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THESIS STATEMENT: Disaster relief design solutions can address the short term or immediate necessities of the affected while simultaneously “curing” or preparing for the future. The nation of Haiti is composed of different environmental conditions which help inform different living conditions and generate zones of module communities. The module community: The implementation of such communities will allow those who reside in them the ability to live, work, and enrich the future of Haiti simultaneously. The extreme deforestation situation in Haiti has been directly caused from the need for energy. Haitians rely on Coal as their only source of energy. To obtain this coal they must chop down their trees. The reclaiming and reforestation of Haiti will only be made possible if alternate renewable energy resources are introduced. The current lack of energy promotes the deterioration of Haiti’s much needed forests due to the lack of other options. Educating the residents of such communities is the most important element of this proposal because it will allow the residents to take ownership and understand every phase of their progress. The country of Haiti is currently “broken” not only due the damage caused by the recent earthquake but mainly the damage caused by its own residents. The country of Haiti can reclaim and rebuild their land and once again. Eliminating the need to “only live for today” and reestablishing the country’s farming economy to one that goes beyond the current subsistence farming to one that is able to produce surplus goods and help boost the economy of the nation.

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Deforestation statistics to Reforestation Plan

1910

2010

2110 (GOAL)

Why Resforest? The removal of topsoil has made the land more prone to land slides, these landslides have weakened haiti’s farming economy as well as fishing by polluting the islands shores..weakening Haitis’ infrastructure

Original Position

Trees Protect Top soil and prevent mudslides

Moving Mass

SUMMARY: To eliminate dependency on port au prince (travel), and the NEED to cut trees for fuel, LOCAL means of Sustainable living must be implemented. Re forestation of the land will help HEAL the land damage and will allow new construction to be less Susteptible to natural disaster (like earthquake) 3


PROBLEM: The charcoal market Used as fuel and main source for cooking

Charcoal from Burning trees +

=

33%

Road Transport Sea Transport

15%

1%

3%

Port Au Prince

36%

3%

9%

Source of charcoal and Transportation Routes for the Pot-Au Prince Market

Gatherers

Transporter

Wood Distribution System to Port Au Prince Market Commercial Users

Wholesaler

Self Transport

Retailers

Commercial Users 4


HUNGER,ECONOMY

POVERTY LINE

55 % of (9 million) live below the poverty line of US$1 a day

3 Million

( out of 9 Million)

Only 50% of Population has access to safe drinking water.

=Food insecure (need assistance to stave off hunger)

Existing

Goal

SUMMARY: Food production must become of everyday life; every haitian resident should have access to clean water, new “economy boosters” need to be introduced

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DESIGN CONSTITUENTS

SOCIAL FABRIC OF HAITIAN HOUSEHOLD

Single

Couple

MALE

Population pyramid 2010

3,4 occupants

5+ occupants

FEMALE

Population pyramid 2050

Summary: Throughout the 40-50 year course the majority of the population will be composed of youths under the age of 30 any new development must target this age group, (with great focus on schools). Any residential development must target the different household compositions from single occupancy to up to 5 people. 6


PUBLIC/PRIVATE SCHOOL STRUCTURE

PRIMARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT

SECONDARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT

COLLEGE

$

$

Plan For Education Reform: Local------>National Education exchange Network Education should be local, Students must be educated on their direct environments and how to live within them. The exchange network allows for students to learn different trades (fishing or farming) while learning to value the country as a whole

Agrarian Module Student

=

Fishing Module Student

Urban Module Student

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EDUCATION MAIN FACTOR FOR DECREASE IN SCHOOL ENROLLMENT: =GOVERNMENT FUNDING

$ = INCOME = PARENTAL PRESENCE = EXTERIOR RESPONSIBILITY (WORK, FAMILY ETC...) = SUPPLIES = LACK OF QUALIFIED INSTRUCTORS = SCHOOL PROXIMITY =1% Private School enrollment =1% Public School Enrollment

Summary: the existing school structure contains 90% private schooling and 10% public. The lack of resources cause a rapid drop in enrollment.

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POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

Current Popultation Concentration

Re distribution Goal

DECENTRALIZATION PLAN

Orange Spheres represent concentration of population in Haiti

CURRENT DENSITY OF TEMP. RELIEF SHELTER

REDISTRIBUTION PLAN

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10

MODERATE

STRONG

VERY STRONG

5

6

7

Commune population: 373,916

40-50% destroyed

Commune population: 25,947

50-60% destroyed Commune population: 137,966

LÉOGÂNE*

80-90% destroyed Commune population: 134,190 Commune population: 117,504

JACMEL*

PORT-AU-PRINCE

NORTH 13,531

PETIT GOÂVE* 15% destroyed

NIPPES 33,351

ARTIBONITE 162,509

NORTHWEST 45,862

POST EARTHQUAKE DISPLACEMENT

SOUTH 88,533

CARREFOUR* 40-50% destroyed

GRESSIER*

EXTREME

VIOLENT

9

10^

SEVERE

8

GRANDE ANSE 119,871

LIGHT

4

ESTIMATED INTENSITY

3,000,000 affected

1,200,000 to 1,290,000 displaced

196,595 injured

230,000 killed

HAITI EARTHQUAKE

0

0 10

WEST 32,253

CENTER 90,997

10 20

30 km

20 mi

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Unconfirmed Numbers

Commune population: 704,776 Metro area population estimate: Over 2,000,000

PORT-AU-PRINCE

NORTHEAST 8,500

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


TRANSITION FROM TEMPORARY TO PERMANENT HOUSING

(Current)

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Current Condition

Safer Joints Sturdy Frame

(Health) Immediate Need

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REZONING HAITI In order develop a long term plan for Haiti; we must first understand the environmental conditions that are locally unique to the different areas within Haiti. The following diagrams show a study of the existing environmental conditions which will help to diagnose areas of needed development and better inform future design solutions. This analysis helped develop the plan for Rezoning

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTRAINTS

PRECIPITATION DIAGRAM

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ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS

ARABLE LAND

LENGTH OF GROWING PERIOD

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REZONING HAITI To help heal the damage that has been caused through natural and unnatural disaster, the country has been divided into zones that disregard political boundaries, and reflect specific environmental conditions that need to be addressed by local design solutions. Each zone will have a model for living; modules that are specific and essential to healing the land.

SELECTED PROPOSAL 15


RELOCATING

Relocating the country’s capital to a more environmentally safe location keeping in mind the country’s history.

NEIGHBOR COMMUNITIES After the 2010 7.0 Mw magnitude earthquake, Haitians were forced to relocate due to the destruction caused to the infrastructure. Port au Prince is an unsafe place to reside in. The following diagrams show possible solutions for resetlement.

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17


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HEALING ZONES

The 7 country-wide Healing Zones can be narrowed to 3 categories Urban, Fishing, and Agrarian

The new population distribution, consisting of 9 Million Residents, Following a plan to decentralize:

Built Environment: 25%

Farm: 25%

Land Prep/ Reforestation 50% AGRARIAN MODULE

Land Prep/ Reforestation 10%

Built Environment: 75% Farm: 15%

URBAN MODULE

Built Environment: 50% Land Prep/ Reforestation 25%

Farm: 25%

FISHING MODULE

3 Million Residents

4 Million Residents

2 Million Residents

Example Zone: ZONES 2,3,4

Example Zone: ZONE 6

Example Zone: ZONE 5

Each module will consist of 500 People resulting in 8,000 Agrarian Modules within this Zone

Module: 2,000 People 1,000 Urban Modules within this Zone

Module: 500 People (6,000 Fishing Modules) within this Zone

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Modular Development and Phasing

The 3 elements of design include FORESTATION, EDUCATION & BUILT ENVIRONMENT the interaction between the three is illustrated in the following diagram. in the latter phases of development the elements of design will work in conjuction to one another to the point where they become a single element. This diagram also shows when funding will be needed and when an economic turnaround could be expected.

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AGRARIAN MODULE

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MASTERPLAN

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Agrarian Module: 2010: Description: Emergency relief Shelter, Land Preparation. |Population: 200|

Agrarian Module: 2020: Description: Farming and community buildings Population: 500

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Agrarian Module: 2030: Description: Expansion of Farm and Forest Population: 600

Agrarian Module: 2060: Description: Forestation, Farming and built area to full capacity Population: 1,000

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4 family home 10' 10' 5 Plants 5 Plants 15' 3 Poles 5 Plants 10' 5 Plants 5 Plants

15'

2 hills 10' 5 Plants 10' 5' 10' 3 Plants 5' 2 Hills 5 Plants 10'

Asparagus Beets Broccoli Brussel Sprouts Beans, Bush Beans, Pole Cabbage Carrots Cauliflower Chard

Corn

Cucumbers Greens Kale Lettuce, Leaf Onions Peas Peppers Radishes Squash, Summer Tomatos Turnips

Farm Space Calculations

10 Hills 50' 25 Plants 50' 25' 50' 15 Plants 25' 10 Hills 25 Plants 50'

75'

Group 50' 50' 25 Plants 25 Plants 75' 15 Poles 25 Plants 50' 25 Plants 25 Plants

30 Hills 150' 75 Plants 150' 75' 150' 45 Plants 75' 30 Hills 75 Plants 150'

225'

Cluster 150' 150' 75 Plants 75 Plants 225' 45 Poles 75 Plants 150' 75 Plants 75 Plants

60 Hills 300' 150 Plants 300' 150' 300' 90 Plants 150' 60 Hills 150 Plants 300'

450'

Shared by 2 clusters 300' 300' 150 Plants 150 Plants 450' 90 Poles 150 Plants 300' 150 Plants 150 Plants

80 Hills 400' 200 Plants 400' 200' 400' 100 Plants 200' 80 Hills 200 Plants 400'

500'

Surplus 400' 400' 200 Plants 200 Plants 500' 100 Poles 200 Plants 400' 200 Plants 200 Plants

Spring and Fall Crop Re-Grows after Harvesting Outer Leaves Succession Plant and Multiple Varieties Single Planting Spring and Fall Crop Single Planting Succession Plant Single Planting Succession, Spring and Fall Single Planting Succession Plant Single Planting, Multiple Varieties Single Planting, Multiple Varieties Spring and Fall Crop

Perennial Spring and Fall Crop Cool Season Crop Cool Season Crop Succession Plant Single Planting Spring and Fall Crop

Succession Plant

FARMING

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FARMING METHOD

TURNIPS

RADISHES

BEATS

ONIONS

SUMMER SQUASH

GREENS

BUSH BEANS

ONIONS

ONIONS

CAULIFLOWER

TOMATO

LETTUCE

KALE

PEAS

PEPPER

ASPARAGUS

POLE BEANS

BROCCOLI

CUCUMBER

CARROTS

CORN

SURPLUS 26


STRUCTURE -Structural system composed of 2 independent elements, (primary and secondary structure) -The system varies/ manifests itself within the 3 different design components; residential clusters, public community elements and private community elements. -Each structural element must follow the guidelines of ADAPTABILITY, EASE OF CONSTRUCTION, AFFORDABILITY AND SEISMIC RESISTANCE. STRUCTURE VARIATION:

APPLICATION: RESIDENTIAL CLUSTER

APPLICATION: PUBLIC COMMUNITY ELEMENTS (EX: SCHOOL)

APPLICATION: PRIVATE COMMUNITY ELEMENTS (EX:BATHROOMS)

TYPICAL CLUSTER CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURAL GRID/ BASE ISOLATION BEARING LAYOUT

BEAMS/ JOISTS/ FLOOR SLAB

COLUMNS/ PARTITION ORGANIZERS

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CONSTRUCTION DETAIL

INFILL- LOCAL RECLAIMED MATERIALS COLUMN 1'-6"X 8' WALL ( SPACED 3’6” APART ) EX AND IN FOR INFILL WALLS CREATE 6" SLOT

Double 4x6 Plywood

GUTTERS FOR WATER COLLECTION SYSTEM

2x6 Rafters

2x6 Rafters ISOLATION BEARING (MATERIAL- USED TIRE)

PARTITIONS/ PRIMARY ROOF

SECONDARY STRUCTURE

SECONDARY ROOF

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EASE OF CONSTRUCTION Structures are made from local materials and community members are educated and trained in simple building methods. This method creates jobs for the community members.

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= 12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

+

=

1 30


Environment anf Infrastructure

Bamboo

CATCHMENT AREA

COVERED STORAGE RESEVOIR

OUTLET TAP

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WATER COLLECTION

West Water Harvesting East Water Harvesting

Water Collection

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WASTE MANAGEMENT

Water Collection/ Pump

Community Showers

Bath Element 1/8”=1’-0”

Composting Toilet

ENERGY

<---50 MW Capacity NEED TO GENERATE 1,000 Kwh PER GROUP

VOLTAGE REGULATOR

BATTERY

INVERTER

Site provides a great potential for wind generated energy:

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SUN STUDIES March

September

June

December

March

September

June

December

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WIND/ CROSS VENTILATION

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PLAN: 1/32”=1’-0”

GROUND TEMPERATURE (MONTHLY AVERAGE)

SECTION: NTS

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Structures are organized in groupings. a single unit of living is is and forms a group (grouping of units) These groups begin to form shared public spaces by being arranged in clusters. Clusters eventually share community buildings. UNIT --> GROUP --> CLUSTER --> COMMUNITY

Residential Unit

BR

BR LR

LR

LR

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Community Buildings

Cluster Plant Nursery

Distribution Center

Clininc/ Senior Center

RECEPT ON

OFFICE

OFFICE

OFFICE

ADMINISTRATION

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

PLAYGROUND

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM C ASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSROOM

CLASSRO

CAFETERIA

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PROGRAM TIME DISTRIBUTION Sunrise Program:

Function

Distribution Center

Vital During early phases of design

Residential Units

Transition living

Elementary School

Early Childhood Education

Middle/High School

Environmental Focus

Sq. Footage

Usage:

5

6

Sunset 7

8

9

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

Orphanage Farm

Subsistence/ Generate surplus

Plant Nursery

Reforrest land

Park

Recreation

Community Center

Recreation/ socialization

Senior Center Administration

Order/communications

Clinic

Health

Market Place

Part of Haitian Vernacular/ Business

Day Care, KinderGarden,1&2nd grades 3, 4, 5th Grade 6-9th grades 10/12th Grades Adults 18-55 Senior Citizens International Occupancy

Family Unit

TYPICAL GROUP

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GROUP

CLUSTER

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mS

mS

mS

mS

mS

mS

mS

mS

mS

nn d od

mS

Ve e

a d ab e

ee

gg d ea

ann d u

a ed be

nn d u

r ce

ann d u

a d d

a ed od

mS mS

mS

d d

and u

c oo S pp e

nn d ood

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o h g

Sc o upe

c o S pp e

l Sh s u l

g

o

C

hn

o

g

o

g

o

g

o

g

am g g od

rm od

g

rm g go d

rm od

g

am g g od

rm od

g

am g g od

am g g od

am g g od

rm od

g

g

rm od

g

rm od

rm od

am g od

AL

m

m

AL

m

AL

m

AL

A

m

m

AL

m

A

m

AL

g m

L

m

AL

m

L

m

A

DISTRIBUTION CENTER: SECTION

DISTRIBUTION CENTER: ELEVATION

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43


PUBLIC SPACES SECTION

44


45


FARM RELATIONSHIP 46


47


RESIDENTIAL CLUSTER 48


PROJECT MODELS

Models investigating 3 scales of project; structural (detailed) cluster relationships and full site community

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Healing Haiti