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Friday Nancy-Lou Patterson. Drawings and liturgical designs. UW Art Gallery. Flours: Monday-Friday 9-4 pm, Sunday 2-5pm till Nov. 30. Campus Centre Pub opens 12 noon. Salt Spring Rainbow from g-lam. 74 cents after 6pm. Federation Flicks-Phantom of the Paradise with Paul Williams. 8pm AL 116 Feds $1 Non-feds $1.50

The Wild Duck. by Henrik Ibsen. rected by Maurice Evans. ’ 8 Humanities Theatre. Admission Students & Senior citizens $1.25. Films-Student Years, Only Ab Women, Moon Buggy. 8 pm EL ; Sponsored by the Canada-USSR ( sociation Inc.

Wednesday Campus Centre Pub opens 12 no Audio Master from 9-y am. 74 ce after 6 pm.

A weekend hike at the top of the Bruce Trail. Sponsored by the Outer’s Club. Sign up outside of Env. St. 356. Call 884-l 173 for more information.

Grand Valley Car Club welcomes you to our next meeting. Waterloo County Fish & Game Protective Association, Pioneer Tower Rd., off Hwy. 8 between Kitchener and Hwy. 401. 8pm.

University Chapel. Sponsored by UW chaplains. 12:30 pm. SCH 218



Eastern Conference of Ukrainian Canadian Student’s Union. 12 noon Psych 2038. Dance Turret Ball Room at WLU 8pm.

Campus Centre Pub opens 12 noon. Audio Master f mm 9-l am. 74 cents after 6pm.

Federation Flicks-Phantom of the Paradise with Paul Williams. 8pm. AL 116 Feds $1 Non-feds $1.50.

Sunday Films on Welfare and the welfare system will be shown. Marlene Webber, assistant professor will be the speaker. 7:30pm Physics 145. Sponsored by the Progressive Cultural Club. Free admission. Federation Flicks-Phantom of the Paradise with Paul Williams. 8pm. AL 116 Feds $1 Non-feds $1.50.

Monday Campus Centre Pub opens 12 noon. Audio Master f tom 9-l am. 74 cents after 6pm. The Religious Studies Society invites all R.S. students and any others interested to its first general assembly and election of executive. 3:30pm St. Jerome’s College Rm. 21.

“Treads A Measure Style”. Presented by pany accompanied by admission. 12:30pm. Arts.

Radio Club Me Amateur ing. VE3UOW. All welcome. ,4:30 1 E2-2355. Pat-a-legal assistance offers nl professional legal advice. C 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Ho1 7-10 pm.

in Renaissance UW Dance comMusic Four. Free Theatre of the

‘Chess Club Meeting. Everyone come. 7:30 pm. CC135.




Interested in a Career in Insurance? 3:30 pm. Needles Hall 1020. Sign up in Career Planning and Placement, 1st Floor Needles Hall. If you have problems, you are the problem. A problem is a circumstance you don’t want to face. So, face it and it’s no longer a problem. The Ontology Club meets every Tuesday. Bring a friend. 4:30 pm. Campus Centre 113. Outer’s Club meeting. come. 7 pm. AL 206

Thursday Campus Centre Pub opens 12 no Audio Master from 9-l am. 74 ce after 6 pm. “Treads A Measure In Renaissar Style” presented by UW Dance Cc pany accompanied by Music Four. F admission. 12:30 pm. Theatre of Arts. I

Everyone wel-

UW Ski Club Meeting. Jay Peak trip deposits taken; cash bar; films; day trip


Matched Set $150

Matched Pair $350

Par*legal assistance offers nl professional legal advice. ( 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Ho1 1:30-4:30 pm. cont’d on pg I



If ‘you liked the book and the movie, you’re going to love the drink. Start with 1% ounces Jose Cuervo Tequila over crushed ice. Add Club Soda and t the lime to your taste. Great for people, b’ut murder on mockingbirds.






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Katie Curtin will speak on her b “Women in China”. 8 pm. EL 205. ( sponsored by Arts Society, YOL Par&legal assistance offers non- ’ Socialists, Fed. of Students. professional legal advice. Call 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Hours: The Wild’ Duck by Henrik Ibsen. 1-4:30pm. rected by Maurice Evans. Admiss $2, Students & Senior citizens $1.2! Native North American Film Series. 2 pm. Humanities Theatre. pm. National Film Board Theatre, Suite 207, 659 King Street East, Kitchener. Gay Coffee House. 8:30 pm. CamI Everybody welcome. Centre 110.

Set Matched

7 Diamond

and instruction information availat memberships sold; cross count9 downhill skiers of any ability welcon

Jazz and Blues Club. Duke Ellington 1931-40 by Jeff Weller. 8pm. Kitchener Public Library.

Campus Centre Pub opens 7pm. Salt Spring Rainbow from g-lam. 74 cents admission.


Nutrition Lecture Seriee.“Nutrition Fakery in the Food Industry- Food Processors Contribution to Heart Disease Prof. Ross Hall, and Cancer”. Biochemistry McMaster University. 7:30pm-1 Opm. Adult Retreat ion Centre, 185 King Street S., Waterloo.

14, 15

Procrastination Club meeting. Postponed to Mon., Nov. 24th.l

Religious Studies Society wine and cheese party. All R.S. students welcomed to spend an evening with the Faculty faculty. 8pm. Humanities Lounge, 3rd Floor, Hagey Hall.

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Par&legal assistance offers nonprofessional legal advice. Call 885-0840 or come to CC 106. Hours: 7-l Opm.


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14, 1975

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Feds review Rank and file criticism pressured le Federation of Students last ‘hursday to review its policy of -ee passes to federation sponsored olitical and social events. As an interim measure, the stuent council decided to restrict free asses to one per person instead of ~0 as had previously been the ase. Council reacted to a letter adressed to all student councillors ly the student Environmental ltudies Society (ESS) which critiized the federation for extending ts policy of free passes to student eps .


The letter, signed by ESS president Dave McLellan, says that the student society is dissatisified with council’s recent stance regarding free passes and feels councillors acted “irresponsibly as representatives of the student population on this campus. ’ ’ ESS feels council behaved improperly in granting itself “excessively extensive privileges with regard to all social, educational, and other federation events. ” The letter goes on to say: “We can see no reason why these privileges and the $50 expense ac-

free passes polilzy count for each councillor should be financed by the remainder of the student body.” This action ESS feels is “gross irresponsibility” on the part of a council which: -can rarely achieve a quorum of its members ; -doesn’t communicate adequately with its electorate; and -should be “ostracized” for its “selfish irresponsibility”. Council voted Sept. 11 to grant members $50 expense accounts on the pretext that councillors could better represent their constituen-


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Need a job? If you can add, sub-act and sign cheques, then you hould apply to become the treasrer of the Federation of Students. The federation has been without treasurer since Tuesday when ohn Long, a mathematics rep on tudent council, resigned due to a olitical clash with student presient John Shortall. Long, in a two-page letter, said hat though his departure is partly 3r academic reasons, he is also zaving because he doesn’t see eye 3 eye with Shortall over the state f the federation’s budget. (Shortall and Long clashed over

ore anucks There are proportionately more Canadian citizens teaching at the niversity this year than there have been in the past five years. A report released last Friday by JW president Burt Matthews hows that the number of Canadian acuity has risen from 58 per cent in 971 to 67 per cent this year. This year eight faculty members :hanged their citizenship to Canalian. Four were from the United (ingdom, two from the United itates and one each from Poland nd West Germany. Of the 708 faculty at UW this rear, 473 are Canadian citizens, 14 have US citizenship, and 58 told British citizenship. The remaining 65 faculty are rom 29 other countries. And there s one lost soul whose citizenship is isted as unknown.

whether to hire a full-time employee for Radio Waterloo at last Thursday’s student council meeting. While Long maintained that the federation couldn’t afford to hire the employee as the reserve funds amounted to only $5,500, Shortall argued that though the slush fund seemed small council had enough money to last until April.) 6‘ . . . . As you know I entered your executive with what I thought was a basis of agreement with you on major issues. . . . This has not proven to be the case especially in areas of financial policy as has been shown recently,” Long says to Shortall. “Because of the inability of us to reach agreement on basic fundamental issues, I believe that it is my best interest and in the interest of you and the Federation of Students that I resign from the position of treasurer. ’ ’ Long goes on to say though he was chosen last spring as treasurer for “a lack of otherwise qualified personnel”, he tried to do the job as best he could. In addition, Long says he’ll continue representing mathematics students for the remainder of his term. He also said he’ll attend all federation board and executive

meetings as an “interested observer”. Despite his clash with Shortall, Long wishes Shortall “the best of luck as president especially in the OFS (Ontario Federation of Students) and in dealing with the administration. ’ ’ Shortall is currently the chairman of the provincial student federation. “I learned a great deal from sit’ ting on your executive and thank you for the pleasure. You have been a hard-working president and a decent and fair-minded individual,” Long concludes. Meanwhile, Shortall in a report to council for its Nov. 16 meeting said that though he and Long have been unable to agree on many things in the past few months, he still believes Long is the most active councillor around. “John and I have been unable to agree on many things. . . and his efforts and mine have too often been counter-productive,” Shortall says. Shortall also said he’s recommending Arts student Dan Sautner as a possible replacement for Long to council. Sautner, according to Shortall, is already preparing a preliminary report on the federation’s finances. -john


For the birds The pigeons which perch atop he math and computer building lad their future discussed at a math ociety council meeting Tuesday. A society member told) council re was concerned about the birds lefacing the building and he was vorried that walking in one day he night “get it on the head”. He proposed to council that the appropriate university authorities be approached and a plan be deised to get rid of the free loaders. “Poison them or something,” he aid. A motion to that effect was put lefore the council but three members voted against it and the other 1 councillors abstained. One councillor took exception to he motion which he considered ‘stupid and silly”.


Matthews’ memo reminds of classroom smoking ban In case you haven’t heard -smoking is banned in classrooms. In a memo from UW president Burt Matthews, all faculty, students and staff are reminded of the university’s policy on smoking areas. Matthews says in the memo: “I want to underline the requirements of the policy, not only in the interest of keeping the university premises clean but also in the in-

terest of ensuring that the preference and comfort of non-smokers is ensured. ’ ’ The president says non-smoking areas of particular note are; classrooms, laboratories, the bookstore, the libraries, and certain other areas where special circumstances require that smoking not be permitted. He has asked that appropriate signs be posted in all rooms where smoking is not permitted.

ties if they were encouraged to involve themselves more with federation activities. The granting of free passes followed at council’s next meeting on Oct. 8 when councillors felt the need for having the same privileges as federation executive members in regard to free admittance to student funded social and political events. Former federation president Andy Telegdi defended council by saying the ESS letter failed to capture the spirit behind the granting of privileges to councillors. He urged council to clarify the issue with ESS as soon as possible. However, given the student outburst, councillors “should feel a little more responsibility to their duties ,” Telegdi cautioned. Telegdi also asked council to instruct its executive to investigate the issue and redraft its policy regarding free passes. Federation entertainment cochairman Art Ram informed councillors that the “green cards” which permit the carrier free admittance to student sponsored events number 80 “right now”. If each green card carrier were to take a date, then 160 people could gain free access to any given event. And if this trend continues, the “freebies” could destroy the Campus Centre Pub, Ram pointed out. In addition, the “federation flicks” are becoming a veritable “freebies night”. Since the entertainment board will have to pick up the tab for the

freebies, council should give the board’s budget some consideration, Ram said. “Students end up paying for these privileges,” he added. Ram said the purpose of the green cards was to allow entertainment personnel to gain access to sponsored events for professional reasons. Education coordinator Shane Roberts said that while he recognized the problems faced by the entertainment board, the privileges could be “refined” by setting a limit on how many events councillors could attend. Graduate councillor Robbie Howlett pointed out that the original intent for granting privileges was to make councillors more “responsible’ ’ . Howlett alluded to a number of scheduled council meetings which were cancelled due to a lack of quorum. She said that since the original intent of granting privileges was “to attack student apathy” and given the ensuing reaction on campus, it was all worthwhile. In other business, council accepted Cliff Maude as the rep. for students at Renison College, Gary Marshall for Environmental Studies, Loris Gervasio and Emil Gillezear for Science, and Susan Rich for Intergrated Studies. All five were elected or acclaimed at the recent federation by-elections. And only Maude and Marshall showed up for last Thursday’s council meeting. -john


McGill prof talks on farm strategy “We are dependent on fossil energy to carry on with agriculture as we know it,” said McGill University professor Stuart Hill who lectured on energy conservation on the farm last Friday. Hill went on to say we must reduce this dependency since such fuel is in limited supply and is inefficient. He illustrated this inefficiency by showing that modern farming methods, which aim at increasing farm efficiency through the use of these fuels, are actually less efficient than more primitive methods when the amounts of all energy which goes into farm production and the food value derived is considered . Hill did not advocate a return to the past as the solution to energy problems on the farm, but rather a move forward using new scientific knowledge. Decision makers must be advised of this knowledge if they are to form policies which will relieve pressure on this aspect of agriculture, he said. He called this ‘ ‘ecological farming’ ’ . Hill also compared the advantages of “ecological farming” over ‘ ‘conventional farming’ ’ . He cited studies which showed that dairy cattle produce more milk when fed on crops grown with organic fertilizer than those with inorganic fertilizer, although the latter produced larger crop yields. This theme that .“ecological (organic) farming is aimed at quality while conventional farming is aimed at quantity” recurred throughout the lecture, Hill said. According to Hill, we must use plant and animal wastes for fertilizer to complete the natural life cycles. These take less energy than inorganic fertilizers which are produced from petroleum chemicals. He said this is not done because it is still inexpensive to use inor-

ganic fertilizers and the system encourages the use of these since larger profits can be made from them. Hill claimed we will soon be forced to use organic fertilizers, however, when energy shortages are even graver. Hill compared ‘ ‘biological agriculture” which is the use of ecological farming methods with “agribusiness” which is the use of conventional farming methods to turn profits. The biological agriculturalist produces only what is needed, uses a minimum amount of energy with a minimum of environmental disturbance, recycles materials and wastes and optimizes production, Hill said. He added that the agribusinessman produces what can be sold, balances the use of energy against profits, recycles only if it is economically justified and maximizes production . Weed and pest control is another energy-sapping problem on the farm which can be controlled naturally, according to Hill. To control weeds, he said, one must use “an equal and opposite amount of energy to that which goes into their growth.” Hill commented that one solution to this problem is to mix crops which are compatible with each other and choke out the weeds which would normally attack one of the varieties of crops. The same methods may be applied to the control of pests. These tactics use only the natural energy of the environment, he added. “This is the type of strategy that is needed to combat the energy problem in farming” said Hill. A question period followed the lecture with professor Hill fielding questions from the small audience. -graham


r 4


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is noon Tuesdays


Get Identical


Stolen-FIute-Gentlepersons knowing the possible identity of he/she who “borrowed” my Gemeinhardt flute during last Friday night’s floor party are begged to coax him/her to return it. Sadly Ian Allen, N5, Rm 314.884-9347.


Buy any Medium At the regular

One Commodore 3-S calculator, lost in Engineering Lecture Hall on November










Pregnant & Distressed? The Birth Control Centre is an information and referral centre for birth control, V.D., unplanned pregnancy & sexuality. For all the alternatives phone 885-l 211, ext. 3446 (Rm 206, Campus Centre) or for emergency

7-l Opm, some afternoons. Counselling and information. Phone 885-l 211 ext.




for Friday publication.

Spend your study week in Coca Beat Florida this February. Prices include r turn bus fare and accommodation Start at $170. Phone 744-l 744 for mo information. Language or style problems? I H copyedit non-technical theses, books papers, also proofread manuscript 884-8021. Cute puppy looking for good horn male, 12 weeks old, part border colli Call 884-9813 evenings. Thanks to whoever picked my bike I and put it on the centre stand on MO day. The 350-4 by the bookstore. I a preciate it. D. Lavers. Quebec Ski Tour Dec. 27 Jan. 1 $85. Full Days of Skiing at Mt. St. Anne. I Transportation & Deluxe Accommod tion included. For Information Brochure Write Canadian Ski Tours, ; Taylorwood Drive, Islington, or Phor Gord Allan 749-6900.

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Part-time job available. Turnkey jobs available. Any registered student of the U of W may apply. General Meeting that “all” applicants “must” attend will be held January 6 at 6pm, Campus Centre Room 113. For further info write S. Phillips, Campus Cer$re Board, U of W.

For Sale Cibie Headlight conversions, Ko shocks, Stebro exhaust systems, MO accessories at discount prices. Gear{ after 6pm. 744-5598. Black & White kitten, three months ol looking for a good home. Call 884-l 83!

Wanted Up to 200 Christmas trees to cut. W negotiate price. Call Malcolm 884-9463.


Fast accurate typing. 40 cents a pag IBM Selectric. Located in Lakeshore v lage. Call 8846913 anytime. Experienced typist for essays, ter papers, etc. 50 cents a page include paper. Call 884-6705 anytime. I will do typing of essays and thesis my home. Please call Mrs. McKee 578-2243.

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twoc cont’d

from pg. 2

Waterloo Christian Fellowshi Everyone is welcome to come for E informal time of Bible study and fellok ship. 5:30 pm. CC 113. Christian Science Organizatiol Everyone is invited to attend these regi lar meetings for informal discussion 7:30 pm. Hum. 174. The Wild Duck by Henrik Ibsen. C rected by Maurice Evans. Admissic $2, Students & Senior citizens $1.25. pm. Humanities Theatre. Once a year the Athlete’s Foot makes you an offer you can t refuse! Save up to 50% on a specral group of yualrty hiking boots by world famous manufacturers such as Rarckle, Henke, Dunham and Ballini. The Athlete s Foot has Canada s largest selection of light, medium and heavy werght hiking boots. Our staff IS extensively trained to analyse your hiking needs and to give you a perfect fit in just the right boot. So whether you’re dreaming of scaling the Eiger or just looking for a great winter boot, take advantage of our offer and save. Not all sizes in all styles -

Friday Campus Centre Pub opens 12 nool Audio Master from 9-l am. 74 ten’ after 6 pm. “Treads A Measure in Renaissanc Style” presented by UW Dance Con pany accompanied by Music Four. Fre admission. 12:30 pm. Theatre of tr Arts.


Open Thurs. & Fri til 9

K-W Chamber Music Society presen Stratford Ensemble. 8 pm. Kitchent Public Library. Admission $3.

34 King St. N., Waterloo





The Wiki Duck by Henrik Ibsen. C rected by Maurice Evans. Admissic $2, Students & Senior citizens $1.25. pm. Humanities Theatre. Federation Flicks-Amarcord directe by Frederic0 Fellini 8 pm. AL 116 Fee $1 Non-feds $1.50.




Valley Pipeline

Settlement. The land claim of the Dene peoJle (Indians and Metis of the qorthwes t Territories) must be set:led by the time the MacKenzie Valley Pipeline project b&ins construction. If not it could be a real blow to ;he Indian position, ruining its organization of support and removing :he question of a land settlement iom the agenda. These fears were voiced by 3xfam spokesman Roger Rolfe at UW Monday as part of a campaign :o inform the Ontario public on the N.W.T. land claims issue. It is the first time Oxfam has be;orne involved in a Canadian issue, sranting $140,000 over the next two years to aid the Indian Brotherhood



the chevron

14, 1975


urgedc in land claims

-their economy, society and culof the N.W.T. in documenting the ture remain fairly strong. land claim and to provide information concerning the economic poAlthough the Dene still depend on hunting, fishing and trapping for tential of their land. a large part of their food, clothing The 16,000 Dene want to retain ownership over 450,000 square and cash income, they are increasingly dependent on government miles of land used intensively by themselves and their ancestors and 1 handouts because of the penetration that has gone on, Rolfe said. which they say was never validly surrendered by treaty. “Indians oppbse development Rolfe, who spent the summer that extracts resources for doing research in the North, said profits-not development that creates opportunities and estabthat the only development in ‘the MacKenzie Valley region consists lishes an economic base,” he expof six operating mines and one oil lained. “They see intrusion and relegawell, the government being the tion to reserves beginning with the greatest outside interest there. The result of this “lack of inMacKenzie Valley gas pipeline. ’ ’ terest” is that the natives haven’t Besides its effects on the envibeen forced onto reserves yet ronment, on which little research

wants a mascot

The Arts society urgently needs a mascot to represent all arts students. If that’s not enough to floor you and if you’re creative enough then you should enter a contest put on by Artsoc to determine the ideal symbol, object or whatever that will present arts students at their best.

Entries to the contest will be accepted from Nov. 24 to Jan. 9, 1976, and will be judged by a committee comprised of Artsoc vicepresident Sandy Vaughn and a few councillors . The mascot contest was ‘suggested by Vaughan at an Artsoc council meeting Tuesday night as a way to find a symbol which will rub shoulders with the Engsoc “rigid tool” and the Mathsoc “/pink tie”. Once the mascot is selected, it’ll represent arts students on a permanent basis, Vaughan said.

One Artsoc councillor asked whether the mascot will require a change to the society’s constitution. President Bruce Rorrison replied saying that he didn’t think it would as the mascot need not appear on the society’s official stationary. Another councillor thought it would be very difficult “to come up with one thing to represent all arts students. ’ ’ However, other councillors said the mascot doesn’t have tdxepresent all students as both the Mathsoc and Engsoc symbols don’t necessarily represent all mathematfcs and engineering students. In other business, council gmnted the Caribbean student association $50 to partially fund a visit to UW by Walter Rodney, a West Indian historian, on Nov. 24. The historian will be giving both an informal lecture to the general

Feds plan meeting Federation of Students president John Shortall is planning a general meeting for UW students for Nov. 26 on the matter of s tudent financial aid. Starting at noon in the Campus Centre the meeting will provide information on the provincial government’s reassessment of its aid to -university and college students. Shortall is hdping to involve UW students in public hearings on the issue of London (Dec. 5) and Toronto (Jan. 21). The hearings are part of a series of four b&g held by a government appointed committee examining financial assistance for students. The committee has invited student, business, labor, social service, and community groups to make presentations at the hearings. The UW Federation is considering providing transportation for

any s&dents willing to be part of a delegation. In preparation -for the coming public sessions in London and Toronto, the campus centre me.eting will provide an opportunity to examine the fact and conjecture about the role of the committee and the government’s intentions. There is concern that the Ontario government has already drafted part of a new aid plan that no longer includes grants. The possible use of the committee by the government and plans for student involvement.. were discussed at a meeting of representatives from four universities and one community college. At the gathering of student leaders from southwestern Ontario last Saturday, John Shortall expressed Waterloo’s interest in cooperating with other campuses in arranging transportation to the hearings. -shane

Library, amnesty During Library Amnesty Days Nov. 5,6 and 7 involving both the Arts and the EMS libraries, $3500 in fine revenue was foregone. It is little wonder that the Amnesty Days are not held too frequently , ten years ago being the last time Amnesty Days don’t bring back many books that wouldn’t have been returned eventually, they just speed up the returns, says head librarian Murray Shepherd. At least 500 books that had been due in October were returned to the Arts Library during Amnesty



Dais. About 10 books which had been on the missing book list at ihe EMS Library for one or two years were returned. One woman called the Arts Library to make sure the amnesty was still in effect, then dropped about five books into the book drop that were due three years ago. The library open house including the opening of the first floor Reserves section of the Arts Library was very successful. Four hundred cups of coffee were cons.umed and plenty of university staff and students were present. -Iaura


public and one aimed at history students, according to Terry Edwards @om the Caribbean student association. Rodney, a Guyanese, is a specialist on African and Caribbean history and current political affairs, Edwards said. His visit to four Ontario universities will cost $2,000 which means UW will have to put up $500, Edwards said. To date, the association has gotten-.,$200 from the Federation of Students, $100 from the history department and $25 from the sociology department. Apart from being a historian, Rodney is also a political activist in Guyana and because of his leftwing politics the government has prevented him from taking a position at the University of Guyana. Rodney was also kicked out of the University of West Indies due to his political activities. He has written several books including How Europe Underd’eveloped Africa and Groundings For My Brqthers. In addition, he wrote his PhD thesis on the “Slave Trade in Guinea”. -john


Garden ‘plots

The university is to expand the number of free garden plots it” makes available to students, staff and faculty each year. j This year 120 plots were cultivated by those fortunate enough to get their names in frst. UW president Burt Matthews anno‘unced Friday that this year’s operation vrias a great success, and he said that the number of plots will be increased to 216 next year. But Matthews said he -hopes to find a better way of allocating the land. This. year, he said, the plots were all taken only a few hours after he had first mentioned them at a press conference. Thus the plots went to those who happened to be listening to the radio that afternoon. He said th&e may be a nominal charge for the plots this year and he is considering a suggestion that retired people be given first choice. There are only a few retired people who want plots he said. But as yet the president has not decided how the land will be allocated. The plots are approximately 400 square feet and are behind the optometry building. Providing the .216 lots and ploughing them will cost the university about $2,000 Matthews estimates .

has been done, according to Rolfe, the Dene are cdncertied about the social impact of 3,000 construction workers: living close to settlements and earning upwards of $1,500 per week. In the longer term, he said, the seven billion dollar investment in the pipeline creates pressure for further development because of the resulting infrastructure of $roads, telecommunication and hydroelectric projects. (According to an Oxfam brochure, the Dene are not “opposed to the proposed pipeline and ‘&re willing to grant leases to develop mineral‘resources of their lands ‘for the benefit of all Canadians’ .” But they want to legally own th< land with a measure of self-government, controlling education and establishing their own industries .) “Up until now, the government has refused to negotiate on that basis-they want to negotiate on the basis of compensation,” Rolfe said. A.decision on the application to build the pipeline should be reached within a year, he said. If it is approved there will be a lot of short-term employment and the Indian people will be “less concerned with their land settlement and more

concerned with making money off the pipeline. ’ ’ Rolfe said that the issue is “quite pressing” because the only political cost of the government position is the alienation of the minority Indian people. That is why Oxfam is enlisting the support of Canadians in the South, he added. Petitions pressing the government to begin immediate negotiations are being circulated and a newsletter is planned whi$h will ask people for more demonstrative forms of support. So far, the Dene have the support of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and United churches and two major unions: the United Steel Workers and the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Energy Workers. Rolfe noted that these unions &ill be responsible for supplying pipe and workers if the pipeline project I is built. “Nobody thinks the courts will settle this issue,” he said, “it’s really a political issue between the government and the Indian people.” Rolfe indicated that if the Dene get nowhere through legitimate channels there will be “enormous frustration” and “violence to the pipeline is very possible.” -dionyx

Multicultur~lism Multiculturalism dill be one of the main topics discussed at this years Eastern Conference of the Ukrainian Canadians Students’ Union (SUSK) to be held on campus this weekend. A spokesperson for SUSK told the chevron “the purpose of this conference is to allow a forum for the discussion of several issues that are of importance for t-he well-being and further development of our community: ’’ What steps have school boards taken to include multiculturalism into school curricula, will be one of the topics under discussion.



forum Saturday’s session starts ‘&t noon. The speakers scheduled are John Piper from the Toronto Board of Education, Liberal M.P. John Sweeney and Tony Grunde, NDP member of parliament. Saturday night at 8:00 PM, a dance will be held in the Turret Balle Room at WLU. On Sunday starting at 10:OOAM various members from youth organizations will address the conference. A spokesperson for SUSK said anyone interested in the conference is welcome.


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the chevron

fridav, 11:30 Music 12:00 JAZZ with Ian Murray 3:00 Sign Off


12:45 2:45

Nov. 15

9:00 12:00 3:00 3:30 6:00 8:00

Robert Statham James H igginson To Be Announced Ian Allen and Sandy Yates Music LIVE SPORTS COVERAGEFrom the Waterloo Arena coverage of the Waterloo vs. Queen’s hockey game. Commentators are Gary Fick, Dave Polley and Morgan Pirie. /lo:30 David Moss 12:00 Don Cruikshank 3:00 Sign Off

Sunday Friday

Nov. 14

9:00 Carlos Mota and Mike Moore 12:00 Mike Ura 12:15 STORY-“Wizard of Oz” with Marilyn Turner 12:45 Mike Ura 3 :00 Dave Thompson 5:30 SEXUALITY AND HUMAN KIND-Panel discussion held at Harbour Front Festival of Women in the Arts, Topics in; elude sexism in the media 6:00 Phil Rogers 8:00 LIVE SPORTS COVERAGEFrom the Waterloo Arena coverage of the Waterloo vs. Windsor hockey game. Commentators are Gary Fick, Dave Polley, and Morgan Pirie. lo:30 The Mutant Hour with Bill Wharrie

3:00 5:30

6:30 8:00 9:00

Nov. 16

9:30 12:00 3:00

9:00 Greg Lemoine 12:00 MUSIC HELVETICAariginating from Radio Switzerland this series of programmes features both jazz and classical music. 12:30 Classical Music and Opera with Brigitte Allen 3:00 Harold Jarnicki 6:00 Bob Valliant 9:00 INFORMATION MADE PUBLICIn co-operation with CKWR-FM this -programme examines local news and issues. Hosted by Bill Culp and Bob Mason. 10:00 Ken Mitchell and Mike Kelso. 12:00 Ray Marcinow 3 :00 Sign Off.



of Oz”

Nov. 18

9:00 Doug Baker 12:00 Dave Gillett 12:15 STORY- “Wizard of Oz” with Marilyn Turner 12:45 Dave Gillett 2:45 SCOPE- United Nations Radio (Content will depend on mail strike) 3:00 Sally Tomek 5:30 DOWN TO EARTH FESTIVALA discussion with a member of the Spice of Life Collective about their living style, their restaurant, their newspaper 1’Alternative to Alienation’ and their aooroach II to society. 6:15 Niki Klein 9:00 Joe Belliveau

Nov. 17

9:00 Chris Hart 12:00 Music 12:15 STORY- “Wizard

Marilyn Turner Music PERSPECTIVESUnited Nations Radio outline of the facts material to a maior world issue. produced weekli in New York. ’ Jeff Parry THE WORLD AROUND USGovernment attitudes and history- of political movements in Mexico are discussed by Gilbet-to Calvillo of U of W and former student in Mexico. Steve Atkinson FOLK with Stan Gap NATIVE ISSUES- Mary Paisley, a batik portrait artist from Toronto, discusses how she became involved in native people’s issues through research. JAZZ with Dennis Ruskin Ewan Brocklehurst Sign Off


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Nov. 19


9:00 Pat Dunn 12:00 David Glendenning 12:15 STORY- “Wizard of Oz” .with Marilyn Turner 12:45 David Glendenning 3:00 Bill Stunt 5:30 COUCHICHING 1975Two discussions-First with Dr. CapIan, of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, on cultural approaches to education in the third world. Second with Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of the World Bank about women and their role in international development. 6:15 Bert Bonkowski


14, 197,

IS THIS IT? Local news an commentary with Mike Gordor BLUES with Nathan Ball Nigel Bradbury Sign Off

_- Thursday Nov. 20 9:00 Music 12:00 Greg Yachuk 12:15 STORY- “Wizard of Oz” wit Marilyn Tu mer 12:45 Greg Yachuk 3:00 DISCO WATERLOO with Joh Williams 5:30 SPORTS REPORT with Gar Fick and Niel Wrigley 6:00 Andy Bite 9:00 POVERTY AND THE CHILD- Tc Be Announced 9:30 Mike Devillaer 12:00 Larry Sttireky and Lou Montan: 3:00 Sign Off

Cbriomtie review members biased I


OTTAWA (CUP)-The executive members of the commission on corporate concentration were challenged as being hopelessly prejudiced at their first public appearance here Nov. 3. The commissioners were asked to resign at the first of a planned series of public hearings, because of their personal and professional interests in big business-the subject of the inquiry. They were also accused of narrowing the scope of the inquiry before the hearings began so as to avoid dealing with the power of banks, the impact of foreign ownership, and competition policy. Chairman Robert Bryce announced that he thought matters were satisfactory. However, personally he felt reluctant to deal with matters concerning energy interests because of past involvement in determining government energy policy. He also acknowledged that another member of the royal Cornmission, Pierre Nadeau, might also have reservations because of his o%n corporate background. But he rejected the challenge to resign froni Toronto political activists, James Lorimer and James Laxer, both acting on behalf of the Corporate Research Group. Bryce, a former deputy finance minister and Canada’s representative to the International Monetary Fund, was named chairman when the royal commission was first announced last April. The setting up of the royal commission followed an attempt last spring by the Montreal-based Power Corporation to take’ control of the Toronto-based Argus Corpo-

ration. Nadeau, whose appo‘fntment tc the royal commission was an nounced later by the prime minis ter, is a board member of the Roya Bank of Canada, which has link! with Power Corporation, and othe: conglomerates. The final member of the three person commission is Robert Dick ers&h, a lawyer with long Libera traditions and a clientele of con glomerates . The three were mandated to “in vestigate the economic and socia implications for the public interes’ of major concentrations of corpo, rate power” and to recommend an) safeguards “that may be requirec to protect the public interests.” Bryce denied the royal commis sion was too narroti in its scope and said members were not in. terested in the already studied are2 of foreign ownership, or in making detailed ammendments to the Bank Act. He had previously announced E decision not to get involved ir competition policy due to existing proposed legislationin that area. Bryce also rejected the idea oi paying non-corporate witnesses who might wish to appear in order to give testimony, saying he did no1 know what the royal commission could gain by such an appearance. Previously, however, he described the hearings as more “a public airing of views” than an outright government inquiry. Following the Nov. 3-4 hearings in Ottawa, the royal commission will hold sessions in Halifax, Vancouver, Winnipeg, Cakary, Montreal and Toronto over the next month.

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GUELPH (CUP)-Cyril Duitschaver, a Food Services professor here, must be wondering what he did wrong. Duitschaver sampled bacteria levels in 159 luncheon meats, found uncomfortably high levels in some, and gave the results to the CBC. The CBC broadcast them recently on its Sunday evening consumer show, Marketplace. After the broadcast, Food Sciences head J.M. DeMan was quick to apologize to the Meat Packers Council of Canada industry group. DeMan said he didn’t like the way ‘in which the findi,ngs were presented, and that the CBC was being sensational in its broadcast. The Meat Packers Council interpreted DeMan’s private remarks as a full-scale apology, and released them to the media. Meanwhile, Marketplace producer Murray Creed was backpedalling. The high bacteria levels found by Duitschaver weren’t necessarily dangerous, he said. ’ “They may not hurt you, but then a fly in your soup wouldn’t hurt you either. Still who wants to eat one?” The only person to back Duitschaver was University of Guelph research dean William Tossell, who made a statement that the university supported the research fully. “One could say that most of our research is controversial in some way. But our policy as a public institution, is to conduct research that industry, business or government needs done and to make that information available to the public,” he said. Duitschaver sampled luncheon meats made by four companies-Burns, Schneider, Canada Packers and Swift. Pi;oducts from Burns had the highest bacteria levels, 12,000 times higher than those of Schneider, the cleanest company. The university’s Food Sciences department depends for p-lrt of its funding on the food industry, including meat packers. The University of Guelph’s board of governors is well-stocked with representatives from the meat-packing industry.



the ‘chevron

14, 1975


Former’ .missionary talks on Chinese society and the communists. that he feels history has shownhis For one and a half years Endicott own analysis to be-correct. served as a personal advisor to He has returned to China several Chiang. He said the experience times since the revolution. He was taught him that the Koumintang last there in April and May ofthis government ‘ ‘was hopelessly rotyear and was pleased with what he ten and had no chance of giving saw. good government to China, and What he witnessed he said was wouldn’t probably last”. He left in the result of careful steps taken by 1941 and returned to University. the communists in their attempts to He was then approached by the change “economic man-into social SIS and asked to help in a study of man.” the Chinese communists, their Chinese society today is also the ’ strengths and their origins. He agresult of the Cultural Revolution. A reed on the grounds that he would violent, forceful revolution, he Reverend jim Endicott do nothing to harm the Chinese said, which saved the Communist . people. Party from becoming an elitist try which now exports food to the He hoped the study would prove bureaucracy. Mao, he said, used one which, when he was a child, to the US that the revolution was the youth as the main force to overconstantly issued appeals for supindigenous to China and thus perthrow this elitism. The cultural replies. suade them not to back the volutiqn was a success said EnEndicott was born in China and Koumintang government. But, he dicott, and he pointed out it is now lived there until he was eleven. He said, Roosevelt ignored it. part of the Chinese constitution was then educated in Ontario and However, while doing the study that the people have the right to more returned as a well-meaning Christhe met Chou En-lai and other leadcultural revolutions if they , ian missionary. ing communists. He said he told feel they are needed. Like others of his kind, he said he them what he was doing and made That success plus the mass study an agreement with them that they of the communist classics Endicott should only tell him what they finds encouraging. He said the wanted the US to know. people are being encouraged to The integrity, self-sacrifice and read these works so that they will analysis of the communists imprefully understand the “dictatorship-of Opportunist and terrorist tactics government policy was only wage The federal government’s ssed Endicott so much that he the property-less class” (procontrols and not price controls, citshould be opposed, since they are “Wage and Price Restraints” are joined the revolution, and for one letariat), and what stage China is at ing the White Paper itself: “Firms utopian, Bains said. an attack on the working people of and a half years helped to put out a in laying the foundations for a new He said that it is necessary to are expected, to refrain from in- Shanghai newsletter. Canada, but Canadians are fighting communist society. creasing the price of any individual look at what tactics arise historiback, and will continue to fight He then returned’ to Canada and Endicott also talked briefly cally, and at this point the people product more frequently than once back. let tured on “The Nature of the about the Chinese foreign policy. must concentrate on building a every three months, except where This, along with an extensive Chinese Revolution”. He spoke of Hesaid the key is the Chinese consolid base. He said the working this would impose severe hardships analysis of the restraints and their an indigenous revolution following viction that the Soviet Union has on the firm. was the topic of a class is not yet strong enough to use Retailers and repercussions, a historical trend. But his views reverted to capitalism. They cona general strike as an effective wholesalers will be exempt from meeting which 75 people from the met with opposition from his fellow sider the Soviet Union to be a social weapon. He cited localized strikes this requirement. ” Kitchener-Waterloo community missionaries, the powerful China imperialist country (socialist in . Wahlsten said that major inas being appropriate to use at this attended last Wednesday night. lobby in the US, and an organizawords, imperialist in deeds). . point. flationary factors such as food and tion called the Committee of a MillSpeaking at the meeting sponThe Soviet Social Imperialists Bains also said that the role of energy costs, and interest rates sored by the Anti-Imperialist Alion, among whose brethren were and the US imperialists will lead were also not included in the price Marxist-Leninists at this point was liance under the title “Fight Wage such notables as Richard Nixon, the world to a global war unless the to encourage the development of guidelines. Controls” were Hardial Bains, Dean-Rusk and Dean Acheson. countries of the Third World overWahlsten showed that wages, on mass opposition, to take an active chairman of the Communist Party His opponents argued that the throw imperialism. part in trade unions, and to clarify the other hand, will decline under of Canada (Marxis t-Leninist), and communists were not Chinese, but Endicott said the Chinese bepolitical, economic, cultural and the guidelines. ,The government Doug Wahlsten, a psychology Prof. Moscow puppets, and that the relieve detente and all talk of arms . proposes that increases in wages be social issues. from UW. volution would not last. limitation to be a sham. He said In his speech, Wahlsten pointed restricted by a basic protection facBoth speakers put forward the Endicott said one of their they want all countries to declare to + out the similarities between the tor, up to which employers and spokesmen slogans “Make the Rich Pay”, and came to Canada and the United Nations that they will government’s “Green Paper on employees will be ‘free to “Defeat the Government” as the said “Mao Tseitung has no more abolish all nuclear weapons and and the “White negotiate’. If the basic protection most concentrated expression of Immigration”, influence in China than that taxi then convene a world conference to factor does not cover the rise in the the Canadian people’s reactions to Paper on Wage and Price Redriver out there.” ensure this is done. straints’ ’ . He said that the governcost of living then the difference the wage restraints. The reverend made it obvious -neil docherty ment had a “coherent line” in the between the cost of living and the In his speech, Bains countered green paper, which‘was to blame basic protection factor can be insome of the governments explanacluded in the allowable compensathe Canadian people, especially tion of wage controls. immigrants, for problems such as tion increase for the next year. Answering Trudeau’s urge to unemployment. Under these guidelines, Wahlworkers to live within their own The reason‘for the Green Paper’s sten said, the worker is always one means, Bains said that it is a scienexistence, the Prof. said, was to try step behind inflation. tific fat t that workers are-payed the and convince the Canadian people Wahlsten concluded by saying lowest wage possible, and that they that a section of the people were to that the wage controls are a bad are already living within their blame for the problems in Canada. thing for anyone who works. He means. Impoverishment is a basic The government then used this as a commented that Trudeau had said feature of the working class he said, that the government would have to justification to implement broad citing that 24 percent of workers repressive measures, he said. be defeated before wage and price What is our program? it’sour Sales& Marketing live at the poverty level. Bains also The wage controls do the same restraints could be defeated. Wahlquestioned if Trudeau was “living Management Program and it givesyou inside sten then called for the defeat of the within his means’ ’ . thing, Wahlsten said, only more exinformation on what it takes to become a successful The government has said that it tensively . government. insurance salesmanager. It covers subjects such as He went on to say that the new +hristopher jones is trying to protect the nonsellingtechniques, law and taxation in relation to unionized worker with these controls. But Bains said that the govinsurance and estate planning, to name a few. ernment is not really concerned The “why” of our program is simple; we need young with the non-unionized worker. He said that in general, they work for graduates with management potential. Your own business which is owned by reasons may have to do with ambition and high the petty-bourgeoisie. The controls income potential. . will eliminate this class he said, which is to the benefit of the Why not fill in the coupon below and we’ll let you monopoly capitalists that the White look at the whole program. * Dag Hammarskjold Philip Street Paper was designed to serve. By instituting these comrols, $520:00 $510.00 Double Bains said, the government has @a The Canada Life Assurance Company created a split between the , . -----1---11------------------------------$570.00 Single $580.00 r monopoly capitalists and all other : The Canada Life Assurance Company : $630.00 Large Single $640.00 classes, including the petty, 330 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1R8 ! bourgeoisie, or small businessmen. ; Send me more information about your Sales & Mark<ting Manage- : The slogans that the meeting had , ment Program. organized under, he said, were Non-Resident meal plans also available. i chosen to show the existence of NAME this split and to ‘cement’ it. Bains said that the controls were a mere beginning. A financial crisis ADDRESS PHONE Waterloo Co-operative leads to an economic crisis, and an economic crisis leads to a political Residence Inc. . . UNIVERSITY ‘,‘i^151S. 280 Phillip St. The +aslitical crisis now, Bains COURSE said, is that the workers will start Waterloo (Include resume if available.) fighting back, and this will reduce . 884-3670 the ruling class to division and infighting.

Reverend Jim Endicott was once a missionary to China. He was also once an advisor to Chiang KaiShek, and at one time an informant to the US Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) before‘ becoming a staunch supporter of the Chinese Revolution. The 77 year-old Canadian churchman is animated history. Chou En-la& Chiang Kai-shek, and Richard Nixon are not just names he has picked off a page, they are people with whom he has had personal experience. He was on campus Nov.- 6 to share some of that experience and knowledge with a very enthusiastic audience of about 175 people at the last Canada-China Friendship Society meeting. Endicott spoke on Chinese society today but he stressed that in order to understand China today it was necessary to be familiar with its history. He contrasted the coun-



didn’t understand the Chinese situation. He and his colleagues despaired with the country’s illiter+ acy, poverty and disease. -But, he said, it was the communists who taught them that those were merely symptoms of the two great evils China laboured under-fuedalism and imperialism. “We read the bible but not the unequal treaties”, he explained. And when the revolution started he saX“we read Time and Readers’ Digest, but that is a very poor way of understanding a revolution”. But Endicott worked at understanding the revolution and concluded that it was written into Chinese history. The seeds of it were in the Tai-ping Rebellion of 1850, he said, when over half the country was taken over by a peas-. ant land reform movement. His understanding became more acute through experience with the Chiang Kai-shek regime., the SIS

restraints attacked

1976 Winter Term Room & Board



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14, 197.’

Chords vibrate Variety and colour marked the atmosphere of the eighth annual all-choirs night held in the Concordia Club, Kitchener, Monday night. The informal event, arranged by UW’s director of Alfred Kunz, music, brought together different styles of musical interpretation and also gave students of U W’s choirs a chance to meet and hear other choirs in the Waterloo region. ) The ten choirs which were present constituted the Concordia Mixed and Male choirs under the direction. of Alfred Kunz, the Sweet Adelines under Florence Hall, the Marienchor (St. Mary’s German Congregation) under Carl Shropp, the Teachers’ Choir under Howard Le Roy, the Holy Saviour Church Choir under David Hall, UW’s Chamber Choir and Concert Choir under Kunz, the Teutoriia Choir of Stratford under Walter Muellar ‘and the Twin City Harmonizers under Lyle Pettigrew. All choirs first warmed up together by singing the theme song of the K-W Saengerfest, “Come Brother, Come Friend”, written

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and composed by Alfred Kunz. The Concordia Mixed Choir then opened the program by singing “We greet you in the name of Corcordia”. It received enthusiastic applause. Following the Concordia Choir, the Sweet Adelines provided a contrasting style of music, especially with their rendition of “Dangerous Dan Mcgrew’ ’ , by Robert Service. Everyone enjoyed the short skit put on with the song. The Teachers’ Choir, which also includes vice-principals, secretaries and principals, preformed Beethoven’s ‘ ‘Halleluiah Chorus of the Mount of Olives”. I_ The audience thoroughly enjoyed Daniel Pinkham’s Christmas Cantata (Allegro No. III) sung by UW’s Chamber Choir. Following this, UW’s Concert Choir sang some newer pieces composed by Alfred Kunz. One of these, entitled “Who has seen the wind”, drew the best and the warmest response from the audience. It will be heard again in the Carol Fantasy. -isabella


Members of the university choir and various community choirs practise the “Song of joy” from the last movement of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony.’ The cho(r is conducted by UW director of Music, Alfred Kunz. The piece will be performed as part of the Carol Fdntasy program scheduled for the Humanities Theatre at the end of the month.

UW& KW voices combine for Ludwig’s piece Two hundred singers from the University and the K-W Community Choirs will perform the “Song of Joy” from the last movement of Ludwig Van Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony on Nov. 28,29 and 30. It will be presented in the Humanities Theatre as part of UW’s Carol Fantasy program. The choir has spent long hours on this demanding piece, and according to Alfred Kunz, UW’s director of music, it “is doing an incredible job. It has worked hard and is giving a good sound.” The Ninth Symphony was Beethoven’s last symphony and it took about one and a half years to complete. Beethoven composed it when he was completely deaf. He searched for a strong theme in the last movement and found his answer through words. “Universal brotherhood” became the main subject for the choral setting of the Ninth Symphony. Beethoven wrote it to the magnetic words of Schiller’s poem “Ode to Joy”. He had been familiar with Schiller’s poem thirty years earlier and had then planned on setting it to music. He also used

the “Ode to Joy” theme in his Choral Fantasia for piano, chorus and arches tra. Beethoven found in this poem a philosophy and, according to Kunz, what he has done to the music and words “transcends all things. ” The first performance of the Ninth Symphony took place in Vienna on May 7, 1824. Today, it remains one of Beethoven’s best loved symphonies. The movie “Clockwork Orange” gave the “Song of Joy” a new surge of popularity. However the Ninth Symphony has been well recognized in a classical sense for many years, undoubtedly due to the excitement and dynamic power of the whole work. Because the voice parts of the choral setting are extremely difficult it raises the question of whether amateurs should perform it. To Kunz, however, there is no reason for amateurs not to sing the piece. For as he simply stated, “music is written to be performed.” Furthermore Kunz finds it rewarding in itself to know that every singer and every player has

enjoyed the work. “In making this choice, I ‘don’1 have to account to anyone, except to my own conscience,” saic Kunz: On Tuesday night the Concerl Choir and the soloists rehearsec together for the first time. The sound was good and it appears thal the performance will indeed be 2 reward for both audience and sin gers . Raymond Daniels has done ar admirable job in accompanying the choir on the piano for rehearsals. The soloists will be Sister Bar bara Ianni of Toronto, soprano Ruth Anne Archibald of Kitchener contralto; Jake Willms, UW’s As, sistant to the dean, tenor; ant Theodor Baerg of Laurier Univer sity, baritone. On the same program UW’s Chamber Choir will sing Bach’: Kantate Nr. 142, “Uns ist ein Kinc geboren”. The Concert Band wil play some numbers and there wil also be a “good old fashioned sing along.” The choir will also give a pre. miere performance of ‘some ol Kunz’s- own works such as the songs “Like to the falling of 2 star”, “Do you love me or do you not”, and “Who has seen the wind”. -isabella


oooooops’ Last week the chevron reported’ that the Arts society donated $25 to the UW Young Socialist Club. In fact, Artsoc gave the student club only $10 with the proviso that if more funds were needed then the ,group could approach council again. The chevron reporter at the time was sleeping or otherwise daydreaming. Needless to say, the reporter has been severely reprimanded by the chevron editorial staff.

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A@itiu~turq is. harmful toI Oui: I h&h Agricultureis harmful to our health, enormously energy dependent and too damaging to the environment to continue in its present form. These alarms were sounded by %tuart Hill, zoology professor at McGill University, in a talk on the long-term viability of agriculture presented at UW last Thursday. “I think what is happening in agriculture right now is that the health objective is being lost and in its place we are putting the maximum amount of food by whatever tech-:nological means are available,” said Hill. ’ He deplored the practice in agriculture of selecting plants for non-nutritional factors such-as productivity, esthetic appearance, shelf-life and ability to be machine-picked. Hybridization, in some cases, has resulted in lower quality foods, Hill said. The nutritional quality of foods is affected by a reduction in vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes and flavour, the professor stated. “If our objective is health, we should presumably be doing things at each stage that increase the quality of food,” Hill argued. “In fact, when we come to look at what-hap? pens in ,agriculture, we do exactly ’ the opposite . ’ ’ For instance, the soil type isn’t taken into account when matching the plant to the site, said HilL Fertilizers and irrigation must be used to make the soil suitable for growing a particular crop since the site is-selected on the basis of economic factorsand ease of mechanization, the professor said. The trouble with fertilizers, Hill said, is that they usually c.ontain nitrogen and sometimes potassium‘ or phosphorus -but not the whole range of trace elements. This deficiency can become serious in the widespread practice of monoculture-raising only one crop on land used for no other purpose-since the plant takes the same nutrients from the soil year after year with a resulting reduction in trace minerals, the professor stated. Hill said that the production of vitamins is related to the availability of these trace minerals. _ ‘A further disadvantage’ of fertilizers; he added, is that a plant may receive too, much nitrogen, thereby producing more sugar and absorbing more water than normally. If ,large amounts of nitrate are taken up by the plant, health problems, particularly in babies, may occur., Hill noted that some baby foods, such as “Carrot puree”, have been taken off the market because of the high levels of nitrate. Food is becoming further contaminated with synthetic, inorganic chemicals as a result of pesticide use, Hill said. “We’re forced into a strange dilemma, forcedinto whether we get maximum food value from foods or whether we avoid eating pesticides.” -

ing its load of pesticide. “stressed” and becomes more susHill pointed out that some of the -your investment when we’re’living ceptible to pests, the* professor said. most nutritious ,meats are organ -in a world of _diminishing energy Consequently, “many Eskimo lactating mothers will often have a Hill suggested that-the tendency to meats which also contain pesresources ,” Hill said. -“Our preshigher DDT content in their milk treat symptoms rather than causes is ticides. _ ent agriculture is just tooexpensive not just a problem in agHe said that to avoid pesticides we than a nursing mother in Montreal to ckry on”. / either have to trim off the best or Toronto or the tropics.” _ riculture but characterizes ‘our apHill noted- that in 1850, 94 per Hill charged that-our present ag- proach to over-population, pollupart of the food or’ “fry the hell out cent of the energy in the world -of it. ” riculture is out of touch with bioltion, the overkill- of resources, came from the muscles of men and Nutrition issacrificed at the harogy and that this is seen in our ap- mal-distribution problems, predomestic animals whereas in 1970, judice and power problems. vesting stage of production if the 94 per cent of the energy came from _ proach to a pest problem. “When He criticized the specialization plant is not yet ripe, Hill said. The we- have a pest in agriculture, we coal, oil and natural gas. vitamin content can vary considerthink in tE?ins of a pesticide to kill of knowledge, suggesting that so-’ “ WeJve got to weap ourselves it.” called experts on remote subjects ,ably, he said, even duringthe same off this energy,” Hill warned. BeHe compared this tosearching lose touch with real problems in the day, depending on when the plant is sides being expensive and uncer“support environment”. ’ picked. tain, our reliance on fossil fuels is for an aspirin to soothe a headache which may be cause by tight shoes As an example of this, -Hill cited a Food can deteriorate still more wasteful and damaging to the envistudy of the feeding behaviour of due to transportation, storage and ronment, the professor said. or no breakfast. processing which causes “an Over 50 per cent of pests in the mink conducted by four states Hill explained that if we didn’t Canada were introduced by plants in the United States, all unaware of enormous degradation in food qua& have- inorganic. fertilizers, we the others’ activities and each ity,” he said. Packaging can lead to would be forced selected from other countries, Hill to use animal funded by $250,000 for the past 10 contamination of food with the solsaid, but it is due to such faulty waste and plant wastes for that agricultural practices as monoculyears. vents used in the manufacture of purpose. He was ‘pleased with increasing -plastic materials, the professor But instead of being returnedto ture that the ‘pests have been disinterest in eastern religions such as said. persed . the system they come from, these zen Buddhism which have a ten: A breakdown of nutritional qualwastes are dug into non-productive - The -breeding of plants is invaritral philosophy of being one\ with ity occurs even in the preparation land as land-fill, burned, or thrown ably done in the presence of pes; nature. and cooking of food-for consumpaway-causing soil, air and water ticides which prevents the plant tion, Hill said, maintaining that we from developing pest resistance, he . “We must start becoming more pollution, the professor said. aware of feedback from the envishould stop over-cooking our food Thus, agriculture is now a linear - said. Furthermore-, if the ‘site is ronment and more understanding and eat at least half of it raw. system rather than a cyclical one as Hill reiterated that agriculture is in nature, Hill said. selected not for its suitability to the of the relationship between causes needs of the plant but on the.basis and effects ,” Hill urged. “off the track” with respect to its Concerning the impact of pes-. original objectives and “we’ve got ticides on the.environment, Hill es- _of economic ‘factors, the plant is -~ -4iony~ mcmichael to start looking at what we can do at ’ timated that from 10 to 40 per 6% each of these stages of agricultural of the pesticide reaches the target production to improve food qualpest -and the rest of it is dispersed 3. ity.” into the surrounding-area. . Another problem that modern. The casualties are predators of agriculture has to grapple with, Hill the pest-our “free control”-tid said, is its dependence on nonbeneficial organisms that may have renewable, fossil-fuel energy.. no relationship with the pest, such While agriculturalists in general as birds, bees and fish. , tell us that productivity is improv- .“We shouldn’t be producing any ing every year, this represents a synthetic, inorganic compounds greater, yield per energy unit per - that don’t have a counterpart in nature because they are going to ac-man-not per energy unit invested, the professor said. cumulate and they are going to Other energy inputs not taken ’ poison us,” Hill warned. into-nt are farm machinery, He quoted an ‘ ‘eminent Canathe feed industry, fertilizers and< dian entomologist” as saying that pesticides. DDT is no longer a problem in the * Hill -said that an energy intensive developed world where is has been country like Canada probably av- F banned, and that in the tropics erages at least 10 times the amount where it is used for mosquito conof energy going in as energy coming trol it is not released into the enviout in the-form of food. ronment. In meat production, the ratio is “Absolute rubbish,” ‘Hill de: even higher, requiring about 50 clared, explaining that when the units of energy to produce one unit sun beats down in the tropics theof energy in the form of steak, he DDT is vaporized and carried by added. air currents towards the polar reg“This isavery poor return on ions where the air is cooled, dump’








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OTTAWA (CUP)-Truth stretchshowed the situation is not improving and self-justification took on a ing. The proportion of women new meaning when the nation’s university presidents met Oct. faculty-13 per cent of the total -remained unchanged during the 27-30 in Ottawa to discuss the role and status of women in Canadian past four years, despite talk of the universities. need for change. “Women and Universities” was And women academics continue the official theme of this year’s an- to be paid less than their male colnual meeting of the Association of leagues, still tend to occupy the Universities and Colleges of lower academic ranks, and are still Canada (AUCC), a national or- promoted less frequently. ganization representing Canada’s In short, women academics as a 65 degree granting institutions, and I group do not receive work opporreferred to by some as “the tunities equal ta those men receive, president’s club”. and those that do find equal work do not receive equal pay. Although university presidents Non-academic women staff do were the primary participants, not have it any better, and the tradiother administrators, some faculty tional practice of sex-typing jobs and even a smattering of chosen and underpaying women who do staff and students were brought them continues unabated. along for the two-day annual stint Reva Clavier of the Simon Fraser at Ottawa’s Skyline Hotel. University library workers union “I hope that we can go beyond outlined the sexist personnel the mere recital -of woes, exprespolicies of her university to a worksions of guilt or self-justifications” shop attended mostly by people and do something “much more who enforce or operate under simipositive, lasting and concrete,” lar policies. said newly enthroned AUCC presReferring to existing collective ident, Michael Oliver of Carleton. agreements and job descriptions at University, opening the session. SFU, Clavier explained that an “equipment man”, a position Recital of woes which requires no work or educaReports were presented to the tional experience, is responsible delegates confirming that univerfor operating the gymnasium sities are sexist in their hiring, pay equipment room and for doing and promotion of women staff, laundry. He receives $465.25 every both academic and non-academic. two weeks for his efforts. A statistic al compendium preMeanwhile, she continued, a sented by Statistics Canada consecretary 11 must have grade 12, taining data for the 1971 to 1974 preferably some university educaperiod not only documented the tion, be bilingual, have good typing unequal treatment accorded and dictation skills and previous ofwomen by universities, but also fice experience.



The responsibilities for this category include preparing confidential documents and minutes, arranging for the boss’s travel, handling incoming visitor groups, and maintaining the department’s files, along with other duties, Clavier said. This job, invariably filled by a woman, pays $367.97 every two weeks, almost $100 less than the equipment man receives. “The issue here is not equal pay for equal work,” Clavier said, “what is needed is equal pay for work of equal value.” She urged universities to reassess their personnel policies and pay women in accordance with the burden of work and the responsibilities they assume.

Sparce info The information presented on women students was sparce except for what was provided in the Statistics Canada compendium. That report showed two persistent trends evident throughout the recent and not-so-recent past. One is that women students continue to predominate in traditional “female study areas” such as nursing, household science and education, while still being underrepresented in traditional male dominated areas such as engineermedicine, law, ing, commerce, mathematics and sciences. The other is that women students are under-represented at all levels of study, and the attrition rate for women students increases the farther up the academic ladder you look. -

Once upon a time, in the summer of 1914, a tiny street was formed in the town of Berlin. And it was called Moyer Place. Over the years, as Berlin grew larger and changed its name, Moyer Place slowly started to disappear into the hustle and bustle of bin citv business. Until 1975. . . when it was rebuilt and called Market Village. - 1




Women constitute 38.3 per cent The report was prepared by of the undergraduate student popuElaine McLeod, and made it clear lation, 26 per cent of the graduate that universities are doing next to population, and only 18 per cent of nothing to provide child care serthe total number of doctoral candivices for those who study or work on campuses. dates. As far as the status of women Universities, she said, even fail to acknowledge that they have restudents is concerned, the situation sponsibilities in this area, she unat present was shown to be much derlined her point by handing over the same as-in the past. her 17-week-old infant to Oliver One workshop debate centered when she was asked to address the around the issue of whether conference. women’s studies programs should No provision had been made for be encouraged, or whether effort child care for delegates, much to should be made to guide women into the traditional male dominated the regret of Oliver who sat at the head table patiently holding the inareas. fant amidst popping flashbulbs. A background document prepared for the conference by the Concrete action? AUCC secretariat gave a listing of That something “much more women’s study courses, programs positive, lasting and concrete” that and research going on at Canadian president Oliver sought from the universities, or at least that is what conference, if it was to be found at the report, titled “Status of Women all, should have appeared in the rein Canadian Universities 1975”, ’ commendations coming from the purported to be. works hops. Inspection revealed, however, But the structure of AUCC is that much of its contents were just such that the annual meeting has no ‘ ‘padding’ ’ , as one delegate put it. power to make policy resolutions, The University of Toronto, for or to instruct member institutions instance, listed courses ranging to take any particular action. from contemporary Canadian All the annual meeting can do is economics to Chaucer studies to to “advise” the AUCC board of Tudor history under the heading directors, who are mostly univer“Women’s Studies Programs and sity presidents and administrators. Courses”. The- board in turn, can only Carleton University’s listing of “urge” members to adopt a “research projects and publicaspecific course. tions’ ’ showed equal imagination. - The result is that none of the It listed a draft report whicbas workshop recommendations have never made and has been scrapped; any binding force on anyone. But a report of an advisory committee there were plenty of recommendaon equal rights for women whose tions, although none demanded members are not sure if they ever that “affirmative action” programs have or will meet: a student probe instituted by universities to reject, a faculty member described as verse the efforts of the unequal “doing some research on women treatment accorded women. but is on sabbatical leave” ; a Probably the most descriptive three-page statement about women “action” taken was there-adopting presented last June to the Ontario of a series of recommendations inCouncil of University Affairs; and tended to improve the status of only one bona-fide research project women in Canadian universities which will be completed in 1977. previously passed by the AUCC This research did not prevent annual meeting back in 1971. Carleton president Michael Oliver These resolutions, which the infrom exhorting at the podium: tervening years have shown were “Where universities are more imlargely ignored by the AUCC portant than other institutions is in member institutions, included research and analysis . . .and re“advising” the AUCC board to: - “actively search on sex roles simply won’t encourage” memget done unless we do it.” ‘bers to promote more women to Oliver’s role at the conference, administrative and policy making however, was not restricted to oraposts ; tion. When the report on child care -‘ ‘urge’ ’ members to eliminate services came up for discussion the job stereotyping and salary diffenew AUCC President found himrentials based on sex; self actively engaged in the subject. continu,d on page 11

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14, 1975

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OTTAWA (CUP)-There were social work co&ued to have high few surprises contained in the proportiqns of female faculty: 80, statistical compendium, oh women 49 a,nd 32 percent respectively. in Canadian universities released Taken by program areas, the Oct. 29 at the annual meeting bf the proportion of women faculty is as Association ‘of Universities and f o 11ows for 1974: health professions. Colleges of Canada (AUCC). and occupations (21.2 per cent); According to figures compiled by education (21.2 per cent); fine and Statistics Canada for the 197 l-74 applied arts (18.7 per. cent) period, women faculty across humanities and related (16.4 per Canada are under-represented, . cent); agricultural and biological paid less, and not- promoted at the sciences (15.5 per cent); social sCisame rates as their male colleagues. ences and related (10.3 per cent); As students, women are undermathematics and physical sciences represented at all levels of study, (3.8 per cent); engineering and apad

Universities shun \ child care needs OTTAWA (CUP)-Universities the increasing number of twohave beeri doing a deplorable job of parent working families, the need providing child-care - services- for for long-term university-based the university, according to a rei child care is evident.” port on child care service at Cana- __ Demographic data which could be used to estimate the need for dian universities release,d Oct. 29. The report, presented to the an- child care services on university nual meeting of the Association of campuses is totally lacking, accordUniversities and Colleges of ing-to the study. Canada (AUCC), says “child-care An example cited, however, is dealt with on an ad hoc crisis showed that for one Canadian unioriented basis” by Canadim university with an enrolment of 10,000 versities. students, the total number of chil“Child-care is not perceive; as a dren involved was about 670 preschoolers and 400 6- 12 year-olds . service program nor as an accepted If this ratio of children/ activity of the university communenrolment were accurate for ity,? it states. system, it According to the report, the the whole university major problem is that universities would indicate that there are presently about 20,000 preschoolers assume little responsibility for planwho POning, development or financing of and l~,OOO 6-12-years-olds tentially could use some kind of child-care facilities. But, “given current trends in the child care .facilities. Currently, campus child care university student population and services across Canada provides space for a total of 1,850 preschoolers and services for 50 continued from page 10 6- 12-year-olds . -‘ ‘urge* ’ members to provide The author of the study, Elaine McLeod, told the conference that materpity leave and child care services for women faculty and staff, her survey of existing campus child -‘ ‘urge’ ’ members to plan care facilities showed that not only courses designed for women wantwere universities unwilling to being to return to the labour force; come involved in child care, they and . refused to even acknowledge the -‘ ‘.urge ’ ’ member universities existence of such facilities as are to include studies about and for set up. I women in the social sciences curProject initiation, financial planriculum. ning, and program development are \ Also passed were recommendaall left up to those least able to co@e who need tions advising the AUCC board to with the task-parents “urge its member institutions to child-care-while in, most cases “no working relationship of any support financially and otherwise” kind” exists between them and the the emergence and development of women’s studies programs, and the university, McLeod said. holding of a national conference to Where a relationship was ‘found discuss curriculum in this area. to exist, she reports, “it was reAnother called for “support in stricted to use of physical and aduniversity facilities principle” from the AUCC board in n@istrative establishing a Canadian Institute such as recreation programs or duplicating machines. ” . for Research on Women’s Experience, a research centre which preMcbeod recommended in her become insumably would also study the so- report that universities volved in the planning and initial cial role of women as well as their ‘ ‘experience’ ‘. development of child care services 9 Now that AUCC has another and collect the necessary data needed to estimate the need and mountah of resolutions Cal&g for potential cost of child care serimprovement in the status and 0 treatment of women staff and- stuvices. She also recommends that unidents 9all that seems to be lacking is versities assume responsibility for committment .from the institutions the planning of capital facilities themselves to actually take affiimative action to change- the situaneeded for child care services, and that members of the academic staff tion. Without that commitment, the community cooperate in helping situation for women will remain as parents and staff develop child care it has for the recent and distant programs. . past, and conferences such as this But the child care services themyear’s AUCC meeting will be reselves, however, should be run and membered as just so many words, administered by legally incorpolike &ch of International rated non-profit community boards Women’s Year. or parents co-operatives, McLeod _ -peter o’rri&y - advised. ,

their numbws


as Study


plied sciences

(0.7 per cent).

levels increase ,,j from underAccording to Yves Fortin of graduate, graduate, to postStatistics Canada, who presented graduate levels. the study to the meeting, the variaAnd women students are still tions in male/female ratios between under-represented in traditional male-dominated areas like en- different academic programs is so extreme that the aggregate aver: gineering and commerce 9 while ages become tiseless for purposes programs such as nursing and of analyzing pay and promotability household ’ science remain untouched as female academic ghetrates between the sexes* In an attempt to make meaningtoes. ful comparisons 9 Fortin excluded The study shows that between the traditional male and female 1971 and 1974 no progress was dominated areas and concentrated made in increasing the proportion on statistics relating to teachers in of women faculty. ,I! both years the education, humanities and sowomen represented only 13 per ‘cent of the toa fu&&e testing cid sciences, ‘who comprise 50 per cent of the total full-time teaching staff at Canadian universities. The variations between male/ Staff at Canadian universities. female ratios in different proFortin told the AUCC that betgrams were. extreme, and show . ween 1960 and 1972 the proportion that traditional sex-typing still conof women receiving graduate detinuesto be unchanged despite the grees in these three areas increased recent talk about equality. from 19 to 30 per cent of the total. In 1974, for example, the tradiYet- the percentage of women fational male dominated engineering culty in these areas increased only faculties remained juqt that, with margjnally over the same period the proportion of female faculty -from 13 to 14.7 per cent. listed as “nil or zero”. Those women who did receive In the same year, nursing was academic appointments were prostill 99 per cent female dominated moted less frequently than their while only 7 per cent of the medical male counterparts. Analysis of school faculty were female. teachers who received doctorates And while commerce continued in the same’year, 1958, showed that to have few fetiale teachers (only by 1974 70.5, per cent of the men had achieved the rank of fill1 pro4.6 per cent of the total), the traditional female study areas of housefessor, compared with 3 1.2 per cent hold science, library science, and of the women. .

For this same group of professors, the average salary of men was $23,350 whil e women received $22,350. Fortin also noted ‘that in 1973-74 the average starting salary for a man appointed to the rank of full professor was higher than the average salary of women who had five years experience at this rank. For all ranks, the average male faculty salary for 1972-73 was $17,184, compared with $13,886 for worn&. The statistical comp&dium showed that in 1972-73,- women represented 38.3 per cent of the full-time undergraduate student population, 25.4 per cent of the graduate population, and only 17.2 per cent of the candidates for dottoral degrees. This apparent tendency for women not to continue their studies at the same rate as men was only one major trend shown by the figures. Equally significant is that women students continue to’cluster in specific study areas while almost being totally absent from others. Programs in which women students predominate include nursing (98.1 per cent); household science (97.3 per cent); library science (79 per cent); social work (70.7 per cent); education (61.8 .per cent); fine and applied arts (61.6 per cent); music (55.6 per cent); journalism (54.3 per cent) and pharmacy (53.9 per cent). Areas in which women students do not predominate include the following: m,edicine (22.4 per cent women); agriculture (19.3 per cent); law (18.1 per cent); architecture (13 per cent); commerce (11.9 per cent); dentistry (8.3 per cent); forestry (3.8 per- cent)‘; and engineering (1.7 per cent). Women accounted for 45.7 per cent of general arts students, but only 26.1 per cent of those enrolled in general sciences were women.


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The Ontario government is holding formal public meetings in its reevaluation of financial assistance for university and college students. We are concerned that OSAP will be drastically altered, including the dropping of grants.

GENERALFORUM Wednesday, Nov. 26 12:00-l :30pm Campus Centre Great Hall Join in the discussions to develop our position for the government hearings in London (Dec. 5) and Toronto (Jan. 21). Travel plans for all students interested in being part of the UW delegation will be discussed.

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Ca,nadian capitalism

rhe following article by Daniel Drache examines the de/e/optient of Canadian capitalism and the domination of Sahada’s manufacttiring and resource industries by U.S. Meres& It is reprinted from This Magazine.

What we have in Canada is a hybrid or “incomplete” form of capitalism, which,might be called advanced re:ovrce capitalism, where capitalist reiations are based on a very highly developed resource exploitation. It is due to this mode of capitalist production that Canada finds herself between the two camps of the world economy: under industrialized by imperial interests, but lot completely dependent and shariig many of the social -elationships of advanced capitalism (such as found in Britain and the U.S.) On the one hand, Canada has acquired‘\a substantial goods producing sector and an economy’with high income .evels supporting a large market for consumer goods. We have also a powerful banking system with considerable Canadian investment abroad and an impressive state structure playing a large role in the economy. On the other hand, the control of Canadian resources and manufacturing industries is increasingly coming into the hands of U.S. interests. By 1970 Americans controlled 58% of our manufacturing and 74% of our mining operations, as well as capturing most of our profitable consumer market through their branch plants. Outflows of capital to the U.S. reached close to one billion dollars annually in profits, dividends and other remittances by the end of the 1960’s. The level of U.S. directinvestment in Canada rose dramatically from $3.9 billion in 1939 to $30 billion by 1970, a figure greater than the-tal U.S. investment in all of Latin America. What follows is an examination of Canadian capitalist development from the perspective of * its “incomplete” nature;

Thd liberal economists With: the rise of American domination of the Canadian economy since the last war, came the dominance of liberal economic theory in our universities, which assumed (as in the U.S.) that it was dealing with an advanced (rather than ‘\ an “‘incomplete”) form of capitalism. The new boys in our political economy departments began to build for Canada a liberal orthodoxy of free trade, rapidly advancing technology and internationalism. On the surface, it looked to many Canadians asif the new theory might be right. With the decline of British power, ‘many looked forward (as Hugh MacLennan did, Foi example, in Barometer Rising) to an era of indepen-

dence and business prosper-it;. During the late 40’s and5O’si when premium prices were being paid for Canada’s resources, it appeared as if we’d have the money necessary to build the industrial base required for an independent country, The reality of the Canadian economy, however, continued to intervene, and our liberal economists, became increasingly puzzled by the country’s continued lack of progress towards’ a fully advanced form of capitalism, under circumstances which should have encouraged this progress. First of all, they saw that since the middle of the 19th century, the rate of domestic capital formation had been persistently high. Each decade we managed to spend more and more money on machinery, equipment and construction. And at the same time, in terms of the sales of resources (together with some manufactured items) we generated the money necessary to pay for the vast majority of this capital equipment. Unlike many other countries with only one or two commodities for export, Canada has more than a dozen prime industrial resources being exploited simultaneously. (We have the largest per capitamineral output oflany country in the world; by 1970 it was approximately $355 per capita annually .) The sales of these resources during periods of great world-wide industrial expansion-at the turn of the century, the period following World War 1, between 1948 and 195Lshould have been able to pay for more than 80% of the capital goods we bought during these periods. But somehow it didn’t. Canada ended up> very heavy borrower on the world’s money markets in every period of the 20th century. As a result, / Canada is one of the major debtor nations in the world. -At the end of 1969, Canada’s net liabilities to non-residents amounted to about $28.2 billiona $24.0 billion increase since the end of the Second World War. (Canada’sInternational Investment Position M&1%7, Statistics Canada, p 13.) The second feature of the Canadian economy that puzzled our liberal theorists was that while Canada enjoyed a higher growth rate in the GNP than the U.S., Canadian per capita income remained persistently one-quarter to ‘onethird below that of the U.S., a disparity which continued into the 60’s. Canadian wages should have been catching up. But on the other hand, since they weren’t catching up, why wasn’t, \ Canadian manufacturing being helped by this process. Persistently low wages ought to ,help build a bigger surplus, which in turn can be used to advance technology and

introduce more capital equipment, thereby increasing efficiency and improving your competitive position on the world market. Canada’s competitive position over the years, however, didn’t improve. Our ability to export manufactured goods actually declined between 1870 and the early 1950’s. In ,” 1870, 16.7% of total manufacturing output was exported; in 1953 the figure had gone down to 15.7% of total output. In 1970 the 15% figure continues to hold true once allowance is made for the Auto Pact, which is a negotiated trade . agreement and therefore cannot be considered as part of Canada’s international export capability. Furthermore, a large part of the 1970 figure is taken up \ by pulp and paper exports (hardly what one would call a manufactured product) to the U.S., and these exports inflate the true picture of Canada’s industrial ability.


A third aspect which bothered them was the .unique “supply” relationship that the Canadian economy has with the manufacturing sector of American industry. As America expands her industrial capacity, Canada accelerates her resource exports rather than- her industrial production. Here are the figures for the period 1926-1940, which I believe apply more generally. A 1% increase in American industrial production brought a 1.2% increase in primary products from Canada. A 1% increase in Canadian income . created a 2.2% increase-in primary products. “Noothercountry or group trading with the U.S.,” two noted economists, Caves and Holton,’ write, “enjoyed such an expansion of exports-mainly resources relative to American industrial expansionism.” Of U.S. trading partners, only Canada has continued to import larger and larger quantities of manufactured goods from the U.S. as its own industrial sector grew. By 1970, Canada imported manufactured goods on a per capita basis worth $465, while the U.S. per capita imports for the same year was $116. But perhaps the most puzzling development for liberal economists looking forward to advanced capitalism was the extent to which we imported capital goods, as a percentage of our capital goods market. For the period of the 50’s (the only period for which a study exists, but which I beliey identifies the general trend) approximately 2/3’s of Canadian imports were for industrial usage-parts, sub-assemblies, mat hinery -which over this period were worth an average of 25% of the annual gross domestic investment; the figure continued to rise over the six years the study covered. Canadian capitalism (including branch plants, of course) continued on page 14



the chekon





page 13

‘has some independent capacity in producing consumer goods, largely for the Canadian market. But in the more critical areas of high technology industry, such as chemicals, electron&s, and machine parts, capitalism in Canada has &tually no autonOmy+elying primarily on,extemal supply for its capital goods. -’

Canada’s employment patterns reflect the general lack of growth in our manufacturing sector. The largest increase in every economic period since Confederation has come in the tertiary industries, not manufacturing. De period 1900-1939 is often regarded as the time of greatest industrial growth. But even at the end of this period only 16% of Canadian workers f&nd jobs in industry. For the ecdnomy as a whole during this period, primary occupations excluding agriculture rose 113%; there was a 218% increase in transportation, trade arid clerical jobs ; while the labour force in manufacturifig rose by only 65%. After 1939~he percentage of the l&our force in manufacturing rose further and then began to de-

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\ cline again, and by 1970 the percentage in manufacturing was down to approximately 20%, where it had bien in 1927. .

Building on his Hqw do you deal with these questions? Why is Canada such a heavy borrower on-the world money markets, when we generate most of the funds that could be used to pay for_ our capital expenses? Why are Canadian workers paid less than U.S. workers, while at the same time Canadian capitalism is largely uncompetitive. on _the world mar&et? Why do we continue to be a resource base fd; American industry, rather than building up our own industrial s’ector? Why do we import so many of our capital goods? How come, in &her words, if we make the money, _ we can’t use it to build an industrial base (and so, of I

of which wti taken up by mining and petroleum. What was happening, of course, was that U.S. expansion into Can&an industry was being paid for by investment income generated within Canada. - Retained profits along with geri’&ous’ tax allowanees from Ottawa, which treated American cornpanies as Canadian fiis, made Canada the American oyster. ) ’ -The U.S. did not have to inject new funds into the Canadian economy .-It could expand indefiitely using the resources at hand in Canada an&that included special depreciation and depletion allowances, which Ottawa provided, as well as ‘Canadian ’ gentited funds which Canadian bank; loaned to American corporations. Close to three-quarters of U.S. expansion in Canada was financed from these two sources alone. The questidn is now, why do the Canadian-owned banks fmance this, American takeover of Canadian industry, particularly the resource sector, and why don’t they finance a Canadian manufacturing Sector? The. reason is simple enough. They don’t get hurt in the takeover, and they make a lot of money on the resources trade. Canadiari banks have shown-a marked growth in recent’ decades & the wheat economy gave way/to an energy econdmy. They do so well, in fact,_that they go further than their American counterparts in calling for free trade. The position of the Canadian banks was assisted, I might add, by an American law (now off the books) which forbad an American bank to leave the coun-try. *





course, make a lot more money)? Why doesn’t Foreign-Cont&kd Share of Capital Em capitalism follow i@ own logic here? . One thing ii catain. You won’t find the answers in Sekted Canadian Ma~ufakuring bdus \ - to these questions in any liberal theory of advanced capitalism. Tauufaiwing Industry _ _One of the ’ tragedies - of Canadian political 0 20 40 economy in the 50’s is that we gave up the one theory Rubber . that did recognize the incompleteness of Cajnadian \ capitalist developtient and provided a base for unAutomobiles and Parts derstanding why this developmeiit was retarded and . :for answering the questions above. The theory was developed most fiircefully in thework-of Harold Innis, and was, of course, the “staples” approach to the Canadian economy. Innis argued that for Canada, unlike EuropA Beverages .S . countries, the motor of development was not man. Textiles ufacturing but the growth of staples of raw materials Iron ,and Steel M!lk ,_.= for export: fish, fur, lumber-, timber, industrial reOther sources and (now) energy products. His theory explained the stages of Canadian billion in dividends tid interest payments. In addi. But what abet economic development in terms of the export of tion, they were paid- $7.6 billion for royalties, fees these staples at different tim$s in our history to Like -the banks, and other services. ness in one way different imperialist centres. In toto, Americans realized investment income expansion. The aspect of his staples theory which was untotalling $65 billion &om their Canadia; holdings Canadian otin usual and u@nvetitional+for the time was his view during these years. On balance, Canada sent the that Canadian capitalism would be unable to transjoin the America U.S. $28 billion more than it,received. ’ cend its basic role as a raw mateiials supplier in the expanding exten But what is not well known is that almost 85% (or I world economy. / industrial manu: $53 billion) of this investment income was generated He argued that the staples producing economy plants in getting I between 1945-1967. What is even more remarkable would not be transformed by industrialization-and vices necessary 1 is that 50% (approximately $33 billion) was appropthat the original division of labour would remain And, of course riated betwRen 1960-1967. fundamentally the same. Canada would continue the CPR carry the And the period with the highest rate of profit for to be a net exporter of resources and a bet importer American and o American cqpitalists was the depression years. of manufactured goods. foreign made ind Their investment’income the’n ($2.8 billion) was five The resource b It yvould also continue to rely on borrowed techtimes as large as their direct investments ($435 millness .’ nology and capital. The reason: imperialism would ion). For the entire period (1900-1967), when reOur banks, alo continue to prevent Canada fioti becoming a net - tained earniqgs are itidtided, U.S. i=apitalists‘ tia-structures a pfoducer of manufactured goes in the world , realized $130 billion Canadian investment. Thus to a y plied the U.S. wil economy. very significant degree Canada’s economic surplus ite, aluiriinum, c In other words, we can’t use the money we make is appropriated externally. whit h together-i selling resources to build ti industrial sector because But not all the profits werit south of the border. I billion. we don’t control where@e money goes. Some stayed in Canada. Indeed, in spite of the masOil and gas ex] What‘Innis shows in his monument4 studies of siveoutflow of profits to the U. S . , more and more ’ the same year, w the Canadian staples economy is that in three differ- there was enough left over to finance most of the etit eras of imperialism, the allocation of resources capitalization of Cauadian industry, resource and and the use of-capital and-labour, are det&&ned otherwise. externally by the needs of the imperial power, fir;& As early as 1957, the Gakdon Commission com-France, then Britain, and now the U.S. mented on the phenomena that Canada had become The result is that the export of staples p&es the capital sufficient, relying,on foreign sources- to fiindustrial pump of the limperialist , economy, not nance only a small part of our industrial growth. \ ’ Canada’s. \I I/ Innis’ development of the staples theory does not, “The over-all ‘place of foreign financing in however, fullyd_eal with the questions raised regardCanada’s ikvestment expansion since the war hdsing Canada’s dependence on the U.S. In particular, .been considerably less than in previous periods of he doesn’t answer the questiop as to why Canadian heavy irivestment. The net use offoreign resources ’ owned ba&s should be financifig the American was about one-quarter in 192630, compared to 6% takeover. 1 _ of 1946-54; and direct foreign financing fell from _ His theory also does not adequately -explain why - about 1one-half to one-quarter between the two we have the amount of industrialization we do have periods.” ” . . .In effect there has been a very con(particularly through the branch plants) when the siderable increase since the turn of the century in the dominant economic activity is geared to exporting capacity of the country to generate savings required . ‘. to primary products racer than to Canadian manufacfinance its investment prog_ramme.” turing centres. (Canada U.S. Economic Relations, p.97.) Largely building on innis (while touching on the. tie omissions noted) ‘tihat I want to do now is to In the same post war period (1946-e), however, in spite of our growing capital sufficiency, there wad increasing American ownership of our industry. of Capital Employed Foreign investment in mining and manu‘tituring, more than doubled. Between 1948 and lV54 Ameri-: Industirie~, 1972 can owne&ip of mining and petroleuarindustries in Canada increased from 3% to 5%. This 20% rise in 40 I 60 ,80 l@m ownership might be compared to the 6% rise in genI I eral industrial investment during these years, most

, describe briefly the chief mechanisms by which American impe&lism prevents hopeful Canad& industrialists frdm comingup with the money necessary to develop a manufacturing sector. As a result’ of their-not being able to get this money, the country musf remain a heavy borrower, a resource base for the U.S., a net importer of goods (especially capital goods), and a 10~ wage area vis-a-vis the U.S. At the ce&e of the imperialist relationship bet-ween Canada and the U.S. is the large a@ gro@ng American ownership of our resource and mafiufacturing industries. The tables speak for themselves. Most.of the “foreign controlled share of capital employed? as shown in thi: two graphs comes from the U.S. As a result of this control, profits pour south of the border into the’ hands of American capitalists. For the period 1900-1967, the U.S. invested $37 -billion in Canada. From Kari Levitt’sreseafch it can be shown that American capitalists received $57.3 -. , -


. -d

nadian capitalists? ;he resources busiprofit most by its dustries naturally tr resources to an &t’s left of our big American branch lg the support serrade. conglomerates like rimary products to s, while carrying e other way. ’ da is very big busiporations building ansportation, supti imports of baux:kel , tin and zinc, )rth more’ than $1 lother $2 billion in aper exports were

valued .at some 14% of our total exports, in the neighbourhood of $2.53 billion. In this situation it doesn’t matter to the banks whether or not the industries dealing with resources are domestic or foreign. What matters is how big they are. The bigger they are, the safer and the bigger the loans, producing fewer headaches and the most money. The American corporations are, of course, the biggest since they serve the world’s biggest market, and so they get the loans. In view of the immense profits to be made in the staples trade in Canada, the next obvious question is why do we have a manufacturing sector at all? Why do we have the branch plants we-do?-Howhave we managed to acquire an industrial base larger than any other dependent economy? First, though, a word of caution. The problem of accounting for some degree of industrialization is primarily a southern Ontario-Anglo-Montreal problem. These two centres account for better than 80% of the country’s industrial capacity. The rest of Canada is overwhelmingly a staples economy.

Industrialism between empires


American industrial structure in Canada.. In coming here, these firms provided badly needed jobs for the working class of central Canada. Their presence reinforced the Toronto-Montreal control over the national economy. In terms of location, this meant that Canada’s regional disparities would become a permanent feature of Canadian capitalism. _- The other factor that accounts for the degree of industrial diversification is government inspired

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phere and perspective on Canadian independence in the coming decade. -The total defeat of Walter Gordon at the hands of the Montreal financial community demonstrates the depth of feeling and commitment of our indigenous ruling class against tampering with their historic relationship with American capitalism. -The banks, resource j corporations and service capitalists are the “core” Canadian businessmen, and they are growing with the trade in staples.


Two factors account for Canada’s unique industrial position. Both are a reflection of Canada’s place in an imperial economy. Canada’s strategic position at the nexus of twoindustrial empires was the principal reason which attracted the most advanced sectors of American industry to locate here: These monopolistic enterprises established themselves when Canadian firms in high technology industries were in their infancy. Canada with its small population, scattered market and agrarian economy was hardly of interest to American industrial giants such as auto and chemical companies. They came to Canada because they wanted to sell in the protected markets of the British empire. Canada became their export base. The establishment of branch plants occurred on an industry-wide basis. The transfer of production facilities involved reproducing in miniature the

growth to aid an imperial war effort. All other efforts are dwarfed by comparison. Only during the two World Wars and Korea, was there a transformation of Canada’s relations of production which constitutes a qualitative leap or change in the economy. Canada’s industrial growth has been paid for historically by public funds. In war time Ottawa has provided the capital to expand existing production as well as to create completely new factories and industries. Government-financed war needs es tablis hed Canada’s modem aerospace-and electronics industry and ensured that existing industries like steel received “gift” capital to upgrade production, that is, to buy more efficient and more expensive machinery. Indeed, steel may be taken as typicalof many Canadian industries whose fortunes were tied to Canada’s participation in imperial wars. As one business historian writes: “The level of domestic steel capacity reached after World War I was so high that little further change occurred in the steel industry until the outbreak of World War II”. In World War II over $2 billion was spent on increasing plant capacity, which doubled production ability in the space of three and a half years (between 1941 and 1945)‘The output of secondary industry between 1939 and 1944 increased by an estimated 160%.. At the year’s end government-built industry was sold to private enterprise, much of it foreign owned, at the going rate of a dollar a factory. Through this means two-thirds of the war-built industrial strutture was adapted to peacetime uses. In 1950, for the second time in a decade, Ottawa took a substantial part in expanding the economy as its contribution to the U.S. war against Korea. Federal Government expenditures on national defense rose from $49 million in 1950 to approximately $2 billion in 1953. Ifmilitary pay and allowances ai% excluded; defense expenditures on goods and services rose from-$356 million in 1950 to $1.6 billion in 1953, or 34% incurrent dollars-and 273% in volume. Canada’s industrial character has come persistently from the direct intervention of the Canadian . state. The state did the-work of Canada’s industrial capitalists. It substituted itself for them. . Government intervention offset the worst effects of profit-taking, resource exploitation and industrial retardation brought about by-American domination. . Government policies consolidated somewhat Canada’s otherwise. fragmented industrial development. Government inspired growth has provided an interim solution to an economy without industrial depth but with some industrial capacity nonetheless.

What of the future? An economy without industrial depthand having a very high rate of capital leakage is a very shaky one. In the past government has played a crucial role in offsetting that erosion. At the same time, it was instrumental in maintaining Canada’s supply role in i the world economy. - We are now in a period of transition where it is much more difficult to offset the distortions produced within Canada by imperialism. These distortions will produce a very different political atmos-

Canada’s industrialists, or national capitalists ,‘are the least assertive sector of the economy and occupy a clearly subordinate place in the development of Canadian capitalism. In periods of stability such as the 50’s the ideology of Canadian capitalism (although not, as we-have seen, its reality) was industrialism and high technology. In periods of instability and transition like the present, our ruling class resurrects the old (and tried) ideology of the national dream. Its modern version calls for a new round of resource exploitation of the magnitude of the Mackenzie Pipeline, Syncrude and the James Bay projects. Once again we see Ottawa holding the public purse open for the taking. But Canadian-owned firms have followed the imperialist connection abroad. With their service set- _ tor focus, their technology and know how was readily exportable, first to Latin America and more recently to Asia. When broken down, our overseas investment is used to build infrastructures and services, etc., and is mainly rentier, the exception being the resource companies like Into, Alcan, and Rio Tinto, which are essentially Canadian-based foreign branch >plants . These overseas investments are particularly vulnerable to national takeovers, because the Canadian state, weakened by its lack of an industrial base cannot support them. A Carleton University study, reported by the Financial Post, “strongly suggests that Canadian multinationals (like Alcan) cannot expect much aggressive support from their own government when things get really sticky abroad”. When Alcan was facing nationalization of its bauxite operations in Guyana in 197 1, it was forced to align itself with U.S. companies in the same business in order to get a better deal. Michael Manley, the Prime Minister of Jamaica, says he’s getting ready to nationalize the Canadian banks in his country. A few moves like that and the Canadian “imperialism” of the 50’s and 60’s will _ come abruptly to an end. The reappearance of Canadian nationalism stem; also from our focus on a resource economy and the growing concern over our economic and social de\ ‘pendence on the U.S. In this tie of reassessment it is very likely that _capitalist development in this country will become quite a different affair for Canadians. Events in the world economy offer the prospect of very hard times. The realignment of currencies at the world level may well begin to deflate the high prices currently received for Canadian resource products, with the exception of oil, whose price is likely to be pegged by the OPEC cartel. As a result Canada may be left with a lot of unpaid bills for infrastructure and ‘future profits not high enough-to cover them. The rapid decline in the price of Canadian raw materials and the slackening of the demand for them brought Canada to the point of collapse in the thirties. The same prospect may well be appearing on a . not-too-distant horizon.

) \

’ 16


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i -


- .

Rugby- team, -rep&t ’


N6V. 18,20 & 21 j i -


The University of Waterloo Dance .I \’ Company Presents / “TREADS’ A ‘MEASURE IN RENAISSANCE STYLE” accompanied by Music Four Theatre of the Arts . \ t

1 E--

Some of the music and dances that will be per- . formed are Casarda, Branle,Coranto, in an English I court with visitors from Spain and France. Alsc 1 Galliard (which is a 16th century male virtuosa 1 dance) will/ tbe performed. . Free Admission Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students


14, 1975


Regu/ar season- over but-

NOV. 18-22 8pm



Henrik Ibsen’s ’ THE WILD DUCK “one of Ibsen’s greatest plays” , “strikes out at false piety with a rugged vigour / and humanity” . Humanities Theatre Admission $2.00, students & senior citizens $1.25 Box Office ext. 2126 Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students

T., R.M.C., and Queen’s were all Southern Louisiana University and The University of Waterloo’s by small margins. Next year he : the “Schlitz” Beer Company have Warrior Rugby dub team finished invited the Warriors to a sixty team the._ 1975 playing season- against a &edicts this year’s team w& peak. first-place Queen’s team with a 9-3 ’ ( Not only does he see potential in Mardi Gras Sattelite Tournament. his returning first team&s, but he This year’s team is also sorry to loss. lose assistant coach Roger sees strength in this year’s second The score was, indicative of the Downer. Roger will be travelling to team, where a great number of play.- Both teams fought hard obtained valuable game Japan next year and will miss the throughout the game, but the ex- - players rugby season. experience that will, see them comperience and maturity the Queen’s peting next year for first team posiclub has acquired over the past \ tions. . , three years gave them a slight edge. The one player from this year’s Waterloo now bstands in fourth team that will not be returning next place in the nine team OUAA . year is veteran lock and pack leader league. Ken Brown. Ken has helped carry Coach Derek Humphries was.opWaterloo rugby, on the field and off timistic in the face of the loss. He the field. He will be very greatly pointed out that his team is young, CALGARY (CUR)-University of 1 missed next year. and next ye& he will have fourteen Calgary students may face a yearly Although the regular game seastarters back out of the ftiteen is by no means athletic fee of $20 if an $8 increase with whom he son is over,‘Rugby first-stringers is approved by a November reat a standstill at Waterloo. Last finishedthis season. week the Warriors won first place ferendum. This year’s team, Humphries in the OUAA Seven Aside Tour‘According to the school of physpointed out, was stronger than’any ical education director, Dennis 28 and 29 previous Warrior rugby team. Th’h*- nament, and February Kadatz, the need for an increase games his team lost to York, U. o$ they travel to New Orleans where has existed since 1953. This year eight sports have been cut from the intercollegiate program, badminton, curling, track and field, skiing, soccer, fencing, ,women’s cross-country skiing and . figure skating. ’ Although U of C students pay with Barry MacGregor-Narrator ,$12 each in athletic fees, the actual and Kathryh Root-Pianist costs of the program are’ about A full evening’s entertainment in which music and word trans$17.75 per student, he said. A port the, audience back into the, life of the Schumanns. + $60,000 deficit has been covered by the university’s Board of GoverTheatre of-the Arts nors. _ ’ Adtiission $5.00 students & senior citizens $2.50 i - The $20 fee will fund both interBox Office ext.-2126 .-collegiate sports. and the campus recreation (intrankural) program.‘ I1 .

Calgary, to raise fees




- Roos


Bauer - \ ‘Daoust ielinek CCM


Factory seconds; clearouts of name brands Good supply of used skates



Cycle and Sports Ltd.

Nov. 28 & 29 - 8pm .\ .- .

Sun. Nov. 30th - 2:30pm ,’ . I BEETHOVEN SYMPHONY NO.,9 (A Song of Joy)

98 King St. N., Watedod

J.S. Bach-Cantata No. I.42 Christmas Carol Sing-a-long ’ ’ Alfred Kunz-Music Director 4% Conductor . ’

/’ Humanities Theatre Y- ’ ‘, Admission $240, students & senior citizens $i .OO Box ,Offjce-ex$i z&26, z \ _ -I ‘: . Creative Arts’ Board, Federation of Students r? J l

WED. NOV. 26 - 8pm Jo-anne ‘Willment and Doug ~Pattison in Concert

Liszt0 Mania . A&M Sounerack of the Ken Russ&l Film.

Folk Concert to include piano, guitar , harmonica Music by Lightfoot, Simon & Garfunkel and other3 plus some original compositions.


Free Admission Theatre of the Arts Creative Arts Board, Federation of Students’ .



Good at Westmount






the chevron

14, 1975

Rugby team on top 70-O

Warriors win OUAA championship, On Saturday, November 8th.) he OUAA seven-aside champion;hip tournament was held at York Jniversity. Frustrated during the ~egular‘season by injuries, poor oficiating, and an overabundance of Jenalties, the Waterloo Warriors urived at York determined to win. They did just that as they deeated the RMC Redmen in the field ;ame of the tournament 6-4. The victorious Warriors’ team vas represented by props Ken 3rown and Mike Hazell, hooker >ave Haynes , strum half Mitch Iammer, centre Ralph Jarchow, vinger Jon Issacs, and stand-offs ton Fukishima and Steve Dibert. Waterloo played magnificent

ugby, as they out-hit, out-ran, at-passed and out-lasted their oplonents. In the first game of the oumament Waterloo was pitted gainst the Guelph Gryphons. Guelph started off strongly as lhane Carson, (the league’s high corer), carried the ball into the Yarrior one-yard line. The Wariors deflected the Guelph drive tnd slowly mounted an offense. Yith less than one minute remainng in the first half, Mitch Hammer burrowed his way into the end zone rom a penalty play for the frost Yaterloo try. Throughout the second half the Varriors contained Guelph in their ,wn half. Both teams were finding t hard to gain any advantage until on Issacs made a spectacular brie-man effort. He broke two tack-

les at the fifty yard line which left him free to run the ball into the end zone. Jarchow converted and the game ended 10-O in favour of the Warriors. In the second game Waterloo faced ‘Trent who upset last year’s winners, ,McMaster, in the first round. Steve Dibert replaced Ron Fukishima in this game and no sooner had he taken the field when he scored his first try on a hard driving run. Jarchow converted the try. The Waterloo forwards dominated this game by winning set strums and line outs and driving over the opposition in the loose rucks .

Shortly before the first half ended, the Warriors were awarded a penalty on the Trent 45yard line. Jarchow, the team captain, chose to kick and the field goal was good. The half closed with a comfortable 9-O lead for the Warriors. The second half opened with a Trent try caused by a bobbled ball off of the kick-off. The conversion attempt was no good. Waterloo was shaken from their complacency. The game tightened up at midfield. Slowly Waterloo began to take the advantage. At the 35yard line Mike Hazel1 picked up the ball from a loose and fed it to Mitch Hammer, who ran to the blind side which was left open. Mitch scored his second try of the afternoon and Jarchow kicked his ninth point.




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Cab Cal’loway Count Basie

The second half turned into a deThe game ended 15-4. Desire, conditioning and discipfensive battle. The Warriors coThe final game saw Waterloo facline won the game for Waterloo. vered Dan McEachern, RMC’s ing RMC a team which for three The Warriors finally played the major scoring threat, like fiends. rugby that they have been capable years they have been unable, to The forwards, Hazell, Haynes , and of playing all season. The key to beat. Two years ago they faced Brown laced RMC’s backs with them in the fields of this same tourtheir success was team work. nament and lost. But this year punishing tackles. Toward the end Looking in retrospect at the of the half Waterloo began to tire. game, it is impossible to single out Waterloo made sure they would be the winners. McEachern made a 35 yard breakany one player from the rest. All From the opening kick-off ; away run and Ken Brown, in a eight players put in strong perforsuperlative effort, brought him mances. Issacs, Hammer, and JarWaterloo drove deep into RMC’s down on the two-yard line. The half. Dave Haynes took a pass and chow, and Dibert and Fukishima carried the ball in for what looked. Warriors took the play back to their starred on offence, but they were like a try, but the referee ruled him fifty. RMC rallied back into there to make key tackles when Waterloo’s end. On the seven yard out of bounds. they were needed. Brown, Haynes, Two minutes later the Warriors line they were awarded a penalty. and Hazel1 gave their backs supwere back at the RMC five yard McEachem took the ball and carport for the entire game; they tackried it over the try line. . line, and Haynes ran the ball in led hard and won the bail from the The conversion attempt hit the again. This time the ball was ruled loose strums and line-outs. When goal post and bounced in front of called upon they ran as well as their to have been thrown forward. the uprights. backs and passed the ball with As it turned out, Haynes was deThe rest of the game was diequal dexterity. stined not to score a try as Jon Isrected to keeping RMC from the The Warriors will be performing sacs scored the Warriors’ last try. Warrior’s end. In the waning moonce more this season at the UniAn RMC ball carrier was hit hard at ments of the game Ken Brown versity College Bowl to be held in the fifty-yard line and released the came alive. In a superb effort, he Toronto. Waterloo and Western ball. Issacs scooped it up and made controlled the ball from the lineone of those long, open field runs will provide the half-time enterouts and virtually turned into a ’ tainment by playing a push-ball for which he has become famous. one-main defense, tackling Redgame. Come and support your Jarchow converted, and the half team. closed at 6-O. . man after Redman.

c lJ s 0 ’



5 -

A member of CUS&s _- headquarters staff will be in the WORLD ROOM, Campus Centre 207, on Thursday November 20th from 10:30am until about 5pm. Students and others interested in CUSOare invited to come and chat with Mr. Peter Hoffman at-any time during those hours. Besides explaining CUSO’s terms of service, he will be able to provide specific information on the requests for volunteers that CUSO is receiving from Third World governments.

Duke Ellington Woody Herman . Pee Wee Russell Muddy Waters


Fats Waller

and Many Other Albums


22 KING ST. SOUTH WATERLOO 743-4562 HtlURS: MON - FRI: 1.0 A.M; - 9 P.M. SAT. 10 A.M. - 6 P.M.

CUSO sends qualified Canadians to serve for two years in Third World countries. .



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14, 1975

More and more

IM sports roundup Men’s American squash Saturday, Nov. 1 was supposedly the day for this tourney to take place. However, Halloween seemed to take its toll as only eight out of 44 competitors showed up to play. Once things got started, the players seemed to enjoy themselves and at the same time play some serious squash. W. Ceroici (Grad) came out on top at the end of the day after defeating C. Wilkes (ESS) in the final match. Other standings were as follows: S. Eckel (ESS),, P. Walker (Kin) and B. Holiday (Vl S).

7 aside rbgby


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in Waterloo Sq., Waterloo


Many of UW intramural athletes woke up last Sunday morning only to be faced with the famous fog that this city is known for. However, these guys showed up in full force and enthusiasm to take part in this very strenuous event. Eight teams played in what was a round robin tournament, that was well organized by the Rugby Club

and as a result of the interest shown, ran smoothly. The overall standings are as follows: In A flight, the champions were North Alufahons (V2 N) who defeated the much favored Bills Team with a score of 8-6. In the B levels, the winner was Pit Juicers, last years champion, over Renison Rats 12-Q in C flight. St. Jeromes defeated West A with a score of 10-6 in what was a sudden death overtime and in D level, South 3 Reamers were victorious over Chelsea F-Ball Club with a score of 6-O. Congratulations to the Rugby Club and to all the teams sharing a common interest in learning, playing and promoting this exciting team event*

Badminton singles On Oct. 30, the intramural department was again hit with a large number of defaults. The number of defaults for this tournament reached an all time high as only 42 out of 80 competitors were there to

UW ski club social meet coming The UW Ski Club is holding another of their famous social meetings on Tues., Nov. 18th. It will take place in the M&C lounge RM. 5136 starting at 7 pm and there will be another cash bar. Films will be shown both on downhill and cross-country skiing and memberships will again be shown for a modest fee of $3. But, the highlight of the evening will be a discussion of the upcoming trip to Jay Peak in Vermont on January 9, 10 and 11th. This is an annual trip and there has always been great skiing and lots of fun. Jay has over 2000 vertical feet of elevation and the runs range in difficulty from novice to expert to pro. They also have an aerial tram that can jet you to the top in six minutes. Coming down you get to ski miles of beautiful powder snow. During your stay you will be accommodated at Granny’s Grunt Lodge which has saunas, an ice rink, and a bar. All transportation is included in the price which also includes two full days of skiing and all breakfasts and dinners. The price for ski club members is $70 and for non-members it is $75. (This price includes EVERYTHING except lunches and booze.) It is very reasonable. Shop around and compare other prices and nothing will stand up to this offer. Deposits of $40 for both members and non-members will be taken up to Nov. 25th but ski club members have priority up to Nov. 18th. The trip to Jay is a good way to meet other skiiers, do some great skiing, and have a fantastic time. So, SKI JAY PEAK! If somehow you miss the meeting, or want to get a membership now, they can be purchased in the PAC office in Red North. REMEMBER, the ski club is a social organization, so come out to the meeting and have loads of fun! .

play. As a result, the men’s A and B levels had to be combined into one and the women had a surprisingly small draw. However, from that point on, the tournament ran smoothly and the finals were played a week later. Some very outstanding games were played but as always in a tournamenta winner, one who is a bit better than the others at that particular moment evolves. This year saw Cindy Riediger in a final match, defeat Clover Dukes (Vl S) to capture the championship. Unfortunately, at the time of writing, the Men’s championship had not yet been determined so keep in touch and the champion will be announced as soon as possible.

Men’s competitive hockey With only 2 games remaining before the playoffs begin, League A is still very bunched up. There are only two points separating the top teams from the bottom ones. With all the teams being so close it is impossible to predict which two teams will be advancing to post season play. In league A2, there are three teams very much in contention for a playoff berth. Math A and ESS have yet to lose and they are two points ahead of Medicine who have only dropped one. In the B leagues, the standings are also very close. All of the teams seem to be closely matched which makes it difficult to make predictions. Not all of the teams have played three games so we will probably be still waiting at the end of the season to see who will advance to the playoffs in each league.

Teisuf’e zodge Tm is pleased

to announce




Starting at Twin


“HAZEL’S based



with authorMerle Good in classes to be announced.

l producer

India Cave Restaurant 20 Young St., Kitchener Sunday Special Chicken Curry with Rice



HOURS TUES-SAT 5-19 p.m. SUN 4:30-9:00 p.m. CLOSED MON. 576-9430

65345735 l



on the book

as the Grass was Green by Merle Good

Tuesday - Friday

Speedvi Ile Ave., *(Preston)* Cambridge

7 Cambridge




Fri. Nov. Cinemas,

i-iday, november


14, 1975

the chevron


.Variefy is the 'essence entre the CU P

The Campus Centre was opened bnApril 4th, 1968. At that time, the Building was run by a fulltime direcor appointed by the university adninistration. On October 21st, 1%8, the stulents held a mass sleep-in at the lampus Centre to show their dis.ontent over lack of student voice nd control in Campus Centre polky and operation. Their action resulted in the fornation of an independent student iominated governing body, the lampus Centre Board.

The federation is run by students forms may be picked up at these to work for students. Whether you meetings only. Only registered students of the University of Waterloo need help or want .to help, come to the Federation office and talk to qualify to apply. The Campus Centre is a building d John or Shane or Helga or Pete or Allan or Ian or Orycia or Larry or primarily for student, staff and faArt or . . . .Our telephone extension culty use: the ping pong room, stereo room, piano room and a is 3880. games room are all available. There are also two lounges for group Uniwat’s student paper, the meetings and activities. chevron, now in its fifteenth year of Other services offered by the publication has of&es in the camCampus Centre Board are Wedpus centre room 140 and can be nesday night movies, various tourreached at Ext. 2331. The office naments, and craft fairs, run the

,The Chevron

Ext. 2372. Phone counselling 7-10 p.6 Monday to Thursday. Activities include coffee house Wednesday 8 p.m., discussions, picnics, dances Friday 9 p.m. We also have a library, referral service and public speakers. ’ Membership is open to any person regardless of sexual orientation. Interested? Then feel free to drop by for coffee and a chat.

Para-Legal Assistance The par-a-legal assistance office is located in Room 106, next to the main information desk of the Campus Centre. If you are having any legal hassles drop in and see us for free non-professional advice. We’re open Monday through Thursday and our phone number is 885-0840.

The Used Bookstore

The Used Bookstore, sponsored by the Federation of Students, is open weekdays from 9330-4330 in Room 217A of the Campus Centre. It’s a good cheap source for texts and reading material, as well as ac place for , selling your unwanted books. For more information on sale procedures, visit us during business hours.

Ice Cream Stand

The ice cream stand is open from lo:30 to 5:00 weekdays and is also open for special events such as concerts, games and movies. The prices are the best around and the scoopers provide the friendliest service in town.

Campus Centre Pub

31 those days when your soul takes on the aroma and texture of a ripe limburger cheese abandoned behind a hot aadiator the ding/flash/flash/dong of pinball may be just the thing toget the old neurons percolating. And that’s just lne of the delights of the Cgrnpu$ Centre. Others include the Federation of Students offices, the coffee shop and the photo by p. shaw Nashrooms.

At present, the board consists of n elected representative Erom ach of these areas: Graduate stuents, Science, Staff members, lngineering A, Engineering B (Al:mating terms), Environmental tudies , Integrated Studies, Math, rts, HKLS and the turnkeys. Two faculty .members are also lected to be on the board. Nonoting representatives include olre erson from Physical Resources, ne person from Security, the ‘ampus Centre operations cordinator, the board secretary and re chairperson. The Campus Centre Board leets every two weeks to discuss nd decide on policies for the opration of the Campus Centre. hese meetings are open to anyone ishing to attend. Meeting time Id place are announced in the azette a week before the meeting. he Board office is in room 202 of le Campus Centre, Ext. 3425 Turnkeys are students hired to ln the Campus Centre under the ampus Centre Board’s ,direction. hey may be found at the main inrmation desk in the Campus entre great hall. Many services se offered at the desk; lending of less sets, cards, games and agazines , coffee and change, rents information as well as genal information on almost anying of student interest on camLS.

Thehiring of turnkeys involves ~0 sets of interviews and a brief Ming period. General meetings r all applicants are announced in lgust, December and April of ‘cry year and held in September, nuary and May. Applications

third week of every month. Special events have featured dance, theatre presentations, and forums. For further information, call 884-8770 or 8851211, Ext. 3867.

Federation of Students

The .Federation of Students, in room 235, is the main co-ordinating centre for all Federation activities. Executive members keep their hours here and can be contacted about any aspect of the various and sundry activities of both the federation and the university. Bus tickets, concert tickets ,,and international student cards are all sold here. In addition‘, the most current information about AOSC charter flights and tours is always available. Also available is information about the many student organizations on campus. The Board of Education has a substantial collection of alternative magazines and newspapers which can be read in the office. Information on housing and your rights and-responsibilities ‘as a tenant as well as legal assistance in aggravated cases is provided.. Any questions about or problems with university bureaucracy, red tape and adminstrative policies can _be dealt with. O.S.A.P. and C.S.L.P. complaints, questions about university financing and government policies on post-secondary education can all be handled with the wealth of information which is kept on file, Find out about the student representative on each of the many university committees.

contains a darkroom, typewriters, a graphics room, an assortment of desks and chairs and friendly faces to introduce you to the world of student journalism. Why not drop in and get involved, be a chevric .

The Pub is open from noon until 1:00 a.m. Monday to Friday and 7:00 p.m. till 1:OO a.m. on Saturdays. Live entertainment featured nitely; cover charge begins at 6:00 p.m. Members of the pub include students of any post-secondary institution in Ontario as well as faculty and staff of the University of Waterloo. L.L.B.O. regulations

require us to check school and age indentification upon entry, so please bring your I.D. cards ! Members are allowed one guest each who must present age identification and be signed in.

The Games Room The games room, on the upper level of the building, is the amusement centre of the University of Waterloo. Features include pinball machines, a billiard table and air hockey. Come on up and blast away some of your academic frustrations ! Hours are 10:00 a.m. to midnight daily.

The Campus Centre Coffee Shop

This cafeteria is run by Food Services and is located on the same floor level as the pub. Open during the day, Monday through Saturday, featuring typical Food Services fare.

1 The Lower Level

Q The lower level of the Campus Centre provides a number of trivial services to the student population. A branch of the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce and the Campus Post Office are two of the primary services. Quite popular is the Federation of Students Record Store, with an inventory of over 4000 albums. Also located in this area are the Campus Centre Variety Shop, Unisex Hairstyling Salon and the Chinese Library. Why not take a stroll through the lower level the next time you’re in the Campus Centre and see how it can be of service to you. The Campus Centre is your building! If you have any ideas on what you’d like to see happen in the building drop by the Campus Centre Board .office, or phone Ext. 3425, La. gewa&o


k. jellicoe

Birth Control Centre The Birth Control Centre is an information and referral service for birth control, unplanned pregnanties, VD, and sexuality. Call or drop in with questions, problems or just to browse. We are not a clinic and do not give out or prescribe birth control Anybody (campus or community) is welcome and our services are free. Room 206 in the Campus Centre, Ext. 3446.

World Room The World Room, room 207, serves both as an international education centre, encouraging discussion on issues of internati.onal importance, through films, special programs and speakers, and as an informal, social centre where people can meet together over coffee, watch T.V., and talk. Students interested in travelling can meet with others who are more familiar with the culture they will encounter, or attend some of the social activites planned by the various ethnic groups. There is always someone there to acquaint you with the travel information, newspapers, magazines, - and other resources that are available. Do drop in to visit.

Gay Liberation Qff ice Campus




Centre is, according to rumour, a nice place to be. It has calmed down since the days when some students called it home, but can still furnish you with a comfortable place to sit and meditate over the largest 25 cent ice cream cone in Waterloo. It’s also close to the chevmn office. I photo by p. shaw r The great hall of the Campus


the chevron



14, 197E



11 LYRIC,S%%, 11

2 SHOWS NIGHTLY 7:00 & 9:20 D.m.

ks the some two dudes From “Uptown Saturday Night:.. but this time theySe bock with kid dyn-o-mite!

The Garfield Band returned standing ovations. 2 SHOWS NIGHTLY AT 7:OS 81 9:20 P.M.



by Alan production!

narrated by Rod Serling ac, CAPCnmv “CLCH3CY





to UW for a concert

on NOV. 6. About

250 fans came to listen and responded

with two

photo by graham gee

Garfield Band in concert About two years ago a group of musicians pooled their musical talents, adopted the Christian name of their lead singer and formed the then unknown Garfield Band. The band’s music is original in that they perform their own material. It is unique in that they use an . unusual combination of instruments to create the desired mood shows innovation. The result ofthis is a sound that thrills. There is no fair comparison of the Garfield sound to any of the big name rock bands. The band members do not even want to be known as a rock band but as a harmonic band. The sound is all their own and the closest one could come to a comparison is with Rick Wakeman because of the similarities in some of Garfield’s key-board accompaniment. However, even this is not accurate. The band is comprised of lead vocalist and guitarist Garfield



St. W. 743-6991

French, brother Dennis French hammering enthusiastically on an array of drums and tubular bells, Chippy Yarwood with the captivating flute and synthesizer, Walter Lawrence who on guitar and cello tunes the group’s stringed instruments, Jacques Fillion, Paul Odonald and Maria Tords playing guitars and melotrons. The band’s name and music is becoming very well known on the U of W campus as a result of a series of concerts and pub appearantes. The latest of these, on Nov. 6, saw an audience of approximately 250 give the band two well deserved standing ovations. Garfield promptly followed each of these ovations with an encore. This kind of reaction was hardly surprising after seeing the band receive two or three standing ovations every night for a week at the Campus Centre Pub. The concert came about as a result of a request from the recording company with whom the band is negotiating. A three day contract with theDownstairs John in Hamilton was broken, arrangements were made with the Theatre of the Arts on Tuesday and the concert went on Thursday night. These hurried preparations were in evidence as there was no advance ticket sales and advertising didn’t appear until Tuesday afternoon.

The concert itself was differen from the pub appearances in tha the crowd was sober, the acoustics although not ideal, were improvec and the music was perceived in ; different perspective as the mean ings and origins of most of the songs were explained to the audi ence. Although many of those in the audience last Thursday had hear-c the band before (probably two OI three times), the ,music still had aI arousing effect. Starting in relative serenity, it built steadily ant climaxed with “Sundown”, by faj their most powerful composition. Besides “Sundown”, the prog ram included such favourites a! “Ride the Waves”, “Nanny’5 Song’ ’ , “Old Time Movies” ant “Eyes”. It is obvious that the Garfielc Band enjoys playing to the UW fans as much as the fans enjoy listening to the band. Twice during the concert, Garfield French thanked the band’s Waterloo supporters. On their closing night at the pub in commenting on their then up. coming engagement in Hamilton French told the chevron, “if tht people there were like the people here things would be a lot easier.” The Garfield Band’s era of ohs, curity is about to end as their fus, album is scheduled to be released ir late February or early March nex year. Depending on promotior campaigns and how much of eacl song is cut out, it should be a pow. erful first offering. -graham




Nov 14&15 Fri & Sat & 7&9pm


Sun 7 & 9pm



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the chevron

i ;*’





years Chess teams Score , in weskend matches .

The UW “A” and “B” chess teams were active last weekend against other chess teams of the Southwestern Ontario Chess League. The UW “A” team won ah-2 victory against the Hamilton “A” team while the UW number 1 “B” team claimed a decisive 3.5-0.5 victory against the Kitchener “B” team. The UW number 2 “B” team was less successful in dropping a 1.5-2.5. decision to the Kitchener-Bay Anihan “B” team. The ’ matches were hard fought and in particular the Kitchener “B” team was more formidable than the score would seem to indicate. , The game played by Paul Kostiuk of the UW number 1 “B” team is typical of the games played and is presented below:

King’s indian defence Black: Paul- Kostiuk White: Tim Kodtic 1 P-Q4 N-KB3 2 P-QB4 P-KN3 3 N-QB3 B-N2 P-Q3 4 P-K4 Black has deliberately allowed White to create a broad Pawn centre in the belief that he can effectively counterattack against it. The result is almost invariably a lively struggle. , 5 N-KB3 o-o ’ 6 B-Q3?! White had better alternatives in &K2 or B-KN5. The Bishop on Q3 deprives the Queen Pawn of support from the Queen and is unable to achieve anything of significance as we shall see. 6 N-Qb3 _ 7 dii , B-N5! Black takes advantage of the misplaced Bishop by putting pressure on White’s Queen Pawn. 8 B-K2 ... An abject retreat. I P-K4 8 9 PG5 N-K2 N-R4 10 B-K3 Black’s last move prepares the inauguration of a Kings-side offensive by P-KB4. i 11 P-KR3 ’ This forces Black to come to a decision about his Queen’s Bishop but it has the drawback of creating a hole *in White’s King’s-side. .‘I1 *’ BXN ,2bj&-. . . N-B5 13 K:R2 Q-Q2 14 Q-Q2 P-KB4 15 PXP?! : PXP __-This exchangeis dubious since it cedesBlack the King Knight file which he is later able to put to good use. ’ 16 BXN PXB Superficially it appears that White has wrecked Black’s Pawn formation by doubling the Pawns but this is of little significance since White is poorly placed to exploit this while the half open King Knight file and the key squares controlled by the doubled pawns are likely to be more consequential. Note that Black’s King’s Bishop is now able to come to life on the long diagonal. \ 17 QR-Kl . N-N3 ’ / A-’ 18 B-K2?! ... The Bishop was probably better placed where it was. Now it obstructs the Queen and the Knight. 18 .. . B-K4 : This has the nasty threat of P-B6 dis ch winning a piece. 19 P-B3 Now the dark squares around White’s Kingare very weak and the White square Bishop is hemmed in by its own Pawns. 19 Q-N2 ’ 20 RiBI K-RI 21 R-Q02 ’ N-R5 ,QXP mate is threatened. R-B3 22 B-Q3 ’ R-R3 ’ 23 Q-B2 R-KNI 24 N-K?. \ -( Black has managed to efficiently concentrate his forces against the White monarch. . ’ ... 25 N-Bl?? White voluntarily deprives his King’s-side of its best defensive piece. Now the dark square weakness proves decisive’. 25 .. . . -- B-Q5 Black drives the White Queen from her defensive outpost. Q-N6ch 26 Q-Q2 NXBP!! ’ 27 K-RI White is lost! If 28 RXN, RXPch; 30 PXR then Q-N8 is mate. \ RXPch 28 PXN 1 ’ ,Q-N8ch 29 Q-R2 . 30 Resigns 31 RXQ is answered by RXR mate. 5 -robert ,‘itikol

Over ,300 performances old, the Toronto Workshop production of “Ten Lost Years” still retains its original vitality and power as a compelling picture of the Canadian people living in the Depression. ’ Last week, at the Theatre of the Arts, it sold out long before it opened. The play, adapted from Barry Broadfoot’s acclaimed novel, is built upon true stories gathered> from people across the- country who endured the depression years. George Luscombe, director at TWP, creates an intense atmosphere in which his-actors give us a taste of the frustration accompanying the struggle to survive. Luscombe makes spectacular use of sound, song, light and space to carry us back into those difficult times. . This play, so $ghtly packed with tragedy, spirit and humour, transforms history into reality in the wake of recent national strikes, rampant inflation, and social apathy. The theme of the stru&e against the elements, prominent in Canadian literature, has its place in this play, but those previously empty endless miles of terrain become <. weary trails of desperate men (searching futilely for work. Freight trains are the cheapest means of transportation for them. The entire country is stricken with the same illness, an internal struggle where people are driven to extremes. There is no escape from poverty, ignorance, hatred and exploitation. In such times, defining heros and villains, could you easily condemn those who must step on their neighbours in order to save their own families, or confine your pity to a single man thrust out into the street while hundreds of children are wasting away from mahmtrition? When life is stripped of all the ornaments as in the depression, corruption and profiteering become much more horrifying. The production itself is a colourful display of strength and delicate composition. The actors explore the entire three-dimensional stage; from writhing in pain on the floor, to reaching high atop rough platforms into free space. ’ ’ When that was not enough they created new, space through imagination and mime. In seconds, the audience is transported from a prairie field to a sweltering city factory, to a quiet hobo village. Subtle- use of soft lights enforced an atmosphere of isolation and fear, while special effects shift us to a totally new situation. A number of beautiful melodies / and percussive eruptions of sounds accentuate the moods created by the poetic narrative style of the script. “Ten Lost Years” reminds us that this country is composed of a mixture of people who speak dif-1 ferent languages, from both rural and’ urban backgrounds. The strength demanded from them to survive is a clue to our own distress. . Yet even a stark humour embraces the tragic situation. The c most relevant observation that the play makes about those people is th,at to carry on a decent existence, one needed an indomitable will, and an ability to put it to work. ’ The, smooth blend of sound, movement, and tableau, tremendous energy and an honest, relevant message all contribute to make “Ten Lost Years” a rich theatrical >experience. -myles kesten I




Mass Schedule /9:00 a.m. Sunday 7:00 p.m.

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the chevron

IQ article


It is depressing to see your article on IQ in the latest issue trotting out all the same old tired knee-jerk stuff that you published a couple of years ago, (in three articles by Wadge and Higgs which I commented on at considerable length). One would think that in a series allegedly informing people about science it might be possible, for a change, to observe some to- I lerable standards of scientific honesty and care. To begin with, as I pointed out a couple of years ago, the author’s labelling of Jensen and Herrnstein as ‘ ‘racist” is a simple, gratuitous piece of character assassination. The author does not, of course, try to define the term ‘racist’, but so far as evidence produced in the article is concerned, one would have to infer that he thinks that the belief that there is a highcorrelation between IQ and race which is to some extent due to hereditary factors is enough to make someone a “racist”, and this simply is not true. (If the author is simply defining the term that ,* way, Humpty-Dumpty fashion, then (A) he . had better say so, and (b) there is no excuse for doing so, since it can only be misleading.) I’ll bet the author doesn’t know anything at all about the personal beliefs of Jensen and Herrnstein about the rights of people. In the . absence of evidence on this matter, every one of these slanderous’references should be deleted from the article. It could be that the author thinks that if it were found that one race was of lower native intellectual capacity than another, then that would be a support for racist policies. Does he or she think so? If so, let’s hear his or her reasoning on this matter. Does he or she think that people less intelligent than him or her ought to have less rights? Or more intelligent, more rights? If that’s what the author thinks, let’s hear about it, because it suggests that the author is morally prejudiced in favor of intelligent people. Another little matter which the. author does not bring outconcerns the range of data on which Jensen and Herrnstein base their hypotheses. (I except Shockley, who is, in the first place, not a reputable scientist in this field. Another objectionable feature of

the article is lumping together people like Jensen, who is a careful experimentalist whose conclusions, which are stated far more tentatively than the author seems willing to admit, are based on enormous masses of carefully assembled empirical data, with cranks, like Shockley, and southern redneck racists whose “views” on these questions, if they have any, are just contemptible verbal drool .) _ It might be of interest to your author, for example, that those same tests which allegedly are biased against black people are. also “biased” against white ones, since orientals consistently perform better on them than whites (so do Jews compared with other whites, by the way). Why doesn’t he conclude that the whole thing is an extremely clever plot, engineered in a basement laboratory on the outskirtsof Peking, designed to prove that yellow people are the master race? The heading on your article really gets off to a good start, first by ascribing to Jensen the thesis which is associated with Herrnstein, viz., that intelligence is a or the main determinant of socio-economic success, failing to add the vital qualification “in our society”, and the other vital qualification that this is simply a statistical claim and not one which can properly be put by saying that IQ “is what determines people’s socioeconomic status in life”. And do you really believe that this claim has “no ground to stand on”? In denying. that IQ can be “objectively measured” and that it “differs from person to person” (are you denying both, or just one, and if so, which one?), one wonders what you mean. For example, it was proposed by some that it mattered which race the guy who gave the tests belonged to. In reply to this, Jensen did’ a study with several thousand school children, comparing the scores of those whose tests had been administered by persons of opposite race and same race, etc. This massive study revealed no such difference. Again: nowhere does Jensen “go on to claim that the 15 point difference in the average IQ test scored between blacks and whites reveals a genetic inferiority of blacks, which he says makes compensatory education and other social -programs doomed to failure,” so far as I know. Could we, please, have proper citations for this ascription?


To the best of my knowledge, Jensen’s claim is that no known environmentalist explanation of the differences in question will stand up to careful empirical study (and nobody, so far as I know-which isn’t terribly far, but well-informed acquaintances in psychology tell me this too)-has done more such study than he; nor is the specific experiment design of his studies regarded as grossly deficient, though one would get that ‘impression from your article. He says that the range of data we have at present is better explained by positing genetic influence than . by doing so. But instead of going on to detail further the enormously misleading character of this article, its apparent disregard of well-known facts and its total lack of scruple in making slanderous accusations, let me now turn to its main thesis, which is to make a supposedly vital distinction between inheritance and heritability and then go on to conclude that the thesis which Hensen is supposedly advocating is one which cannot conceivably be confirmed: “even more importantly, no studies in the conceivable future would be able to link IQ performance to a person’s genetic makeup”. This is a very interesting claim, and it is agreeable to see that at least in the course of setting it out the author does not lace the argument with invective-that’s reserved for the beginning and end. But so far as I can see, the argument is either quite wrong, or self-contradictory, or inapplicable to its apparent target, viz., the Jensen hypothesis. The main business of the article is to dis-tinguish between heritability and inheritance. Apparently the author thinks that a trait is “inherited” ifit is “fixed genetically, and unchangeable”, although it would have been less confusing if he had not earlier said “Of course you also inherit poverty (wealth), social class, and . . .“, which we will assume was supposed to be tongue-incheek. NOW, one difficulty with this definition is that it contains the term ‘unchangeable’, which is not clearly defined. We inherit our arms and legs, but these are definitely changeable: you can lose them, or damage them, or disease can set in; and you can exercise them, thus making them much_ stronger than otherwise. Does the author mean to imply that a trait is inherited if and only if you literally cannot



14, 1975

do anything to alter it once born? If so, the case is closed: there simply isn’t anything of that kind, including traits as physical as you like. So he must mean something else. But what? The definition proposed is evidently entirely wrong. And it certainly isn’t what Jensen meant. He certainly does not deny that you can vary a person’s IQ by varying his environment: he knows perfectly well thal this is possible. In the author’s apparenl meaning of the term, Jensen does not “confuse” the notions of heritability and inheritance. (There is apparently no such notion as ‘inheritance’ in the author’s sense of the term.) The best we can do is to identify traits which are relatively independent of certain specific environmental factors. (This is not quite true. As the author would presumably agree, it is perfectly clear that in the absence of genetic conditions, there are some things which it will be impossible for some organisms to do, at least by the usual biological methods: mice, for example, cannot be trained to trumpet through their trunks like elephants: they have no trunks. Nor, we may reasonably conjecture, will they ever become Shakespearian scholars ,) But of such traits there may be a great many. And indeed, we can begin by pointing out that, after all, any trait you can think of, no matter how low its heritability in the sense defined in the article, is influenced by heredity in the minimal sense that withoui certain genetic characteristics in its subject it would be impossible for the trait to bt displayed. The genes of any organism, as 1 understand it, place certain limits on wha the individual possessing them can be like (Were this not so, then we would have to sal that the difference between people and, say corn, is “environmental”. I don’t suppost that the author wants to say that, and at an3 rate if he does, then he would be using the term ‘environmental’ in an extremely stretched sense, I should think.) Now let us consider the concept of herita bility. This, as the author (correctly, so far a! I know) observes, has to do with the “rela tive importance of genetic factors in produc ing the variations in a particular trait . . .in : particular population . . .in a particular envi ronment. ’ ’ But the term ‘particular’ must be usec. with care here. It does not mean, for in continued

on page




t utter Deryersity

Non-mysterious Willard and His Bowling A Perverse Mystery

by Richard





Willard and‘ His Trophies is too successful


in fitting the description of the book given by its subtitle, A Perverse Mystery. According to the dictionary, ‘perverse’, refers to something which is the opposite of what one normally expects. ‘Mystery’ can be defined as something which arouses curiosity. So in Willard and His Bowling Trophies, Richard Brautigan has apparently attempted to write the exact opposite of a mystery novel. Unfortunately, Willard succeeds much too well in fulfdling the concept of a ‘perfect non-mystery.’ To fulfil1 his aim of writing a non-mystery, the author has gone out of his way to avoid getting in-

the predictive value of the tests would be, lessened if black and white, and working and upper class Many of the so-called perforaverages were equalized by stanmance test items tried out for dardization. inclusion in the scale were The example of women is again eliminated because they conrelevant. When women were tributed little or nothing to the equalized on the test, the predictive total score. They were not power was lessened then as well. valid items for this scale. On the revised version of-the test, In other words, when the results women did as well as men, but beon this type of test were checked cause women are_ not treated with teachers’ ratings, they did not equally in society, the test lost match, and the test was discarded. some of its ability to predict who In fact, the better a test was in sortwould do well, and who would do ing out the children the more it was poorly _ in _ later - life._ As . long as used. _ America is a male-chauvinist society, equalizing male and female , Standard ization scores on IQ tests will lower the This process of making the predictive value of the tests. scores come outthe way the testers In just the same way, as long as want them, with the proper disracism keeps black people in the If you’re suffering from a case of tribution and with the upper class worst jobs at the lowest rates of pre-exam downs, then go see and children on top and the lower class pay, any attempt to equalize get a bit high to the sounds of the on the bottom, is called “standarblack-white scores will lower the Saltspring Rainbow Band appeardization.” A test is standardized on predictive power of the test. This ing this weekat the C.C. Pub. Good a population by adjusting the shows that the tests are designed to 01’ footstomping 7 handclapping scores so as to make it come out reflect prevailing class relationmusic will chase away yer blues with a mean of 100 and a standard ships and to prove that those on top any old time. deviation*of 15 (see graph). are smart and those on the bottom Their vocals and harmonies are a If a test is given to a population are dull. Tests can be designed to bit ragged, that is, they have no and the mean (average) turns out to reflect anything the designer outstanding vocalists; they’re at be less than 100, then the testers wants, and racist and anti-working their best when they forget about change the scoring standards, makclass assumptions have giiided and singing and get down to playing ing it easier and raising the.average determined the results of the IQ banjo and fiddle-led bluegrass. to 100. The scoring methods, and test. Whether Roy’s singing his Truck hence the average scores, can be Drivin’ Blues, or Doug’s ‘flailing changed by adding or dropping Weaknesses away at his fiddle, they’ll make you items that are either too hard or too and fallacies forget your troubles . . . At least for easy, or by ehanging the relative In summary, we can see the fola few hours anyway. value of the different items on a No matter how often one hears lowing weaknesses and fallacies in test. Saltspring, they never seem to lose the IQ tests. On the original Stanford-Binet their appeal. Maybe though, it also -“Intelligence,” as measured by :est published by Terman in 1916, these tests, is never defined, but has something to do with the type women were not treated as a sepaof music they play? as we have seen is related more -ate ‘population and standardized -haI mitchell to behavior than to any innate ‘or, and their scores were about 10 quality. The desired behavior, points lower than men’s until 1937. such as “willingness to conform Then, for the new version of this and obey, ” “respect for author+ ,est, the means of men and women ity,” etc., is determined by rulz were compared, and the test was ing class norms and ideals. ;tandardized for sex. Questions + -Questions on IQ tests are vere added on which women did “loaded” to favor middle and t >etter than men and some of the Tests * )nes of which men did better than - upper class children. which do not distinguish bet* vomen were dropped. In this way ween groups are discarded. he averages for men and women * -The tests were in-fact designed + vere equalized. The- decision whether or not to with the express purpose of find+ Jandardize in order to wipe out ing differences between people + or groups of people. Differences + group differences is a purely politiin performance can be eliminated + :a1 one. Terman decided to elimilate the differences between men (men vs. women), so that the dif* nd women in the 1937 revision of ferences being measured are not f absolute, but depend on the he test, but the differences betquestions being asked. The deciz veen blacks and whites and betsion of whether or not to elimiLveen upper and working classes nate any group differences is lave ’ never been eliminated. purely a political one. Yhy?-Because, claim the testers, cont’d


pg. 24


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who have travelled about the country for years ’ in search of the trophies. Over the years they have changed from ‘wholesome allAmerican boys’ into seedy disreputable villains obsessed with their task of finding the lost trophies. Unknown to the Logan brothers, Willard and his bowling trophies reside in an apartment building in San Francisco. The building is occupied by a group of characters who in their own ways are as perverse and unusual as the Logans. - The Logans and the new owners of the bowling trophies are brought together in an ending which, as is typical of this entire book, proves to be an entirely unsatisfying conclusion as far as the reader is concerned. But what else can be expected from a non-mystery?


All Regular



volved in any plot or story line which could arouse the reader’s curiosity. Of course any questions which arise in the reader’s mind are deliberately left unanswered. Willard was written in a slightly humourous vein, thus saving the reader from complete boredom. However, the book conists of a series of very short chapters, mostly only one or two pages in length, so that the funnier sections of the book are short-lived. In contrast to the plot, or lack of plot, the -‘characterizations in the book are very good. Willard, a large ornamental bird built of papier-mache, lends an air of symbolism to the book. He sits amidst the bowling trophies which are the object of the book’s ‘mystery’ . The bowling trophies were stolen fi-om the three Logan brothers,

CC pub



the chevron

14, 1975


GREAT-SELEC;ION OF IMPORTS * * WE ALSOSE~L”SED L.P.S SinglesAt $2.00 Doubles At $3.50

;4 N B sr *

- .

E BRING IN FOUR USED L.P.‘S, tiHICH RECORDS ON WHEELS f JUDGES TO BE IN ACCEPTABLE CONDITION, AND EX+c CHANGE THEM FOR ONE NEW L.P. AT $4.99 OR LESS. 4 4 \ 342 KING ST. W. - KITCHENER 4 (Just West of Water St.) 4 4rrrrrrrrrr~rrr~ri~r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~4

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AS a cc+irhing,critique of the IQ concept, we are prksenting the second feature of a series . adopted from L“Science for the People”.



Jensen and his cohorts’lclaims concern&g the heritability of intelligence are based on measurements of performances-on IQ tests. It is assumed that IQ measures some trait ’ called “intelligence” which differs from person to person, and which is an index of success in school and lateI’ life. But what, after all, is this “intelligence” except for a measurement of acertain type of behavior, (performance on IQ tests), and how can we say that a c&ta& type of behavior is “correct” or “smart” without considering an individual’s past experiences in similar situations. . For example, frbm the p&t of view of black working-class children (who go to miserable schools with racist administrators arid sometimes teachers as well, who are forced to read books depicting white middle-class people and to learn racist history, _and who will probably end up unemployed or in a poorly-paid job with horrible working conditions) what kind of school behavior is “intelligent”? Is it not more.reasonable for these children to rebel against the school authorities than to remain docile and work hard at school? .When such children are given an IQ test, is , it not a completely reasonable response to I treat the test and tester as further examples of a racist school system? Obviously such children would not get very high IQ scores, since they 6ould not be motivated to try very hard on the tests, but isn’t that a sign th’at they are really very aware of the world around them? j Deciding what type of behavior is termed intelligent is an extremely political act, and the desired behavior will merely be the kind which is approved of by the prevailing social system.

PolitiC,al assumptions Political assumptions enter into intelligl ence testing in even subtler ways than the above. Every type of measurement presup.’ poses some form of distribution of intelligence. For ixample, it would be quite valid scientifically to develop a test which % ofthe population would pass, indicating that , 9% of the population were “intelligent,” and 1% or so were .mentally defective. Such an approach would not attempt to find little differences in ho’w people think and be‘have and translate them into IQ differepce, but would assume that intelligence is _ an attribute of the normal functioning .hurnm; while a small proportion of popula.2 tion is retarded. This approach; however, would not be at __._,all useful- for those who rule America, because if 9% ‘of the population were about equal in intelligence, why should there not be equality in society as well? Present IQ tests magnify differences atiolng people, and% in fact, potential tests which did not reveal differences have often been rejected.‘ ‘: these The reasons for this can be found by examining the people who have made up intel” , ligence tests. Historically they have been racist, anti-working class, and procapitalist in their beliefs. Their tests have been de’ signed to ratitinalize these beliefs, and to show that those who ruled society, and those 1 who did well in it were the best, the smartest, and the most modal people. That the early intelligence testers. thought . that the nifing class of the time were the most L intelligent people in society, and that it was by virtue of this intelligence that they had _attained their position is shown in the following quote from Edward L. Thorndike, an educational psycpologist . h It is the great goodfortune of mankind that there is a substantial positive cori relation between intelligence and morality, including good will towards one’s fellows.’ Consequently, our _ superiors in ability are .on the average o&r benefactors, and it is often safer to trust our interests to them than to ourselves. No group of men can be expected to act 100% in the interest of


’ that the early tests did not show black people inferior to whites any more than ‘they showed poor whites as inferior to rich whites. It was often possible, however, to reinterpret test results in order-to come to these desired conclusiol;ls. For example, R. Meade Bathe, in a paper on “Reaction Time with Reference to Race” found that both blacks and Indians reacted faster than ‘whites, but claimed that the whites’ “reactiotis were slower because they belonged to a more deliberate and reflective race. ” i There were a number of other failures of this type which the testers could hardly dis-mankind, btrt this group of the ablest guise. A statement by Thorndike in 1903, men Fill come, nearest to the ideal. however, reflects their general attitude: “The apparent mental attainments of chilNot only did the early testers love and dren of-inferior races may be due to-lack of admire the ruling class, they also despised inhibition, and*so witness precisely to a d@and looked down upon the masses, especiency in mental growt,h.” So much for “obcially the black masses. James McKeenCatscience and its results. tell, the father of the testing movement in jective” America and long timg editor of Science and , I This failure to develop a test which would rich white people from the Popular Scieece Monthly expresses these 1 differentiate poor, the black, and the immigrant, wap feelings well: especially significant in view of the trouble The main lines are laid dawn by racist anthropologists were having at the heredity-a man is born a man and not time. ’ an ape. A slave brought up in cultiUp until this time, the “turn of the cenvated society will not only retain his tury” theories of &al inferiority had been dark skin, but is likely to have also the _ based upon physical anthropology, the pracincoherent mind of his Lace. tice of meastiring the differences between Terman, who sired. the famed Stanfordvarious groups 6f people. They measured Binet Intelligence Scale, was also a thorough such things as the ratio of the length of the going racist and e genicist. Further, he prearms to the length of the body, the ratio of dated Herrnstein l y-55 years in claiming that the length of the heel to the leg, the facial occupations and IQ were causally linked. He angle, the size’ and shape of- the brain, provided a list of numerous occupations and et& . Lmeastirements weredesigned to prove ihe corresponding tiean IQ, andurged that that blacks were cldser td apesthan to-men. students with those IQ’s bk channeled into But -these theories, were-beginning to be


? IP ’ --i




the Picture

CORRECT ANSWERS: American flag flag p6le 7 Star Spangled Banner WRONG

/. -



What’sthe thing for you to do- when you have broken something that belongs to someone else? / - -_-CORRECT ANSWERS: I’d be scared I had to buy another one for ‘em. I If I have ane I give it to him. Pay for it. Give them something.

\ >-


‘WRONG ANSWERS: -. Be ashamed. ‘ Tell ‘my mother. i Feel%orry. Tell ‘em I did it. My mother will spank me.


14, 197.

What’s the thing for you to do when you are on your way to school and notice -._ that you are in danger of &eing late? I


t/ \.


As Binqt well knew, the chronological approach to intelligence finessed the weighty problem of defining intelligence itself. He had measured it without having said what it was. It took a while to know whether the sleight of hand had infact yieldeda real intelligence test or just an illusion of one. At first it might seem from the above tha those who would come out on top in Binet’ test would simply be the more advanced children of their age group, but-this is onl: half the story. . The childien who came out on top werl ;tlso the children who did well in schobl an1 who were from the upper classes. Wpre the: really the more intelligent children, or wer the tests rigged in such a way as to favor th upper, cl&sses? The answer is that, Yhe tests were rigged for the test items which were selected wer not simply random items nor were they item which simply the majority of children at a age level passed. If the majority passing th item included those students judged by th teacher to be “dull,” and excluded thos children judged to be “smart,” the item wa not used in the test. Herrnstein explains this aspect of Binet’ ‘method this way: “He took some children rated by their teachers as the brightest and the dullest in ti grade and subjected them to a lengthy series of tests, going from simple sensory discrimination to arithmetic and perceptual speed tests. A number of the tests worked, which is to say they distinguished between the two groups sf children.” .




pole, stick, post; rag,. kite






Hurry. Go right ahead to school.. Take the street bus. , WRON,G ANSWERS: - / Go on to school and tell my teacher why I’m late. Not stop -. Just keep on going. , , Get a late card. 2 l ,






is pretti .er?

1 !

doubted by many scientists, as well as by the Circular method general pbblic. For a time, comparing physiThe circularity of this method is’obviob! cal characteristics had been the major Binet’s test merely tested some qualit method of justifying racism, but by’ 1909, ’ which was approved of by teachers, and th R.S. Woodworth, Chairman of the Anteachers’- opinions were surely based s thropology and Psychology division of the’ much on the social behavior and attitude ( American Association’ for the Advancement . th‘ e children as on their innate “intellir Class i&rests . of Science was writing, “We are probably ence.” Again we see that the so-called inte justified ti infer@g-from the re$ults cited As these people identified with the inligence. tests really m&sure acceptable bc that the sensory +nd motor prodesses and the terests of the ruling class, they would obvihavior, and that what is termed acceptable j ously try to-define intelligence and devise & elementary brain activities, though differing socially and politically determined. in degrees from one individual to ‘another, test which would make those who were riqh An example may make this clear. Score are about ‘the ,same from one race to and powerful come out as the smartest. on the Binet test do not-correlate well wit Francis Galton was one of the f’lrst to atanother*” school success if the tests are taken be101 Clearly, from a racist point of view a be&r tempt this. In 1869 he wrote a bdok called the age- of six or seven; theri=fore from th measurement of racial differences and a betHereditary &nius, claiming that intelligence point of view of the testers, these tests ar ter basi6 of racist idiology was needed. The was inherited, and that the British ruling less “reliablre.” Out of the six tests given 2 IQ test’s time had come. class had more of it than anyone else. Evenage three, four of them are “Copying a ch cle,” ‘/‘ Drawing a vertical line,” “Stringin dually-he made up a test concentrating on beads,” and “Block building-bridge.” measuring what he thoug& intelligence was, Intelligence testing ~ The honor of coming up with such a test ’ ‘While these items might tell you whit traits like “memory” and “sensory-motor three year olds are not doing as well a development, ’ ’ and tried finally to correlate belongs to the -French psychologist Alfred the results with “emineiice” in science and Binet, Binet’s approach was to avoid an expothers chronologically speaking, an uppc society. His correlations were about zero licit definition of intelligence, and instead to class, highly motivated child would n< since he could fmd no skill bn which the rich simply assume that whatever intelligenqe is, enjoy much of an advantage on such test: Therefore,, the scores obtained do not ger did better than the average’ British person. it develops with age. If a child performed as This did nof,stop him, however, fiorn going well on a test as the average child inshis or her ’ erally correlate well with later school su( age group, then he or she was considered. cess. 4s a result, these “performance” typ on to develop new tests. normal. If the child did better on the test ‘than, tests are dropped from the kinds of tesl In tie&a, James. M. C&tell made up similar tests, but for him, too, the correlathe average in that age group, his or her given to older children. As the testing mar tions between subjects’ scores and success mental age was said to be greater than the ual for the Stanford-Binet S&ale says, in life “were disappointingly low. ” chronological age and visa versa. Herrns tein explains approvingly, A further problem for these people .was continued on pg. 2 courses whose curricula were designed to provide training for the student’s prospective occupatioh. In this way, IQ became the rationale for inferior anQ ,oppressive education for millions of blacks and other working-class children.



14, 1975


the chevron



can do


Nuclear power in Canada Compared with the present troubled state of the nuclear industry in the U.S., the history of the Candu reactors seems a/most p/acid. There has yet to be a major public debate in Canada about the sighting of a nuclear power plant. The Pickering station, for example, is within the city limits of Toronto. Although there have been several accidents and ma/functions in Candu nuclear o/ants, none has so far caused any injury, any radio-active contamination outside the reactor building or any stoppage in the delivery of electric power. four members of the Physics Club attended the Canadian Undergraduate Physics Conference St Universit6 Lava/ in Quebec City from October 8th to 7 7th. This conference is organized every year by the Canadian Undergraduate f hysics Association ‘CUPA) to which the Physics Clubs in the various universities across Canada belong. The Naterloo delegation consisted ofjanice Ciesbrecht, Robert Inkol, Wayne Leckie and Ross Male. The following paper on the Candu reactor was presented to the conference by UW physics Llndergraduate Bob Inkol.

The CANDU reactor concept has demonstrated considerable merit in recent years. It is one that offers major advantages in efficiency over all others, with the sole exception of the unproven and controversial Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). It is perhaps the most significant Canadian technological achievement of this century. Some idea of the importance attached to the CANDU is evinced by the prediction that the installed capacity of Canada’s nuclear power stations will reach 30,000 megawatts by the year 1990. The selection of the similar Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGH WR) by Britain for its next round of nuclear power plants further verifies the soundness of the CANDU concept.

Features of CANDU The CANDU reactor is distinguished by two salient features. The frost feature is the use of heavy water (D20) as the moderator. Heavy water is the best practical moderator in the vitally important respect that it has the lowest neutron capture cross section of any moderator. It is inferior only to ordinary water (H20) in neutron slowing power, due to the larger mass of deuterium as compared to hydrogen. Thus the CANDU can maintain a nuclear chain reaction in fuel containing less fissile material than any other system that does not employ heavy water as the moderator. Hence it follows that a natural uranium fuel cycle can be utilized with good results from the viewpoint of the attainable burnup. ’ Another feature of the CANDU reactor is the use of a pressure tube construction rather than the pressure vessel construction characteristic of most light water reactors. The fuel is in the form of bundles of zirconium tubes containing pellets of uranium dioxide. Each bundle is positioned in a pres-

sure tube through which heavy water coolant circulates. The pressure tube is inside another tube of lighter construction called the calandria. Carbon dioxide gas circulates in the gap between the two tubes. This arrangement is used to minimize heat transfer from the pressure tubes to the relatively cool moderator. The pressure tubes themselves are arranged in a lattice, the geometry of which is carefully optimized from the standpoint of the reactivity of the fuel. The lattice of pressure tubes is contained in a tank of heavy water. The level of the heavy water can be adjusted to control the reactivity of the reactor. If an emergency shutdown of the reactor is required, the heavy water can be emptied from the tank in less than thirty seconds.

Fuel economical, disposable The CANDU reactors constructed for commercial power generation have generally imployed a natural uranium fuel cycle. The advantages of this are manifold. A natural uranium fuel cycle -eliminates the need for expensive uranium enrichment facilities, while unlike virtually all other reactor systems it is economically feasible to forgo the reprocessing of the spent fuel. This comes about from the high neutron efficiency of the CANDU, which permits fuel burnup to the point where the uranium 235 content of the fuel is about 0.18%. Thus the proportion of uranium 235 remaining in the spent CANDU fuel is less than that which remains in natural uranium from which the uranium 235 has been extracted in an enrichment plant. Therefore, reprocessing spent CANDU fuel is justifiable only for its plutonium content. As the plutonium is not required for enrichment purposes in the CANDU fuel



1971 1979

250 600


1971 1980

4 x 540 4 x 540


1976 1982

4 x 745 4 x 750


4 x 800






cycle, reprocessing is not necessary. From the standpoint of safety this has the great advantage that there is no processed plutonium in circulation which conceivably could be diverted for antisocial uses. In addition there is a greater amount of radioactive material after reprocessing. Hence the problems of providing safe longterm storage are magnified by reprocessing of fuel. The CANDU fuel bundle is relatively compact and the metal cladding is normally intact, with the consequent benefit that it is not necessary to handle highly radioactive materials directly. It has been proposed that long term storage of spent CANDU fuel can best be accomplished by storing the spent fuel in salt domes in suitably geologically stable locations . In contrast, the uranium 235 content of the spent fuel of the light water reactors is appreciably higher than that of natural uranium and in view of the inherent need for the enrichment of light water reactor (LWR) fuel, fuel reprocessing is virtually unavoidable. The CANDU produces about two times the amount of energy as the LWR for the same amount of natural uranium invested. Considering the limited nature of existing uranium deposits, which are far from being inexhaustible as many believe, this is a major plus in favour of CANDU. The depleted uranium produced by enrichment facilities now exists in large quantities and will be useful as fuel only with enrichment by suitable fissile isotopes. These can be produced in sufficient quan-




tities only by a Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). The FBR, however, poses numerous technical problems. It is doubtful whether it can ever be as safe or as reliable as a thermal reactor such as the CANDU.

CANDU relatively safe The pressure tube construction of the CANDU reactor offers significant advantages . Pressure tubes are more easily fabricated than the pressure vessels used by LWRs. The pressure tubes will not fail catastrophically, whereas there is some concern that pressure vessels could do so. In addition, the pressure tube construction permits on power refueling of the reactor, thus reducing down time. This feature is unique to the CANDU. The existence of a large amount of cool moderator is an important safety factor in the unlikely event that both the emergency coolant system and the normal coolant system completely fail. The fuel rods will melt down and the hot pressure tubes will expand to touch the calandria tubes which separate the pressure tubes from the moderator. The heat will then be dissipated in the moderator. Since the fuel is natural uranium, there is no possibility of the melted fuel rods forming a critical mass. The CANDU reactor is inherently stable in that the reactivity has a negative temperature coefficient. An increase in temperature causes the coolant to expand, or in an extreme case to boil. The reduction in the density of the coolant reduces its efficiency as a moderator . Thus control is non-critical as opposed to the FBR, which for various technical reasons poses stability problems.

Possible improvements to CANDU

YUCLEAR POWER STATION at Pickering, Ont., has four Candu reactors. Each has a gross generating capacity of 540 megawatts of electricity (MWe); the net capacity after supplying station needs is 5 74 N We. The “du” in Candu refers to deuterium oxide (heavy water) and uranium. In the Candu reactor concept deuterium oxide acts both as

the moderator, for slowing down neutrons, and as the coo/ant, or heat-transport medium. The fuel is natural (unenriched) uranium in oxide form. The Pickering station, the first entire/y commercial nuclear power facility in Canada, is owned by Ontario Hydro. First of Pickering’s units began operating in I 97 I.

Potentially one of the most significant capabilities of the CANDU is in the use of thorium as a fuel. Thorium is approximately twelve times as plentiful as uranium and in a well-designed CANDU would permit breeding or near breeding operation (ie. the production in the fuel cycle of more fissile material than is consumed). This combines the advantages of an FBR with proven technology. In fact it has been calculated that thorium-burning CANDUs could meet world energy needs for thousands of years. Another possibility is that improved performance can be achieved by using denser uranium compounds such as Uranium Carbide (UC) in the fuel rods. The use of an organic coolant would facilitate higher thermal efficiencies by permitting higher temperatures, besides allowing lighter pressure tube construction on account of the low vapour pressure. Thus the CANDU reactor offers significant advantages over competing systems, and will continue to play an expanding role in meeting Canadian energy requirements.



the chevron


14, 1975

Pollution : How much can science do? industries get away with making the public pay for pollution control because the role of industry shapes the ro/e of government. All across the nation, big corporations have friends on planning boards, in legislatures, and on pollution commissions. They sponsor the research of university experts. Their interests are we/I represented. Who represents the interests of the people? No one can represent our interests when only wealthy people, or people with powerful backers, can get into office; when the nation’s newspapers and radio and television stations are controlled by wealthy men and powerful corporations. Very rare/y do black or white working peole, or non-wealthy housewives, get to become mayors, or city supervisorsor pollution control officials. But what if more of them did! Suppose there were lots of dedicated politicans, and suppose corporations agreed to cooperate. Then could they stop pollution? How would they do it?

“Science got us into this mess, and science will get us out. Technology can cure the problems

of technology


Unfortunately, America depending on technology to pull her out of the hole is like a high-pressured, over-anxious businessman expecting a few Turns to cure his ulcers after smoking and drinking coffee all day, and gulping down big dinners of extra-spicy, preservative-laden artificially-flavoured, food. You can’t tack a solution onto a problem and expect it to work if you don’t deal with the cause of that problem. Besides, you just can’t say that “technology” is the cause of pollution. Someone controls that technology and uses it for specific purposes. If you don’t consider these things, then “pollution control” won’t even get off the ground. Basic laws of nature see to that. One of the fundamental principles of science is that disorder tends to increase. Whenever energy is used, or transformed, some will always be wasted; this unavoidable loss is known as the entropy factor. In simpler words, making a mess is much easier than cleaning one up. So atomic generating plants merely replace air pollution with water pollution and greatly increased radioactivity in the environment. Technology takes us out of the frying pan into the fire. Oil spills are a good example. Remember the pictures of Santa Barbara? The massive drilling rigs out in the water symbolized the complicated, ingenious technology that had been developing to bring oil up from under hundreds of feet of rock and water. But when that technology broke down and sophisticated methods were attempted to break up the oil-by dropping detergents on it-they only ended up doing greater harm. People may have been convinced that things were better because the messy oil goo was no longer visible, but the detergents were even more poisonous to sea life. Another basic principle of science makes the problem a little sharper: matter cannot be destroyed, only transformed. There are three states of matter, and we suffer from three types of pollution: too much garbage (solid), water pollution (liquid), and air pollution (gas). When we try to deal with one, we tend to make the others worse. Take garbage, for example. If you try to burn it, you’ve got air pollution. So you develop special incinerators that cut down air pollution, but then you get dirty filters and residues-more solids. If you dump that stuff in the water, you’ve got water pollution. It’s the same story with dirti water. With advanced methods, water can be considerably cleansed, but one by-product is tons of sludge (solid). Getting rid of the ’ sludge brings in all the problems of garbage disposal. And controlling air pollution, as just mentioned, produces solid wastes, often very poisonous, that are hard to deal with. The only possible solution includes something called recycling. This means finding ways to use waste products over again. The metal, paper and plastic components of garbage, for example, could be separated and re-used. The rest of the rubbish could be converted to compost, which is nothing more than natural fertilizer. But recycling requires total economic planning. In America, big companies sell millions of dollars worth of chemical fertilizer, and they will fight any program which

sees city and state governments putting organic fertilizer on the market. In this country total economic planning for the best overall results is not possible. The same goes for water and air pollution. Most by-products which could be recycled are already being produced very profitably by other companies. American corporations make more money digging additional resources out of the ground than recycling them. They’re not about to sacrifice these profits just because recycling makes better ecological sense. To make matters worse, many new products are made to be super-disposable. As a result. thev are harder to recycle. P&tic bker cans, for example, have been

developed to replace metal ones. But the only way to get rid of them once you’ve used them is to bum them-and then you end up breathing beer cans. Behind all these difficulties is the sheer problem of energy. Most of our electrical power is generated by plants that burn coal or oil. This is why electric utility companies like Con Ed in New York or PG&E in California are always among the worst air polluters. Their air pollution is very visible, so they talk up atomic generating plants. Atomic plants, however, also pollute. They need immense amounts of water to cool the reactors, and this water, when discharged back into the rivers, is very hot. Thiscreates something called thermal pollu-

Polltiion and Big Business: the publ!!iic pays while Many companies take a “cosmetic” approach to pollution. If you can’t see it, then it’s not there. They mix steam with the crud belching out of their smokestacks so that the plume looks white, and clean, and harmless. Companies that emit too much filth to disguise often do their dirty work at night-an even better ploy. Oil companies come out with big ads showing how their “special additive” gasolines make car exhaust so clean that a balloon can be filled with exhaust and remain nearly transparent. This is supposed to mean it’s no longer dangerous pollution. A better test would be to stick an oil company executive in the balloon along with the fumes for a few minutes, or pump that exhaust through the company board room while a meeting is in session. Other companies prefer to juggle statistics. And there are companies, slightly more blatant than most, that revert to outright lies : If you read Lzye, or Look, or Time, you’ve probably seen full-page ads showing crystal-clear rivers flowing through green, unspoiled forests. The Georgia-Pacific Lumber Co. places these ads and tells us how much it believes in conservation. That same company, reported a Portland, Oregon, newspaper, sent letters to its workers attacking conservationists because they were “trying to limit the workers’ right to cut trees!” They’re also spending huge sums of money pushing for the Timber Supply Bill. It’s a good story to remember next time some big corporation tries to tell you how concerned it is about our environment. What big corporations are really concerned about is money. That’s why they go to so much trouble to be sure the government-and even the public-won’t tip the applecart. Because the balance sheet is very one-sided about who profits from pollution versus ‘who pays for it. It reads as follows: In 1969, American corporations spent approximately a billion dollars on pollution control, while amassing after-tax profits of $66 billion. They spent only 1.5% of their profits cleaning up their own mess! Even these figures are deceptive. The federal and state governments give big tax breaks to corporations for their pollution-control expenses. For every million dollars companies spend, they get back over $700,000. The public pays 70% of their costs. Their break is our burden. Not only do we quietly pick up the tab for business’ own expenses, but the bill for government anti-pollution programs also falls on our shoulders. The government wants the public to pay over $10 billion for municipal treatment plants over the next five years, while asking industry to spend only $3 billion (taxdeductible) on its own waste water. But industry uses-and dirties-two-thirds of America’s water, and farmers account for most of the rest. The icing on the cake is the simple fact that 40% of all the wastes handled by public water plants come from industry! There’s another $4 billion we pick up for them. It’s the same story with air pollution. What companies pay they save on tax deductions, or else they raise prices and pass the costs on to us. We pay extra for smog control devices on our cars, and for modified gasoline. And garbage: the cost of handling all the trash from industry, and all the consumer products which can’t be disposed of, will be over $40 billion during the next five to ten years. Forbes Magazine, a businessman’s journal, tells us very clearly just what this means: “Little wonder that businessmen and Wall Streeters alike are drooling. . . The taxpayer had better steel himself to pay the tab.” In other words corporations want us to pay for their own pollution, while making big profits out of pollution itself. Pollution control is becoming a Big Business. Some of the big companies that rank among the worst of all polluters are buying up pollution control companies. They want to have their cake and eat it. There should be no doubt now why the Bigwigs tell us that “People Pollute.” “Let the public pay!” is their real message.

tion: hot water changes the balance of life and kills off many fish; rivers and lakes lose their ability to clean themselves and become much more polluted. So atomiE generating plants merely replace air pollution with water pollution. Technology takes us out of the frying pan and into the fire. This leads to the most basic problems of all in America, as things are now, so much 01 certain kinds of energy is used, in such large amounts, the entropy (pollution) can only be overwhelming. And as long as the American economy turns out immense quantities of missiles! cars, steel skyscrapers, space-ships and pointless appliances, there must be an immense amount of combustion to produce and run these things. As far as we know now: only combustion technology-the burning of fuel (mostly coal, also oil&can provide the tremendous, concentrated energy needed. But combustion consumes oxygen and releases staggering amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The CO2 is building up

especially as more and more plant life (whick converts CO2 back to oxygen) is destroyed. All this CO2 in the air is beginning to cause something known as the “greenhouse ef. feet”: the light rays from the sun can get in, but when they reach the earth and turn intc heat rays, the heat rays can’t get out. This tends to heat up the lower levels of the atmosphere. Nobody really knows what this is going to do, but most scientists are positive that it will be extremely dangerous. What it really comes down to, and whai you rarely hear about, is that on the whole, anti-pollution devices can only slow down the rate at which things are getting worse. Being poisoned a little more slowly is hardly a cure. Fighting pollution with gadgets is like treating cancer by lopping off the most obvious tumours. While expensive devices can make a few processes less harmful, every year more factories send their stacks into the sky and run their culverts into the rivers. Bulldozers clear off hundreds of square miles of farmland to be paved over, and strip mines gouge immense scars across the country to get ores that feed insatiable smelters. Countless forests are hacked away tc make more and more paper. continued

on pg. 21



the chevron

14, 1975

IQ artrlc/e continued




stance, that as soon as there is any change of population, from the one studied, or any change of environment, then all bets are off. The terms ‘population’ and ‘environment’ in this definition are variables, and heritability is defined in relation to those variables. How restricted the variables have to be is, as the term ‘variable’ suggest, variable. In%partitular, when the trait in question is capability of performing well on standard I.Q. tests, it is a matter ‘of evidence-not a matter of ‘ ‘ideology’ ’ -just which environmental variables have how much influence in just which populations. It is not !rue, as the author appears to be willing to affum simply on the basis of this very abstract argument, that we can know right off that it is impossible for I.Q. to be heritable in the sense defined (viz., genetically influenced), relative to some very wide range of environments and among the entire human population of the world. We also cannot know in the abstract that they are-obviously. Now, the studies used by Jensen to support the genetic hypothesis are extremely numerous and test with respect to an enormous number of variables, including the ones associated with poverty. (Does the author know, for example, that Mexican Americans and American Indians living in considerably more depressed, poverty-stricken environments than corresponding black populations also display the substantially higher I.Q. score detected in matched middle-class subjects? Jensen also says that blacks do relatively better on the culturally biased parts of the tests .) It is not clear what it would even mean to say that I.Q. was in no way influenced by -heredity, i.e., that its heritability in the sense defined is zero. However, what is more immediately at issue is whether there are not environmental variables with respect to which I.Q. is relatively invariant, or more important such that when held constant, we still get differences in I .Q. performance. And if the reader will reflect for a few moments on this matter, he will, I suspect, find it overwhelmingly probable that iudividual differences in I.Q. are to some extent genetic. John Stuart Mill- was subjected to a remarkably rigorous program of education

Pollution continued


pg. 26


Leaky oil wells are drilled in more dangerous places. And freeways expand over the land. The skies get grayer, the rivers browner, more people get sick, and life becomes more dreary for those without the means to escape. It’s not that the world is dying-it’s being killed. The murder can be prevented. But technology won’t cure pollution because the real cause of pollution is a lot more than just technology 0 Reprinted People.


The Earth


to the

from early childhood up, and he himself tally” voted to listen to the complete ftiteen modestly attributed his remarkable powers minute text on this position we had not come to hear. to that training. But so were his numerous And contrary to AIA membership, this siblings, and i5-om all reports they simply were not in his intellectual class. presentation of views did not spark discussion, merely hostility. Insofar as environmentalist hypotheses The non-AIA people in this audience and are testable, it is always found that matching environments as closely as is humanly posall the other meetings you disrupt are not sible will still result in substantial individual interested in your rantings of dogma. You differences in IQ. performance; or so, at cannot gather support with these tactics, only alienate those with whom you wish to any rate, I am told, and I must point out that I am only a moderately well-informed layman “discuss”. on these matters. You question how “reactionary” this What I do want to emphasize here is that perspective is? Are not all perspectives that on the individual level, the idea that every do not coincide with your perspective “reachuman being’s innate intelligence is identical tionary”? is just utterly incredible. Jane Peddie But if this is so, then it must be pointed out that no amount of a prior! argument will suffice to show that genetically determined racial differences are impossible even though This October 13, like a goat leading the individual ones are possible. sheep to the slaughter, Trudeau tried to misCertainly nothing said by the author lead the Canadian people. comes within miles of proving this. So far as The great majority of the Canadian people the article goes, its net effect against Jensen are defying Trudeau’s best efforts to misis zero. (a) He attributes to Jensen a lead. However, I see from last weeks corhypothesis which Jensen does not propound respondence that at least one individual is and which doesn’t apparently make sense adding his bleatings to Trudeau’s chorus. The anyway; (b) his attempt to show that the I.Q. main part of Mr. Obido’s letter is a is totally underissue is ‘ ‘ideological” series of more or less openly fascist slanders argued; or more charitably, it is simply not and proposed attacks directed against the argued at all; (c) he seems quite unaware of Canadian working class, which I am confithe amount of empirical work that has been dent, will have no currency amongst the done on this issue, and evidently thinks that Canadian people. Jensen is a mere potterer, which is anything Mr. Obido also raised the old shibboleth of but the truth from all I have been told by the ‘interests of the community’. The those who know his work. capitalists constantly promote the idea that Finally, I’d like to know more about this there is an overriding community interest, term ‘Snow Job’, which you so cavalierly public interest, national interest-anything put in the title of your article. Jensen (and to obscure the existence of a ceaseless class Herrnstein) have been widely persecuted for struggle. their speculations. Everybody in the profesIt is the aim of every capitalist to make sion in the U.S. hopes that he’s wrong. maximum profits. Any capitalist who fails to Highly competent people agree that he cerdo this will sooner or later be devoured by tainly hasn’t been refuted. Who is “snowother, more successful capitalists. In order ing” whom? profits the capitalists It seems to me that you are doing your 1 to make maximum constantly try to reduce the level of workers readers, and ultimately yourselves, a great wages. In response the workers organize to disservice by publishing this kind of stuff. resist. This resistance takes many forms, inThe well-informed among them will simply cluding strikes. dismiss the paper as crap-and of course, a To suggest that workers give up their best great many of them do. weapon in this economic struggle in the in-, The poorly-informed among them, howterest of the community is to suggest they ever, might be taken in, at least temporarily: become the willing victims of the capitalists. but what kind of service is that? Here in Kitchener-Waterloo, the transit Finally, and perhaps worst of all, if you workers are fighting for a wage acceptable to continually immerse yourself in your own themselves. If they had not been so firm in viewpoint, badly informed and conceptually their resistance they would have been forced confused, you run the risk of ending up conto accept 10 per cent long ago. If Kitchener vincing yourselves of it: and how is that a City Council thought they could get away service, either to you or to mankind? (For with it they would offer less, always less. example: if you think that the genetic It’s true that strikes are often inconvenient. hypothesis really does shore up racism, and But we can either support the then eventually it turns out to be so overcapitalists or the workers. In deciding who to whelmingly confirmed that-even unreasonasupport we should not forget that we at this ble people could no longer honestly deny it, university are also being attacked by the then what happens? Well, you’ll become racapitalists in the guise of the Ontario Govcists, that’s what. Wouldn’t it be better to ernment. explore the moral question first, in indepen-john s&ford dence of the psychological question, so that your morality won’t be founded on ignorance and misconception too? Is it really any help to people to lie to them about their basic characteristics? If not, why does it help to obfuscate the issues about them? How much difference is there, after a certain point, between obfuscation and lying?)

Fascist slanders


Jan Narveson Department

IetXer In response to Doug Wahlstein’s. letter (chevron, October 31), I would like to express my views concerning the initial gathering of those people in Kitchener-Waterloo interested in the perspective offered by “Wages for Housework”. We came to listen and discuss with these people; unfortunately, we were also barraged with the position of the AIA (AntiImperalist Alliance) on the “Wages for Housework” theory. When objections were raised as the alloted time for this speech was ended, an audience packed with AIA ‘members “democrati-




The recent meeting on campus on Wages for Housework was well attended and the response has been very positive; most of the women who came to the meeting expressed an interest in pursuing the Wages for Housework perspective and a regular group is now beginning in Kitchener-Waterloo. Any women who would like to know more about the perspective can contact Mary Holmes at 742-6968, Sue Calhoun at 743-3331 or Linda Lounsberry at 742-0888. Call us if you would like to read the available literature or would like any information at all about it: Mary


R#ore Martians John Williams and the AMA, at a confederation sponsored meeting last Wednesday evening, once again were proven to be reactionists and alarmists behind their revisionist anti-Martian facade. Although the meeting was not publicized, thousands turned out” to hear the truth and confront John Williams and his “earth people’s rhetoric”. After a confusing speech, he refused to answer questions posed by the hard-pressed Martian Avocado Pickers Association (MAPA). He blatantly attacked the MAPA workers as a “controlled appendage” of the MAGP (Martian Alliance of Geographers : Planners). How could he be so rude?! Martians throughout the audience cringed in disbelief. The heathen then proceeded to chant Anti-Martian slogans over the P!A. system. No self-respecting Martian would ever deal with honest questioning in such a manner. As the AMA proceeded to disrupt the meeting, disgruntled MAPA workers fought back. Over-ripe avocados caught the revisionist demogogue off-balance. Martians rose behind the Avocado rallying cry to crush the seething anti-Martian wave. Armed only with Avocados and truth, the badly outnumbered Martians fought bravely. Truth and avocados had almost won the day when the unscrupulous John Williams offered $3.00 to anyone of the uncommitted audience to join the AMA. Despite a total lack of moral support, the AMA turned the tide with the all-mighty dollar. The United Martian Front (MAGP and MAPA) could only hope to regroup and smash the so-called “‘peoples of the earth army” in front of the library at 3:OO p.m. Tuesday. Join our struggle against revisionist rhetoric. Dan Miklos MAGP

Member: Canadian university press (CUP). The chevron is typeset by members of the workers union of dumont press graphix (CNTU) and published by the federation of students incorporated, university of Waterloo. Content is the sole responsibility of the chevron editorial staff. Offices are located in the campus centre; (519) 885-l 660, or university local 2331. Hammerhead of the week award goes out this week to gerald martiniuk, chairman of the waterloo police commission, who does his bit for fascism by recruiting a group of businessmen to picket the home of local cupw president Charles Yates and then bitches because Yates won’t let them use his bathroom. and anyone who doesn’t believe that sexism is alive and well and living in montreal should scan Wednesday’s globe and mail to check out the criteria by which the Olympic organixers are recruiting their hostesses, apparently no women who wear glasses are being hired, which quote really helps to screen out the women who are real dogs unquote. did someone mention international women’s year? chevrics of the week: graham gee, george eisler, julia Schneider, Steve mcmullan, jim carter, denis andre, david anjo, shane roberts, isabella grigoroff, glen dewar, john macnair, libby warren, bob inkol, p. shaw and loris g., terri berlinghoff, harry warr, dionyx mcmichael, doug ward, hal mitchell, ludbwig van b. and hardy perennials neil docherty, john morrls, diane ritza, Sylvia hauck and me? hh


’ The Elora Gorge Defence Fund When the Grand River Conservation Authority voted to give up some of its parkland to Well ington County to build a highway bridge across the deepest and most picturesque part of the Elora Gorge, two members of the authority took it to court. These members, Morley Rosenberg and Mat Makarchuk had voted against the proposal claiming that the Conservation Authority had no legal right to transfer the land except for conservation, restoration, development and management, the I objectives set out in the Conservation Authority’s Act. On July 15, 1975, Mr. Justice F.S. Weatherston ruled against the public interest plaintiffs., If this decision stands we are in danger of losing not only a unique natural area but also the ability of citizens to use the courts in order to protect public rights. Mr. Weatherston’s judgement that “only the Attorney General can launch a legal action against a public body where matters on infringement of public rights are concerned” has set a damaging precedent which denies the status of citizens in the courts. The plaintiffs in this case and the Groups Organized to Retain the Gorge for Everyone (GORGE) are concerned that unless this decision is successfully appealed, the negotiating power of conservation, consumer, civil liberties and other public interest groups will be eroded. Indeed, by this ruling Ontario may well become one of the few provinces that does not allow citizens to use the courts to stop illegal acts of statutory corporations. In order to proceed with the appeal against the judgement it is necessary to raise’5,OOO dollars to cover the possibility of court costs being awarded against the plaintiffs. Without financial aid the case can go no further and the appeal will have to be abandoned. Time is running out. Without your support, money once again will triumph over justice.

Help Establish the Elora Gorge Defence Fund I

tCle appeal

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is lost.

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Dated Send or phone


Ontario Public Interest University of Waterloo, Chemistry 1, Rm. 351, Pollution Probe at University of Waterloo, Environment 202, 885-l Make post-dated All cheques will

to: Research


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cheques payable to the Elora Gorge be returned if the case is won.



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