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TECHNOLOGY FACILITATOR’S GUIDE Grade 9

A member of the FUTURELEARN group


Technology Facilitator’s guide

1809-E-TEC-FG01

Í2)È-E-TEC-FG01ÂÎ

Grade 9

CAPS aligned

S Jordaan FI le Roux JC le Roux J Lubbinge HA Saaiman JJ Saaiman A Schwartz M Smit


Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

Contents PREFACE............................................................................................................................ 6 TIMETABLE AND TIME MANAGEMENT............................................................................ 6 ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS....................................................................................... 7 STUDY TIPS ...................................................................................................................... 8 SUBJECT CONTENT AND PLANNING.............................................................................. 9 TERM 1: UNIT 1: Design skills........................................................................................ 10 LESSON 1: Drawing standards............................................................................. 12 Activity 1 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 15 LESSON 2: First angle orthographic projection..................................................... 16 Activity 2.1 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 16 Activity 2.2 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 19 LESSON 3: Artistic drawing................................................................................... 25 Activity 3 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 26 LESSON 4: Isometric projection............................................................................ 29 Activity 4.1............................................................................................................. 29 Activity 4.1 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 32 Activity 4.2............................................................................................................. 33 Activity 4.2 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 35 Activity 4.3............................................................................................................. 36 Activity 4.3 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 40 TERM 1: UNIT 2: Structures............................................................................................. 45 LESSON 5: Forces and loads ............................................................................... 46 Activity 5.1 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 46 Activity 5.2 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 48 Activity 5.3 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 50 Activity 5.4 MEMORANDUM.................................................................................. 51 LESSON 6: Properties of materials ..................................................................... 52 Activity 6 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 55 LESSON 7: Costing of products ......................................................................... 56 Activity 7 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 60 TERM 2: UNIT 3: Mechanical systems and control ...................................................... 67 LESSON 8: Pneumatic and hydraulic systems...................................................... 68 Activity 8.1 – 8.3.................................................................................................... 68 Activity 8.4 MEMORANDUM................................................................................. 68 LESSON 9: Hydraulic press and hydraulic jack..................................................... 70 Activity 9 MEMORANDUM..................................................................................... 70 LESSON 10: Pulleys and mechanical control systems ........................................ 72 Activity 10 MEMORANDUM................................................................................... 72 LESSON 11: Gears................................................................................................ 74 Activity 11.1 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 74

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

Activity 11.2 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 76 Activity 11.3 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 79 Activity 11.4 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 79 TERM 3: UNIT 4: Electrical and electronic systems ..................................................... 89 LESSON 12: Symbols for components and circuits.............................................. 92 Activity 12.1 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 92 Activity 12.2 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 93 LESSON 13: Ohm’s law ........................................................................................ 94 Activity 13.1 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 94 Activity 13.2 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 95 LESSON 14: Resistors.......................................................................................... 96 Activity 14.1 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 96 Activity 14.2 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 97 LESSON 15: Electronic systems .......................................................................... 99 Activity 15.1 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 99 Activity 15.2 MEMORANDUM.............................................................................. 100 LESSON 16: Sensors.......................................................................................... 102 Activity 16.1 MEMORANDUM.............................................................................. 102 Activity 16.2 MEMORANDUM.............................................................................. 103 Activity 16.3 MEMORANDUM.............................................................................. 103 Activity 16.4 MEMORANDUM.............................................................................. 104 LESSON 17: Circuit construction techniques...................................................... 105 TERM 4: UNIT 5: Processing ........................................................................................ 109 LESSON 18: Processing of metals...................................................................... 110 Activity 18 MEMORANDUM................................................................................. 110 LESSON 19: Food processing..............................................................................111 Activity 19............................................................................................................ 112 Activity 19 MEMORANDUM................................................................................ 112 LESSON 20: Food preservation.......................................................................... 114 Activity 20.1 ........................................................................................................ 114 Activity 20.1 MEMORANDUM.............................................................................. 114 Activity 20.2 ........................................................................................................ 115 Activity 20.2 MEMORANDUM............................................................................. 115 LESSON 21: Convenience food.......................................................................... 116 Activity 21............................................................................................................ 116 Activity 21 MEMORANDUM................................................................................. 116 LESSON 22: Food packaging.............................................................................. 116 Activity 22............................................................................................................ 116 Activity 22 MEMORANDUM................................................................................. 117 LESSON 23: Processing of plastic...................................................................... 117 Activity 23............................................................................................................ 118 Activity 23 MEMORANDUM................................................................................. 118

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ADDENDUM A: Important terminology......................................................................... 123 ADDENDUM B: Squared paper...................................................................................... 125 ADDENDUM C: Isometric paper.................................................................................... 127 ADDENDUM D: Resistor colour codes......................................................................... 129

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

PREFACE Technology can be defined as the use of knowledge, skills, values and resources to meet people’s needs and wants by developing practical solutions to problems, taking social and environmental factors into consideration.

INTRODUCTION This book has been developed to support the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS). The contents have been organised in topics stipulated by the CAPS. The authors have strived to make this book as comprehensive as possible within the framework of the curriculum. The main aim of this book is to equip facilitators with a sound basic knowledge of various aspects of technology. It will not only assist them to master technology, but also to put theory into practice. We took special care to: • make the contents teacher/tutor friendly • provide answers for activities and exercises • provide assessment rubrics for practical assessment tasks The goal of the Technology Facilitator’s Guide is to support the Technology Study Guide.

TIMETABLE AND TIME MANAGEMENT The teaching time for technology is two hours per week. As this subject involves practical work the facilitator must ensure that sufficient time is allocated for practical sessions to complete the PATs. The different topics and PATs should be discussed and completed as indicated in the assessment programme. It is recommended that the PAT for Term 4 is done during the second or third term before the start of the examinations as Term 4 is very short.

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS TECHNOLOGY GRADE 9 ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME NAME OF LEARNER: YEAR: FORMAL ASSESSMENT TERM 1 Test PAT Total

%

Formal drawings

100

Design process

(30%)

MARK

100

Structures

(70%) 100

70% + 30%

TERM 2 Examination

Design process

100

Processing

(30%)

Structures Mechanics Formal drawings PAT

Mechanical systems control

100 (70%)

Total

100

70% + 30%

TERM 3 Test

Electronics

100

Processing

(30%)

Formal drawings PAT

Electronic systems

100 (70%)

Total

100

70% + 30% TERM 4

PAT

Processing and Health bar + packaging

100 (100%)

Total

100%

100

Examination

All work completed

100 (40%)

Promotion

Term 1 + Term 2 + Term 3 + Term 4

100

10 + 10 + 10 + 10 Combined PAT 5+5+5+5 November Examination 60

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

STUDY TIPS •

• • • •

Learners must complete all the activities. This will help them to focus on the content covered and give an indication about whether or not they understand the work. Make sure learners understand the concepts before starting with new content. Ensure that the correct content is covered per term. Help learners with a timetable to use their time effectively. Help learners to choose a suitable study method that will suit their needs. They can use any study method to master technology, but to achieve good results, the following principles are suggested:

1. Summary 2. Questions

3. Read and learn 4. Recite 5. Check

6. Repeat

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Get an overview of the work to be studied. Read through everything quickly to see what it is about. Prepare questions about the work that you can use to study: Why? How? What? For example: what are drawing standards? How are they used? Read and study these questions very carefully. Say the questions and answers out loud without using your book. If you understand, know and repeat the work, check your answers against the content in the study guide. Keep on studying until you remember everything. Repeat the work every day.

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

SUBJECT CONTENT AND PLANNING UNIT 1

2

3

4

5

LESSON TERM 1 LESSON 1: Drawing standards LESSON 2: First angle orthographic projection LESSON 3: Artistic drawing LESSON 4: Isometric projection LESSON 5: Forces and loads LESSON 6: Properties of materials LESSON 7: Costing of products PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK TERM 2 LESSON 8: Pneumatic and hydraulic systems LESSON 9: Hydraulic press and hydraulic jack LESSON 10: Pulleys and mechanical control systems LESSON 11: Gears PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK TERM 3 LESSON 12: Symbols for components and circuits LESSON 13: Ohm’s law LESSON 14: Resistors LESSON 15: Electronic systems LESSON 16: Sensors LESSON 17: Circuit construction techniques PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK TERM 4 LESSON 18: Processing of metals LESSON 19: Food processing LESSON 20: Food preservation LESSON 21: Convenience food LESSON 22: Food packaging LESSON 23: Processing of plastic PRACTICAL ASSESSMENT TASK

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HOURS 2 2 2 ½ 12 2 2 2 2 7 2 2 4 2 9 2 2 2 2 6

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Unit

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

TERM 1

UNIT 1: Design skills

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After learners have completed this unit, they must be able to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of: Communication ○○ Drawing conventions ○○ First angle orthographic projection ○○ Artistic drawing ○○ Isometric drawing

Introduction

Graphics are images visible on paper, walls, canvas, stone, etc. Graphic forms include drawings, photographs, diagrams, graphs, etc. In technology graphics are used to: • develop ideas in the form of an initial sketch that will lead to the final design • communicate ideas and designs in the form of an internationally accepted language When an object is to be designed, it must be sketched and drawn to: • give the reader an idea of the nature and appearance of the object • give the reader specific dimensions of the object as well as the scale of the drawing

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IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGY Isometric projection A method of three dimensional (3-D) drawing that uses lines drawn at 30º.

Orthographic projection A two dimensional (2-D) drawing used to produce a working drawing, usually showing three separate views of the same object.

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

Artistic drawing

When advanced techniques such as colour, texture, shading, shadows and perspective are used to create a drawing that resembles reality.

LESSON 1: Drawing standards Instructions 1. 2. 3.

Ensure learners have all the necessary equipment. Additional exercises in this guide may be used to help learners gain a better understanding. Complete Activity 1 in the study guide.

Additional exercise This may be used to help learners. Line types Instructions Use a square to practise the following line types: 1. Outline 2. Construction line 3. Dashed line 4. Centre line 5. Dimension line Š Impaq

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology Unit

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MEMORANDUM 2)

1)

3)

4 and 5)

30

SCALE Instructions Draw the given object (10 mm x 10 mm) in true size to the following scales:

1. 1:1 2. 2:1

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MEMORANDUM 1.

1 : 1

2.

2:1

VIEWS Instructions Use the object below to indicate the following views: 1. Red – Top view 2. Yellow – Side view 3. Blue – Front view 1.

2.

3.

2.

3.

MEMORANDUM 1.

Top view

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Side view

Front view

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology Unit

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Activity 1 MEMORANDUM Instructions 1.

Study the drawing below and identify the application of the different types of lines as indicated in the word bank. Complete the table below.

2.

Dimension line / Outline / Construction line / Centre line / Measurement line / Hidden details Table Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Type of line Dimension line Outline Construction line Construction line Outline Centre line Dimension line

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Hidden details

Description of the line Thin, medium, continuous Thick, dark, continuous Thin, faint, continuous Thin, faint, continuous Thick, dark, continuous Thin, medium, long and chained dash lines Thin, medium, continuous with arrowheads at the start and end with the dimension indication Thin, medium and chained dashed lines

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Unit

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

LESSON 2: First angle orthographic projection Instructions 1. 2. 3.

Ensure learners have the necessary equipment. Build the model in Activity 2.1 in the study guide. First build the model and then draw the first angle orthographic projection in Activity 2.2 in the study guide.

Activity 2.1 MEMORANDUM Instruction This activity must preferably be done with the learners to help them understand the concept of 2-D and orthographic sketches. First angle projection 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Copy the page for the learners and let them cut out the model as well as the designated area. Build the model by folding it and sticking it together with the tabs. Use 6 mm doublesided tape, which works very well for this. Fold the three sides of the cut-out area as shown in the sketch. Place the object right in the corner, now it can be viewed from the front, top and left. You can trace the edges of the object on the areas if you want to. Now fold the area completely flat and open on the table. You will see that the shape you have traced is on one block of the area.

Conclusion You can observe why each view has its location on the paper. Note: There is usually a space of 10 mm in orthographic sketches to avoid confusion with the views.

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology Unit

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Activity 2.2 MEMORANDUM Instructions 1. 2.

Copy the page for the learners and let them build the model. Let the learners draw the first angle orthographic projection.

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TAB

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TAB TAB

TAB FIRST ANGLE/ EERSTEHOEKS

LESSON 2 ACTIVITY 2 / LES 2 AKTIWITEIT 2

TAB

TECHNOLOGY/ TEGNOLOGIE DRAWING SHEET/ TEKENBLAD

TAB

TAB

TA B

1

GRADE/ GRAAD 9

NAME/ NAAM:

TAB

TAB TAB TAB TAB

TAB

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TAB

Unit Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

TAB TAB TAB

TAB


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NAME/ NAAM:

GRADE/ GRAAD 9

TECHNOLOGY/ TEGNOLOGIE DRAWING SHEET/ TEKENBLAD

LESSON 2 ACTIVITY 2 / LES 2 AKTIWITEIT 2 FIRST ANGLE/ EERSTEHOEKS

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Draw the first angle orthographic projection These two objects must be drawn in first angle orthographic projection. Draw the front view, the top view and the left view of each of the two objects. These drawings are the isometric drawings of the two objects.

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology Unit

TECHNOLOGY/ TEGNOLOGIE DRAWING SHEET/ TEKEN BLA

NAME/ NAAM: GRADE/ GRAAD 9

1

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TECHNOLOGY/ TEGNOLOGIE DRAWING SHEET/ TEKEN BLAD

NAME/ NAAM: GRADE/ GRAAD 9

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology Unit

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LESSON 3: Artistic drawing Instructions 1. Ensure learners have the necessary equipment. 2. Additional exercises in this guide may be used to help learners gain a better understanding. 3. Draw the single vanishing point perspective drawing in Activity 3 in the study guide. Additional exercise This exercise may be used to help learners. ENHANCING DRAWINGS Instructions 1. Use the figures below and enhance them with: 1.1 Colour

1.2

Texture (wood, metal and glass)

1.3 Shading

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Unit

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Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

MEMORANDUM 1.1 Colour

1.2

Texture (wood, metal and glass)

1.3 Shading

Activity 3 MEMORANDUM Instruction Copy the drawing sheet for learners and follow the steps of the single vanishing point perspective as shown in the right corner of the page to complete the drawing.

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GRADE/ GRAAD 9

NAME/ NAAM:

GL

HL

PP/PV

PP: Picture plane PV: Prentvlak

HL: Horizon line HL: Horison lyn

TECHNOLOGY/ TEGNOLOGIE DRAWING SHEET/ TEKENBLAD

FRONT VIEW VOORAANSIG

TOP VIEW BO-AANSIG

GL: Ground line GL: Grond lyn VP: Vanishing point VP: Verdwynpunt

ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE/ EENPUNTPERSPEKTIEF

LESSON 3 ACTIVITY 3 / LES 3 AKTIWITEIT 3

SP

VP

SP: Station point SP: Staanpunt

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GRADE/ GRAAD 9

NAME/ NAAM:

HL: Horizon line HL: Horison lyn

TECHNOLOGY/ TEGNOLOGIE DRAWING SHEET/ TEKENBLAD

FRONT VIEW VOORAANSIG

TOP VIEW BO-AANSIG

GL: Ground line GL: Grond lyn VP: Vanishing point VP: Verdwynpunt

ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE/ EENPUNTPERSPEKTIEF

LESSON 3 ACTIVITY 3 / LES 3 AKTIWITEIT 3

SP

VP

SP: Station point SP: Staanpunt

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1

GL

HL

PP/PV

PP: Picture plane PV: Prentvlak

Unit Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology

MEMORANDUM


Facilitator’s Guide G09 ~ Technology Unit

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LESSON 4: Isometric projection Instructions 1.

Ensure learners have the necessary equipment.

2.

Build the model and draw the isometric projection in Activity 4.1 in the study guide.

3.

Draw the isometric projection in Activity 4.2 in the study guide.

4.

Complete Activity 4.3 with reference to a flight of stairs and wheelchair ramp.

Activity 4.1 Instructions 1. 2.

Make a copy of the model for the learners and build it for them to have a look at. If possible let each learner build his/her own model. Provide a copy of the isometric drawing sheet to each learner to draw on. The block method is used for the measurements in the activity.

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Gr 9 technology facilitator’s guide  
Gr 9 technology facilitator’s guide