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‘Ukrainian students pro&t t& imprisonment of author VaI_entyn Moroz by staging an nationalism. The strike has been going eight day hunger strike in the campus centre until he is released. Moroz was arrested until next Monday. The.phdt?grapher because he irked the authorities of the Soviet Union by his militant Ukrainian

University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario volume 15, number 13 friday, September 20, 1974

, the

on for four and a h,alf days and is expected was Randy Hannigan.

to last .

Students go. - . . -.‘% At midnight last Sunday three University On Monday, the second day of the hunger of Waterloo students, Borys Syrskyi, strike, Lesia Nowak ‘dropped out due to ,LubomyrSzuch, and Lesia Nowak began a school work and health reasons. hunger strike in the campus centre to draw However Syrskyi .and Szuch said they attention to the Soviet Union’s unjust would remain on strike until Moroz is treatment of Ukrainian nationalist a%d released or else collapse from hunger. author Valentyn Moroz. Elsewhere two York University students In 1970 the author was arrested for “antihave been on a hunger strike for more than Soviet” activity and sentenced to a six year a week. Similar strikes are also occurring in. term of imprisonment, followed by five .Winnipeg, Ottawa and Washington. years of exile. Intellectual lights such as Pierre Berton, Apparently the Russians-do not approve of Judy LaMarsh and June Callwood have his book “Report from the-Beria Reserve” eagerly attached their names to the protest. which is critical of the Soviet Union’s war of. All the strikers are asking interested police terror against the Ukrainian people to sign a petition appealing to the nationalists. Russian authorities to release Moroz and The book criticizes the totalitarian soviet stop the programme of russification. system in which the secret police (KGB) More than eight hundred people have constitutes “a state within- a state”, that already signed the Waterloo petition. Soon suppresses minority nationalists in- various this petition and others ,being drawn up parts of the Soviet Union. -The book also will be sent to the Canadian denounces the suppression of the Ukrainian ’ elsewhere mi’nister of External Affairs Alan culture by the russification programme. MacEachon and the Russian embassy in The russification programme is an intensive effort to submerge the Ukrainian culture by _ Ottawa. teaching only Russian customs and Szuch firmly believes that if enough language in the state school system.. public attention is garnered and focussed & This week the,New York Times reported the russification programme and the that Moroz was now in the twelfth week of a imprisonment of Moroz, the Soviet Union hunger strike to signal his protest of the will rethink its policies. Soviet Union’s russification programme and Backing his claim Szuch singled out last the growing pressure of Soviet authorities to year’s release of Solzhenitsyn as an have him refute his book’s allegations example of the Soviet Union’s sensitivity to against the regime. public furor in the western world. Reports from Russia indicate that he has ’ Climaxing the protest, the hunger strikers been beaten, stabbed and poisoned by fellow , organized a candle-light mass which was prisoners and was confined in solitary attended by almost one hundred Ukrainians confinement . from both the university and the KitchenerSzuch, a second - year political science Waterloo communities last Wednesday. student told the chevron that “Moroz is a After the mass, an evening of traditional symbol of those who refuse to kneel down Ukrainian folk songs in the campus centre and give in to the Russian authority.” culminated the affair. According to Szuch, despite ,his ordealFinally the Ukrainian hunger strikers Moroz does not oppose the communist said they will persist with their hardship. system in Russia but simply wants the until Moroz is releac4 Ukrainian culture to survive. -mike Fordon


the chevron


Housing Forum Wednesday Sept. 25 12:30-3:00 p.m. Camp,Us Centre L Great Hall Pan&l: Representatives from Federal, Provincial & Municipal governments; 1 ~reaitdrs; ’ U of W- Administration & Federation of Students. .


20, 1974

Christian S&ice Camtws Counsellois Prof. and Mrs. Franklin H. Branin, Jr. t We are available to all students *who desire counselling or help through prayer. Please feel free to contact us either at the Chaplain’s Office, Room 1023, Needles Hall, any Tuesday afternoon from 1: 30 to 4:30 or at the following locations: Room 3332, Engr. 2-( opposite the Dept. of Systems Design Office); phone 2850 QR 464 Lee Ave., Waterloo;



More again At a meeting of the Engineering Faculty Council this week, Wally McLaughlin, Dean of Engineering, announced the current figures on first year enrolment. McLaughlin announced that the enrolment is up from 672 to 841. The total undergraduate enrolment stands at’1840, an increase of 11.7 percent over the final fall figures of last year. The Dean also mentioned that graduate enrolment now stands at 475. The Dean brought forward, to Council, a draft of the new policy on Contract Overhead. The President’s executive council has been studying a procedure for charging companies the overhead costs in addition to their direct costs. Figures mentioned ranged from 17-40 percent of* the direct cost. McLaughlin pointed out that, in these and other discussions, Faculty members must realize that they are allies of the University and not the companies. -max


Food program sends tobacco to world poor



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WASHINGTON (LNSI-The United States will ship about $25 million worth of tobacco to poor countries in this fiscal year under its “Food ,for Peace” program. The Administration maintains that tobacco exports provide “morale-building” benefits, - and also are a form of “security assistance”, since - recipient governments can spend the profits from tobacco sales on “common defense purposes? Almost half of this year’s tobacco shipments are scheduled to go to south Vietnam.







20, 1974

the chevron


Federation treasurer Ted Scott said “the effectiveness” of the Federation of Students funded “Housing ‘74” project “was ‘seriously impaired by a lack of supervision resulting in considerable unnecessary losses in monies spent on salaries and a rented car” at last Wednesday’s executiife meeting. According to Scott the way to remedy this is yto appoint a member of ’ the board to take charge of the project; This executive member must be able to be in close contact with the project for its duration.” Myles Lawlor, education chairman, criticized Scott’s proposal saying “it makes a mockery of council” as it does not consider the federation’s students’ council to be intelligent enough to conduct a study without being led by the hand, which is what these-guidelines imply. However, due to the obvious lack of organization of “Housing ‘74”,- he agreed that this poliey must be adopted. ‘Obviously disgusted that “‘council is able to give away money without knowing what they’re doing,” Max Mercer, Critic - at - Large, supported Scott’s proposal. Further emphasizing Mercer’s point Scott stated “there was no provision included in the motion for any kind of administrative structure . or controls over the use of these funds.” He revealed that at least one member of the study group was allowed the privilege of taking a two week paid vacation and that-a rented car was an unnecessary expense because it was not being used. He however implied the car was being in fact used, but for other than its appointed purpose. The cause for the whole discussion arose from a clash between. federation president Andrew Telegdi and members of the housing investigative committee, when Telegdi told them he was dissatisfied with their efforts and their approach to the problem. When contacted later, Telegdi told the chevroh he “didn’t figure the survey was being conducted fast enough.” He also said that the $5,090 J allocated for the study was, in general, not wasted. . As the executive could not decide on whether or not to adopt the motion, so it allowed the whole debate to be “recorded as information on council books rather than as policy.” -graham anderton I

, Station

“Hope springs eternal” are the words Renisods dean uses to descfibe’the chances of affecting the University of Waterloo with the college’s new method of increasing staff wages. This year’s increases, effective )u/y 7, gave every member from part-time maintenance workers to full-time faculty members a $?,OOOpay hike, said dean Hugh Miller. ’ The budget, agreed to by the all-Anglican board of governor-s, called for a 9.2 percent increase based on total staff salary. This amount was then equally divided among the staff, as opposed to’the raise going on/y to faculty as is the case in the rest of the university. This resulted in on/y a five per cent increase for those in the higher income bracket, while-part-time female maintenance. workers went up from $1.90 per hour to $3.50. This scheme was designed by a three-member budget committee to “make sure those most hurt by inflation were best-served”and received unanimous approval from the faculty-student council, said Miller. The approach is typical of the “kind of faculty members attracted to-a small college. There is moresense of community.” “/t’s symbolic of the way things ought to go,” he said, although he does not think the college’s action will have much effect on the university. No faculty members have complained of the method, but several look sad/y on members df the university of Waterloo faculty ‘?rying to grab for the extra dollar.” The university employs a double I’ system of across the board increases and merit pay. -feljcia klingenberg


Every year so it seems, RadioWaterloo’is on the outlook for new talent ‘with incipient broadcasting skills.. In this vein, RW held an “organizational meeting” last Wednesday to introduce 55 potential staffers to- both the history and future of the struggling station. Seasoned Radio Waterloo staffers spoke about the renovations still to be made at the station as soon as a source of money can be found. With _ the improved facilities, so the story goes there will be new opportunities .to improve the quality of broadcast material. Each day will be organized cooperatively with a group of people choosing a certain day when they would like to work. Ideally there will be a different theme each day. The theme of the day . will include certain types of music and spoken word features that would - fit in with the music. For example; one day might include bluegrass and _ folk-rock music. To complement this type of music the staff would do production work on local community issues. Personnel are also needed to keep up the important behind-the-scenes _ maintenance of the broadcasting studio. This category takes in many fields such as technical work, administrative chores and public relations. Radio Waterloo is a young station, started in 1968 when the Federation of Students agreed to provide funds to the University of Waterloo _ Broadcasting Association to set up a station which would broadcast through the campus centre public address system. Over the next few years the station gradually grew until it reached the present position of being able to broadcast on cable 94.1 FM. Many people ask why the station does not broadcast on AM or nonxable FM. Both ideas have been investigatedcompletely but due to financial constraints Radio Waterloo cannot afford to, use these channels-of communication . Another hassle is the Canadian Radio and Television Commission KRTC). The CRTC is a government body set up to make regulations about broadcasting content. To get a- broaddcasting licence Radio Waterloo has to prove to the CRTC that it can provide a unique and helpful. service to the community. To gain an AM or an FM licence without cable would mean going commercial unless a very large alternate source of funds could be found. I Having a commercial station would be undesireable because the freedom the station now has would be drastically reduced. .. There is also a ruling made by the Secretary of State in 1979 that no provincial institutions may hold a broadcast lice&e. Therefore to get a licence Radio Waterloo would-have to incorporate as a separate entity from, the University. At times, Radio Waterloo has appeared to be very disorganized to the casual observer. There has been a tremendous amount of reconstruction over the years, though, and the-staff must be congratulated for keeping the station on the air through the past turmoil. .There is a chance at Radio Waterloo this year for some real grass roots involvement. At the station there is not nearly the amount of bureaucracy - which plagues such institutions as the Federation of Students. and university administration. And finally the most important point to be borne in mind by people wishing to join the station is thatthere is much more to do in radio work than to simply put records on the turntable like _ the most pedestrian disk-joekey. Students who are interested in the station but can not afford the time to be involved directly can venttheir support by tuning the dial to 94.1 FM cable. ’




Woman IS pres I

For the -first time since its formation, the Caribbean Students Association KSA) based on campus will be headed by a female president. Several members of CSA see this step as a positive one especially in terms of the new students from the Caribbean. This move, it is felt, will provide a greater incentive for all sections of the student community, male and female, to participate actively in the group’s endeavours. Speaking at a function organized to welcome new students from the Caribbean to the Campus, the new president Ruth Bowe, a Bahamian, called on all students to relax and feel a part of CSA. Listening to the list of activities planned for the school year, one gets the impression that the students on campus are in for another wellprogrammed season of cultural, recreational and educational treats this’ year. In fact as early as Saturday, September 21, at 8 p.m. there will be an orientation Ball at the Community Centre of the Married Students Complex. This event will feature the recorded music of some of the most versatile musicmakers in and aroundthe Caribbean today. Later in the year CSA plans a

number of inter-campus activities with the University of Toronto, McMaster University and other Schools in Ontario. Already CSA has been invited to participate in the conference onie Caribbean to .-_ be held -at the University of Toronto under the auspices of the Black Students Union of U. of T. All things considered,’ then, 197475 looks like a most exciting and involving year for CSA, so long. as the price is right. That price is largely a function of the extent to which the new Caribbean students are prepared to support their Association. The exodus of several senior students last year affords the new arrivals, fresh with the sunshine, vigour and beauty of the Caribbean, the opportunity to contribute in an organized way, to the University of Waterloo mosaic.

Predict war Alan Newcome, a. faculty member of Conrad -Grebel, met on Monday with representatives of the Federation of Students, to disduss hiring a ,Waterloo Coop student for Peace Research Studies. The student will be working on the mathematics of the ‘Inter-National Tensiometer for the Prediction of War’. The ‘Tensiometer’ is a mathematical device used to

predict the 1ikelihood of international conflict. Using values for GNP, Military Expenditure and other related data, Newcome can categorize countries into three groups : relaxed, sub-critical and supercritical. Over the past ten yearsfit has been proven that super-critical countries are 18.5 times more likely to go to war, within the next five years, than sub-critical countries. Also discussed at the meeting was the course, given by Prof. Newcome, entitled Scientific Peace Research Studies (Arts 271G-272G 1. The course includes discussion of personality and aggression, tension, causes and prediction of war, non-violence and voting patterns in the United Nations. Students may still enter this course for the fall or winter terms. An area, which was discussed, was the production ‘of abstracts and precises by the Peape Research Institute. Th< se documents included abstracts l.or thousands of different areas and publications, as well as extensive bibliographies. These data are being used by-the Peace research group in their studies, but ‘are available to the general public from either Arts or Conrad Grebel, libraries. Decisions on Federation funding of these projects are going‘ on within the Boards of Education and External Relations. A decision should be forthcoming. i -max1 mercer


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20, 1974


Boycott - Ddminiorr For the United Farm Workers (UFW) and their current boycott, , September and October are crucial months. During these months 60-70 per cent of the California grapes are sold to the North American market. Correspondingly, for the UFW boycott organizing needs to be intensified at this time. Last Saturday morning at Torontocity hall a well-attended mass rally was held to publicize their cause and to give added strength to the boycott effort. Spokesmen for different sections of the Toronto community--City Council, different religious denominations, Labour leaders, the NDPpledged their support for “La Causa” and urged Torontonians not to buy lettuce or grapes grown in California. Following the rally buses went off to different supermarkets (mainly Dominion) and picketed them. I.The spirit of the rally was one of, a profound solidarity yet one could not help but feel that the struggle would continue to be a long and frustrating one-something analagous to a gnat against an elephant. Certain facts, however, brought out at the rally by Jessica Guverra-grape picker turned boycott organizer-makes w,orker victory seem more likely. From 1965 to 1970 California grape pickers-most of them MexicanAmericans led by Cesar Chavez-went on strike and initiated a twonation boycott in order to unionize and end the exploitation which they had long-endured. In statistics this exploitation meant an average family income of $2,700, a work day lasting’ lo-12 hours, and an average life expectancy of 49 years. The sweat of the grape and lettuce pickers nets an annual harvest worth $330 million. If such a dichotomy is not indictment enough of capitalism as a system, surely at least, it is one of the agri-business set up in California. The five year international boycott was, however, successful. The growers capitulated and signed , a three year contract with the UFW union. Many improvements came about. In 1973 the growers, sensing that they were losing control over their work force and that militancy among the workers was becoming strengthened and not dying, decided-not to renew the contract. .The growers recruited a new a-lly-rthe Teamsters (perhaps you remember Jimmy Hoffa ). Growers and Teamsters rejected the UFW’s demand for a representative vote. Hence, _1 the present boycott. The success of the first boycott gives to the Farm Workers and their supporters a real sense that victory is a matter of time-and of hard work. Already in Canada, major chain .supermarkets-Loblaws, Safeway-have promised that they will remove all grapes from their shelves if Domirion does so first. This is encouraging for the movement and so the main thrust of the effort in thenext two months will be aimed -at Dominion. The struggle will be helped if university students do not buy grapes or lettuce in boxes marked California. Better still don’t buy at Dominion at all. Please consider. Viva La Causa. -doug ward

The rally organized by the United Farm Workers (UFW)Toronto boycott committee last Sunday afternoon These next two months are crucial to the in Nathan Philips Square, attracted an estimated 1,200 people. success of the boycott called against non-UFW table grapes and lettuce, since this years harvest will be coming onto the market. Cesar Chavez, UFW organizer, i-s expected to be coming to theK-W area around the end of,October The photographer was Ellen Tolm%. -

H ring -

TORONTO (CUP)-The, University of Toronto’s sociology’ department has been thrown into a turmoil over- its -hiring of eight foreigners-and no Canadians-to fill staff vacancies. Five students and one professor have resigned from the department’s staffing committee, an action that chairman Irving Zeitlin-an American-has labelled as “the worst kind of _hypocrisy .” “They were all sitting on the committee all year and for them to make it appear that someone else was responsible for the decisions is really absurd,” he contended. “I have nothing but -contempt for them .” Zeitlin .was rebutted in an open letter to the department by graduate student Paul Craven, one of those who resigned. Charging Zeitlin with “ad .hominem - and emotional arguments,” Craven states: “There is no attempt in our letter (of resignation) to pass off responsibility for the decisions on someone else. We do not question - the competence of any of the Kitchener-Waterloo’s youngest and smallest movie theatre may be people who-were hired. forced to close down within the next month. - “We have not tried to whitewash The Picture Show, which is located on Princess Street behind the Kent our own roses on the staffing :-: Hotel in Waterloo and is also the area’s only independent movie house, committee : indeed, we went to has been thrown into serious financial difficulty as a result of a new lease some lengths to say that we which will almost triple its rent. ourselves in part consider Murray-Black, one of the Picture Show staffers told the chevron last responsible for the decisions that week that as well as the rent hike, the new landlord, Ramish Dheer, were made .” wants to add several new conditions to the lease. One of these stipulates Other students who resigned also that the Picture Show not rent its facilities out to any East Indian cultural assumed partial blame for what group other than the one in which the landlord is involved. happened. Undergraduate Les The Picture Show is now looking for new quarters in the KitchenerProkop said he considered himself Waterloo area due to the high rent and the leases stipulations. a “failure” for not ,having resisted . The rent is presently $275 per month including utilities, but under the more effectively the pressure to new lease, the rent will jump to $500 with utilities bringing it up to $650 per hire Americans. month. At the same time, they stressed Several staffers at the P.icture Show claim that the new landlord wants their view was the major to force the present management out by means of the rent increases so responsibility for what occurred that a new tenant can show “skin flicks”. When contacted by the chevron must rest with the selection Dheer refused to make any comment. procedures rather than with the But financial problems have always been a concern to the Picture Show individuals on the committee. ever since it opened in February of 1973, Its format of high quality films They charged the criteria of a PhD at cheap prices has never been as profitable as the more commercial was overstressed, putting Hollywood spectaculars which fill the other local theatres. The theatre Canadians with only MA status, has also played a leading role in developing local musical and dramatic but with equally valuable research talent in the area through its Alive Variety and Summer theatre series. know ledge and publishing The Aiive Variety series had been discontinued over the summer due to credentials, at a disadvantage. a shortage-of equipment, as well as other technical problems, but Black They also claim the “search promised to have the live music concerts back on stage in the near future. procedure started late and was not And despite its hassles with the landlord, Black insists that the Picture intensive enough .” Show will continue its efforts to lend support to budding film makers, Craven also added that “it is my belief, based on-conversations with musicians and movie addicts. -mike gordon some of the Canadian applicants

-Picture shOw *to do-se

discord. who were not hired, that the status . applications was of some incorrectly explained to the Committee. I do not know whether this was an honest mistake or a deliberate misrepresentation. I certainly hope that it was the : former .” Craven also countered Zeitlin’s’ charge that the students did not “give the full story”. He pointed out all committee members are bound by confidentiality rules. “In many ways, it would have helped our argument to name names and tell ‘the full, story,’ ” he said. - Seven students and seven faculty, plus Zeitlin, sat on the committee .* Two of the seven students had left the university before the crisis occurred this summer. The five remaining-Pauline an undergraduate, and Pytka, graduates Jim Sacouman and Barry Edgington, plus Prokop and have all resigned. Craven, Professor Jim Turk, an American who took his PhD at U of T, resigned separately. All of them said the censure of the sociology department’s hiring practices by the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology passed in August, Association, sparked their resignations. The CSAA motion was moved by professor Paul Grayson of York University and professor Kathleen Herman of Queen’s Both are recent graduates of the U of T sociology department. The August motion censured the department for ignoring CSAA’s policy that non-Canadians should not be hired for permanent positions by departments with less than 50 per cent Canadians on their faculty. In their letter of resignation, the five students call for the department to “achieve 66 per cent Canadian citizenship within the next five years. . “We propose that. . no nonCanadian citizens be hired in the coming year, except in the case of foreign scholars who have made a substantial recognized contribution to the understanding of Canadian society. “At the end of the year, the process should be evaluated and if necessary extended to ‘future years, until the goal of two-thirds

Canadian citizenship is reached.” A similar motion is being submi-tted to a faculty meeting for approval by professors Dennis Magi11 and John Lee. The motions would supplement guidelines passed in March, 1972, which instructed the staffing committee to attempt to‘ hire sociologists who have “engaged in or definitely committed to doing critical research and teaching on Canada and Canadian problems.” The question has been debated in the department for some time. In 1971, a staff-student “Canadian content committee” met and made recommendations, some calling for more staff who were qualified to teach Canadian content and who had a “critical” approach to sociology. The’committee’s recommenda tions were watered down and then -forgotten about. Students at that time had no representation on the departmental staffing committee. Last spring a group of faculty members and students circulated a document in the department entitled Towards a Critical Canadian Sociology. It criticized the dominant model of sociology as being unsystematic, a-historical and oriented in favour of the status quo. The authors called for a science of Canadian society that would orient itself towards exposing structures of domination and exploitation and that would see itself as an agent of social change. Its staffing recommendations did not mention citizenship. It did call, among other things, for “hiring outside the discipline” and seeking scholars‘ who question “narrow disciplinary definitions.” Among the signatories were staffing committee members Jim Craven, Les Prokop, and Jim Sacouman. The document aroused considerable opposition, with some faculty claiming that it members threatened academic freedom. However, some supporters of the paper claim the only threat to academic freedom that occurred has been the denial of tenure to professor Bernd Baldus, who signed the document. They claim there is reason to suspect a connection between the two events . Many of them are also eager to reduce or -abolish studentinvolvement in departmental affairs. Some of them are known, to want a chairman who would reverse the trend to increased student participation ’ leading tospeculation that Zeitlin may be caught ‘in a squeeze in which he will lose the.-- support of the opposing blocs. I

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‘Like smoking, rioting is something 1 tifiaf ’ every schoolboy ha& tried at least once p

by Peter


Last year a Catholic teacher in a Catholic secondary school in Belfast held a classroom discussion on violence. Appalled by the hardline _ a\titude of the boys, he spoke out strongly and somewhat emotively against the use of violence as a solution to Ulster’s current troubles. That night, in the same school, just after he had finished teaching an adult class, the teacher was confronted by two boys, wearing masks and holding *guns. He recognised them as members of the class with which he had discussed violence. He ran through a door to another classroom and was chased through the school. Two shots were fired: Fortunately, the teacher was uninjured but he went into hiding, south qf the border, for six months. When he returned, the headmaster asked for his resignation. That teacher, _ who had a scale four post in the -secondary school, is now teaching on scale one in 9 primary school. Another Catholic teacher recently joined the staff of a Belfast Protestant secondary school. The- children asked her where she had taught previously and their suspicions were aroused by .the vagueness of her- answers. Without -thinking, she did tell them that she had ~ neve‘r taught boys before. That clue:a clear iidication that she had probably taught in the Catholic system, where schoqls j are single’-sex,-was enough ’ to lead children and_parents to take the registration number of her car and begin inquiries into her background. The teacher had to leave the staff after just one week. Stories like these are frequently quoted by teachers in Ulster in reply to suggestions that in their hands lie hopes of a more tolerant society for the future. The civil disorder ‘in Northern Ireland inevitably affects the schools: truancy is endemic, the maintenance of any semblance of discipline is on a knife-edge, exam inat ion. results get steadily worse. Clubs, societies and Q


excursions have ceased ‘to be a part of If education functions school life. normally at all, it is only because the schools are havens, oases of relative tranquility, where children can temporarily forget the riots, the ramps and the barricades that form the texture of their day-to-day lives. \


of conflict

In ‘Children in Conflict,’ Morris Fraser-, the- Belfast child psychiatrist, quotes a headmaster who said: ‘We banned all reference to what was going on outside school and as a result have created our own “no-g-o land” where they still read fairy stories, work out . their fantasies in -plays a-bout Cinderella, and so on. Unreal you may think, but I assure you that I have a school full ,of happy children who arrive shortly after 8 am each morning, never leave the grounds all day and have to be beaten out of the place when ii is closed up ,at 5 pm. ‘We have no neurotics and no problem children and an average attendance of over 90 percent. We do have problem parents and problem teachers-but problem children, no.’ Most Belfast schools seem to have,‘. ad6pted a policy rather like this, though with less success. No doubt‘, there are benefits for the childrenin working out the tensions of I iving in the city by drawing, writing and talking about the troubles. Certainly, say the teachers, there is no difficulty in persuading them to do so. Some children draw nothing but Saracen car% and helicopters; representations of Long Kesh and clashes between soldiers and civilians. One teac’her told me that a boy in her class ended every contribution he made to a classroom discussion with the words %nd they gunned them down.’ Even essays about football matches end in riots and, in the case of one boy, with one team being eaten up ,by the rats and the other being gunned down by the Army. ‘This diet of Essays is very du.ll,‘lsaid

the headmaster of one Catholic secondary school.. ‘These -chi Idren are starved. They live in worlds of bricks and rubble. We want to liberate their imaginations.’ So this school deliberately sets out to avoid any mention of politics. That means not only ignoring the IRA, the UVF, the Ulster Workers’ Council, all the other details of Ulster political life, but also steering clear of even broader issues. Violence is a- favourite topic Of debate in many schools. But, in one Protestant school, the result of a debate on ‘This House would meet violence with violence’ was a chilling example of mass hysteria. The vote in favoir of the motion was so massive that ‘we didn’t botherto count it’, said a teacher. ‘They made it absolutely clear that, to them, the only good Fenian is a she said. Speaker after dead Fenian,’ speaker held forth, to a tumultous reception, in the words and the style of Ian Paisley. \ Even in morning prayers the headmaster must choose his words carefully. A Protestant head said: ‘I wouldn’t pray, for example, for a. Catholic family that had been bereaved. I would have parents down on my head.’ The strongest prayer this Headmaster dare attempt was: ‘Lord, let me not despise or oppose what I do not understand .’



The divided curriculum

None of the teachers I talked to in Belfast s_aw even the seeds of greater tolerance and under,standing., The schools themselves reflect the two cultures that make up Ulster. In the, Catholic schools, Irish music, language, dancing, and games pervade the curriculum. Bu’t not, of course, in the Protestant schools. The children have completely different of the world they live in. A survey in Londonderry showed that the majority of Catholic childr.Gn thought the capital of their country was Dublin while the majority of Protestant children named


Belfast. Asked to name the leading citizen of Derry, most Catholic children named a Catholic, most Protestants a Protestant. The best known example of the divided curriculum in Northern Ireland is in history. The Catholic textbooks concentrate on Irish history and present it as a struggle of oppressed people against colonial rule. The Protestant textbooks present vlster as integral, though beleaguered, part of the United Kingdom and concentrate on the mainstream of British ,poIitics. During the pdst few years there has been a conscious attempt to introduce nob-sectarian textbooks in both types of schools. Park Parade, a Protestant secondary school in Belfast’s Ravenhill Road, which dr’aws many of its children from the militant Woodstock Road area, uses .history books, publishdd in Dublin, that try to present Irish history in an unemotive way. Children are asked to write about the Easter Rising, for example, firom a variety of viewpoints. --But the history teachers at Park Parade did, not bel ieve that the books would lmake &ny c_ontribution to changing the childrens’ conceptions of contemporary *Ulster politics. One teacher said: ‘I tell them, for example, that the Pope cohgr$tulated William of Orange on his vid$&y iri the Battle of the Boyne. They don’t say anything, but I don’t think they really believe me.’

Codes of, conduct Faced with non-sectarian attitudes in school, the children merely adjust to two different languages in a way that 1 has long been familiar to educationists in other contexts. Many children have two different codes of speech: one for the classroom, one for outside school. It never occurs to them that the clasSroom code should be used at home. Similarly, in Ulster, nonsectarian attitudes are just among the curious things that teachers sometimes continued

on page 9





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After five years of* urban guerilla warfare the-schools present a sCene’of rising hate _ . r? ’ continued fro& page 7 go on abou1 in classroom-like adverbial clauses and the Continental Shelf-and are to be left .behind at the school gate. A teacher at St. /Augustine’s, a Catholic secondary school, said: ‘It’s no good) talking to them. They hate hate Protestants because they Protestants. Why do they throw stones Pro2estants7 Because the 31 Protestants throw stones at us, they say. The whole thing’s illogical and absurd-they admit there are no real differences between the two groups. ilVhat drstresses me is that in less than lp years these children will be parents :hsmselves. And their attitudes will be 3ven more intractable than their own jarents’ are.’ St. Augustine’s and Park ,Parade are %t opposite ends of the Ravenhill Road, Jlrawing their children from the various sectarian enclaves that cover the surrounding area. In the past, children n either school could often’ name riends from the other. Now, keeping hem from fighting is an unending vorry that has put the two headmasters )n Christian name terms and in daily hot line’ contact. Both schools have some children vho travel by bus an.d others who walk. f one school’s bus meets the other Ic.$ool’s ‘infantry’ (as the teachers put t), the can be disaster. Stones ire thrown at the buses, whose occupants reply with lightbulbs. The‘ Iuses are now routed so that, as far as )ossible, trouble-points are avoided, ln,d school opening and closing times Ire staggered so that, theoretically, the :hildren from one school are off. the streets before the others are on it. Even these complex arrangements do lot prevent almost daily clashes.. No :hild at either school worries about rrivi’ng for lessons on time. ‘The iatholicl Protestants chased us,’ is the ivariable excuse for lateness and, as Ir. Robert Neilly, the head of Park ‘arade, says: ‘In half of the cases it’s rj :.2 , and in the ofher half it isnIt, but here’s no earthly way of telling the ifference.’ Serious trouble in the morning means day of frenetic activity for Mr. Neilly, 3lephoning the police and the Army to s!( for extra patrols that evening, iscussing withthe staff at St. ugustine’s .ways .of cooling things own and suggesting minor diversions f -buses to the transport authorities. Jhen school ends for the day some of lo children may be afraid to go home n foot and have to be accompanied or riven home by staff. The vulnerability of Belfast’s public ‘ansport, not just to hijacking but to \e traffic jams created by security h,,eks, is another worry. The school uses often don’t- tur.n up, particularly I the mornings, and this can mean ozens of pupils missing a day’s _-ssons. It is very rare .for any secondary ~hool in Belfast to have more that 70 ercent attendance. ’ Absenteeism iached a peak, of course, during the WC strike when, ,though some :hools had to close under threats of timidation, most remained open and aiy Protestant teachers were issued ith barricade passes arid even petrol ,t ions. But, though the teachers ;ually arrived (one primary teacher in ?r sixties made a daily round journey 11 miles on foot), the children didn’t. ?.:7 day, Park Parade had more staff an pupils, and, throughout the strike, never had even a quarter of its pupils ‘school.

A night pf rioting The difference between culpable truance and genuine inability to get to school is hard to define, let alone to detect,. in Belfast. A night of rioting means lost sleep to many pupils, and m-ost teachers would regard that as a legitimate excuse for not attending school, So would an Army raid on a family or a neighbour. The greatest I difficulty is enforcement:With the acquiescence of parents-and the number of men killed, seriously injured or imprisoned in Belfast leaves many children with only a harassed mother-a child can stay away from school almost indefinitely. Constant population movements make it impossible to trace some children... The attendance officers dare not enter some of the hard-line Catholic areas in Belfast, where any symbol of authority is susp,ect and asking questions is to court trouble. * The depopulation of the schools has helped to prevent the total collapse of discipline. Many Belfast secondary teachers are surprised when they get a. class of more than 15 (and this, according to the experts, is the maximum size for =good relationships and effective work). In the early years of the Ulster troubles, many teachers were surprised that, if anything, discipline was easier than before. As one headmaster put it, the children at ‘first welcomed school routine and orderliness. ‘There is no pattern to their lives ouside school,’ he sai,d . ‘They are at the mercy of unpredictable events: some nightsthey

go to bed. at. midnight, others before 9 pm. They never have their tea at the same time. Disaster can hit them without warning and without reason. School represents a sane, purposeful situation where things are logical and punishment is meted out with justice for ident if iable misdemeanours.’ But during the past two years, say the teachers, discipline has become steadily more difficult. The erosion of authority has taken its toll. The children of Ulster have learned to live on excitement and, as street clashes have declined, rebel lion has turned against more immediate adult authority figures, such as parents and teachers. Physical attacks on teachers are rare, if only because the- teachers tend. to avoid confrontations. Punishment of any&sort has become hard to enforce. ‘They feel they have a right, even a responsibility, to come back at the teacher,’ was one comment. Broken windows, blocked lavatories, smashed furniture are daily features of most Belfast schools. Tension is never far away. ‘In the past,’ said ‘a primary teacher, ‘aggro in the playground would result in a boy putting his fists up. Now the boot lashes out without warning.’ Homework is set more in optimism than in expectation. One teacher of a firstyear secondary school class said that 40 percent never even attempted their nightly hour’s homework and that most of the rest presented incomplete or slovenly. work. One comfort for Belfast’s harassed teachers is that, in the nature of things; the most disruptive violent elements stay away. The discipline problems are gradually creeping - into the primary schools too.

Even 11 -year-olds have the swagger and belligerence that teachers used to associate with children three years older. At nights and weekends some boys, on hearing of a riot, will immediately be off to take part in it. To hit a soldier with a stone, to have rubber bullet marks on the legs or just to have been present is a source of pride at school the following day. Like smoking, rioting is something that every schoolboy has tried at least once; the hardened experienced rioter has proved his adulthood. To be young in Ulster now is to be dep.rived of childhood. A teacher at St. Teresa’s Boys’ Primary School in Andersonstown said: ‘When you get them to write stories, you real ize that they bave no experience to draw on. They don’t go to the seaside or to the country or to the cinema. If they go-out, , parents have to, work out how they can avoid the danger areas-and, in the ’ end, it’s so much trouble and worry that they don’t bother.’ ’ School outings, are impossible to‘ organise safely. St. Teresa’s had to cancel those it had ,planned this year because of the UWC strike. Work involving research at the local public library has been curtailed because even travelling there could be dangerous. Many schools have had to stop taking children to swimming baths in hostile areas. In schools where the- children have long journeys home, after-school ’ activities have virtual ly d isappeared. St. Teresa’s is in the front line of tensions between the Army and the Catholic population. The huge -Army post known locally as Fort Monagh stands next door to the school. At one time, children on the way to and from school stoned the soldiers every day and, several times, the Army replied with rubber bullets. The school has regular bomb scares-once there were six in three weeks. -and, when the soldiers are called in to investigate, they fear a trap. Once, disaster was very close when a’soldier heard a loud bang behind him-but it turned out to be child stamping on an empty orange crate. ~ S,uch small incidents strain the nerves. Yet, miraculously, education in Belfast continues to function on recognisable lines. The day-to-day problemsvandalism in the lavatories, persistent truancy, the pupils’ inability to concentrate for long periods, the teachers’ battle-weariness are much the same as in most other major cities in the United Kingdom. There is something faintly unreal about the relative normalcy of the schools, as if the’teachers and pupils are acting out half-remembered parts in a play whosemeaning they have forgotten. ’ AS John Hamilton, the head of St. Teresa’s, ,,put it: ‘To most of our children, school life is irrelevant and unreal. The real part of their lives is outside-amongst the ramp , the s barricades and the rubble.’ Inside even the worst inner city ’ schools in Britain you can expect to find some corner of enthusiasm and optimism, some teacher with a new project or a new idea which he believes will liberate his pupils from their drab’ I ives and help them towards understanding and controlling their environment. In Britain, though the ’ majority of a school’s teachers may be cynical and defeatist, there ‘is always someone keeping alive a belief in the future. In Belfast there is nothing like that-only bleak despair.











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20, 1974


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Next week marks the first full week of intramural activity at the University. While instructional and Club activities have been holding meetings and registrations, competitive and recreational teams have entered their list for men’s, women’s and co-ed leagues.

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This year marks the first time that ‘the Flag Football and Soccer leagues have been divided into A and B divisions. The leagues were divided in the hopes- of equalizing competition and thus eliminating lop-sided scores. Due to lack of interest the Lacrosse league will not be in operation this term. 20 teams have been entered in the soccer league, while the flag football league has a total of 26 teams entered. Today is the last day to qualify for the Golf tournament which is being held at the Foxwood Golf Club. Since there will be two championship levels, you need not score one over par to qualify (a hackers dream). Just turn in your scorecard to the pro shop and. get $1.00 off your green fee. The fifth Annual Ring Road Bicycle Race takes place tomorrow at 9% a.m. and will start from the North kiosk of the ring road. Each team of four riders must have *at least two bicycles between them. Last years r\ champion, Conrad Grebel, completed the 6.8.mile course in a time of 17:41. On Monday the Little Olympics Track and Field Championship will be-held at T:OO p.m. at Seagram’s Stadium. There will be seven field and nine track events. St. Jeromes ~ College, perennial winner of the team competition will be attempting to do it again. In case of rain, the meet will be held on Tuesday. Next Friday is the entry deadline for the Singles Tennis, Tournament and the ’ Mixed Doubles Horseshoes

La&es Co&p&itive Monday marks the start of the ’ womens Flag Football league. The first week of competition will consist of exhibition games to allow the teams to get used to the’ rules and to learn that the referees are never wrong. / The Singles Tennis Tournament starts on Wednesday at the Waterloo Tennis Club. Sign up now at Sally’s office 2050. to ensure playing in the tournament. The Bicycle race is open to womens teams and we hope that this year we will have our first women’s team entered. Don’t forget the Track and Field Meet, and as for the Co-ed -Horseshoe Tournament, tell that guy of yours to get his lucky horseshoes (from you know where> and sign you up. There w’ill be no ringers entered in this tournament.



Co-ed Slow Pitch is offto a fast start with twelve teams playing during the weekend. Entries for the Men’s ball hockey and floor hockey leagues will be accepted until Monday. In keeping with the idea of the concept of purely recreational activity, no scores or standings will be recorded. Free time activities include Swimming, Tennis, Squash and <free gym time. The men’s squash challenge ladder will\ be starting this week. If you are interested, just put your name and phone number on a tag and hang it on the board beside the men’s change room. Women’s sign-up sheets for tennis and squash are located in the women’s change room. If you want to play, but can’t find a

partner, put your name and phone number on the sheet or contact someone on the sheet.



Most of the> instructional programs offered are filled to capacity, but there are a few openings in swimming, karate and judo, and the Kinder Swim program. The first softball tournament ‘involved twelve teams in a double elimination competition. As it turned out, the eventual winner, the Base-., Burglars needed that second chance to win. After the host team, St. Jeromes advanced to the championship game on the winner’s bracke.t, the Base Burglars, who had lost one game previously, defeated St. Jeromes 4: 5 to force a deciding game. That game was played on Tuesday, and again the Base Burglars emerged victorious by a 4-2 score. The Burglars had advanced by beating Team Crackers after a 7-inning no score game on the top of a tcoin.

Fun Day-

1 -’

The Coed Fun Day sponsored by the girls intramural organization was held last Thursday under cloudy skys and fun was had by all. No busts burst in the balloon bust contest, a few found the range in the football throw ,and the fire brigade ‘was very revealing ‘in rooting out the wetheads. ’ The centipede race got many people together and the spoon on a string through the clothes was a hands all ov,er success. Following the firemen’s carry. race and the resulting vows to diet and enrol1 in the fitness classes, the afternoon came’ to an end with new friendships and tired bodies. It is hoped that this will become a semiannual event. For entry or program information, phone Peter Hopkins Ext. 3532 or Sally Kemp Ext. 3533 at the Athletic Office.




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-i Soccer , victory With a new Coach at the helm, the University of Waterloo Soccer Warriors will move into action this Saturday, in Toronto, against the University of Toronto Blues. The first home game will be against Brock on Wed., Sept. 25 at 3 p.m. Ron Cooper, himself a former performer with the Warriors takes over the Head Coaching reins from the playing-coach of last season, X Ed Murphy. Cooper has been most enthusiastic about the turnout of players that he has had this season. “We had over 55 players come out for the team. With so many openings on the team (the Warriors have only four returnees 1, the competition has been very keen,” said Cooper. The four returnees with the Warriors are Dave Grundy, Dave Colin Betty and Jan \ McKechn,ie, Arp. One other player, while not a member of last year’s team, has Warrior experience. He’s Marcus Klein, a goaltender. Heading the list of newcomers, in the eyes of Coach Cooper, will be _ Paul Stevenato, who played for Willowdale before coming to Waterloo, Jerry Williams, a competitor with Sarnia Croatia and Zenon Margosa, a former member of the Kitchener Serbia team. 4 Some concern over the eligibility of intercollegiate soccer players who had previously participated in the National Soccer League and the North American Soccer

League was recently discussed at a meeting of the Administrative Council of the OUAA. At their most recent meeting, the Administrative Council voted to declare ineligible, any players who had competed in these leagues. The ruling does’ not become effective until 1975, however. This will make the OUAA rules on the eligibility of soccer players come into line with the CIAU eligibility rules on soccer players. In preseason play, the Soccer Warriors scored a 5-4 victory over a team composed of members of the Kitchener Ranger Soccer Team and players from UW’s Intramural League. In another game, played last Sunday, the Warriors were defeated 6-O by the Kitchener Optimists. The Warriors’ were without eight of their regulars for that game. In their last preseason game Wednesday evening the Warriors defeated Cambridge FC 2-o. Home field for the Soccer Warriors during the 2974 season will be Seagram Stadium. In other years the Warriors have played on Columbia Field, situated on the North Campus of the University of Waterloo. _

off Columbia Field was a center of activity on the weekend as a highly experienced and well coached side from the University of Exeter, England defeated the Warriors 33 to 4. The Exeter team currently the

British University 7-Aside included in their Champions, touring side 18 players from England, six from Wales and two Irishmen. Three of their members, Julian Sharpe, Chris Cottier and captain Gareth Skidmore, represented. the British ‘Universities Allstar team in national and international matches. The Warriors played hard for the full 80 minutes with the scoring coming from Ralph Jarchow in the closing minutes of the game. Being the first game of the fall season, all players gained some needed experience from the English style of play. Last season the Warriors, playing with ten rookies,. completed a record of seven wins and seven losses. They also reached the finals in the unofficial OUAA 7-Aside championship. On the social half of the game it goes without saying that the Waterloo club scored a decisive victory at the after ceremonies. The Exeter players believed the Waterloo hospitality to be the best . of, the tour. A close second match was won in the final seconds of play on Sunday the fifteenth. The London team had noted experience on their side as they competed in’ the Ontario Rugby Union all summer long. Trojan scoring was done with tries from Whip Watson and Ralph Jarchow, a conversion for two points closed their scoring. The final score was Forest City thirteen to Trojans ten. Both backs and forwards played well because, for most of the , players, it was their first game of Rugby ever played. The Warriors and Trojans will be travelling to Montreal this weekend for two games. No doubt a good time will be had by-all!

Each man’s life sparkle and glitter more . is meant to be a great adventure, a than the others, that testing qf his most human seem most attractive and qualities in a hostile build himself . a .for world. Striving for mosaic, a great ascendancy over one’s adventure, a life. self is a basic ingredient I, Running and striving to in this adventure. It is the become a runner have a attempt at a daring and clear part in that mosaic diecult thing that makes -for me. Fatigue is a US rise above our usual remarkably good vehicle selves. Each man has the -for the exploration of opportunity to sift ’ inner space. through the challenges Bob Carman that present themselves, California Longselect a -few that seem to Distance Runner For t&distance runner, thinking about his daily runs can be a tricky business. Some runners find that the basic absurdity of his long runs mirrors the absurdity of the world around him. Okay? Some runners, those who have their wits, will ponder this inevitable question: “Why do I run?” ; and then quit and play golf or something. Others, as does Bob Carman, will use his long runs to give ‘meaning’ to his life. Philosophica’l thought, unlike shin splints, is not, however, common to all distance runners. Take the Warrior crosscountry team. Not that they haven’t wondered at times why they run: who wouldn’t while cruising along in a mid-January snowstorm on a ten mile run through Erbsville. Their approach is simply to not think of it-or, as little as possible, anyway. Vital to this approach, too, is finding alternative activities which will help them forget about it. This ‘don’t think’ theory, however, is not as revolutionary as it may sound. Anthropologists report that the Wopi Tribe of New Mexico used this system with great success in their communication routes. New coach and veteran runner Ted McKeigan heard about this from his Anthro. 101 Prof. and for the past four years has been trying to perfect it. Coach Ted realizing that the thought processes of his charges could not be stopped, decided, as he had always done with himself, to alter them. In so doing the said runner’s idea of what was rational or not, would become muddled; SO too, next day’s 15 mile run would. . . well, fade away. Obviously, then, any prediction on how our team will do would * be premature. Also the team is composed mainly of first year students whose ability is yet to be revealed. Returning for the Warriors are McKeigan, Ian Webster, Dave Grant, and Mike Kaine. New comers are Pete Gove, Paul Barron, Keith Richardson, and Terry Novak. The first competition for the , team will be next Saturday, in Guelph. ’


. ’ 14

the chevron --..__




ou . r

con sci ence ad

Ontario’s manipulation


of the migrant


by David



Throughout the late summer a recurrentproblem plagues our provincial economy: how to muster enough labourers to enable farmers to ) harvest the fruits and vegetables which threaten to rot in the fields. Given the hodge-podge of , substandard working conditions, long hours and meagre pay that characterize the occupation, it is surprising that the harvest is ever accomplished. While scientists at federally-funded research centres like Guelph Agricultural College have done much to advance. machine-harvest techniques and develop tougher plant varieties in order to eliminate human labour, the manpower shortage persists. The need is so crippling that on occasion Ontario farmers have asked that the army be brought in rather than see the crop spoil in the fields. While farming technique has progressed to the -_ point that crops like grapes and corn are harvested entirely by machine, many others of a more delicate nature, like tomatoes and- celery, continue to require the hand of man. But where to find those hands in sufficient quantities at the moment they are needed? Outside of the tobacco crop which is well organized and pays comparatively good money,. . fruit and vegetable harvesting exerts little of the ---allure over workers that legend likes to associate with it. Many farmers hold to a pat explanation of this situation, one which has it that our liberal society has made it so easy for people to subsist on incomes from welfare outlets that the desire to work has been lost. They like to refer to an “erosion” of the “work ethic” that formed the backbone of early industrial society. Or as Richard Stocks, a ranking official of the BC Federation of Agriculture, puts it, “money is too darn easy to get.” The phrase “work ethic’.’ sparks images of the twelve hour day with its wearisome labour, and of a tractable labour force paid just enough money to stay alive and reproduce itself through’ its children. While the image hardly describes the lot of the modern industrial worker, it is not far from capturing the conditions that pertain to much of contemporary agriculture. ’ Unlike crops which have been fully mechanised and require only machine operators, _those that have not require “stoop labour”. A Leamington area farmer described this technique’ as a 1 “forgotten art”, one that a man was initiated in from birth or for which he would forever be unqualified. Stoop work is exacting: their backs bowed, knees bent and hands moving swiftly, the labourers scuttle crab-like along the vines and I rows of plants. Traditionally Canada has mustered much of its seasonal labour force from those willing to endure a separation from family for the growing season, or from those willing to move their families and put them all to work in the fields. In Ontario this group is drawn mainly ‘from native peoples and from migrants from outside the province. High unemployment and poverty make even the long tree and poor pay acceptable 1to these labourers. Since the 1940’s this force has maintained itself below the level of the farmer’s needs. Curiously, while this imbalance of supply should work in the labourer’s favour, wage structure and working conditions have not improved perceptibly as yet. In the post-war -era farmers and government officials have. repeatedly campaigned to get students and women to participate in the harvest. Those crops like tomatoes which ripen into the late fall have been an especial problem; in order to

help solve it, county officials are rumoured to turn a blind eye towards high school attendance rates in September and October. While it seems unreasonable to expect that an occupation offering only sporadic work could ever be in demand for anyone with constant income needs, farmers feel that minimum wage laws, high factory incomes and assured unemployment benefits have rendered the Canadian work force fat and lazy. Some point to the crops awaiting someone to pick them-ad then point reflexively to the latest unemployment figures as proof positive of their case. Yet agricultural labour remains exempt from legislation governing minimum wages, length -of working day, overtime pay and vacations. Indeed, if most farmers had their way, it would be made exempt from lawsgoverning payment of unemployment and old age pension benefits. They argue that the attenuated period of hire does not qualify the labourer for benefit in most cases, so that the regulation only creates paperwork and expense for the employer. Given their circumstance, it may appear surprising that agriculturallabourers-have not organized themselves into unions tovie for better conditions. While they are not legally prohibited from doing this, the perpetual irregularity _of place of work, crop and fellow labourer all militate to prevent this form of self-protection from occuring. Unlike the Chicanos who harvest California crops under almost-industrial conditions and who have had- success at organizing and boycotting, the shortened season and the persistance of the family farm constrain this possibility. The depth of these strictures is reflected in organized labour’s continued reluctance to mount even an educational campaign on the seasonal workers’ behalf. With remuneration hovering around or-.-below minimum wages, it is safe to say that seasonal farm work attracts no one with another choice. In recent years farmers and government agents have cooperated in the development of Local Agricultural Manpower Boards (LAMB) to recruit adequate pools of labour in the face of waning demand. Thus far the LAMB’s have attempted only a more rigorous canvass of existing local sources, and have done little to improve industry conditions which discourage labour participation. This latter may or may not have something to do with the fact the LA‘MB is often controlled by growers. < The LAMB deals mainly with the provinces own unemployed, those who for one reason or another can find no work. Many officials claim that these people will not hire on unless given the “red carpet” treatment and sometimes resist until threatened with the loss of whatever state subsidy they are receiving. -From the labourer’s side, the situation is anything but rosy. In fruit belt centres like St. Catherines, hiring on means showing up in market square before dawn in the hopes that the farms will be taking people that day. Once signed on and placed on the truck that carries them to the field or orchard, there is still no guarantee that any set wage will be achieved. Harvesters are normally paid on a per basket basis; but making a liveable quota depends on unknowables like the quantity of ripened fruit and the quality of the picking location once on the job. If this question is on the labourer’s mind, the answer to it is never given in the cool morning air in market square; it only presents itself in the field or on the trip home. I

Poverty-stricken Ontarions such as welfare mothers and the seasonally unemployed like students supplement the labour ‘heeded by the family farmer to harvest his crop or clear his orchard. At one time the basis of. agricultural production in Canada, the family farm is disappearing. While in an earlier epoch these plots turned their owners a respectable profit, the last twenty years of ‘-‘development” have shrunk their income to such a degree that it often has to be stretched to meet the carrying charges on the farm’s debt. Throughout these two decades the basis of agriculture has altered radically, primarily due to improvements in farm method through mechanization and through the geometrically increased use of ’ fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Mechanization eliminates labour and compresses the time necessary to harvest. In many respects it is grossly wasteful and one now hears farmers refer casually to. the per .cent of spoilage attributable to machine error. However, if machines have increased waste, their error is more than compensated by the increased crop yields due to the use of chemical sprays. While little work has been done on the damage these sprays may do to our ecology, or on the effect their residues may have on our bodies when we eat the crops, their short term benefits are evident. Everywhere in Southern. Ontario one sees row u.pon row of lavish crops and orchards full of fruit-laden trees, unbothered by pest or weed. During the growth period the fields are now marked by the absence of human tending; while weeding and tilling-once occupied a great part of-a season’s labours, the relentless tide of weeds and bugs has been stemmed and there is little to do until harvest. The use of scientific hardware has occasioned a restructuring of farming which is weeding out the smaller and more “inefficient” units. It is significant that, with the exception of Kent County, every county in Ontario cultivates less acreage than it did ten years ago. Existing farm units are substantially larger on average and the volume of crops per acre that they produce has increased. We now make much more from much less. But if mechanization and spraying have helped to “revolutionize” the agricultural base and remake it in the image of modern industry, a concomitant rebuilding of labour needs and conditions is less evident. Even though the proportion of labour needed for harvest has declined, the farmer’s summer needs *remain pressing. Moreover if this redevelopment has encouraged greater profits in the food business, little has been passed on to the small farmer who, in turn, has passed even less along to his hirelings. Farmers interviewed from the Wheatley area, in the heart of Ontario vegetable country, agreed that productivity had never-been greater than at present- but claimed that, given the enormous capital costs involved in buying the new equipment, they were making little more from their operation than before. One farmer said that he was thinking of selling his land, as a number of his friends had, and joining them on the production line at the H.J. Heinz Company in Learnington. There, he claimed, the income wasguaranteed and a pension awaited him at the end of the line, two conditions not applicable in farming. For those who continue to farm the solution to the chronic labour shortage lies in the utihzation

fru l ’

: &


The migrant and t\ alliance each summet physical durability a3 labour holds out a fr; may be made profitab the migrant, like the I\ in these pictures, thf board hold out the po! may be made to F throughout the rest c. home/and. To the far and trustworthy, 3 re which openly flaunts labourer, the farmei survival. -

the chevron



. . A - . ,



that enough


by David


of a unique type of labourer, the migrant. Hailing from somewhere outside ‘of Southwestern Ontario, usually from another province and sometimes from another country, the migrant is willingbecause his impoverishment leaves him no choiceto uproot himself and travel the oftenthousands of miles to work in our fields. The migrant is most highly prized among the varieties of seasonal labour for several distinct reasons. Characteristically he comes from a region less economically fat than ours, one in which he is accustomed to lower pay and the absence of a cushioning social welfare structure. To the farmer whose “business” operates on the most slender of margins, a labourer whose allegiance can be maintained for little money is a capital find. As well, more often than not the migrant has deep farm roots and, due to his habituation to farm work of a less mechanized is still capable of the stamina and type, perseverance demanded by his grueling occupation. Finally, he usually brings his entire family with him when-he moves and the farmer thus benefits from the hire of a complete unit. To the small and medium farmers fighting to make ends meet in a market where profitability is defined by big operations with new equipment, this reservoir of labour is the only hope. However, if the large and corporate farms dictate terms to the smaller farmers, they in turn find themselves in a position of absolute power with regard to the migrants. Some of these workers, particularly those Mennonites who travel all the way from Mexico, are open to . the most regrettable manipdlation. A Department of Manpower and Immigration investigation turned up repeated incidences last summer of substandard housing, lack of sanitation, child labour and malnutrition. Common as well were devious employment practises, such as the retention of earnings and refusal to pay. More than a third of the labourers on the 629 farms sampled in the investigation were in the country and working without official permission. Yet even those who were working with “official sanction” did so with little protection under the laws of the land. Rarely do contractual arrangements govern the hire of seasonals; in many. cases sampled last year, there were no records of hire, pay rate ‘or provision for even rudimentary benefits. - For those who find themselves deprived of what is their rightful due, there are no officials or agencies for them to turn to. Indeed, without even the minimum wage shelter, it is hardly surprising that the government investigation uncovered such unsavoury ,practises as the withholding of a portion of earnings until harvest end, to insure that the seasonals see the job through. --Not all farmers take such callous advantage of these largely unprotected peoples. Many of them do strive to build housing with adequate sanitation and living facilities. Certainly the majority would not try to con the entire migrant family into working the season for the price of a single individual, but would pay the head of the family piece work rates for all labour. One Leamington area farmer had been using Mexican Mennonites for years to take off his tomatoes and swore by them. Pointing to the family toiling in a nearby field, he confided that “soon even they’ll smarten up.” He extolled the virtues of their way of life and abilities to labour and .added that he himself had made his start in justthat manner. However, he went on to admit that even the frail possibility of this exit from a lifetime of servitude was no longer possible. “You can’t save anything up here on what they make nowadays”, he owned; “and whats more you couldn’t even borrow the money to buy a farm if you wanted to”. The same men went on to say that things had changed so much that to enter the tomato market on a scale which would utilize the new machines and thus turn a profit, you had to assemble at least 250 acres. The \cost of such a purchase at today’s prices is roughly $500,000.00, and that doesn’t cover the equipment. The conclusion is inescapable: the social and economic position of the seasonal labourer

condemns him to. his plight and removes any chance that through ‘diligence and perseverance’ he can improve his lot. A Kent County farmer admitted that by turning over a couple of acres to a Mexican family on which to grow a bumper crop of pickles-from which harvest he took 40 percent for the use of his land and machineshe managed to occupy them and keep them with him throughout the long break between planting and harvesting. The total cost for this arrangemententailing what is probably the harshest physical’ labour done in our society today-was an estimated $&lO,OOO for the entire family. This paltry amount retains their favours throughout a six or seven month season. The federal Department of Manpower and Immigration has made some effort to control the areas of abuse which surround the use of seasonal labour. This intervention has most often taken the form of subsidies for the development of liveable housing which would eliminate the use of shacks and tool sheds as domiciles; as well it covers the attempt to increase farmer participation in the development o&an overall plan to regulate manpower needs before the season begins. Yet the farmeis remain wary of these government programs and tend to equate federal involvement with higher costs. In order to counter the bad press which farmer’s complaints have landed on its doorstep, Manpower has hatched its own unique solution to the labour shortage. Under what it calls the Seasonal Workers Program-a set of accords worked out with foreign governments-. Caribbean and Mexican workers are now being imported on a contract basis to harvest Southwestern Ontario crops. The farmer must pay for the plane fare, must provide housing .in line with federal standards and must pay the workers the minimum wage. Needless to say, these “offshore” workers have been in demand by the large and corporate farms who are quite willing ‘t’o pay the minimum wage. The qualities these seasonals have-like their willingness to work hard, their reliability and general ease of handlingmake them an attractive commodity. However, while the federal program definitely eliminates many of the grossest excesses surrounding the hire of migrants and provides full protection under the law for those Caribbeans and Mexicans it locates, all of the old problems continue apace on those “inefficient” small farms not yet forced out of the market. ,Farmers who work on narrow profit margins and who never know from one year to the next whether their businesses will remain solvent, tend to tighten up on their most readilly controllable cash flowwages. For so long as the small farmer is squeezed financially by the market place, his tenacious desire to.hold on to what he has known all of his life will insure the continued demand for an ill-paid and malleable labour force, willing to slave away out of sight under “private agreements .” Moreover the squeeze put on the small farmer through mechanization and the industrialization of agriculture has the official sanction of the federal government. In these matters its stated policy is to encourage the redevelopment of farming along corporate lines and to assist large companies in a complete restructuring of the market. The small farmer’s fate is in many respects sealed and his battle to preserve a dying way of life, often at the expense of his hired help, is a losing -one. In this light Robert Andras’ statement that neither he nor Agriculture Minister Eugene Whelan “will be a party to unsatisfactory working and living conditions for pickers” and that they “deplore any practices that are inhumane,“/has the ring of a surface truth. While the Seasonal Workers Program has trimmed some of the rough edges from a shoddy situation, the government’s overall agricultural policies work to accelerate the factors which keep such foul practices in existense. Thus, not untypically, we find the federal governmentin the contradictory position of using one hand to apply a cosmetic to the blemish which its other hand is busy sustaining.



the chevron


20, 1974

Art Gallery Univet’sity of Waterloo Kim Ondaatje Painting

and .Prints


19 - OCT.






11 - Fri. 9 - 4 pm Sunday 2, - 5 pm

’ isiat 744-0821WESTMOUNT Matte MEN’S#AIRSTYlING


OCi. 6, i & 8 Kim Ondaatje will be on campus as part of the Artists. with their Work programme sponsored by the Extension Departm’ent, Art Gallery of Ontario.



in the Art Room,



\ Westmount Place Shopping Centre (Opposite


Only ED N~ORCOl?


the best in personalized hairStyling for men and FOR ,WOMEN l

10 a.m. - 5 p.m.

Approximately 1000 original graphics representing artists from the 15th century to the present will be informally displayed so that visitors can see each print at close range. Prices start at $10 and go into the thousands but the majority are under $100.





Hairpieces and Toupees fittings and consultation _ for men TINTING - BLEACHING P6RMs - STR’EAKCNG ROLLER S’EB - CURI:NG tic. FOR WOMEN


Wednesday, Thursday This Week Only



744-0821 Open Wednesday, I HARRY

,. , ITH i x

* westmount pharmacy

/ place 578-8800

MOW-SAT 9 am - 10 pm i.,, SUN and HOLIDAYS l--l am - 9 pm


Thursday, 8:30 to 6


9 to $

Friday ’

Math So.c - -By-elections For .. Z-3rd \- 3-1st 3-1st


yr. regular reps yr. co-op reps yi.’ regular reps . -Elections to be held on Oct. 7/ 74 Nominations close Sept. 30 j 74 Apply to MathSoc Office MC 3038



Calvin A. Barrett Chief Returning Officer



the chevron

20, 1974

Three major concert product ions came to the University of Waterloo _ campus within a week of each other. Joe Cocker and Steppenwolfe provided any rock enthusiasts with more than enough overly amplified rock music. The Steppenwolfe show was the better of the two, due mainly to the tighter production of the show. After a solo warm up act by 3 percussionist, who’s act is called A Pulse, it was only a’matter of a few minutes before the main attraction, Steppenwolfe appeared. This was a pleasant change to the hour or more break that appeared between Cockers warmup group Montrose and Cocker. The energy that .Montrose built up in the audience, quickly dissipated during the long intermission. The audience started to get restless and they remained that way throughout most of Cockers show. For those people who were warned, or had heard about Cockers previous ~concerts, the fact that he was incredibly late and drunk may not have been much of a surpiise. But anyone,expecting a little bit -of consideration” by the performer, must have been disappointed since Cockers introductions and various ramblings on were completely unintelligible. Steppenwolfe, however, at least tried to communicate with the audience, and attempted to make the audience feel part of the concert. * Bothof these concerts in the end s lost ‘money, Cocker lost approximately $2500 while Steppenwolfe cost the promoter a loss of about $8000. The federation ended up losing very little on the two concerts due to the involvement of the promoters. Moe Kaufman was the third _.concert to appe& on campus, but unlike the previous two which played in the physed complex and only gave one show, Kaufman _ played two shows in the Humanities theatre. Michael Lewis was rushed over from the campus centre to appear as a surprise guest warmup act to Kaufman. Although Lewis’s singing and accompaniment were excellent, Lewis had difficulty adjusting to the faulty sound system and adapting his material to a concert setting. The audience, _i however, waited attentively through the poorly paced set. Moe Kaufman appeared on stage throughout the sluggish set up. He appeared unruffled and -nonchalant about it all, and this set the mood for the-concert and’ for his music. A .feeling of free flowing intimacy I-- pervaded Kaufmann’s , . 4~,-,~.-,-:-.‘> , : -.-I c. /

performance. The music seemed to be understated which made it a much more effective medium of expression. No instrument dominated the over all performance of the music, as there seemed to be a free exchange between the musicians while they performed. s Kaufmann has been very much a part of the jazz scene in Canada since the late 1940's .and is known for his flute and saxophone. His music has much classical influence, and recent recordings have reworked Bach I into a jazz combo context without a conflict of. interest. His present group has much percussion which allows the group to investigate South’ American rhythms and sounds. Kaufmann offered an evening of contemporary jazz compositions as well as his own. He presented the works of Roberta Flack, Bob -James and Rick Wilken as well as Bach and Pier Gynt. He was able to preseve the integrity of their compositions without sacrificing his own ability to discover himself in ‘other people’s music and go beyond their original intent. The group’s improvisations created the precise amount of drama for each instrument without staging the effect in the music’s performance. Kaufmann is very much the consummate musician. His physical presence is constantly felt on stage whether performing on the flute or saxophone or overseeing the group during the solo instrumental breaks. He directs the movement of his music and its direction. ’ Each musician in the group digresses into his solo mstrumental interpretation of the music without destroying, the fragile flow of the musical feeling. Don Thompson’s bass seemed almost subdued. in the musical exchange of- the instruments. Ed Brickard’s guitar sets an easy tempo of free flowing riffs which are reminiscent of the 1%0's be bop of Kaufmann’s early career. At moments dru.mmer Jerry Fuller seemed that he might break loose from the easy structure of Kaufmann’s music, only to be reincorporated into it. Michael Creighton, the percussionist, offered avantgarde experimentation into rhythms which improved L the digressions of the group. Kaufmann’s flute completesthe sound of the group as well as acts as the’ focal point in the interaction. *Mae Kaufmann’s appearance at the humanities theatre Wednesday shows the broad appeal jazz is drawing in this continent and the flexibility of this music with’other forms. --j. roberts









the chevron



20, 1974

Ap,pEA~.ON.BEHALF0~ VALE&WN MoRoz ;. \ TO ;THE AUTHOfjlTlES~OF THE. SOVIET UNION, / We write this letter in response to reports that Valentyn Moroz, a 38-year-old Ukrainian historian, is in a critical state of health and is subjected to the harshest of treatment and conditions in Vladimir Prison. We express our concern that Moroz may not survive if such treatment is continued. Because we favour the relaxation of international tension and development of &en&y / relations between nations, and / , Because.we believe that this is dependent on the recognition of the inherent dignity and . y” ‘the equal and inalienable rights of all members of tbe human family as-the foundation of freedom, justice and-peace in the world, We appeal to you to assure his well-being, to accord to him those-human rights and fundamental freedoms that the-world community has prescribedtin numerous covenants and conventions, and release him on compassionate grounds.’ I






R. E. AGGER McMaster Uncversity S. AHMAD McMaster University CAROLINE ANDREW University of Ottawa KAYE ARMATAGE University of Toronto t-f. W. ARTHURS ’ York University W. ANDREW AXLINE University of Ottawa BURKE BARKER University of Alberta C. H. BEDFORD University of Toronto ’ A. BERLAND A&Master University JEAN-PAUL BERNARD Universite de Quebec PIERRE BERTON Author t-t. BESSASON University of Manitoba CONSTANTINE BIDA Uhiversity of Ottawa C. W. BLACHFORD University of Saskatchewan RICHARD BOCHONKO McMaster University BOHDAN R. BOCIURKIW Carleton University FRANK S. BOARAWICZ University of Windsor DESMOND BOWEN Carleton University A. N. BOURNS ’ McMaster University LEWIS W. BRANDT ;nigvrss; of, Saskatchewan

University of Toronto YVES BROSSARD Universite de Quebec RAYMOND E. BROWN University\of Windsor JOHN E. BURKE ’ McMaster University - J. C. CAIRNS University of Toronto JUNE CALLWOOD Author E. CAPPADOCIA McMaster University 8. Y:CARD . University of Alberta J. M. S. CARELESS University of Toronto A. I. CARSWELL York University ROGER CARTER University of Saskatchewan CESAR N. CAVIEDES University of Saskatchewan DAVID CHANDLER -University of Saskatchewan



WILLIAM M. CHANDLER McMaster University A. CHANADY University of Saskatchewan PIERRE CHARBONNEAU Universite de Quebec FRANCOIS CHEVRETTE Universite de Montreal I. CHORNEYKO z McMaster University J. B. CONACHER University .of Toronto K. M. COSTAIN ’ University of Saskatchewan G. M. CRAIG University of. Toronto * L. G. CROSSMAN University of Saskatchewan HARRY S. CROWE York University E. H. DALE University of Saskatchewan PETER M. DALY University of Manitoba BERNARD DAVIES University of Windsor GRANT DAVY University of Alberta DENIS DENEAU Universite de Quebec ALBERT DESBIENS Universite de Quebec W. A. C. H. DOBSON University of Toronto ’ V. G. DOERKSEN University of Manitoba IAN M. DRUMMOND University of Toronto ALFRED DUBUC Universite de Quebec PAUL N. DUSSAULT !; University of Ottawa JAMES EAYRS University of Toronto SYDNEY EISEN York University G. K. EPP University of Manitoba J. R. EVANS University of Toronto D. M. L. FARR Carleton University LEWIS S. FEUER University of Toronto KATHRYN B. FEUER University of Toronto’ . T. J. FRANKEL McMaster University NORTHROP FRYE . University’ of Toronto . ROBERT FULFORD Editor WALLACE.D. GAGNE McMaster University , J. R. GEAR , University of Saskatchewan


SHIRLEY ‘GIBSON Editor 0. GIVNER University of Saskatchewan ROBERT J. GLENDINNING University of Manitoba J. E. L. GRAHAM McMaster University ROBERT A. GREENE University of Toronto DAVID HANCOCK Publisher ROBIN HARRIS University of Toronto D. J. HEASMAN University of Saskatchewan P. HEMINGWAY University of Saskatchewan DANIEL G. HILL Human Rights Consultant DONNA M. HILL Human Rights Consultant S. HONTZEAS University. of Saskatchewan MYER HOROWITZ University of Alberta OLEH HORNYKIEWICZ University of Toronto JOHN P. HUMPHREY McGill University MEL HURTIG Publisher RON W. IANNI University of Windsor WSEVOLOD W. ISAJIW University of Toronto MILTON ISRAEL University of Toronto H. H. JACK University of Saskatchewan ROBERT JACKSON Carleton University C. M. JOHNSTON McMaster Univwsity J. L. H. KEEP University of Toronto A. K. KELLY University of Saskatchewan J. M. KELLY University of St. Michael’s IAN J. KERR University of Manitoba THEOFIL I. KIS University of Ottawa C. 8. KOESTER University of Saskatchewan J. F. KOS ’ University of Saskatchewan HENRY KREISEL University of Alberta WILLIAM KURELEK Artist A. LALONDE University of Saskatchewan JUDIY LaMARSH York University




‘\ ..


J. DESMOND MORTON University of Toronto ANATOL MURAD University of Saskatchewan ORLENE MURAD University of Saskatihewan S. I. H. NAQVI University of Saskatchewan W. H. NELSON University of Toronto _ T. E. W. NIND Trent University E. H. OKSANEN McMaster University M. K. OLIVER Carleton University ROMAN OLYNYK McGill University JOHN O’NEILL York University J. PACHNER University of Saskatchewan K. Z. PALTIEL Carleton University G. PAPINI University of Saskatchewan J. CRAIG PATERSON University of Windsor GILLES PAQUET Carleton University WALTER PITMAN Trent University J. C. POLYANI University of Toronto I PETER J. POTICHNYJ McMaster University KLAUS H. PRINGSHEIM McMaster University HORACE E. READ Dalhousie University B. E. ROBERTSON University of Saskatchewan R. REID ROBINSON University of Saskatchewan W. G. ROEBUCK McMaster University , E. E. ROSE University of Toronto NORMAN ROSENBLOOD McMaster University A. ROSSOS University of Toronto IVAN RUDNYTSKY University of Alberta D. J. RUSS0 McMaster University R. G. RYSTEPHANICK University of Saskatchewan MICHEL SALABERRY University of Ottawa DOUGLAS A. SCHMEISER University of Saskatchewan W. H. 0. SCHMIDT University of Alberta J. SCHUBERT University of Saskatchewan

F. R. SCOTT McGill University RADOSLAV SELUCKY Carleton University ROMAN SERBYN Universite-de Quebec JOSEPH SKVORECKY University of Toronto ZDENA SKVORECKY Author BURTON SMITH University of Alberta G. K. SMITH &Master University J. PERCY SMITH ‘Guelph Universitv BERNARD STARKMAN ,/ University of Windsor GEORGE R. STEWART ‘Jniversity of Windsor S. E. STEWART University of Saskatchewan JOHN W. STRONG ’ Carleton Utiiversity 8. R. STUART University of Alberta’ RICHARD A. SWANSON Universi,ty of Manitoba WALTER S. TARNOF’QLSKY York University * KEN TAYLOR University of Alberta R. D. 8. THOMSON r L$i;;;itRyDof Toronto




University of Saskatchewan ANDRE VACHET University of Ottawa A. 8. VAN CLEAVE ’ University of Saskatchewan CHRISTIAN VINCKE Universite de Montreal R. R. WAGHMARE McMaster University 0. T. WAITE University of Saskatchewan A. H. C. WARD University of Toronto DAVID N. WEISSTUB York University HENRY D. WIEBE Uhiversity of Manitoba JAMES R. WILLIAMS McMaster University J. L. WOLFSON University of Saskatchewan CHAUNCEY WOOD McMaster University PETER WOROBY University of Saskatchewan JOHN W. YOLTON York University B. ZAGORIN University of Saskatchewan , JACOB S. ZIEGEL York University

In November 1970 Valentyn Moroz was sentenced at a trial heid in camera to 9 years imprisonment and’ 5 years exile for alleged .“anti-soviet propaganda and agitation” which consisted of writing 3 essays critical of the police terror and russification policies in the Soviet Union, This was Moroz’ second- sentence-he had \ already spent a four year term in the sixties on similar charges. He is’married 2nd has 3 / two children. . -‘_ I Since his, imprisonment, Moroz has been beaten,, stabbed and confined with the criminally insane. As of July 1 Moroz -began a hunger strike unti‘l death to protest his inhumane mistreatment\ by Soviet authorities. He .is in extremely poor physical and .9 -b ..mental condition and concerned circles both in and outside theSoviet Union have expressed fears that he .may not survive. Among those who have expressed their , concern\ for Moroz have been: Prime .Minister Trudeau, Andrei, Sakharov, Jean-Paul . , Sartre, , Senator Henry Jackson, the Canadian Writers’ Union and Amnesty International. ’ \ Won’t you sign this appeal-sign and mail to: \ . signature


I /

CLAUS 0. LAPPE University of Manitoba IV0 N. LAMBI University of Saskatchewan J. K. LAUX University of Ottawa GERALD LeDAlN ‘York University JOHN C. LEVY ’ University of Windsor THOMAS J., LEWIS McMaster University H. C. LIM McMaster University ALLAN M. LINDEN York University NANCY LtNDHEIM ’ ’ University of Toronto RALPH CINDHEIM Universi$y of Toronto P. A. LINTEAU Universite de Quebec JAMES LORIMER / Publisher .I CEDRIC LOWE University of Alberta G. R. LOWTHER York University 1 GEORGE LUCKYJ University of Toronto 0. R. LUNDELLYork Univ,ersity MANOLY LUPUL ’ University of Alberta PEYTON V. LYON Carleton University WILLIAM MacKENZIE McMaster University L. MARASINGHE University of Windsor J. 0. MARKOS Universite de Que&c RICHARD H. MARSHALL Jr. University of Toronto PETER G. MARTIN Pub1 isher HERBERT MARX_ Universite de Montieal JACK MCCLELLAND Publisher W. B. MCCONNELL University of Saskatchewan JOHN McGt?EGOR University of Alberta JOHN P. S. McLAREN University of Windsor J. T. McLEOD University of Toronto ‘KENNETH McNAUGHT University of Toronto \ JOE MEDJUK University of Tordirto EDWARD J. MONAHAN Laurentian University ANDRE MORIEL llniversite de Montreal

Embass+ of the USSR Charlotte St., Ottawa, Ont.





CONCERNING VALENTYN M~R~z CONTACT us: k Hunger Strikers Committee for the Defense of Vdentyn : Camp& Centre - PD. BOX 73, Statidn P, * university bf Waterh. . . .or Tom&0 I Ont 8 + / M5S 2S6 FOR










Morgz /

. j



20, 1974

the chevron


the Bush is plainly inferior. Written in 1852, Roughing it recounts the tribulations of the Moodie family in their attempt to become successful pioneer farmers in. Upper Canada (Ontario). Although, the book has its engaging moments, these are few and far between. Even if the reader finds Mrs. Moodie’s remembrances of Tom Wilson very entertaining they will, no doubt, take offense at the authoress’s ‘artifical air of superiority. and at her tone of condescension which defeats all her attempts at intimacy. So, unless ryou’re planning to specialize in Canadian literature, avoid this book and go back to watching Kojack or Harry-O. James de ’ Mille’s A Strange

\ Queen city ;\

While the students of the University of Waterloo were being thrilled or ‘disappointed by the cracked voice, convulsions and careless ,musicianship of Joe Cocker, 1200 jazz fans were - assembled in Minkler Auditorium of Seneca College-in Toronto to witness a much different event. Chick Corea and Return to Forever had returned to Toronto for the second concert this year; an event well-heralded by jazz enthusiasts of the Queen City. As soon as the group stode on stage just after eight o’clock an instant and very relaxed rapport developed between the group and tripping around in the cosmos the.audience. When the group .was before writing the suite. The group met with an onslaught of applause finished off their first set with a from the crowd they seemed longer suite entitled Broken wholly surprised and almost written by Stanley Shadow, embarassed by the welcome. Clarke. Finally-after five minutes of coyly When the group returned to the shying away from the applause - Chick Corea stepped forward to stage’ after a short break they furnished the audience with introduce the group-Stanley ’ Clarke, lean and tall \ with a another long suite, this one written by all the members of the group. Raggety-Ann Afro and a CheshireThe suite was titled In the Land of -> cat smile, on bass; Lenny White III the Pharaoh. In the beginning of on drums ; Al Demiola, a recent the suite the music was slow and edition to the, group, on electric guitar; and Corea himself on rhapsodic, painting pictures in the . Fender Rhodes electric piano, listener’s mind of trade ships winding their way down the organ, Arp Odyssey synthesizer mighty Nile. However, after this and a Steinway and Sons grand melodic entrance the music soon piano. - The group started their first set wound up into a very precise and very decadent rock sound, almost with two compositions from their _ new album ‘Have I Known You like something you’d expect to j Before’ to be released this week on hear in an episode of Shaft. After this phase the suite turned to a Polydor Records. The first Stanley Clarke bass solo much like number; Beyond the Seventh Galaxy, was, like its predecessor a slave’s dirge, slow and agonizing “Hymn of the Seventh Galaxy”, a as the expression on Clarke’s face extolled. Finally, however, the short hard-driving dynamo, the perfect vehicle for putting the decadent tones win out and drown audience out on the high tension away Clarke, still writhing in pain. This was music with a very evident wire of their particular sound, only social conscience surfacing within to let the crowd float back down ‘during their second composition, it, and a fine tribute tothis group unlike most j modern The Shadow of 10, named for one of who, the moons of the planet Saturn. musicians (whether the genre be rock or jazz>, have the rare ability With its soft tones and ‘tranquil to create distinct themes within harmonies the song easily their music and sustain them transcended the conflicts and through the duration. Indeed, this angular landscapes of our civilization to place the listener in writer wouldn’t be surprised if the \ ‘Land of the Pharaoh’ turned out to a state of euphoric bliss that could be the western world in_the only be encountered outside the confines of this world. One could Seventies. ’ The suite was followed by a almost imagine the group had been i,-+a%*>*‘f*.t++-_” r.3 .. ~ . * ’ ^‘*.i-t‘-,1’ t.,‘:‘, I r’i’.i L , . . . P . _ “-. ” ‘c.*?,.-c .,.‘S..>” *“ ‘I:.P ‘,.‘~,;“. L- , j A:


Manuscript Found in a Copper Cylinder is, I would venture to say,

series of individual solos by the group’s member on acoustic instruments leading into another -long piece, New Spain, composed by Corea. This composition, a variation on an earlier number entitled simply ‘Spain’ which appears on Corea’s album ‘Light as a Feather’, with its lifting, ’ quixotic bossa nova style finished the second set, minus the flute work of -Joe Farrell who plays on the earlier piece. For their encore the group invited members of the audience to come up and dance to the hot jazz-rock . synthesis of ‘Space Circus’ from “Hymn of the Seventh Galaxy”. I didn’t see one member of the audience leaving the auditorium that night without a wide grin’ plastered -on his or her visage. Once again-Return to Forever had come and conquered, and I hope it won’t be the last time for a long while. Each of the members of the group are virtuoso performers in their own right. All have a wide range of experience in the jazz world. Corea and White both played with Miles Davis for a number of years during the late Sixties, and Clarke is easily the best bassist I have ever seen. Demiola is the only member of the group who can still >improve his style, but it should be remembered that he is new to the group and has still to reach his full potential as a jazz guitarist. Along with Weather Report, Return to Forever is by far the best (no care taken with superlatives in this case> exponent of the new jazz to evolve in the . I . .’

seventies, and its only now that Corea, Clarke, and White are getting the personal recognition for their musicianship, a recognition they had been deprived of through earlier years. -&. bain

Early --Cqtiada If John Richardson’s Wacousta were filmed, the result would probably be a pitiable B-movie, much like those innumerable Errol Flynn swashbucklers of the 50’s. In print, however, Richardson’s tale of early Canada fares remarkably well. Written in 1832, Wacousta is a historical novel about the Canadian frontier of the 1760’s Treachery, romance, and adventure are intricately mingled as the author weaves his story of staunch British resistance to the ingenious attacks of the Ottawa Indians and their esteemed chief, Pontiac. Of course, Wacousta suffers slightly from the novelistic conventions of the early nineteenth century, and Richardson himself has a tendency to become overly melodramatic. Nonetheless, on an entertainment level, the novel is far superior to any of the horde of crim*e-detective programs which now infest our TV networks. In comparison to Wacousta, Susanna Moodie’s Roughing it in r


the best Canadian novel 1of the nineteenth century. Thoroughly entertaining on its every page, this tale is a classic among utopian literature. It is a better book than either Gulliver’s Travels or Brave New World for de ‘Mille is neither as bitterly indignant as Swift nor as cold as Huxley. Indeed, de Mille magically combines satire, romance, travel, adventure, and fantasy ~ into an exciting, fastpaced narrative. Written in 1880 the book tells the tale of the fortunate? unfortunate? Adam More, a sailor who becomes separated from his ship while hunting for food on the Antarctic continent. What befalls More is, of course, the -fantastic storyline of the novel, yet de Mille skillfully counterpoints More’s adventures with ironic authorial comment and by the use of a framework which establishes the ultimate import of the novel. For those of you who would like to read something modern, something with which you can laugh, smile, and chuckle, Tempest-To& is the book for you. Written in 1951 by a forty-year old author-Robertson Davies by name- the novel abounds in witty repartee, . satiric’ portrayals, uncommonly funny comic situations, and cumulative ironies. The story itself is set in Kingston, Ontario (Davies calls it Salterton) and is centrally concerned (on a superficial level) with the Little Theatre’s annual production. However, the flounderings of the theatre group only provide the base from which Davies launches his novel. The book is really about people : lovable people, detestable people ; generous people, greedy people ; friendly people, snobbish people; above all, it is about people of Canada. And being about the people of Canada, the novel presents situations, problems, and anatural humour-all of which are uniquely Canadian. -KC.



Llit: Lllt:ViUII



20, 1974



I Can Stand a Little Rain 4E29 $5.05


Rory Gallagher Irish Tour w-$

Polvdar --. --2662016


mfy Gritty Dirt Band Stars & Stripes Forever &l-L98 $ 8.27

. . . . . . . _x-

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Tangerine Phaedra skec-

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. . Why spend $5.00 on a record only to ha&it ruined by inferior paper liners or no paper liners. It is a proven fact that more records are scratched and smudged by sliding them into their jackets than any other way. . . Protect your albums with ANGEL Inner Sleeves. 12 for $I.46





Capitol-ST-6407 Time of Man w-$





Steppenwolf Slow Flux N-


John Denver ’ _ Back Home Again $+9%$ 5.51

.” RCA-CPLI-0548


The Flying Burrito Bros. Close Up The Honky Tonks &L29-$ 5.05





Columbia P2-33093 $


Loggins & Messina On Stage ~$ 6.87







20, 1974



Arts Library desk. lo:30

Library desk. lo:30

tours meet at reference am.

Car Bike Rally and Columbia Field. For enquire at Optometry

Federation Pub with Paul Languille. 7 pm. CC. 50 cents.

Federation pub with Paul Languille. 12 noon to 1 am. 50,cents after 7 pm.

Federation Flicks: Jesus Superstar in AL116. 8 pm.

Engineering-Math-Science Library tours meet at reference desk. 2:30 pm,.

Environmental Studies Pub with “Rushwood”. 8:30 pm. South Campus Hall. . .-... -

Federation Flicks: Jesus Superstar in AL116. 8 pm.


Math Pub with- “All in One Breath” 8:30 pm South Campus Hall The Master Builder bv Henrik Ibsen presented by the Everyman Theatre of i Waterloo. 8 pm Theatre of the Arts. A Norwegian classic about youth and dreams. Admission $1.50; students $1. Central box office ext. 2126. _ Auditions for ‘The Beggars Opera’. 5:30-7:30 om. HUM Theatre. Ooen to everyone interested. This is an 18th century musical comedy being done in modern cartoon fashion. Sponsored by Drama Department.


Optometry Barbecue. information Society.

SATURDAY The Master Builder by Henrik Ibsen presented by the Everyman Theatre of Waterloo. ,8 pm Theatre of the Arts..A Norwegian classic about youth and , dreams. Admission $1.50; students $1. - Central box office ext. 2126.


PERSONAL Would you like to, read for a blind student? If so please contact Steve Brooks 884-5457. Village I, South 1, room 114. If not at home, please leave ..* 1note. Readers needed for blind student in Recreation. Willing to pay.- Call ‘Lorne Daley at 745-4022. Pregnant and Distressed? Birth Control Centre 885-1211, ext. 3446. Doctor referrals,unplanned and unwanted pregnancy counselling and follow-up birth control information. Complete confidence. .





Chapel Service with speaker John Rempel. Topic “The Holy Spirit and the Church” Also folk music group. lo:30 am Conrad Grebel College. Students’ International Meditation Society advanced lecture and group meditation for members. 8 pm E3I


AA”*’ Federation Flicks: Jesus Superstar. AL116 8 pm.


MONDAY Waterloo Jewish Students Organization-Hillel opening meeting. Everyone urged to attend. 8 pm CC135. Refreshments. For more information call Lorne Kay 884-2906. Dance Auditions 7pm Dance Studio PAC. Format: ballet class, modern class, jazz class and an individually prepared work not longer than one minute.

Classified ads are accepted between 9 and 4 each day in the Chevron office. Ask for Charlotte. The ad . deadline is Tuesday afternoon by12 pm. All classified adsmust

Charm ’ brace, white gold, lost at federation pub at South Campus hall, Sept. 6. Reward. 884-3979.

Jazz and Blues Club, Kitchener Public _ Library. A preview of new acquisitions to the Library’s collection of jazz records. 8 pm Story Room. -see page 5. UW Sailing Club hosts a dry-land instruction seminar. Two excellent films. All are welcome. 7:30 pm MC1052. TUESDAY Auditions for Drama Department noon-hour productions: Christy in Love and Statues. 5:30-7:30 Theatre of the Arts. If you are unable to attend these auditions call ext 3720 and leave your name and phone number. Chess Club meeting. 7: 30 pm CC135.


FOR SALE Must sell immediately, 1965 Ford custom, radio, automatic, excellent running condition. $200 or best offer.


1971 Toyota Corolla, 51,000 miles, good car for less money. Big Daddy Motors, 382 -King Street North, Waterloo. 884-2400. One- Lloyds stereo includes turntable BSR record changer, 8-track recorderplayback, 2-24” x 12” speakers, microphones and headphones. All in beautiful cabinet. 742-7862.


Art Gallery U of W will sponsor an exhibit- and sale. of approx. 1000 original prints from the’ Ferdinand Roten Galleries collection. 10 am - 5 pm. Art Room ML building. Kitchener-Waterloo Red Cross blood donor clinic. 2 - 4:‘30 and 6 - 8:30 pm. First United Church, King & Williams, Waterloo. Waterloo Christian Fellowship supper meeting. 5 : 30 - 7 :30 pm Free meal and Christian fellowship. Ray McCall “Approaches to B.S. Methods”. -All welcome.


Wish to meet one or two women, with children l-3 years old, interested in part-time co-op babysitting. University area. 884-1687. -






Engineering-Math-Sciencetours meet at reference am.

the chevron


1968 Cortina, 48,000.miles. 744-0134


$400 as is.

6 pm.

1967 Firebird, nice orange paint, clean body, featuring 326 engine, mag wheels. Best offer as is. Big Daddy Motors 382 King Street North, Waterloo. Two navy like new. unlettered.

leather university One Engineering Phone 576-7556.

jackets other

WANTED Waitresses /waiters wanted for cocktail lounge, part-time. Phone after 12 noon 744-6367. TYPING Former secretary will do typing at home, French and English, fully experienced in thesis, essay-etc., (elite and gothic), fast and accurate work. Please call Violet 579-8098.

Pregnant and Distressed? Birthright 579-3390. Pregnancy tests, -medical and iegal aid, housing, clothing, complete confidence.

1968 Mustang 2 door hardtop, power steering and brakes, vinyl roof and rear defroster. Come and check the price, you won’t believe it. Big Daddy Motors, 382 King Street North, Waterloo.


Couples needed. Part-time and fulltime openings, very /rewarding. Must have car and be bondable. Call __-_ 884-

Skiers! 1 pair K2-3 skis 190 cm Chix 190 bindin,gs; 1,pair Lange pro boots size 10. Selling at half price. 742-7862.

IBM Selectric 40 cents per page. Located in Lakeshore Village. Call 884? 6913 anytime.


1967 Volvo excellent condition. 5 extra

I would like to correspond with a sincere and considerate female.-Race, religion and age are unimportant. I am 5’8”, weight 140 Ibs., black hair, brown eyes. Ralph Blevins, Box . P.M.B.30157, Atlanta, Georgia 3031-5. .

tires, ivory: Best offer. Call Tim 5761103.

Thesis, essays, arts, subjects only. Westmount area. 2 or 3 days notice. Phone 743-3342.

Speaker box $45; Traynor guitar mate reverb amplifier $135; electric guitar and case $65; computer terminal case and keyboard $75. 742-7862.

Editing and typing of thesis, papers etc.



Double room for rent, excellent kitchen and laundry -facilities, close to university, male only. Call 884-1381.

Address all letters to Chevron, Campus Centre. on a 32 or a 64 character spaced. A pseudonym may -are provided with the real writer.

the Editor, Please type line, doublebe run if we name of the

expression of individuals. This, to the philosopher, is the sole force of progress. Ironically, Moroz points out that it was the so-call@ “decadent” West that pro.vided the theory of relativity. ’ For Moroz, creative ability is the only force behind history. He contrasts this to the reality within the-soviet Union where people are molded into, as Moroz calls them, “cogs”. The cog is the person lack-ing in individuality, only a part of an ever present machine. The philosopher-historian labels these people parasites. The dissident views Soviet rule as being despotic. Under this type of rule, Moroz claims,. people no longer regard coercion aimed at them asevil, but begin to think of it as the normal way of things. Moroz b condemns the enactors 1 of coercion, the KGB. In Moroz’ eyes this” secret police force “is- a lunatic asylum in which the line between doctor and ’ patient vanished long ago.” Moroz believes the - KGB have overstepped themselves. He claims that for the KGB, even today, order is defined to Stalin’s period. The Soviet Ukrainian dissenter claims culture and revolution are incompatible and opposing concepts. For Moroz, culture signifies a maturing process, a process that can not be accelerated. Moroz claims that the level of society is determined by the degree of-- the government’s for its citizens. About - Valentyn Moroz was born in 1936 concern Soviet rule, Valentyn Moroz in western Soviet Ukraine. He was writes , “instead of the paradise arrested in 1965, being charged promised by Utopians, we have with “anti-Soviet ’ agitation and received deculturalization, propaganda”. Moroz’ actual crime alienation, dehumanization and was reading foreign publications. the loss of our roots.” Released in 1969, this dissenter People may argue with Moroz’ was re-arrested and tried in closed philosophical outlooks, but in no court in 1970. Closed trials are way can this be a reason for a illegal under the Soviet Constitution. His incarceration in person’s loss of freedom. ‘Moroz’ essays provide a unique look in the Vladimir prison proved awesome. Soviet system, by a person, who at ‘, He, was imprisoned with common one time was an ardent member of criminals. At this prison, the Komsomol (Communist Youth political dissenter was attacked on the Organiza tion) . four separate occasions. He Moroz-is a martyr. In fact, his received serious stab wounds in his martyrdom is self-imposed, abdomen. becoming a symbol for others. In Valehtyn Moroz may be Moroz’ case, he stands for all the considered a historian and peoples of the Soviet Union. The philosopher. It was his Soviet authorities would have liked humanitarian viewpoints, which .Moroz to recant. However, the led to his imprisonment. In the dissident chose years of harassing book Report From The Beria imprisonment. His cause is a Reserve, (edited by John Kolasky. humanitarian one and accordingly Peter Martin Associates Ltd. 35 should be supported by all of us. Britain St. Toronto,. Canada>, Moroz stresses the concept of the Moroz’- philosophical viewpoints ‘individual rather than that of the are revealed. Due to the essays masses. This is his socalled published in this book, Moroz criminal act. People concerned for received his second prison term. the welfare of this individual The span of his sentence is 9 years should demonstrate against the imprisonment and 5 years exile. Soviet legal system. We, the people Valentyn -Moroz defines a of the West should demand the mature nation as a society in immediate release of Valentyn which there is social stability, but Mo’roz. at the same time allowing for Borys Holowacz maximum scope for the creative -- Arts2 As in any totalitarian society, criticism eventually comes from its , own people. However, this criticism is restrained by the ‘regime. In the Soviet Union, Ukraine dissidents arise from various stratas of society. One of these groups of dissidents may be termed the intelligensia. The intelligensia; of which Valentyn Moroz is an example, emerged anew in the 1960s. It is this intelligensia which has been able to think for itself. To the Soviet ,regime, this group of people is the most troublesome to their controlled society. In the 196Os, after Khruschev’s -‘Cultural Thaw”, the intellectual movement got underway in the Soviet . Ukraine. Among its members are. Vyacheslav Chornovil, Ivan Dzyuba and Valentyn Moroz. The latest suppression of this movement began in 1972, a time when detente was underway between East and West. As a matter - of fact, these dissidents closely followed the laws of the Soviet Constitution. However,- Soviet authorities have been able to stop the individuals under a broadly interpreted constitution. Article 62 has been used without restraint. It states that it is a criminal offence ‘to do anything which may be considered anti-Soviet agitation or propaganda ; i.e. anything that can undermine or seemingly undermine Soviet Rule.


the chevron




20, 1974












GEORGESEW~ElUOllWin”~~~ ,* wittenbymPliwpLsH*RodreedtlymRTAl~andJosEPHwALsH

. iiecteij byROBERT hLTWUi PAI’WlSIoN”e l






2 SHOWS NlGhiLY i &g MAT. SAT. & SUN. 2 PM’

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2 SHOWS NIGHTLY 7:00.&9:201PM



8 Plbl



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’ MATINEES Sat. & Sun. At ZOO


’ Attention --



St. N. At Weber. 744-2259


all Students!

EVENINGS At 7:00‘& 9:oo


W-ouldn’ti,t be nice if our university had a good band to play at athletic events? I If interested in helping’ either musically or . otherwise, pleasesendpertinent information to the ’ Creative Arts Board, Modern LanguagesBuilding.



NIGHTLY 7 & g pi SAT. &‘SUN. 2 PM





20, 1974

the chevron



* I


An open letter

i ’

T he


ht for.freedom

The following is an Open Letter from the Ojibway Warrior Society and the Cache Creek warriors addressed to the other Anishinabe nations and people and to the progressive and ‘democratic organisations of the entire Canadian working \ class ‘and people. 208 Water Street, Kenora, Ontario. / Friday, September 6, 1974 Dear Friend: I The Ojibway Warrior Society of Anishinabe Park (Kenora, Ontario) and the warriors of Cache Creek (British Columbia) urge you to support our struggles. Over the last month we have been carrying out armed defense of our basic rights against the aggressive policies of the governments, the police and courts in Kenora and in Cache Creek. These two struggles are part of the struggle of the entire Anishinabe a People (Native Indians) to regain all of our rights which have been taken away from us by force of arms by the English aggressors several hundred years ago, and by their followers since. Our cause is a just cause and for this reason we are seeking the support of other oppressed people in Canada. This letter is being sent ’ to Anishanabe groups and organisations, and .-progressive to democratic organisations and individuals across Canada, to trade unions and trade union militants, to student groups and associations, etc. We call upon you to give concrete support to our struggles. Since 1942, we, the Anishinabe People, have been in constant struggle against the aggressive system of foreign powers. Not only did we face ’ the foreign system of exploitation, but also the machinery which has been used to the advantage of the aggressors of this land. Our whole families and lands have been transformed into battle-fields of both sorrow and great victories. We have met soldiers and their guns representing those who have sought to control other nations in this world. To this day we face the same enemy. We have faced the great ships, the great trains that affect all of us in this land. We have faced the churches and religions. We have faced the Government Department of Indian Affairs and their anti-Indian policies. And today, amongst the ruins of this long undeclared war, we come forward to embrace the- oppressed people of this land. We have arrived at a new day and a new meeting; the new day when the old rulers and the old dreamers must awaken to. the most powerful force in this land-THE UNITY OF ALL PEOPLE! We can move trains and we can move mountains. We can totally isolate those who try to oppose tfie rising of this new day. We have new friends, and armed with knowledge and tools, we can revenge the many lives we have already .grieved. In 1974, we can only go onward to victory that belongs to us and to all oppressed people. There has been prolonged oppression against our people that has t’ degenerated critically throughout the centuries into an inhuman policy of bureaucratic and legal war that slowly but definitely is ending th-e lives of - many Anishinabe People. The housing conditions are in a state of constant threat of fire. The shacks have to hold large’families with no water or sewage and no electricity. And the twisted wicks are what lights the experience of the-young people at home. Out of the 85 people that yearly die , violently in the Kenora area, approximately 15 percent die as ‘a result of fire. 95 % of Anishinabe

People are imprisoned suicide rate out rate is high school. ‘people.

-, .. .

unemployed. 4,000 are each year in Kenora. The is critical. The school drop75% o? the enrollment in This is the condition of our

Our leaders have been humbled and somehave strayed to the side of the oppressors. Our courageous leaders, have continued to make demands for our people, but they have met with no response. The Anishinabe People rose up and took the gun in active resistance to the policy that has proven to our people that it must be shot down. This is thereason for the armed liberation of Anishinabe Park in Kenora and of the. highways in Cache Creek, B.C. \ Anishinabe Park was taken from the Anishinabe People by the Departmentof Indian Affaris and sold illegally to the City of ‘Kenora in 1959. The Ojibway Warrior Society liberated the land which rightfully belongs to the Anishinabe People. . In the area of Cache Creek, B.C., the, highways run through the land that belongs to the Anishinabe People. The warriors of Cache Creek set up armed barricades to regain control of the land that belongs to the AnishinabejPeople. Our cause is part of the cause of the people in Canada who suffer under violent oppression and exploitation by the handful of the wealthy which controls this country. The Canadian working class wages struggles for its basic rights. The Quebec Nation fights for National Liberation. We feel that thesestruggles and our struggle are the sam,e struggle against the same enemy. We can, the Canadian working class can win, the Quebec people can win, only if we all support each other concretely. Our common enemy would like nothing better than to separate and , divide us. There are several practical ways to support us: 1. A caravan is starting from Vancouver on Saturday, September 14, and is heading toward Ottawa to reach there by Monday, September 30, 1974. This day ‘is the opening of Parliament and we are protesting against the Federal Government’s policy of violent repressipn against the Anishinabe People. We urge you to demonstrate with us against the Federal Government. 2. The Chairman of the Ojibway Warrior Society, Louis Cameron, and a representative of the Cache Creek warriors will visit 16 cities across Canada. You can support our struggle by organising public meetings where we can present our cause to as many people as possible. On page 4 of this letter we are printing our schedule. If you can organise a meeting please send us the information to our address of page 1 of this letter. In each city we can also keep people posted on the advance of the caravan so that people can join it along the route toward Ottawa and the demonstration. 3. In order to carry on our struggles, and in order to carry out this campaign to win support from all sections of the Canadian people, we are also requesting financial aid. Money orders can be sent to our address and made out to the Ojibway Warrior Society. The Ojibway Warrior Society and the Cache Creek warriors call on all p,rog ress ive and democratic organisations and individuals, ‘trade unions and trade union militants, student / organisations and associations, to concretely support the struggle of our people to regain our land and our rights.

a statement...


The following is a statement of the Oj ibway Warrior Society giving-a brief outline of the hi!$Ory, nature and role of the Warrior Society, ‘as well as an outline of the present struggle of the’ Ojibway Warrior Society in . Kenora, , Ontario.

6. The Warrior Society learns from the Theory and Lessons of the Land and from the Great Law that everyone must be free and follow the revolutionary principles of the people. 7. The Warrior Society is part of the movement in the U.S.A. and in Canada to combat the policy that dictates and OJIBWAY WARRIOR SOCIETY tries to destroy our government by the people and for the people. We seek the our 1. Since the -origin of return of the right to govern ourselves. coinmunities, all nations have had a ’ We seek the return of our land. We Warrior Society. combat the wretched living conditions 2. The Warrior Society arises to of our people. These wretched living protect and serve our communities in conditions are the instruments of the times of- war and oppression. The oppres.sor to attempt to break the Warriors come from amongst the Sacred Circle which is the life of human ” 1 hunters, trappers, workers, women and being . The Warrior Society seeks . men, young and old. justice and the-return of the rights of The Warriors fought the invaders, the our people. British troops and the French troops The Ojibway Warrior Society is active and the Spanish troops throughout in the Lake of the Woods Tribe of the North America. The Warriors have also Oj ibway People. There has been fought the American and Canadian prolonged oppression against our armies. The Warriors have fought people that has degenerated critically against all attempts by foreign powers throughout the centuries into an to destroy our communities and way of inhuman policy of bureaucratic and governing ourselves. The Warriors have legal war that slowly but definitely ,is also fought in the Second World War in ending the lives of many Anishinabe the Canadian Army against the Nazis in People. The housing condjtions are in a Europe. The Warriors have fought ‘in state of constant threat of fire. The Wounded Knee (1973)‘and in Kenora shacks have to hold large families with and Cache Creek (1974): The Warrior no water or sewage and no electri,city. ,Societies of all tribes and Nations have And the twisted wicks are what light the fought on all fronts for the liberation of experience of the young people at mankind and-foj the basic right of every home. human being and every family and every Out of the 85 people that yearly die nation against aggression and violently< in the Kenora area, exploitation. approximately 15% die‘ as a result of 3. The Warrior Societies of all Nations fire. 95% of. Anishirrabe People are and all Tribes honour our Governing unemployed. 4,000 are imprisoned each bodies and Councils as well as the, year in Kenora. The suicide rate is, / policies of the people. critical. The school drop-out rate is -4. If there is no war, our communities 75% of the enrollment in-high school. respond to the specific conditions and This is the condition of our people. to the needs of, the people. The Warrior .Anishinabe Park was taken from the society participates in building the new Anishinabe People by the Department society and works hard to build our of Indian Affairs and sold illegally to the Nations and our communities. City of Kenora in 1959. The Ojibway ’ . 5. The Warrior Society is a tradition of Warrior Society liberated the land which all Nations, .like that of the Medicine rightfully belongs to the ,Ariishinabe Society. * : People.

There will, be an organisational meeting for people who want \to help put together a forum on this issue \

’ on Friday September 20th in room 135 of the campus centre \

at 1:00 p.m,

Everyone is welcome



the chevron

--RHOtiESlAN, ‘. , GUE-RF&LAS i

RISKAttention Are you interested “Risk” with new Chess. A minimum For further

all !‘Risk”


in forming a club to regularly dynamic rules. More exciting of 6 people are needed.





play than

a; the Grand





upations is the psyche of woman n of Anna). Here, in an- early film ed humor, three of a group of four ages and affairs as they await their s. Consisting of three long flashbacks, the. style builds from orward realism to a colourful dreamlike expressionism and




The Picture Show SRecia’6 Princess St.W. W’loo tel : c743-79 11

of Women

centemher 31) 1974 . .-.- , , --#.--...--. --, ./, ,









2 members of the Zimbabwe African struggle in Zimbabwe ( Rhodesia). Sponsored by the Board of Education, Support Movement.

Cocoanuts, the Marx Brothers’ first film, contains intact some of their best stage routines, including Groucho’s land auction and the ,







-will speak

of Students,

on the freedom

and African -.


, I

(Robert Florey) and the other (Joseph Santley) didn’t understand I Marpo, and Groucho was neder more direct than in this film in hisi insulting romancing of Margaret Dumont. 1929. Black andwhite.





SEPT. 30

The Royal Shakespeare -Company presents -

1:30 p.m. Matinee THE HOLLOW CROWN John Barton’s entertainment by and about Kings and Queens of England 8:00 p.m. Evening PiEASURE AND REPENTANCE A light-hearted look at love ~ Humanities Admission Central

COMING Directiy

Theatre $4.00,

\ students

Box Office

‘\ \


ext. 2126

SOON from



Polish NationhI Radio 1 Sym-phony ,Orchestra (The Warsaw an ensemble PROGRAMME:

National Orchestra) of 106 musicians STRAUSS--“Don


\ Juan” ’ in B minor in B minor (Polonia)


DVORAK-Concerto WMWVSKI-Symphony WED. OCT. 16-8 Physical Activities ADMISSION-FLOOR Central

p.m. Building, U. of W. $5, BLEACHERS-Lower STUDENTS HALF PRICE Box Office ext. 2126

The Dybbuk by S. Ansky directed by John


The Manitoba Theatre moving drama. OCT. 22 & 23 Humanities Theatre


$4, Upper



\ ’ ‘production

8 p.m. Admission $5.00, students $2.50 Central Box Office ext. 2126 HYH

of this


i \


At the Commerce, we offer a completerange of student services, to help you with your banking needs, Services that you’ll need now, and after graduation. Like savings accounts, to help your money. grow. A variety of loan programs, including Bankplan and student loans. Chargex, and more.

Get to know the people at the Commerce on or near your campus. Drop. in and ask about opening a savings account with us. We think you’ll find our people are tops, too. <II)












,, ,



the chevron



building, with nurses and nurse’s aids Supervision of Mentally Ret&de@ all in clean white uniforms. Thus the Persons inA Ontario”. The principal public was ‘happy, cqnvinced that the suggestion of the Williston Report was 1’ home was providirig a decent life for, the that the use of I$ge institutions for the mentally retarded children there. mentally retarded be phased down, but But what the public and the staff and not disbanded entirely‘. Following are apparently the administrator, Mr. Vos, some reasbns for seeking alternatives didn’t know was the poteniial that some to- institutionalisation: of those’ children had’. l Wards are severely overcrowded, ant It wasn’t until a physiotherapist, many are locked unnecessarily. hired not by Mr. Vos but .by the K-W l Person of different ages, degrees of Rotary Centre, and placed _ ip s th‘e retardation, and varied handicaps are Sunbeam Home, that the real situation placed together. at the Sunbeam Home started ‘to,cdme l Thefe is a lack of privacy. to the public’s Attention. The l AdmQion usually means that physiotherapist, Peggy Land, had custodial ‘care is emphasized rather previously worked ‘at the K-W than training or rehabilitation. Developmental Centre, and had seen l There is a lack of contqct between the what could be’ accomplished with retarded person and his/her family that there are n6 white unifoims, or any children similar,to--those at the Sun: since residents tire drawn from a large uniforms at all,+, at the Developmental beam Home. However, upon e’ntering geographical area. . During the summer a conflict of Centre. If it weren’t for the sign one the Sunbeam Home it became apparent l Institutions are isolated from the rest apI interest developed between thi staff could easily mistake the outward that no work in the developmental field of the ‘community. pearance as that of a normal day care and manag’ement at the Sunbeam was being attempted at all. l There is ihsufficient staff. centre. But this is not the major difhome-for the Retarded in Kitchener. Land then went ahead and started to l Institutions are not an economicai ference for, unIike2he Sunbeam Home, involve sdine of the children in acway of providing custodial care. The -following article. was written by the Developmental Centre is not staffed tivities that were available through the l Institutions ar’e too remote from Randy Hannigan to help define the with nurses and nursq’s aids. lnktead community. She also approached a universities or> other centres of higher the Centre is staffed by qualified criterion in. this conflict. local OFY group whrch was working Ibarning.‘, \ counsellors for the mentally retarded, with the children at the Developmental l Institutions force rgtarded persons to although there is a nurse on staff. Centre, and asked if they would help function far below their development j ifhe Sunbeam Home, ‘on the other her set up some programming for the potential, and they inhibit rehabilit-titior; The current -conflict between ‘staff hand, is totally lacking in this aspectsof children at Sunbeam. But it soon by failing to provide social contacts. and management at the Sunbeam Home professional counsellors, and this is became clear that little could he ac-The report goes on to state that “It is for retarded children is not just another where part of the\probIem arise& complished without the full support of more economical and humanitarian to labour dispute. T-he dispute is not over Despite the fact that seven of the Mr. Vos and he wasn’t prepared to, offer give the retarded person, the total care what thp staff wants for itself, but children at Sunbeam are attending any, support. In fact just recently Mr. that he needs in his own community rather what the. staff would like to see schools for the retarded such as the Vos cancelled most of the programs rather than providing for it in an indone with the children that they care New Dawn School, they must return t.0 3 that Land had initiated, resul$ng in the stitution. for. the home, where they are fed and put to physiothbrapist taking an indefinite The cost’ df providing The underlying question is what bed in cribs or hospital beds with the inleave %f absence from the home. stitutionalised care for the mentally obligation does the Sunbeam Home, sides up. The only hope for change now lies retarded is revealed in a report including staff, board of directors and The Developmental Centre has done with the government which has inpublished in March of 1973 titled the administrator, Mr. Vos,’ have much in the way of programming that dicated that \hey would investigate the Community Living for the Mentally towards the welfare of the mentally could be applied to\ the children at the, si-tuation. Perhaps an indication of the Retarded in Ontario: A New Policy retard?d children that are placed there. Sunbeam Home. For instance, at the of the government can be Focus. Currently, the home its involved in Centre the children are grouped ac- , direction I taken from the recent change in ‘A residence at Picton which housed custoditil care only, that is the v.ital cording to their level .of functioning, ministries responsible. for the home. 243 persons has a per capita operating functions of day to day*.living are looked -hat is, the higher functioning children Less than a year ago the Sunbeam expense of over 11,000 dollars, that j is, such .‘as feeding, giving are placed together as are the lowerafter, Home, which classified as a Schedule it costs over 11,000 dollars per retarded medication, bathing, _ etc., but little functioning children. At the Centre, the Two -institution, came under the person per year to run that institution. more is attempted with the children. children are taught t9 feed themselves, auspices of the, Ministry of Commbnity This is the highest per capita operating There is no programmed recreatjon for rather than just being fed, as they are at and Social Services. This clearly incost. The lowest iys listed for an in_ the children, many children never leave the Sunbeam Home. dicates a definite change in emphgsis stitution at Gravenhurst where the per their wards, and there is almost no In the course of a day, the children at from treating mental retardation as a capita operating costs are just over attempt to increase a child’s mental thefliDevelopmental Centre will have had medical problem to treating it as a 6,000 dollars per year. capacity, except for seven children that a chance to develop such things as fine social concern. / Hopefully, given those costs and the go to school outside ofSunbeam. motor Gontrol, gross motor coorIn 1971, the Ontario dinistry of new direction that the government is But even this custodi3l care ha& been dination, anQ eating habits as well as Health, commi,ssioned i Mr. W.B. taking, there is perhaps a chance fdr attacked by F,ome staff as inadequate. other ‘social skills. The Centre also Williston to prepare a report on the those children at the Sunbeam Home to In one instance, it took four da$ after a provides speech therapy and language “Present Arrangements for the Care and develop their potential. nurse’s aid complained that a child was development as well as a music _ sick, for the child to be admitted to progra?. Tie Sunbeam Home, hospital. She was immediately put into however,. provides none of these opan oxygen tent and was diagnosed as portunities to the children there, and as having pneumonia. The staff then a result the children remain at much the cirFulated a petition demanding better s&me level of functioning as, when they medical services, entered the home. but Mr. Vos, apparently py mistake, had the petition While it is true that Some of the ripped up. children at the Sunbeam Home need But despite the question of quality of constant medical care, and would medical services, there is only one benfit little from any developmental service of which the quality cannot be programming, the majority of the children questioned, simp,ly because that there could benefit service is totally non-existent. And this significantly from such a program. is the developmental program, usually One _may wonder why such a situation such as the Sunbeam Home designed to increase a child’s ‘personal was allowed to develop. The answer to habits, “social skills and mental capacity. B’ut some people apparently this is that the situation exists, largely question whether or not children at the through ignorance of those persons Sunbeam Home could benefit from who work there, or who worked there in such a program. For the answei to’this, the past’, since there has been a one hundred and ten percent turnover in one need,o.nly look to another centre in staff last year. this community, and that is the K-W GDevelo$mental Centre for the Mentally The nurses that work ihere know how to treat measles, a fever or a cqld, etc. I ,Retarded. As opposed to being a 24 hour but, are not trained to deal with the custodial institution, the Developmentally retarded as people. The s&me ’ mental Centre is day care centre, and, situation exists for the nurse’s aids. the children live at home. But despite They -are hired wit’h no training in the fact that these children live at mental retardation, but-are hired only to home, it is important-to emphasize that do menial tasks, such as bathing, or the children are just as .severeIy changing diapers. Since this was the retarded as thoseat the Sunbeam only way in whicQ they had seen the Hdme. In,fact, there are children at the mentally retarded d&It with, they ,, Sunbeam Home who are> higherassumed that this must be all that can functioning than the children a-m the be done for them. The community at The K-W Developmental Center was designed so that the environment could be as Developmerital Centre. large wa$ also builty of this ignorance, stimulating as possible for the children that go there. Indoor s& not only _ The first and most obvious difference since, when they toured the home)once a chance for the children to improve their social interaction, but a/so for the children to, one notices between the Sunbeam a year during; the Strawberry social, learn while they play. This situation contrasts’ with institutions, such as the Sunbeam I Home and the Developmental Centre is they were shown a hospital-like, sterile Home, where these facilities are not utilized.

’ ,j?eiarde@ I’ Children rieed the opportunitg to learn


the chevron




-L Dance Auditiohs --FodLof ti; ’ x Repertory 4 < ~ Conqfiany \ - -xi


audition f&mat: ballet class modern class jazz- class individual prepared no longer than one

,p- . male and -female required in every

dancers area.

./ ,

small groups

. Encounter/ Sensitivity; Couples; Self-Consciousness Lowering; Explorations in Human Sexuality; Sensory Awareness; Gestalt; and Community ( Mature persons from outside and inside the4Jniversity). If you are interested in more information, or in joining a group, please contact us. Counselling Services, Student Services Bldg, Ext 2655.

_ small groupsr

Dance Studio Physical Activities Comple’x ;


-. ,


”Monday Skpt, 23 . ’ I - 7:OOpm --

20, 1974




1 work minutx.




not -




Progra-rnrne _ Co-ordinator


_ needed I forthe / Board- of Entertainment 1 Apply to:



Art Ram, Campus Centre Rin 235


?w phone 885-0370 Deadline.=for applicants Sept. 27, 1674 ,



All Musicians \ _. Would& it bexnice if our university. kad . a good band to play at athletic events? Interested peopie are trying desperately to organize such a group but musicians are DESPERATELY required. *This’ job includes free tickets to- all events plus other benefits. If interested, pl’ease contact the Creative Arts Board, ML 254, ext. 3457. , \




U of G Phys. T~,Sept24 _ ‘$5.88

Building 8:OOpm

Tidcets at U of G Box Office


\ --.




the chevron

20, 1974

Portugal: After nearly five centuries of colonial rule, the Portugese government in early 6 September finally realized that it is far more profitable to grant outright independence to Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique than to persist in a losing battle with, both the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) and the Liberation Front of Mozambique (FRELIMO). Portugal’s formal recognition of Guinea-Bissau comes almost one year after the former colony declared its independence on September 24, 1973. Two months later, the United Nations recognized the new nation and at the same time condemned Portugal’s illegal occupation there. Since last September more than 100 countries have formally recognized GuineaBissau’s self declared, independence. Until now Portugal, the United States and Canada were among the few who refused to recognize the young nation. According to the independence the Portuguese arrangement, , government has agreed that the last of its 33,000 soldiers will leave the territory by October 31. An increasingly large number of Portuguese soldiers helped accelerate the process by either refusing to, take up arms ’ deserting, , against PAIGC or with joining with PAIGC’s liberation forces against their homeland. PAIGC was formed in 1956 to press for a lawful, peaceful settlement with Portugal to grant the people of Guinea national independence. However, on August 3, 1959, Portuguese police opened fire on a peaceful group of striking dockworkers in the capital of Bissau, killing fifty and wounding one hundred. This massacre marked the beginning of PAIGC’S armed struggle. In its eleven years of armed struggle, PAIGC managed to liberate most of its territory, even though the Portuguese army had the advantage of a much larger army and was bolstered by South African mercenaries and planes, napalm and other war materials readily I supplied’\by the United States and West Germany via NATO. The Portuguese government dealt a staggering blow to the people of Guinea-Bissau when its’ secret agents assassinated Amilcar Cabral in January, 1973. Cabral was the secretary general of PAIGC, whose strong leadership had earned him the respect of the liberation movements in Africa and their supporters throughoutthe world. However, PAIGC survived this blow to’ continue its struggle for independence. “We,“the fighters for African liberty,” said Cabral, “we who are ready to die and have seen our comrades fall at our sides, have no reascn n~i to be!ieve in Africa’s destiny and in the ability of any African people to free themselves from colonial and racist bondage.” A stumbling block to PAIGC’s negotiations’ with Portugal had been the future of the Cape Verde Islands, a string of small islands 400 miles northwest of Bissau. Portugal refused to consider the islands as a part of - Guinea-Bissau, hoping to keep them for use by NATO forces and South African airlines. But a compromise was reached and Cape Verde islanders will hold a referendum with PAIGC sureto win any -$’ vote held there. Guinea-Bissau is smaller and pporer than both Angola and Mozambique (Portugal’s two other colgnies on the verge of independence). Now finally ‘free from wartime pressures, PAIGC will be able to concentrate on its


out *of Africa

already considerable progress in setting up programmes for education and health care for the people of Guinea-Bissau, and also in setting up a democratic system of local government throughout the country. Meanwhile, in Lourenco Marques, tens of thousands of Africans and several hundred whites demonstrated their support for the Liberation Front of Mozambique (FRELIMO) during two days of negotiations in Lusaka, Zambia which culminated in an accord between FPELIMO and Portugal on September 6. This accord ends FRELlMO’s ten year struggle against Portuguese colonialism. “The Portuguese State and FRELIMO will act jointly to eliminate the vestiges of colonialism and create racial harmony,” the agreement. states. On July25 1975.(the thirteenth anniversary of the founding of FRELIMO) independence will be proclaimed. Until then, a provisional government . will assure Mozambique of a peaceful transition to complete autonomy. According to the agreement, the independent state of Mozambique will exercise complete sovereignty in both internal and external affairs, and will establish political institutions and choose the social system it considers to be in the best interest of the people of Mozambique. The-. provisional government wi II consist of a high commissloner (Victor Crespo) appointed by Portugal, and a prime minister to be chosen by FRELIMO. ,A cabinet will consist of six ministers appointed by FRELIMO and three by the high commissioner, thus leaving the provisional government under FRELI MO’s control. A military commission will be created with an equal number of representatives from the Portuguese armed forces and FRELIMO. Its chief function will be to enforce the ceasefire. Although the accord did not set a schedule for the removal of Portuguese troops from Mozambique, it is likely they will remain in the country to help FRELIMO guard the borders so as to prevent arms and mercenaries from entering the country to further a rebeflion of white minority extremists. The ratio of blacks to whites is forty to one, leaving the European population helpless to carry on an insurrection of their own, as events following the announcement of, the . ceasefire accord \ show. Several hours after the accord was announced, a group of white, rightwing extremists took over the Lourenco Marques radio station and the airport. Calling themselves the “dragons of ,the rebels demanded a death,‘! “revision” of the agreement which would create a provisional government without FRELIMO in control.’ Their leader, Roxo, was chief of the shock troops formed in !971 to combat FRE’LIMO. The rebels released about 200 jailed the former members of PIDE, Portuguese secret police force under the fascist Caetano and Salazar Roxo ‘invited the “old regimes. combatants” to join his rebel forces, claiming they were about 30,800 strong. The “dragons of ‘death” a I SO broadcasted appeals to Rhodesians and South Africans to come to Mozambique and .to bring arms. However, their appeals were in vain and the rebels surrendered late Tuesday morning, September 10, with a final broadcast appeal to the Portuguese armed forces to “keep Mozambique free”. The

broadcast ended with the Portuguese national anthem. During and immedi.ately after the white takeover, roving bands of white armed extremists shot at -blacks. Reports on September 12 stated that 60 people were dead and 427 injured. Less than 12 of those killed were whites. Both the Portuguese government and FRELIMO acted with restraint during the rebellion. The Portuguese radio condemned the “criminal” attitude, of the “reactionary rebels’!, and Samora Machel, President of FRELIMO, asked his followers to avoid unnecessary bloodshed. However, the anger and resentment of the black population erupted during the rebellion. ’ Meanwhile progress toward Angolan independence is lagging behind that of Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau, because Portugal profiting from internal divisions within the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) is dealing with the two smaller and less militant guerilla organizations. “At rican News” . reports that according to BBC reporter David Martin, in Lisbon, Portugal prefers to negotiate with the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and UNITA, which has already arranged a ceasefire separate with Portugal.

tt0y f&w!! HAVE ,


Martin befieves the United States may have been instrumental in arranging talks between Portugal and FNLA, noting a widespread belief in Africa that FLNA leader Roberto Holden has received CIA funds. Africa News also notes that according ‘to a South African newspaper, the Johanesburg Star, ‘ UNITA is the group most favoured by Angola’s white business community. The Star said UNITA president Savimbi is called “the saviour of the white man.” In other developments, Le Monde, a French daily, reported the formation of the Resistance Front, a clandestine organization in Angola led by white colonialists which ‘also profiting from the recent divisions in the MPLA. They threaten direct action, presumably if Portugal reaches an agreement with the MPLA. However, MPLA’s “voice of Angola” radio broadcast recently announced an accord reached between the different factions of MPLA, which will now work out its negotiating position with Portugal. Portugal has announced its plan to grant independence to Angola in about two years. Angola is Portugal’s largest and richest colony in natural resources, a colony Portugal is most reluctant to give up. -LNS





I)HOl’JEAD,C~~~~” \ / *A

.tljc member: Canadian university press (CUP). The chevron is typeset by dumont press graphix and published by the federation of students incorporated, university of Waterloo. Content is the sole responsibility of the chevron editorial staff. Offices are located in the campus centre; (519) 885-1660, or unjversity local 2331 . 7 In the ad announcing the by-elections for the federation of students, a vacant seat in sciece co-op was missed. There is still time for those of you interested to nominate someone from science co-op. It finally appears that tent city will be abandoned, and it looks as if the federation is going to get paid for taking it down. If you are interested in buying one of the tents make sure that you are at tent city at noon today and make sure thatyou have at least thirty or thirty-five dollars cash.


here we are once again to tax your bloodshot eyes, production this week: randy.hannigan, doug ward, felicia klingenberg, david cubberley, ron colpitts, Charlotte buchan, mike gordon, neil dunning, jason, jay roberts, graham anderton, C.C.hainer, sally kemp, peter hopkins, darnel cootes, bob carman, bob gauthier, marilyn, and the dumont ducks end jm.




-. f

‘Ukrainian students pro&t t& imprisonment of  

students pro&amp;t t&amp; imprisonment of author VaI_entyn Moroz by staging an nationalism. The strike has been going on for four and a h,al...

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