300 yd. sprint. His time was 43 flat. In the women’s division, Barb Robinson ran a 41.3 for 9th spot. Don McQueen, whose times have been improving all season,broke his pe&onal-record for the 600 yd. run. He placed 8th with a clocking of 1:18.3. Don and John teamed up with Dave Simonds and Jim Stinson to run in the mile relay. It was the first race this year and the team placed 4th overall with a time of 3:37.0. With a little more experience this team could upset one of the big three teams of Toronto, Western; or Queens. Some of the team will compete in all-comers meets over the next two weeks in preparation for the QUAA-OWIAA Championships Mar. 6 in London. Rick Heemskerk will compete in the National Championships Feb. 21 in Edmon-I ton.

kinky tale of survivalJ

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finished the season in third p/ace with a 9-5-2 record while the Hawks are in fourth with 4- 70-2, but both teams seem to get up for games between them. Here No. 7 for the Warriors finishes up a scoring play by sliding @to the photo by grant macfarlane

Curl&s coke third starring

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The Athena curlers finished third in the OWIAA champion-. ships., After an impressive 3 way tie for first place, the Athena curlers advanced to the championships along with 3 other top teams. The Athenas finished with a 6-2 record after a round robin bonspiel among all the other Ontario University teams. The first draw at Western saw the Athenas down Queens easily 13-6 in their first draw of the double knock-out event. Guelph was their next draw and

the Guelph team had been curling well. (Earlier in the round robin Waterloo beat Guelph in the last end of the game 7-6). The game was very, tight until the seventh end when the Athenas dropped 3 but returned to take 2 in the eighth end. The score at the end of the 9th end was 7-5 for Guelph, This group of Waterloo curlers have three seasoned curlers that played until the last shot. Skip, Pat Munroe, set up the house with 3 counters, -then they removed on setting up a possible double takeout for us. Pat’s last shot hit and rolled inches too far to count and the Guelph team won 79. Vice, Gayle Bower threw two perfect draws to set up the 10th end. With a win’ and a loss the Athenas had a do or die gtie with Queen’s to stay alive to the finals. Unfortunately the l Athenas couldn’t seem to find good consistency on the swingy.and.heavy ice. It was difficult to find their draw weight. Queen’s played well and got several good breaks. The final &ore was 923 and thus Queens advanced to the finals against I , Guelph.’


iday, fe6ruary

Jhe chevron

20, 1976

15

Warriors wobbly_ The McMas ter Maurauders ade the obliged return trip to ‘aterloo on Wednesday last and me away on the short end of a !-60 final score. Neither the fans )r the players seemed to generate uch enthusiasm for a game that as over by half time with Mat )wn 11 points, 41-30. Jamie Russell enjoyed one of his :tter shooting nights, going lo-16 am the floor and 4-4 from the ul-line to finish’ with 24 points. ussell led the scoring in the first Ilf with 18 points but in the sec-

ond half Jeff Scott and Mike Visser turned on and scored 23 between them to sew up the win. ‘Trevor Briggs did his usual commendable job on the backboards, finishing with a game high 11 rebounds in addition to scoring 21 points. Mike Visser hit for 14 points, 10 second half and Jeff Scott finishing with 13, all in the second half. The leading scorer for McMaster was Dave Roser with 19. . Saturday night in Guelph isn’t exactly the choicest of locations or

While it may be too early to say for certain, it would appear that the basketball warriors will finish in either first or second place in the Western Division. Such a finish brings with it the hosting of a quarter-final basketball game. That game will be held on Tuesday, February 24. Since it is a playoff game, it is not included in our season ticket plan, The admission for the playoff game will be $1.50, if purchased in advance, $2.00 if purchased at the door. Tickets are now on sale in the Physical Activities Building.

m 3wling

rt

tourney

Waterloo Lanes was the site for is year’s Intramural Bowling 3urney held on February 7. The tion got underway around OOpm with all teams appearing :ry enthusiastic. After all games had been played, 3-0~ Kin-Ret had emerged vicrious after having accumulated a tal of 2265 points. The team con;ted of Al Mason (528 points), en Duncliffe (562), Ann Hudson 21) and Shari Hines (554). Secrd place team consisted of Dave Dwell (646 points), Mike Olmcad (646), Linda Brownlie (456) td Sandra Kulperzer (387). Besides the team titles, there

art

was also a high singles and high triple award which was captured by Cathy Schreiner (ND). Instructors

recertification

For those of you who would like to take part in a swimming instructors recertification course there will be one held March 7 (Sunday) at Breithaupt Centre. For further info and forms please see the receptionist in the PAC or call F. Boychuck 884-4343. Dates

to remember

Friday, February 27-Entry Date for Men’s Broomball, Men’s Volleyball and Mixed Volleyball. All entries for these events must be turned in early Friday at the Intramural Office PAC room 2040.

&ward to Wenzel

The recipient of the first Mike oser Memorial Fund Award is #an Wenzel, a runner specializing the 800 metres. _ The UW Mike Moser Memorial und was established early in 1975 ter the very sudden death of Like Moser, a member of the UW tsketball team. Mike died in Florida on January !, 1975 while the team was on an rhibition tour of that state. The UW Mike Moser Memorial .md was set up to provide burries for needy individuals. ike’s father George assisted in e establishment of the fund. The guidelines for the fund are :ry general. It is hoped that the cipients will be outstanding stunts in addition to having some hletic or other outstanding taracteristics . At the Pan Am Games in Mexico ity Wenzel finished third in the

McPhail’s

800 metres and then had to return her medal when a post-race test’ showed traces of a drug that was on the “forbidden” list, Wenzel said that she took the pill by mistake. It was in a container that also carried her vitamin p ills. As a result of the positive finding in the post-race test, she was suspended for life from competition in international track and _ __ tield events. -An appeal will be held in April and it is hoped that the original decision to suspend Joan will be lifted. A portion of her salutation on Saturday night stated, “It is our sincere wish that any impediment to your participation in the 1976 Olympics will be a temporary one. It is also our wish that you may draw some inspiration from the type of effort typically exhibited by Mike Moser to assist you in the future.”

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dates but an overflow number of Warrior basketball fans followed their team to Guelph and were treated to a 2 hour wait in the cold. Unfortunately the wait wasn’t worth it as Waterloo dropped a dismal 68-57 decision to the Gryphons. It was a poorly played game by both teams and only the outside shooting of Bob McKinnon gave Guelph the win. Jamie Russell finished with a season’s low 12 points and only Mike Visser showed some spark as he hit for 17 points and a game high, 12 rebounds. The Warriors got into a turnover contest with Guelph and the Warriors came out with more. The official stats were kind, giving the Warriors 20 but it seemed like a lot more, much to the dismay of the Waterloo contingent. In all it was a highlylforgettable game with the only saving grace being the point spread. Waterloo beat Guelph by 13 and lost by 11 and therefore, will finish in first place if they .win their remaining two games, Wednesday at Western and Saturday here against Brock at 8:15WT in theA PAC. Notes tram around the league: Windsor beat Laurier 119-95 in a game that saw Laurier go 33-40 from the foul line. Chuck Chambliss put on a show in, a losing cause, scoring 39 points. Windsor had everybody and his brother in double figures as they shot nearly 60 per cent from the floor. Windsor travels to Guelph on Wednesday to play a game which could finalize the league standings. Should Guelph lose, they will finish in 4th by virtue of the point spread in their regular seas on games .

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Russell hits for two while several Gryphons watch in awe. Too little scoring and too many turnovers cost the Warriors, however, as they took a 68-57 drubbing. They did manage to beat the point spread by two though, and so still have a chance at first place, but they’ll have to play better to grab it. photo by graham oee

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the chevron

february

20,

197

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In the theatre of extemalization, a playwright may exploit his dramatic license and not have to answer embarrassing questions so long as he can type in loose ends with a reasonable symbolic justification. This is precisely what Sheldon Rosen has done in his play “The Love Mouse” which was presented last week in the Theatre of the Arts. A young married couple, suffer-

In the recent Student Council elections, John Lee was elected to one of the two graduate seats on council. The other two candidates-Rick Degrass and Ron l-latz-received an equal number of votes. To determine who will sit in the second graduate seat, therefore, a

tween Degrass an

TUESDAY, FEB 10:3OAM t

and men

ing from the post-honeymoon blues, can’t seem to make the domestic contract as the happy partnership it is supposed to be. They quarrel. Their animosity takes concrete form in shape of a mouse. As the marital gulf widens, so the mouse grows until it becomes a wolf, terrorizing the suburban kitchen, where this all takes place. Suddenly, the kitchen is cast out into the open sea. The three float for days. Instead of fighting the wolf, they learn to befriend it. Gradually, the couple reconcile their own differences and, ‘in true fairy-tale fashion, love conquers all in the end. A good deal of the humour of the play rests upon fast one-liners catachysmic) supernatural occurences and burlesque sight gags. For the ‘most part Marilyn Turner, and Carl Scott (as the couple) and Rene Dowhanuik (as the mouse) carried their load well. I emphasize “load” because there is very little light subtlety in Rosen’s script. If I have a quarrel with Robert Stetz’s directing it is in his lack of concentration upon the major themes of the play, sexual roles

and sexual attachment. Instead c forcing the couple to confront eat other with strength, he lets th Mouse upstage them thus d minishing the impact. Also, it is because of their sex ual urges that the couple do final1 reconcile. In Stetz’s direction, th two embrace and out go the lights When the wife dries off her hu$ band, it looks as if she’s polishin the brass. The love play on/ th whole is tactless and unexciting. Sound effects and heavy wit ar not all that comprise “The Lov Mouse”. A sense of responsibilit pervades the humour. The coup1 learn responsibility towards eat other and the playwright shows rc sponsibility towards the institutio he is assaulting, namely marriage He doesn’t depricate towards th marriage contract itself rather, h satirizes the Johnson’s wax con mercial clean-cut T.V. image -c what youth-in-wedlock ought t be. These points came throug strong . enough to warrant th production’s success for it nc only kept the audience alive for th duration but it left them somethin to suck on after it finished. -myles

kesto

ID cards must be presented to v,ote. Voting will be.by Faculty in the Following locations.

Arts L Environmental. Studies (vote in main Foyer, Arts Lecture Hall Mathematics HKLS (vote if7 _’ 3rd floor, M&C building) +\:’ Scienm & Engineering t (vote in lounge area near main entrance of .Q r* . Physics building _+ # Ralph Torrie, CR0 sir + Federation

of Students

;***i*******************************-**********

TONIGHT & TOMORROW

4

&Pm Humanities Theatre Admission: $5.00 tudents/Seniors $2.50 Box office ext.21 26

+ +

s centre ++4r+++


fridav,

februarv

the chevron

20. 1976

Turn, tune,

Elgar; Serenade for Strings, Elegy for Strings, Salut D’amour, Carissima, Sospiri, and others; English Chamber Orchestra conducted by Daniel Barenboim; Columbia, M33584. British musicians are born, it seems, to play Elgar. And, here is yet another fine example. Daneil Barenboim conducts the English Chamber Orchestra in a collection of Sir Edward’s salon works. The major work on side 1 is the Serenade in E minor for Strings, Op. 20. Published in 1892, this was Elgar’s own favorite. The EC0 is in sterling form on this one. The delicately balanced strings are extravagantly, almost decadently, lush, and the phrasing, particularly in the larghetto is crystal clear. The only flaw (a minor one at that) I could find in Barenboim’s interpretation concerns the allegretto. In one or two spots I consider the tempo just a trifle too fast; this is just a personal preference, you might disagree. Chanson de Matin and Chanson de Nuit, originally written for violin and piano are presented here in . the orchestrated versions. Elegy for Strings, Op. 58, dedicated to King Edward Vl 1, is a solemn work, in the same vein as the larghetto of the Serenade for Strings and ‘Nimrod’ of the

Enigma Variations. Again B arena boim does justice to the composition. Side 2 starts off the popular Salut D’Amour. This is not quite up to scratch I’m afraid-a little too sudsy with some overly zealous playing in parts. The little known Romance for Bassoon and Orchestra follows. Soloist Martin Gatt and the rest of the EC0 render adequate, though not exemplary performances . Rosemary, first conceived as a piano selection and later orchestrated, and Carissima present to us some delicious string work. My favourite on the album, I would recommend the LP to Elgar admirers on the strength of these two tracks alone. Lastly is Sospiri, Op. 70, a tragic piece. This version, for harp and strings, does miss the presence of the organ; the original scoring being for all 3. Despite this oversight the EC0 performs expressively and with inpeccable taste. This album has been a joy to listen to. I find in it a simple radiance and the unaffected pleasure of making music for its own sake. In short, a delightful hour of listening courtesy of Barenhoim and the English Chamber Orchestra. -w.

hiscock

Has reality been getting you down lately? Head in a rut? Has your consciousness dried up and fallen off, or simply disintegrated to that of a politician? Escape! Turn up, tune on, drop in! The Karl Friedrich Gauss Foundation and the Federation of Students have teamed together to bring you, the culture-starved stu“Movies for Thursday dent, Night”. Starting this coming week at 8 PM and running through to 18 March, the flicks will be shown in MC 2066; admission 74 cents. The series unfolds with a double bill: Ingmar Bergman’s classic; and “The Seventh Seal” Vonnegut’s ultimate trip; “Between Time and Timbuktu”. On March 4, a mellow night with Hermann Hesse’s ‘ ‘Siddhartha’ ’ . The highlight of the series is a night of shorts on March 11. The features will include various experimental and animated flicks, a surreal nightmare by Salvador Dali and Charlie Chaplin featurettes. Finally on March 18 the great Canadian War Measures. Act expose, ‘ ‘Les Ordres’ ’ , will play. Included with “Les Ordres” is a selection of experimental shorts from the genius of Norman MacLaren. The foundation recommends that you show up well in advance of the flicks, get comfortable, take in some good music and prepare yourself for the spectacles. Don’t just come to consume a movie; come for a good time! --wz w

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Foreign Motor Car Repair Manual, 2nd editiori Want to save money and maybe have some fun while you’re doing it? Be a backyard mechanic. And the place to start, assuming you’re equipped with something more than a screwdriver and a crescent wrench, is with a repair manual for your car. There are several places to go for such a manual. The manufacturer usually puts out a service manual for its products. These are not always available, however, and tend to be pricey when you consider that they cover only one make,_ _ and sometimes only one model. The other-place to look is at custom prepared manuals such as this one published by Motor. In about 750 pages, this manual covers. most popular makes of imported cars, from ‘Austin through Volvo, up to 1972. It is divided into three sections, the first dealing with English and Italian (Fiat only) cars, the second with Japanese and French and the third covering the German marques. There is also a parts and tools. listing at the back of the book and decimal/metric conversion tables inside the back cover. The manual sells for $21.75, not bad considering the megabucks being charged by, garage owners .for their mechanic’s time. Not bad, that is, if it gives you all you need to know to accomplish your own repairs without running back to the dealer with your car in a box.

Does this manual fill the bill? Perhaps. If- you are already a reasonably competent met hanic, this manual will probably be of some use to you in making adjustments to or overhauling your car. With so many makes and models crammed into comparatively few pages, however, it tends to be less exhaustive than I consider desirable. If you understand the instructions the first time around, fine; if not, you’re out of luck. This brings me to the most notable shortcoming of the manual: its relative lack of useful diagrams, cutaways or exploded drawings. Although numbers of these are present, they are not always helpful. For instance, the favourite subject for exploded drawings seems to be the differential, which in my experience is not the part of a car which needs to be most frequently serviced.

Although a cutaway of the BMW’s automatic transmission is. included, it does no more than occupy space since it is never referred to and no one in their right mind would attempt to tear apart an automatic transmission themselves anyway. There is also a reliance upon photographs which tend to be of low quality and unhelpful, since the more important features are seldom external. In summary, this is a good book to have if you want to have some technical information about a wide range of different cars. If you want more specific and exhaustive specifications and instructions about one particular marque, however, you would do well to invest in either a service manual for your car or a custom one that restricts itself to one make. , -henry

hess

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20, 1976

Religious studies This is in response

to John S. Arnald’s letter in last week’s Chevron. He asks if it was coincidental that the Religious Studies Department was approved at the same time (Jan. senate meeting) that the fate of Human Relations and Counselling Studies was being debated. It was. In all the discussions concerning the two matters I am unable to ‘find a single statement by anyone linking them. We spent two years planning the integration of the existing religious studies faculty from Arts and the four colleges into a financial and academic unit. Mr. Arnald then launches into an illformed broadside against the field of religious studies. He/considers it “a discipline of the past.” How would he explain the large number of courses dealing with the present, e.g. Religions of Mankind (RS 1 lO/lll), Contemporary Western Mysticism (RS 35 1) or the Church in the Modern World (RS 331)? He assumes that all or most religious studies courses are concerned with “Biblelands in Bibletimes” (sic). Actually only about 20% of the RS offerings are in Biblical Studies. .’ To criticize them is similar to questioning the value of courses on Plato, Aristotle, Greek tragedy or ancient history. They are all a part of our intellectual and cultural heritage. Mr. Arnald’s grossest claim is that people in the field of religious studies contribute to the “spreading of fictitious bullshit in the pulpits.” There are good and bad preachers as there are good and bad politicians, psychotherapists et al. Yet this is to miss the point: the Religious Studies Department is not a school of theology preparing people for the mini&y. It is an academic discipline which investigates the religious beliefs and practices of the living religions of the world against their historical and cultural background. The aim of such study is to make people more aware of the role religion has played in the ascent of man, more sensitive t-0 others’ beliefs and better able to articulate what religious thinkers from the buddha to Martin Buber are saying. Benjamin Department

J. Hubbard Chairman, of Religious Studies

Religion is relevant I am replying to a letter by John S. Arnald in the Feb. 13, 1976, Chevron. First let me say that I have taken no courses from either the field of HRCS nor Religious Studies. However, I do have friends in each of these majors. Let me first take exception to some of the claims made concerning the irrelevency of RS. First, RS at this university has included non-Christian religions, such as Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and touches on Ancient Near Eastern religions and some Amerindian beliefs, as well as some general comparitive studies. (According to the 75/76 calendar, anyway.) Secondly, judging merely from the TWOC and Billboard advertisements, some people at UW are religious. Waterloo Christian Fellowship, KW Chinese Christian Fellowship, chaplain Kooistra’s lecture/ discussion group, a faculty/staff/grad fellowship, Hillel, Christian Science, church college worship and the Chaplainled worship services are advertised often. If religion is expanded to include other “self ‘-improvement methods, then I have seen two or three such advertisements recently. A Campus Centre poster advertised a “PSI” self-change course, (I’m not sure who they are); a PAC poster advertised a “sadhana” course in “self ‘-improvement; (pardon the quotation marks, but I’m not

the chevron

quoting precisesly and I’m not sure what they are offering), TWOC mentioned David Driver lecturing on “Get Your Life in Balance” for a Christian Science meeting; and TM is very well advertised (although TM denies any religious overtones to their methods). I have also met “Children of “Krishna Consciousness” God” and (ISKCON, I think, are their official initials) on campus. Conclusion: even university students can be religious. I also take exception to John’s claim that Christianity is outmoded. Although this area is less subject to scientific debate than pseudostatis tics, the claim is still arguable. First, the Bible was largely written in an imperialistic world. New Testament Christians were living under Rome, at the time of the Caesars. For centuries the Hebrews had been a conquered or oppressed nation. And for the few generations that the Israelites had any power, they had been using it to expand and grow wealthy. (References to Old Testament facts: Joshua was leader of the conquering phase: David and Solomon built up power and wealth (see I, II Kings); Daniel and minor Jeremiah, Isaiah, prophets during oppressed times). Thus, whether you feel oppressive or oppressed, someone was writing from yqur situation. The validity or timeliness of the Bible has yet to be disproved or proved. If God exists, then he is the most important person in the universe. To say that God is irrelevant is meaningless; either he exists, or your definition of God is lacking. However, technical or cultural expertise do not change the humanity of man; else racists would be quite right in saying that Third World minorities should be left in ignorante, “and then they would be lesser humans, justly exploitable.” You cannot say that man “outgrew” God. Either God is always important, or he never was. The major point of Christianity, however, is not to in doctrine or morality, but in one person. Jesus is the centre of Christianity as no other religious leader is. (At least that is the claim of the Christian.) Let us follow C.S. Lewis’s outline for a moment. (1) The New Testament documents are reliably known to have been in existence since at latest AD 120 or so. People were being killed (‘martyred’ is the polite word) for believing what these documents say. (2) The New Testament examples of preaching to non-Christians consisted of one major message: Jesus is the one whom God sent into the world to reconcile humanity to God. He died as a substitute for people; he lived again as proof that we too can live forever. (3) Jesus is reported to have made these outrageous claims also. (The Jewish leaders, at least, were outraged). For example, he told Mary or Martha, “I am the resurrection and the life.” To others he said, “I and the Father are one.” (Note that this was said in a culture of uncompromising monotheism; this is not an Oriental pantheism of “God is everyone”.) (4) Therefore Jesus is either the son of God, and worthy of the love and worship and obedience which Christians are told to give, (as note Doubting Thomas: he said, “My Lord and my God” to Jesus, and Jesus accepted the homage) or he was insane, a megalomaniac, or liar. However, Christians who had known him were dying for their beliefs. Jesus had been executed, rather painfully, and this was a great shock to the disciples. Nothing in Judaism as practised in those centuries had prepared people to accept a leader who was also a Servant. It should be noted that the “peace which claims to be a viable movement”, force of change in modern society, uses Jesus’s example and teaching as their basis of thinking. Certainly his life, as sketched in the Gospels, is a worthy and noble one, full of love and kindness. Was Martin L. King, Jr., totally wrong in his belief that peaceful changes were possible and the best way to try to achieve them? You either have to admit that all Christians throughout history have been totally mistaken-even those early martyrs who accepted a belief so contrary to their original that their own families disowned

them-or you must admit that Jesus is still worthy of obedience. This is not a “proof’ ; but if anything is true about Jesus, then he is worthy of study. This does not come to the defence of all religions, partly because I am not familiar enough with them to give any proper statement. It is interesting to note that, if HRCS is to replace RS in the modern world, then certainly “religious fervour and zeal” may be attributed to those who are devoting so much effort to spreading their “good news”? /

Michael

DeHaan 4A Math

News priorities I write this letter not as a personal attack on the Chevron staff but as an ,enquiry into new priorities. Three weeks ago, three student societies introduced a t&faculty social week to campus activities. It was a great success and included such events as a broomball tournament, pub, wine and cheeses, tugs of war, a semi-formal (over 300 in attendance) and so on. Two events, the Arts Spelling Bee and the Math Slide Rule Contest are bi-annual and faculty events now, with prizes trophies. The latter two events attracted faculty as well as students and this increased the enjoyment for all concerned. With the deans, faculty and multitudes of students participating together (ie. semiformal) then communication is certainly enhanced. However, despite all of this the Chevron’s in-depth coverage was limited to such things as a picture of the tug of war. Perhaps, the coverage was bumped out in favour ‘of something more ‘ ‘intellectually stimulating” or “educational .” At any rate, the opportunity is missed this year. Perhaps, next year room can be found for a campus student event of this size, provided - nothing intellectual, international, educational or controversial happens before hand. President,

Bruce Rorrison Arts Society

Our news priorities are simple-we cover what we can with the staff we have. Anyone interested in helping us cover more is very welcome to enter our fold. We are particularly keen to snare people interested in campus events and sport, but if you have an interest in, or would like to learn, any aspect of putting the paper out then please come down and join the fun. -lettitor

FASS for. fascism I think your. comment: FASS cism deserves acknowledgement ber. Thank you for your response.

is for FasMs. WebDoug

Wigle Fasser

Insult and outrage In a letter to the Chevron three weeks ago, I appealed to students to reflect upon the injustices apparent in the election for federation president. I asked that students seriously consider how their interests can possibly be served by a federation president who is not a student of the university. As well, I suggested that students analyze the tactics used in the election and take note of the attempts at backroom deals which were evident along with the use of personal and political attacks on candidates which served as a diversion from platform issues so critical to students at this time. My letter was an appeal to students to consider what took place to win our votes and it reflected a

19

hope that we stand firm in opposition to these injustices. Shane Roberts, in response, did not comment on any of the questions that I raised, however, he did remind me that the majority of the voting students did cast their ballots for his “reactionary” line, calling this an attack on my part. My intention when appealing to students was based on the confidence that if the injustices were exposed, they would feel as outraged and insulted as I do. Unfortunately, these facts were not readily apparent before the election to most students. The real “attack” began, in my view, at the start of the Roberts campaign. For example, apathy among the students was Robert’s excuse for UW’s poor showing at the Queen’s Park demonstration in opposition to the cutbacks. To blame students for a lack of leadership within the federation is a clear attack on us. Roberts also claims that his platform was “the only one with an elaborated position to combat the cutbacks.” Perhaps the strategy is indeed so elaborate that it is incomprehensible to students but that is not unusual in view of the manner bureaucrats use to outline their stand on important issues upon which they do not intend to act. Also I would like to point out that it was the Femandez campaign that made the fight against the cutbacks their primary issue and encouraged it to be the central theme of the entire election. Clara

Kisko

Reply to Robeizs In reply to Shane Roberts,

and his patronizing attitude toward Rorrison in the last Chevron, I must say that we are indeed lucky to have someone who can predict elections in advance and save students the time involved in participation. This would eliminate those students who run through interest or because of a certain belief and streamline the Federation election process quite effectively. . Heather

Scrutton

Common enemies In replying to my “election

observation” letter, Shane Roberts denies the fact that Bruce Rorrison was offered any reward for uniting against the “main enemy” of the students. In speaking to Rorrison, two clarifications have been made. According to Rorrison, Roberts referred to the Maoists as being the “common”, not enemy of the students. My “main” apologies for misquoting! Regarding the common enemy of the students, the Ontario government’s education cutbacks, Roberts claimed in his letter to have employed elaborate strategy in fighting these. However, from his past record, we have seen nothing. It is ludicrous to assume that a potential candidate for any election would withdraw merely because he had lost a previous election. Does Roberts expect us to believe that Rorrison would-take his side simply because of Roberts’ assumption that Rorrison would lose the upcoming election? In clarifying this issue with Rorrison, the fact came-out that Roberts alluded that a position such as vice president could be made available to him. Is this not a reward?! Who is really making erroneous fabrications which Roberts refers to? Dianne

Chapitis

The chevron wishes to apologize to its readers for the graphic “Instant bag-o-shit” which appeared in the Feedback section two issues ago. It was not intended as an editorial comment and we are sorry that it may have appeared to be one. We are attempting to be more careful in our selection of graphics .

l


20

friday,

the chevron

.

february

20, 1976

More questionnaire- replies Here are some more responses to the questionaire published in last week’s chevron. The questionaire asked: I) What kind of satis-

faction do you get out of your research

work?

2) How could the results of your research affect the life of ordinary people? 3) What

criteria do you use to judge the value of research work in general? Answer

to Question

1

Nature is always a challenge to us. Sometimes I feel I am a mountainclimber. The higher I climb, the more I see and the greater the satisfaction I get out of it. The mountain that I climb is so tall that I don’t know where the top is. Occasionally, I do stop on the crest of a hill. The pleasure is not to see the surroundings but to notice a higher mountain to climb. Sometimes I feel I am a hockey player. In the game of research, the opponent is nature. I must follow the rules or at most being on the verge of them, still try to put the puck into the net. Occasionally, I do score, and t,his is why it is so interesting. Sometimes I put myself into an artist’s suit. It is the same kind of satisfaction an artist would have when he paints, sings or dances. In chemistry our research objects are molecules. The molecule that we made is certainly a piece of creative work and I also enjoy the beauty of the shapes of molecules. The ways molecules are packed in crystals are just fascinating. Answer

to question

2

_

The results of my research may not affect the everyday life of ordinary people. But the results may catch the eyes of another scientist who may start a chain reaction and I will not try to predict where it is going to end. I consider that I am making a special kind of screw; where and how it is going to be used is not my job. I do apply the ‘knowledge resulting from research to my thinking even in everyday life matters. I am not a special person. Answer to Question 3 Value is an abstract

term. We should never equate value with dollars when judging scientific research. It is difficult to grade research work. However, it is important for the researchers to realize his own responsibility and the, effect of his work. Sometimes it is difficult to predict the effect of the results. Researchers such as Alfred Nobel did regret their results. A recent example is the resignation of the four Engineers from the nuclear power industry. But on the whole, the society does benefit from research. + P. Chieh Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry

o.o........+...o.i*....... Answer

to Question

1.

As a synthetic organic chemist, my research involves the construction of molecules. It is an art as much *as a science, since it involves conception, design, and execution. At the outset, I, of course, lay my plans very carefully, and in strict accordance with existing theories and data, and there is obviously some satisfaction if the synthesis is executed as planned. However, in most cases, unforseen and unforseeable .obstacles are welcome (sometimes !! !), for it is from the ensuing conquests that new chemistry will evolve. The confrontation with nature can be exhilarating, mystifying, and fius trating , but never desperate. -unless one runs out of ideas. Ingenuity and insight are now more treasured than instant recall, and instinct is a coveted ally. The synthetic chemist will win the battle, and the war, but getting there provides more than half the satisfaction of achievemerit. Answer

to Question

2.

It could, since one aspect of my research is concerned with the synthesis of antibiotics, and another, sponsored by Environment Canada, is directed at syntheses of the sex attractants of beetles that ravage the pine forests . Answer

to Question

3.

The really important critereon is that the research should add a new dimension to current thinking, rather than being merely

f

useful, interesting or competent. But work which fails to achieve this sublime goal can nevertheless be invaluable if it represents ‘a severe and novel test’ of old concepts. Indeed the latter usually reflects greater skill than discovery, for in science serependity is the handmaiden of discovery. In any event, the research should be simple or simplifying, and elegant; if it is complicated, it is because it started from the wrong premise. In my own discipline, a good synthesis is a simple one:one which elicits the response “why, even I could have done that”. Data-gathering without any attempt at organisation is at the lowest end of the scale, for it is uninspired and therefore uninspiring. ..o.........................

Chemistry

B. Fraser-Reid Department

There is a long term satisfaction upon completion&of a particular problem. In addition there is sometimes a daily satisfaction I feel at the end of the day’s work knowing I have achieved something, perhaps completed one step of a problem, or perhaps stumbled onto a new method of attack. Generally, the gratification is from achievement, similar to that one gets from finishing a particularly difficult jigsaw puzzle, or chopping the last piece of a large stack of firewood. It is a personal thing, quite different from ‘the satisfaction one gets from helping other people or from showing off the completed project (jigsaw puzzle) to other people. However, interactions with other people result in a satisfaction from learning new ideas or new and ingenious ways of attacking a particular problem. There is no direct s hart term effect of my work on other people. There are possible long term effects in increasing the efficiency

With reference to your questionnaire on scientific research, I believe that the satisfaction one ,obtains from undertaking research work is primarily the inherent satisfaction of understanding and solving a particular problem; this can generate a reasonable amount of excitement. If the particular research problem can be seen to be of some value to society, such as contributing to the understanding and possible curing of a disease process or if it is likely to affect government policy, this may provide additional satisfaction. However, generally I think that this type of motivation is secondary. Also, carrying out research work frequently enables one to improve one’s lectures, since most people /enjoy talking about work with which they have been involved, and students sense if an Instructor speaks about a subject with . authority and enthusiasm. Concerning your second question, this is partly covered under Question 1, in the sense that results of one’s research can have relevance to social problems. For example, some of my colleagues and I have worked on developing a less hazardous cigarette in Canada, and by making the relevant information available, these studies have contributed to the fact that the cigarettes sold in Canada at this time are. less likely to lead to disease, than cigarettes which were sold in Canada five years ago. Recommendations have also been made I 1. to the Department of Finance with respect to taxation policies which are believed to affect the sales of cigarettes in Canada. Concerning your third question, in judgcontinued from page 21 ing the value of research work, my main pus, except for a few courses such as hydcriteria would be the quality of the work. rological survey and geodetic survey. Generally this is done by trying to ascertain Besides teaching, teachers usually carhow a person’s work is judged by his/her ried out their own research. No regular peers; that is, how other persons in the political learning session was held either for same area judge the person’s research the teachers or the students. As mentioned work. before, our engineering training was in the Whether a particular research project is direction of generalization. Consequently, goal-oriented or not is secondary, although we needed further training on the job for clearly there are a number of important soany specialization. cial problems which should be solved, and if Summary a particular project is aimed towards the solution of such problems, this represents a The present Chinese engineering education bonus. emphasizes specialization, while before 1949 Incidentally, I think every scholar should it was directed toward generalization. The current Chinese reform (or revolution) of take the trouble of at least thinking about engineering education is original. the possible applications of his/her research activities, and perhaps show evidence of Their curricula are tailored to the specialization whit h is particularly desirahaving some view on the social function of his or her work. ble for a country with a social system like

eaucarlon

W.F. Forbes

of chemical processes in industry. Let us divide scientific work into four classes : 1) Work related to my own fields of interest. 2) Pure scientific work investigating fundamental concepts of physics. 3) Work of great social interest, such as investigations into solar heating. 4) Any other investigations, not relating to my own fields of interest. By definition of these classes, scientific work in class 3 is of value to society, work in class 2 is of value to man’s understanding of the world he lives in, and work in class 1 is of value to me. Work in class 2 may be of no short term or long term benefit to society and will probably never affect the life of the man on the street. However I as a scientist feel it is important. This is a gut-feeling; there are 2no criteria involved. . * A grad

student

in physics

UE

Nem

Serwce

China’s today. Everything is planned by the government and every engineer has a permanent job. Specialization, however, may not be applicable to a social system like that of the United States, in which flexibility and mobility are important to the work force. The aerospace engineer is, for instance, a casulty of the tendency toward specialization. Since the new Chinese educational system was developed after the cul>ural revolution in the late 1960s) its first class has only recently graduated. We have, as yet no way of knowing the quality and performance of their new engineering graduates. The success of the new system will certainly be revealed by their engineers’ achievements in practical projects, as well as by publications and activities in academic circles. While the comparison here has been made by looking at hydraulic engineering as an example,readers in other engineering disciplines may draw parallel conclusions. .


iday, february

the chevron

20, 1976

21

Zhina’s engineering,educationrevisited he following article on thd education of en‘neers in China was written by Chong-Hung ee for Engineering Education. Chong-Hung ee is a senior environn7enta//hydrau/ic en‘neer for Stone & Webster Engineering Cor3rafion in New York. I

After a quarter of a century’s absence, a isit to China, the country of my birth, left Le with mixed feelings of enthusiasm and ncertainty. Visiting the college where I rice studied and then worked as an instrucJr, brought back memories of college eduztion in China before 1949. As a member of the U.S. Water Re3urces Delegation * touring the People’s epublic I had the opportunity to visit four ngineering institutions and meet many of s faculty members; some were my former rofessors, colleagues, students and eSIen lassmates. What impressed me most about the col:ges was that the campuses included umerous factories and workshops, in addion to the classroom buildings, laboratories nd libraries. In these factories, students join workers r manual labor; the workers in turn take art in various stages of teaching, and also )in teachers in the training of students. The teachers not only advance themelves in their own field, but attend a Ieekly “learning session” with students nd workers to study the works of Marx, lngels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao. Since stuents are trained to analyze and solve prob:ms by applying the teachings of Marxism-Leninism, teachers must undertand these principles. The new Chinese educational policy is entered on laborers. Every citizen must be productive laborer, either intellectually or manually. While Chinese educators claim heir educational system is still in the trial tagi, the outcome of the current educaional reform in China will certainly affect ;s agricultural and industrial developments n the years to come. , Meanwhile, engineering educators in the Yest would do well to watch China’s eduational experiment to determine any posPre-1949 four-year hydraulic engineering curriculum year: (Numbers in parentheses shows class hours.) Chinese (100) Calculus (150) English (100) College Physics (260, l/2 lab) Descriptive Geometry (100) Inorganic Chemistry (220, l/2 lab) Mechanical Drawing (100) Forging (50) Three Principles of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (32)

First

total

Second Year: Applied Mechanics (80) Plane Surveying (300 2/3 field work) Engineering Geology (100, l/2 lab) Material of Construction (50) Economics (50) Engineerings Mathematics (100) Pattern Making (50) Material Testing (50) Strength of Material (80) Hydraulics (50) Heat Engine (50) Mechanism (50)

sible relevance to their own educational goals. I studied hydraulic engineering in China before coming to the United States in 1948. On the return visit, I saw many of my former teachers who today are training a new breed of hydraulic engineers. Instinctively, as they spoke, I made comparisons with lectures I had attended in the past, par-. titularly noting differences in the selection of students, the curriculum, and in teaching and learning methods. Selection of students Students are now selected from among outstanding workers, peasants and soldiers. Most of these young people are middle school graduates .who have completed at least two years of physical labor in rural people’s communes, factories, mines or in the people’s liberation army. Application for study is voluntary and is accepted on the recommendation of the applicant’s peers which, in turn, is guided by the applicant’s social consciousness, work history and prior study. The application must then be approved by the appropriate revolutionary committee and party leadership. The college finally re-examines the applicant’s qualifications and gives him or her an entrance examination. The age of the young people thus selected is around twenty, but not older than twenty-five. Some older workers, poor and low-middle peasants, and revolutionary cadres, however, are occasionally admitted without the requirement of proper educational background, because they are considered to have an abundance of practical experience. It is believed that several years of physical labor in factories or rural communes not only provide students with various kinds of practical knowledge useful for their specialized studies, but more inportant in China, it strengthens their ties with the workers and helps them understand the feelings and needs of the masses. Before 1949, admission to colleges was based entirely on the applicant’s score on the entrance examinations. After graduating from the senior middle school, applications were sent to a unified Present three-year Land Hydrology

curriculum Specialization

of

Hydrology Department, East China College of Hydraulic Engineering at Nanking. . Common subjects with other departments: Political Science (8 hours per week)-Marxism, Leninism, Stalinism and Maoism. Mathematics (350, l/2 lecture) analytical geometry, calculus, differential equations. Physics (200, l/3 lab.)-mechanics, heat, electricity and magnetism. Foreign Language-mostly English, some Russian and Japanese.

Special sybjects for Land Hydrology: , Surveying (150)-mostly field work Chemistry-water quality Engineering Drawing Hydraulics (250)-mostly in laboratory for open channel flow River Dynamics (lOO)-river bend experiments, sedimentation, bed load, sand dunes. Electrical and Electronics Instrumentation (200) River Basin Run-off (270) Hydrometry-methods of data compilation and analysis, river gauging station, silt survey Third Year: Applied Mathematics-statistics, theory of Reinforced Concrete Construction (240, 3/4 probabilities, empirical equations design and computation) Hydrological Forecasts (350)-hydrological Theory of Structures (200, 2/3 design and station operation, flood, storm, low water and computation) ice regime forecast Hydrology (50) Synoptic Meteorology (180)-meteorology Electrical Engineering (100, l/2 lab) and climatology Geodetic Surveying (120, l/2 field work) Computer Science (350)-hydroeconomic Hydraulic Laboratory (50) and hydrologic computation and analysis, use of Soil Mechanics and Foundation (65) computer in conjunction with the work at hydrological station Fourth Year: Groundwater (1 OO)-mostly field study Waterway Engineering (50) Special topics Irrigation Engineering (100, l/2 design and *, computation) 1 Canal Surveying and -Earth Work (100, l/2 . field work) River Engineering (100, l/2 design and computation) Water Power Engineering (100, l/2 design and computation) Hydraulic Structure Design (50) Masonry Structure and Foundation (65) Specifications and Contracts (30), Harbour Engineering (50) Special Topics (100)

scientia J

enrollment committee for all government supported universities or colleges. On the application were specified several choices of universities and special fields of interest. The committee gave an examination once a year in August. The examination lasted two or three days and the topics English, mathematics included Chinese, (geometry, trigonometry, analytical geometry, college algebra), physics, chemistry, history, geography and the Three Principles of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Depending on the score of the examination, one could end up with his last choices. of university and field of study. Once admitted, we had to pass another examination to fulfil1 the requirement of a particular colThis examination consisted of lege. Chinese, English and mathematics. For engineering students, mathematics was particularly important; a failure of the test would automatically require one to remain an additional one to two years beyond the regular four year period. We did not perform any physical labor after graduation from the senior middle school, but three months of military training were required at the end of the freshman year in senior middle school. Curriculum Instead of the previous four years of study, a three-year curriculum has been adopted. While the earlier engineering educational philosophy was to train an engineer to have a broad basis for further specialization through on-the-job training or advanced study, the present philosophy is to have the student specialize during his early schooling. A glance at the curricula of these two periods (shown in the charts below) will clearly show the different approaches. ‘There are five departments in the East China College of Hydraulic Engineering: Hydraulic Structures and Hydroelectric Power Plant, Harbour and Waterway Engineering, Hydrology, Irrigation and DrainEngineering Engineering, and age Mechanics. Every specialization in each department has a similar specialized curriculum. It may be said that the previous four-year hydraulic engineering curriculum is a generalization of the present three-year program and can be fitted to any of the five departments. The reverse however is not true. For example, in the Land Hydrology Specialization, all courses related to structural design (Applied Mechanics, Strength of Materials, Structural Theory, Reinforced Concrete Construction, Soil Mechanics and Foundations, etc.) in the earlier hydraulic engineering curriculum are not useful. A similar situation may be found in the curriculum of the Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. In other words, the three-year curriculum is prescribed just for its particualr specialization and nothing more. This approach re*Supported jointly by the Ford and National Science Foundations. For other 8ctivities of the Delegation, see Mecbical Engineering, Feb. 1975.

-

sults in shortening the training today’s Chinese engineers.

period

of

/

Teaching and-learning methods As the new Chinese educational principle places special emphasis on labor and social relevance, each year students must spend two weeks on farms, four weeks as productive laborers in construction work and one week in military training. Of the three years of college matriculation, half the time is spent off campus. The new teaching system combines teaching, productive labor and scientific investigation into a single process. Students go first to construction sites, joining the work force and learning about a practical project. After acquiring more knowledge and techniques on campus, they return to the field to discover that still more knowledge is required and then come back to the campus for further study. This process of learning is called: “practice, acquire knowledge, practice again, acquire knowledge again.” It may also be called practice before learning, practice while learning, and practice after learning. Thus, the teaching process is linked to an actual project. Since all course work is related to a practical project, the students? class work is applied to that project. Students usually have open , book examinations given by their teachers and fellow workers on the project. Grades seem to be of minor importance and are used only as a means of allowing the better students to help the poorer ones. With

this kind of arrangement, students seldom fail their course. As for the teachers, they divide their load equally among teaching, research and productive work. Their teaching plans and course content are discussed with the students before classes begin. Teachers and students learn together by reviewing teaching techniques and learning methods. At the same time, they also work together for the class struggle cause. In so doing, the teachers aim to achieve the three-in-one objet tives : re-orientation of tee hnical knowledge, re-education in political thinking, and re-learning of obligations toward the peo. ple. Every five or six years, they go to the May Seventh Cadre School for six months, where their time is divided equally between political studies and manual labor. Teaching materials have been greatly transformed and are still in the developing stage. Faculty members and students in cooperation with workers, farmers, soldiers and technicians, compile new teaching materials, which not only describe $-re basic scientific theory but also closely lmk it with practice. Before 1949, a traditional teacher-student relationship prevailed. .Teachers lectured the class and students either took notes or followed the lessons in the textbooks. There was no practical project related to the class work. Even in design courses, we were assigned hypothetical problems to work on. Practically all class work took place on the camcontinued

on page

20


22

friday,

the chevron

febrtiary

20, 1%

U A meetjng,was held on campus last week to honour Chou En-la;, one of the world’s greatest leaders who died in january of this year. Over T.50 people attended the meeting, observed a minute’s silence, listened to three speakers, and had discussion on the late premier and on China. Reprinted below is an edited version of a speech on the history of Chou which was delivered by i/W Chinese History professor Rick Cuisso. On the opposite page there is a news article on what Hardial Bains chairman of the Communist Part of Canada (MarxistLeninist) said on China’s “revoltjonary foreign policy”.

lacked experience and was weak i-n underChou En-Lai, who died on Jan 8 at the standing political dynamics. I aman intellecage of 78, was ‘: ne of the giants of world and one tual with a feudalistic family background. I history in the Nentieth century, had had little contact with the peasantwhose impact will be felt for many years to worker masses because I had taken no part come. He was a great leader of a great revolution, a self-effacing yet powerful in the economic process of production. My revolutionary career began abroad, and my statesman; a maker of modern China. limited knowledge of revolution came from His achievements were many, and so inbooks only.“, deed were the obstacles he fought so long to This remark is in one sense a commenovercome-and the secret of his greatness tary on the flexibility of the structure of lies perhap% in a single principle from which he never deviated-“Serve the People Chinese leadership, and in another sense, a Well. ’ ’ commentary on the desperation of life in Chou En-Lai knew himself. He knew pre-revolutionary China, that a man from from where he came and he knew, I think, his background would take up revolution. that this role was not a natural one. In 1958 Chou En-Lai came from a wealthy and powerful mandarin clan. His education was when reminiscing about the 1927 Shanghai classical supplemented by a missionary risings he had led, he said, “I was responsischool in Manchuria. Then, much impreble for leading the armed revolts, but I ssed by the revolution of 1911, he rebelled against his family’s wishes and attended the new Nankai high school at Tientsin where he could study Darwin, Rousseau and Mill.

Moved

This picture is from fdgar Snoti’s famous book “Red Star Over China”. Taken in 7936 it shows “The Big Four” as Snow referred to them. They are, left to right: PO Ku, commissioner of Foreign Affairs; Chou En-lai, Vice-Chairman of the Red Military Committee and chief delegate to the United Front negotiations; Chu Teh, Commander in Chief of the Red Army; and Mao Tse-tung, Chairman of the Soviet Government and of the political bureau of the Communist Party Central Committee. Snow .travelled into the red areas in China and was the first to inform the world of ‘the Communist movement there. His first meeting with Chou left him with the impression Qf “a pure intellectual in tihom action was perfect/y co-ordinated with knowledge and conviction.” He was, said Snow, “a ‘scholar turned insurrectionist”.

farther

leadership of China in the 50’s and 6( came largely from the Paris group. In 1924, he returned to China, and folio, ing the Comintern strategy of the “bl within” the Koumintang, he offered 1 services to Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-sh and became political director of the Whal pao Military Academy. Out of tl school was to come much of China’s mil ary leadership and it was here that Chl began to instil1 in the cadets the selfle: ness, idealism, and patriotism which WOL soon characterize the Red Army: He w immensely successful and popular here; much so that Chiang Kai-shek conceivec great dislike for him, and Chou was one the first to publicly warn of Chiang’s bc rayal of the revolution. Here too in 1925, he married Te Ying-ch’ao, already a CCP member and woman with diplomatic and organizatior talents of a very impressive order.

A hunted

left

Here he became intensely political. Horrified by the evils of warlord China he began to engage in protest and on his graduation in 1917, embarked for Japan-a breeding ground for the Chinese revolution. He was 19. Here he studied the works of the famed Marxist, Hajime Kawalcami. So in 1919, when he returned to China to protest the Western sell-out of his country at Versailles, he was well-prepared for leadership and was immediately elected editor of a Student League newspaper, and engaged in protest. Here he began the l&hour-a-day schedule he was-to continue until his last years. His concern for China’s suffering labourers brought him into direct contact with a Comintern agent Sergei Polevoy, and he moved farther left, the newspaper was raided, and Chou was thrown in jail. His six months of imprisonment were spent organizing and instructing his fellows. When he was finally released he departed for France -where over 1,000 students had already gone, the largest concentration of Chinese students abroad since the beginning of history. Since his reputation had preceded him, he was welcomed by the disorganized leftists and became the founder of the Communist Youth Corps in Paris. He continued to agitate and edit a journal called the Red Light barely escaping jail and deportation on several occasions. He was responsible for uniting most of the diverse student revolutionaries in Paris at that time under the Communist banner, developing the skills of diplomacy and conciliation he would later use so well. The

man

In 1927 in Shanghai Chou barely escapl with his life when Chiang Kai-shek turn on his allies and carried out an infamo massacre. The next years were sad and discouragi for Chou-a hunted man, often ill, he co tinued to fight and to organize, even pulli, a rickshaw in Hong Kong to support hi] self. After the failure of the Nanchang r ings, Chou visited Moscow to be r primanded for his failures in 1928, and in t fall of that year returned to China to beg the enormous task of re-building the sh; tered party. It is acknowledged that his i fluence saved both the party and the Rc Army from disintegration through the fa tionalism of these years. In September of 1931, Chou went Kiangsi, where he met Mao Tsetung for t first time and formed the most lasting al perhaps most productive political partnc ship of modern times.

The

Long

March

Here as chief commissar of the Rc Army, he played his now familiar role conciliation of dissident factions, and it w his vote that precipitated the Communis on the 6,000 mile-long march of 1935. Ju as much as Chu Teh, Chou must be con: dered a builder of the Red Army. Throul that incredible feat of endurance, it was 1 who kept up troop morale (even serving as stretcher-bearer for the wounded), and 1 who played the key role in the consolidatic of Mao’s leadership which occurred in tl course of the march. His role at this time l(

continued

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friday,

february

20, 1976

the chevron

Last Wedn&day a meeting was he/d on campus in memory of Chou En-la; the late premier Of China. from left to right-professor Rick Cuisso from the UW history department spoke-on the premier from a historical perspective, Paul Levine who teaches Chinese culture at Renison College recounted some personal impressions he had from a meeting with Chou, and Hardial Bainsr chair’man of the Cbmmunist Party of Canada. (Marxist-Leninist) spoke on China’s foreign

23

Professor Marsha forest chaired the meeting as president of the Kitchener-Waterloo Canada-China friendship Society which co-sponsored the meeting with the Wellington County Canada-China Friendship Society, the Anti-Imperialist Alliance, the international Student Associations from UW and WLU, and the UW Caribbean Student Association.

policy.

-photo

by neil dochet’ty

Foreign-- policy. discussed

China has no designs upon other countries “China is not just another country and Chou En-lai was not just another premier,” said Hardial Bains, chairman of the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist). For China, he said, is the base area for world revolution. What it has achieved serves as inspiration for others. In China and in what Chou stood for Bains sees the hopes of the people of the world for a better life-a life of sharing the world’s wealth in a world free.+from national conflict. He was speaking on China’s revolutio’nary foriegn policy. The key to which is that China does not seek control of other countries, said Bains. He looked at the foreign policy in a historical perspective., For 500 years he said the world’s people have suffered under reactionary foreign policies. Policies which introduced slavery into modem history in Ireland, Asia and Africa. The people want revolution to be free of these foreign policies; countries want independence, - nations seek liberation; and the country which embodies those sentiments is China, said Bains.

A country’s foreign policy is the reflection of its social system, he said, and the country must be judged in two ways: how it treats its people, and how it treats other countries. Any country which practices slavery feudalism, colonialism, or capitalism cannot have a revolutionary foreign policy, he said. But the roots of the Chinese foreign policy, come out of a centuries’ struggle against aggression and foreign intervention; it is a country building socialism and so Bains’ point was -~~.~ that its foreign policy reflects this. The foundation of this policy is -opposition to imperialism, opposition to revisionism, and support for other revolutions. In the nineteenth century only one state, the Paris Commune, upheld these tenets, but today, he said, there are several which practice this kind of foreign policy. Bains also pointed out that it was Chou who announced to the world China’s five principles of peaceful coexistence which it upholds in its dealings with other nations: mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-aggression, non-interference affairs, others’ internal in each equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful

Chou En-Lai continued

from

page

22

to widespread recognition of him as a man both of the sword and the book. Chou next came to prominence in the sensational events of Xmas 1936, when Chiang Kai-shek, convinced that the Communists were his greatest enemies, was kidnapped at Sian by one of his own subordinates to force him to resist the invading Japanese. Chou intervened to save Chiang’s life,& and force him to end the civil war and join in a united front with the Communists to save China. Throughout the war, Chou remained vice-president of the CCP, political commissar of the Red Army, and chief ,liaison with Chiang Kai-shek. He-was the informal ‘ ‘foreign minister’ ’ of China, moving about so constantly and living under such great pressure that his wife lost the only child she was to conceive. ’ Never perhaps had his skill been more apparent as he prevented any rupture between the CCP and the Kuomintang, while he helped the party and army consolidate the gains that were to bring them victory in the fierce civil war which followed Japan’s surrender. In that war Chou and Mao had once again to flee on foot in the early days to escape Chiang’s men. But still it was his diplomatic skill in negotiations with Chiang and General Marshall that delayed the outbreak ofwar until July 1947, by which time the-communists were in a commanding position. Chou saw clearly the outcome of the war in a pamphlet he and Mao prepared that year- “Greet the new High Tide of Revolution’ ’ , which predicted that the Chinese people were ready at last to destroy imperialism and feudalism.

coexistence. Bains referred to Angola to illustrate much of what he was saying. The people there, he said, have struggled against Portuguese colonialism for 500 years and now when they have finally liberated their country from European colonialism they are forced to fight against Soviet socialimperialism. With Cuban troops and large quantities of arms the Soviet Union hopes to enslave the Angolan people, he said. This was contrasted against the Chinese policy in Angola. China gave aid to all three liberation movements until they ousted the Portuguese, and then it called upon the three groups to form a government of national unity. Bains compared the Cuban troops in Angola to the Chinese troops who fought in North Korea. He explained that while the Chinese fought to keep the US imperialists out of- the country, the Cubans were fighting to allow Soviet social imperialists into a country. Bains also said of the Angolan situation that the US is collaborating with the Soviet Union there because the movement which the Soviet Union is supporting will, if it becomes the government, also be friendly to the US. This collaboration came about when the US realised that the group it was backing, the FNLA, could not win. Part of this collusion, Bains inferred, was that the press has branded the other liberation organisation as anti-communist. He said, when a spokeman for UNITA was here on a communist platform (a tour organised by CPCML) The Globe and Mail, The Toronto Star, and La Presse all refused to interview him. Other than Angola the questions on Chinese foreign policy which were asked of Bains centered around why China has relations with reactionary governments such as the Shah of Iran. Bains said Chou explained this by quoting from Lenin that the question was whether you collaborate with a thief in order to save your skin or to help him steal.

Bains said that for strategic, diplomatic, cultural, and trade reasons it was good for China to have as normal relations as possible with other countries. Such diplomatic contact is in the interest of the people, said Bains, since the only way China could have friendly relations with the people of those countries is to have relations with the state. State relations, for example, enable people to travel to China. But ait was stressed that these state relations must not be seen as support for reactionary governments. He said if there was insurrection in Iran and China came out against it then that would be wrong. This, he claimed is what the Soviet Union has done in India. And when Mrs. Ghandi declared the state of emergency in India, Cuba applauded ,it as a defence of democracy but China condemned it. It depends what relationship you have with the thief Bains argued and said China has such relations in order to stop the super powers stirring up trouble and to establish ,I contact with the people. The Chinese foreign policy is revolutionary because it is aimed at isolating the two super powers who are the main enemy of the people of the world, and because it does not interfere in the internal politics of other countries said Bains. He warned that if capitalism was restored in China it would cause a world war as the two super powers would fight to divide it between their zones of influence..But since this was prevented by the Cultural Revolution China has given great inspiration to the world’s people. And as the factors for re- .= volution and for war between the two super powers increase the future for the world’s people is bright said Bains, referring to the Marxist-Leninist analysis that “either re- . volution will. prevent world war or world war will enhance revolution, but either way the future for the world’s people is bright.” That is the revolutionary Chinese foreign policy and it was that line which Chou carried in the world said Bains.

In 1949 as premier and foreign minister he stated in the common program, the line that he would follow for the rest of his life-“the People’s Republic of China shall uphold a lasting international and friendly cooperation between the people’s of all countries, and an opposition to the imperial policies of aggression and war. . . ’ ’ . As foreign minister he had many successes and as premier one of his great achievements was building one of the greatest government machineries on earth, bringing the Chinese an ever-growing degree of participation in their own destiny. Constantly at Mao’s side, never seeking self-glorification, never deviating from the -neil docherty correct line, he helped translate into reality Mao’s visions of communization. It will be many years before we fully understand this man of many parts: before we understand his role as an ideologue, as a peacemaker within the Central Committee; as a man equally at home at the most magnificent diplomatic banquet and in the muddy fields where he so often laboured alongside his people. But this much we know-he was Memker: Canadian university press (CUP). The chevron is typeset by members of a unique revolutionary, one who could the workers union of dumont press graphix (CNTU) and published by the federation confront simultaneously both the past and ..pf students incorporated, university of waterloo.‘Content is the sole responsibility of the future, and his life is one from which we the chevron editorial staff. Off ices are located in the campus centre; (519) 885-l 660, can learn. or university local 2331. He was fond of quoting from an old poem Well this week there really is something about the chevron which distinguishes the paper from which runs :

theChermm

“Often

do I heave

long sighs

TO hide my tears, silent tears, Sorrowing for the lives of my people So filled

with

grief

and fears...”

Chou En lai’s life was devoted to the alleviation of that grief and fear. He Served the People Well.

any other in North America-we are the only organ of the people which doesn’t have a picture of Patti wailing in the witness box-Randolph Hearst cant buy the chevrics. And those chevrics are: isabella girgoroff, judy jansen, graham gee, jim carter who returned to the fold this week after they sprayed the field which we use to graze old chevrics, harry strothard also returned-with his leg glued together, larry hannant, george eisler-the man from a.u.s.t.r.i.a., diane ritza who collects ads, Sylvia hauck who protects us from the outside world, myles keston whom god gifted with ten talented fingers, neil docherty who writes with his feet,zmichael gordon, doug wahlsten, henry hess, john morris and the archbishop of canterbury. n.d.


24

friday,

the chevron

february

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Danny’s a brilliant student. There’s no end to what he wants to learn. Yet Danny’s no hermit. He really enjoys a good time.’ One of the things Danny’s learned at university is how to keep those good times good. When he drinks, whether it’s beer, wine or spirits, he knows his limit and he respects it. Another year or so, and Danny will be working in a field that’s fascinated him all his-life. He wouldn’t risk spoiling the opportunity for anything. - Yes, I Danny is going to make it.

20, 1976


http://imprint.uwaterloo.ca/mambo/pdfarchive/1975-76_v16,n33_Chevron