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SEAFARER Spring 2017


WELL DONE Read about the career highlights of HMS Bulwark, standing down following 12 years of active service

NORTH AND SOUTH New rules will protect the polar regions from increases in shipping traffic and rising numbers of visitors to the areas


Navies join forces to mark 100 years since sinking of SS Mendi


Editor’s welcome Welcome to the spring issue of Seafarer News, keeping you up to date with news of protecting the polar regions, addressing mental health at sea and celebrating 100 years of Seafarers UK. Read about the career highlights of HMS Bulwark, which recently returned to its homeport after 12 eventful years of service. Why not have a go at our nautical-themed crossword? We hope you enjoy the issue. Please send your feedback to


Some of the latest stories from the Royal Navy, the world of shipping and the Sea Cadet Corps

Lincoln Detachment have won the coveted Gibraltar Cup

News: pages 2, 3 & 4 Royal Marines Cadets take part in the gruelling Gibraltar Cup. Corps in Action: page 5 A heroic cadet puts the skills he learned at his unit into action, work starts on new premises, and more: see what Sea Cadets have been up to around the UK. HMS Bulwark: pages 6–7 From attending the 2012 Olympics to helping in times of crisis, HMS Bulwark has had an action-packed career so far. Read about its career highlights in our feature. At Ease: page 8 Enter our crossword competition to win a compendium of seafaring sayings, All Hands and the Cook. Our Man at Sea gets in shape on board in preparation for a big day...

Gibraltar Cup victory for Lincoln Lincoln Detachment, representing X-Ray Company, came out on top at this year’s hard-fought and closely won competition in Devon For young people wanting to join the Royal Marines, taking part in the Gibraltar Cup competition gives them a flavour of what to expect. The competition is held at the hallowed Commando Training Centre Royal Marines (CTCRM) in Lympstone. It might take little more than 48 hours to complete, but it takes a lot of preparation and hard graft to get a Royal Marines Cadets detachment ready for the challenges of the final competition. After months of training, the best eight cadets from six detachments are selected to compete, and then the real training begins before heading to the final, where cadets work together to complete orienteering exercises and a tough obstacle course. “The training was very intense and physically

and mentally draining,” says Cdt Cpl Harry of Lincoln Detachment, who was named Best Section Commander and Most Inspirational Leader. “However, knowing that I was putting in all my effort for the cadets around me, and that they were doing the same, made it all worthwhile. I knew that if we trusted our bodies with the physical tasks and kept our minds focused, we would prevail”. The experience of competing in and winning the Gibraltar Cup is undoubtedly thrilling, but Harry believes the leadership and teamwork skills he picked up will last a lifetime. “Joining the Royal Marines is my ambition so seeing what Royal Marines do has given me an insight into what the future holds. All the months of training have definitely been worth it.”

Published by MSSC 202 Lambeth Road, London SE1 7JW Tel: 020 7654 7000 Fax: 020 7928 8914 Marine Society and Sea Cadets is a registered charity: England and Wales 313013 • Scotland SCO37808

Seafarer News is edited and designed by

Cover image: Getty

Tower House, Fairfax Street, Bristol BS1 3BN Tel: 0117 927 9009 Managing Editor Edward Meens (MSSC) Editor Rachael Stiles Art Editor Elaine Knight-Roberts Account Manager Hannah Mann Director Julie Williams Copyright MSSC 2017

Printed in the UK on FSC ® certified stock. All rights reserved. Material contained in this publication may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, without prior permission of MSSC and Immediate Media Co. Views expressed in this magazine are not necessarily those of MSSC or Immediate Media Co, which accept no responsibility for them.


Brexit could put UK seafarers at higher risk of piracy, union warns People who work in foreign waters will be pleased to know that worldwide piracy figures are at their lowest for 20 years. However, Nautilus, the trade union for the maritime industry, has expressed concern that British seafarers could be put at greater risk when the UK leaves the European Union. Currently, British vessels are protected by the UK’s membership of the European Union Naval Force (EUNavfor). After an attack on a British-registered chemical tanker off Somalia in November highlighted

the need for ongoing co-operation between nations to combat piracy, Nautilus has called on the government to retain its EUNavfor membership after Brexit. In a letter to the Foreign Secretary, Boris Johnson, Nautilus General Secretary Mark Dickinson, wrote recently: “A great deal of emphasis is being placed upon the UK’s future trading relationships, and as 95% of our international trade is by sea, the security and safety of merchant ships and their crews is of paramount importance.” SEAFARER NEWS


100 years since sinking of South African ship The Royal Navy and South African Navy joined forces in February to mark 100 years since one of the worst disasters in the Commonwealth country’s history. The SS Mendi left Cape Town in January 1917 with 823 men of the 5th Battalion South African Native Labour Corps aboard. Two-thirds of the South African crew of the troopship were lost when it sank a month later, following a collision off the Isle of Wight. All but nine of the 616 South Africans who

drowned were black men, going as labourers to the Western Front, freeing troops for the front line. As the ship went down, some of the men reportedly broke out in song, and performed a ceremonial dance. Ceremonies were held in Portsmouth and Southampton, as well as over the wreck, which sits upright on the seabed, 100 feet down and 20 miles from land. Royal Navy divers also placed the South African flag and a wreath in memory of those who were lost.

New regulations will protect the polar regions from increases in shipping and cruise traffic

Protecting the poles A new Polar Code came into force this year to protect the Earth’s furthermost northern and southern shipping areas. The new rules, laid out by the IMO (International Maritime Organization), are hoped to minimise the environmental impact of an expected increase in the number of ships travelling through the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and to make it safer for passengers and crew. Shipping companies can significantly reduce the distances ships need to cover between Europe and the Far East by traversing the Arctic. Additionally, the Arctic and Antarctic are both seeing higher numbers of tourists. SEAFARER NEWS

The new safety code is specific to the polar regions, and goes further than restrictions on other shipping areas. It is intended to cover the full range of shippingrelated issues relevant to navigating the two poles, says the IMO, encompassing: “Ship design, construction and equipment; operational and training concerns; search and rescue; and the protection of the unique environment and eco-systems of the polar regions”. A specific code was deemed necessary because of the added complications and risks that might arise from the remote locations and harsh weather conditions of the polar regions.

Seafarers UK turns 100 The lives of seafarers have changed dramatically since 1917, when maritime charity Seafarers UK was formed, but the support it provides is needed as much as ever. This was the point made by the former head of the Royal Navy, Admiral Lord West, at an event celebrating the 100th anniversary in March. The former First Sea Lord voiced fears that the UK could be “left behind as other major nations build up their maritime capabilities, unless more is done”. The role of Seafarers UK remains very relevant, he says, “In helping to raise awareness of the need for, and existence of, training and job opportunities in the maritime sector.” As part of its centenary celebrations, Seafarers UK has teamed up with Sea Cadets to fund and build seven Marine Engineering Pods. The pods will give thousands of young people access to a physical engineering learning environment and it is hoped this will help young people progress into the industry. For a list of their centenary celebration events, visit

Mental health at sea The mental health of seafarers has been brought into focus by a free service providing advice and counselling for UK-based Merchant Navy seafarers. Launched by the Seafarers Hospital Society (SHS), it’s a place online where they can talk confidentially. “We talk openly about the physical challenges of working at sea, but mental health and wellbeing we find harder to discuss,” according to Peter Coulson, SHS Secretary, because, he says, seafarers are at higher risk of mental heath issues, including stress, anxiety or depression. The service can be accessed via: mental-health-and-wellbeing. 3


MARINE SOCIETY NEWS Bringing you the latest stories from Marine Society, supporting seafarer development and education

Medal for former Slater Secretary

More for seafarers to read in 2017 Libraries stocked by Marine Society can currently be found on 225 ships operated by 12 companies, but Marine Society hopes to expand this. Seafarers will be familiar with the benefits of having an onboard library, and joining the scheme can help a company comply with the guidelines of the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC), which urges them to establish shipboard libraries for vocational and recreational reading, as part of their obligation to maintain wellbeing on board. Demand from seafarers for recreational reading material is as strong as when the service started more than 90 years ago, says Marine Society’s Book Services Manager, Caroline Buckland. Each month she oversees the picking and packing of thousands of fiction and non-fiction volumes, costing £375 for a box of 100 paperbacks. But how to choose the books? The standard selection includes the latest bestselling novels, with a few of literary classics thrown in. The team also tries to

tailor books to a specific ship. “For some vessels we look up where they are due to be sailing so we can include some travel guides and background information,” says Caroline. “For example, the NERC research vessels are interested in science and natural history, but others just want light recreational reading.” The library team also takes a crew’s nationality into consideration, packing easy reads for those for whom English is a second language. “Books are a refuge, a place you can go in your mind to have a break from work and everyday life,” explains Caroline. “Even going to the bookshelves to choose a new book is a pleasant experience. They’re accessible to everyone, as it doesn’t matter what electronic devices you own or how strong the wi-fi signal is.” The Marine Society library service has a system in place to replenish library books either quarterly or every six months. Any ship in the world can sign up if the owner agrees to pay the subscription fee and transport the books onwards to the vessel from the UK.

Learning goes virtual Marine Society is launching a virtual learning environment to make it easier for learners to communicate with tutors, mentors and the administration team. This will give them maximum support when striving to achieve their academic goals and create a hub for sharing ideas and learning. Pupils, who have a one-to-one relationship with tutors, will benefit from a shared space to interact and track their progress with their tutors. They can view assignments, get feedback from submitted work and communicate with other students. 4

The virtual space also allows learners to access a range of supplementary short online courses, which will enhance seafarers’ studies, help them to prepare them for exams, and support their job prospects and development through CV and personal statement support.

The former Secretary of Marine Society’s Slater Scholarship fund, Mike Jess, was awarded the British Empire Medal this year for his work in support of services to seafarer welfare. The Slater Scholarship, managed by the Marine Society with Nautilus International, offers scholarships of up to £17,500 to help ratings study for a first certificate of competency, or it can help Electro Technical Officers and yacht crew gain STCW certification. Mr Jess served as Secretary of the Nautilus Welfare Fund from July 2011 until he retired last year.

Improving our service to seafarers As part of its belief that seafarers should have access to life-enhancing education wherever they are in the world, Marine Society has made changes to its suite of award-winning apps to make them easier to use and better value for money. The apps, which include Maths@Sea, Maths@Sea+, English@Sea and Writing@Sea will now come under one roof – a Learn@Sea application. This new subscription-based service will cost £1.99 per month. The change comes because it was deemed unfair to make seafarers pay for a year’s access to a course that could be completed in a few days. Equally, Marine Society didn’t want to restrict the length of time a student could access a course if they only manage 15 minutes of study at a time. Marine Society is also spreading the word about its English@Sea app. The promotion focused on Filipino seafarers, as the Philippines currently produces the world’s highest number of crew and is the largest supplier of ratings. The quality of English varies among seafarers and there is a clear need to improve comprehension. More than 2,500 Filipino seafarers have signed up, improving safety at sea. SEAFARER NEWS


CORPS IN ACTION A round-up of what Sea Cadets have been getting up to across the UK 2


5 3 4

1. Diamond celebrations

3. Teamwork awarded

To help Portland Sea Cadets celebrate its 60th birthday, the Mayor of Portland, Councillor Sandy West, presented awards at its annual prize-giving evening and cut the commemorative cake. A new trophy was provided by the Portland Branch of the Royal Naval Association, which also recently reached its 60-year milestone. In recognition and appreciation of many years spent supporting the community, the unit was honoured with the Freedom of the Isle of Portland by the town council.

Newham Cornwell VC Sea Cadets’ efforts in helping homeless people have been recognised at the Youth United Social Action Awards at Buckingham Palace, where HRH the Prince of Wales was guest of honour. Cadets and volunteers from the East Hambased unit were among the winners at the ceremony for helping homeless people in East London over Christmas. The awards celebrate young people’s achievements and demonstrate the positive impact their teamwork and dedication has had on their local community. Junior cadets from the unit helped homeless young people by gathering toiletries and warm clothing in shoeboxes, and donating them to a temporary shelter.

4. Homecoming

2. Heroic cadet helps family after car crash The skills and values he learned at Sea Cadets were recently put into practice by AC Lewis from Ballymena Sea Cadets, when he came to the aid of his family. Following a twocar collision Lewis helped his dad, his dad’s partner and her son. “I tried to keep everyone positive and told everyone to stay still,” he says. “If I wasn’t in Sea Cadets, I wouldn’t have known what to do. Sea Cadets has built my confidence, and helped with positive thinking – you are always taught to think positively and that is what I tried to do.” SEAFARER NEWS

Royal Navy Lieutentant and former sea cadet, Lucy O’Callaghan, paid a visit to her old unit in Exmouth to present cadets with their 8th burgee, recognising their outstanding achievements in 2016. Lt. O’Callaghan, currently serving on HMS Cattistock, is one of the first female Royal Navy clearance divers. The CO of Exmouth, A/SLt (SCC) Neil Gregory RNR, said: “We try to instill in our cadets qualities to help them succeed in the future. Lucy is the embodiment of what we are trying to achieve, not just in the armed services but in life in general.”


5. Building a future Work for a new and improved unit for Beccles Sea Cadets has started after seven years of fundraising. The new building, which will enable cadets to access the water in the summer and winter, will include classrooms, offices, a climbing wall, toilets and shower facilities, while the existing site for Beccles Sea Cadets will become a boating station.

6. £3,000 donation shows value of Sea Cadets The benefit of Sea Cadets to local communities has been recognised in Rochdale with a donation from the Asset Recovery Incentivisation Scheme (ARIS). The scheme sees a proportion of funds from criminal cash seizures made by police given to charitable causes. The funding is distributed on merit of how much the cause gives back to the local area. Rochdale Unit will use the donation to buy wet suits, cagoules, and over-trousers for the cadets to wear during expedition work and training around Hollingworth Lake and the Pennines.


THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC HMS Bulwark taking part in the 2016 Sunderland International Airshow

CHANGING OF THE GUARD About to stand down from readyment, warship HMS Bulwark is due a well-deserved rest after 12 years of continuous service, writes Richard Johnstone-Bryden


his spring, HMS Albion will emerge from an extensive two-year refit in Devonport, to take on the mantle of the UK’s on-call amphibious assault ship from its younger sister ship, HMS Bulwark. The handover rounds off a remarkable period of continuous service for the ship, which since 2011 has been kept at five days’ notice to deploy anywhere in the world, while fulfilling a busy programme of commitments at home and further afield. Versatility has proved to be the unofficial motto of Bulwark throughout the first 12 years of her action-packed service. Conceived during the Cold War, as the second of two Amphibious Assault Command and Control ships, Bulwark has operated in the opposing extremes of the Arctic Circle and the Arabian Gulf. Generally referred to as a Landing Platform Dock (LPD), due to the ship’s floodable well-dock, which is capable of accommodating four landing craft, Bulwark has successfully carried out a diverse range of roles over the years, from counter-piracy operations to trade promotion, and serving as the fleet’s flagship. The Royal Navy’s seventh ship to bear the name, Bulwark’s origins date back to 1984, when work began to establish the best options for replacing the Royal Navy’s amphibious fleet, including its first generation of LPDs, Fearless and Intrepid. The government placed the order for Bulwark with the Barrow-inFurness shipyard of VSEL in 1996.


The ship was launched on 15 November 2001 and commissioned in its home port of Devonport on 28 April 2005. Two months later, Bulwark made its public debut at the International Fleet Review at Spithead for the Battle of Trafalgar’s bicentenary.

Active service Bulwark’s operational career began in January 2006, when it was deployed to the Middle East, without escorts or RFA support, to counter terrorist, smuggling and piracy activities. On its way home it was diverted in response to the Israel-Lebanon crisis and took 1,302 civilians on board during the evacuation of Beirut, under the auspices of Operation Highbrow. Bulwark has appeared on TV several times, including Channel 5’s programme Warship, which retold its involvement in the six-month Taurus ’09 deployment to the Mediterranean, Middle East and Far East. A year later, the city of Durham formally recognised the strength of Bulwark’s association with the area. It conferred upon the ship and its crew The Freedom of Entry to the city and thereby ‘the right, privilege and honour of marching through the streets of the City on ceremonial occasions with swords drawn, bayonets fixed, drums beating, bands playing and colours flying’. This privilege was exercised by the Ship’s Company in June 2010 and July 2016. As the Royal Navy’s most advanced Command and Control platform, Bulwark played a central role in the security operation that

Sailors ‘cheer ship’ for HM the Queen, alongside in Malta

‘Versatility has proved to be the unofficial motto of Bulwark throughout the first 12 years of her actionpacked service’ SEAFARER NEWS


This image: Bulwark at sea; Top: in Gibraltar; Left: Leading the Gallipoli Campaign’s centenary; Right: Under the stars on deployment

“A ship with an outstanding reputation for getting the job done” Captain James Parkin

Standing on ceremony Ceremonial duties have become an increasingly frequent part of Bulwark’s programme, inbetween subsequent deployments, due to her involvement in a number of high-profile commemorations. These have included events to mark the 70th anniversary of the Battle of the Atlantic, the 350th anniversary of the founding of the Royal Marines, and the 70th anniversary of the D-Day landings. In early 2015, Bulwark participated in the international commemorations of the Gallipoli Campaign’s centenary, in and around the Gallipoli peninsula, while hosting the Prince of Wales and Prince Harry, as well as several British political and military VIPs. As these events took place, the Prime Minister, David Cameron, announced that the assault ship would sail from Turkey to the central Mediterranean to join the international search and rescue operations, as part of the UK’s response to recent tragedies involving migrants trying to cross between Libya and Europe. In total, 4,747 people were rescued by Bulwark during its two months on station as part of Operation Weald. In the autumn, the ship returned to the Mediterranean for two major exercises and to support the Maltese government’s security operation during the European Union’s Migration Conference and the SEAFARER NEWS

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting.

Bowing out The last year of the ship’s service proved to be equally busy, commemorating the Battle of Jutland’s centenary in the Orkney Islands, supporting the 28th Sunderland International Air Show, and leading the inaugural Joint Expeditionary Force (Maritime) Task Group deployment to the Mediterranean and the Middle East as the flagship of Commodore A P Burns OBE RN, Bulwark’s Captain from 2012 to 2014. The task group took part in amphibious exercises off Albania and Egypt before heading through the Suez Canal and conducting further exercises in Oman. Bulwark then spent a short period training the Somaliland Coastguard, before returning home via Haifa in Israel, where it hosted senior dignitaries from the Israeli Government and Armed Forces. Reflecting on the ship’s achievements when it returned to Devonport last December, Captain James Parkin said, “From demanding amphibious operations, through engagement with our partners and allies in the Mediterranean and Middle East, to being constantly ready for emergent tasking, my sailors and Royal Marines have been outstanding ambassadors for the United Kingdom. “They and their forebears, over the last five years of this operating period, have delivered a ship with an outstanding reputation for getting the job done in the Royal Navy and far beyond.”

HMS Bulwark: vital statistics Displacement: 18,500 tonnes Docked down: 21,500 tonnes (approx) Length: 176m Beam: 25.6m waterline, 28.9m (max) Draught: 7.1m Speed: 18 knots, range of 7,000nm Complement: 385 including the 75 Royal Marines of four Assault Squadron Sensors: 2 x Kelvin Hughes 1007 radars, Type 966 Surveillance Radar Armament: 2 x Goalkeeper Close In Weapon Systems (CIWS), Seagnat Decoy System UAT Electronic Warfare System, 2 x 20mm close range guns, 4 x Mini Gun and 4 x Machine Gun Positions. Propulsion: 2 x 6.25MW and 2 x 1.56MW diesel generators driving 2 AC motors through twin shafts and a bow thruster unit, all operating at 6.6KV. Military Lift: An Embarked Military Force (EMF) personnel of 305 troops, with an overload of a further 405. A vehicle deck capacity for up to six tanks or around 30 armoured all-terrain vehicles. Floodable well-dock, with the capacity to accommodate four Landing Craft Utility (LCUs). Four smaller landing craft launched from the davits on both sides. A two-spot 64m flight deck capable of taking two Chinook helicopters.

Images: Crown copyright

protected the Olympic and Paralympic sailing events held in Portland Harbour and Weymouth Bay in 2012.




Our leisurely back page: keeping healthy at sea, a history of seafarer sayings, and the chance to board a historic tall ship

Prize puzzle

! WcoIpN y of

How will you fare in our nautical crossword?

A s and All Hand ok o the C

How to enter Send your completed crossword (or a clear photocopy) by 30th June 2017, with your name, address and phone number, to: or Seafarer News, MSSC, 202 Lambeth Road, London SE1 7JW. The winner and solution will be announced in the next issue.

Our Autumn 2016 winner Russ Garbutt from North Yorkshire won a copy of Sealink and Before. Congratulations!

Paul Facey-Hunter

Across 1 Clipper ship carrying Welsh emigrants to South America in 1865 (6) 4 Causes to sink or fill with water (6) 8 Royal Navy mess for junior officers (7) 10 Actress who famously said “I like the sea: we understand one another” (5) 11 HMS ----- rescued survivors from the 2 down (5) 12 A line for tightening the foot of a sail (7) 13 IMO regime that came into force in 2017, for sailing in Arctic & Antarctic waters (5,4) 17HMS -------, a Plymouth-based amphibious transport dock for Royal Marines (7) 19 Another name for the bore sometime seen on the 16 down (5) 21 Naval -----, daggers given to junior officers (5) 22 Arthur -------, author and keen sailor, d.1967 (7) 23 Cruise port in the Caribbean (6) 24 A sailor’s behind! (6)

One to read

Order from marinesociety to buy it for £10

All Hands and the Cook (+p&p) Captain Barry Thompson, £19.99 Going like a fiddler’s elbow. Worse things happen at sea. All hands and the cook… Ever wondered where these sayings came from? This book is the first to explore the little-known language and customs of Britain’s Merchant Navy, in regular use between 1875 and 1975. It describes the global social customs and institutions that shaped the lives of merchant seamen, and latterly women. A work of fascinating social history for any seafarer or lover of language. 8

Down 1 African president, born seven years to the day after the 2 down sank (6) 2 SS ----- sank in February 1917, killing 646 people (5) 3 Retractable device for submarine air intake (7) 5 The 2 down sank off the Isle of ----- (5) 6 Seaside town in Kent, once a busy port (7) 7 Large groups of fish swimming together (6) 9 Small, square sail set above a skysail (9) 13 Marine sighting device known as a “dumb compass” (7) 14 MTS -------, a cruise ship that sank in 1991 with no loss of life (7) 15 Port in SW Iran (6) 16 British river, about 220 miles long (6) 18 In a state of confusion, as mariners often are! (2,3) 20 Representation of the earth or heavens, once used in navigation (5)

One to visit Tall Ships Festival Greenwich, London 13 – 16 April 2017 Join Sea Cadets’ flagship TS Royalist (pictured) and local sea cadets for four days of live music, entertainment and fireworks. Get on board historic tall ships and see an international fleet sailing out of Royal Greenwich in this exciting regatta to mark the 150-year anniversary of the Canadian confederation. Tickets range from free to small fees for boat tours.

Life at sea Our man at sea on how he keeps fit and healthy while on board NAME: Second Officer Spencer Wyles SHIP: Maersk Recorder CURRENT POSITION: Sat at home with my feet up Last year I was fortunate enough to be home for Christmas (my second in a decade) and I ate and drank like a king. But it took its toll on my midriff, and with my wedding coming up, what better time to address fitness at sea? Most modern ships have gym space or equipment, from free weights to fancy machines. I’ve seen these spaces both completely empty and full to the gunwales. When equipment is sparse or in poor condition, I’ve had to rely on old-fashioned pull-ups and squats. Once, I did the 100 press-up challenge, which gets you in shape in six weeks. Last year I started using a Fitbit – a great motivator. I was taking as little as 1,500 steps a day on a 12-hour DP watch, and had no idea I was so inactive until I started getting sciatica. I’ve improved my daily step count to over 10,000 and on my best day on board I hit 68,247 steps (30.5 miles) when the other Second Officer and I challenged each other to a duel! (I won.) It can be difficult to maintain a routine, even on a watch system. It’s always easier if you aren’t alone – last year I managed one full swing of going to the gym every day, thanks to supportive colleagues. But the best thing I’ve done for my health and fitness? Yoga. At home, at sea, travelling. You don’t even need a mat, just bare feet. My biggest fitness issue, at work or at home, is diet. The quality of the stores and the cooking can be terrible. Deep-fried everything isn’t ideal for a fitness regime. I’m often glad we have no alcohol on board. On my recent ships the food has been fresh and healthy. And the bridge is so far from the galley that cakes often don’t make it that far!

AUTUMN 2016 ISSUE CROSSWORD SOLUTION: Across: 1 SeaDarQ, 5 Otago, 8 Abeam, 9 Halyard, 10 See 13 Down, 12 Depot ship, 14 Polish, 16 Waders, 19 Gairsoppa, 21 COB, 23 Seagull, 24 Grill, 25 Speed, 26 Surtsey. Down: 1 Stand, 2 Avery, 3 Armadas, 4 Q-ships, 5/18 Oil spills, 6 Arachne, 7 Oedipus, 11 Ago, 13/10 Trafalgar Day, 14 Pegasus, 15 Lairage, 17 Rio, 18 See 5 Down, 20 Squid, 21 Coins, 22 Belay. SEAFARER NEWS

Seafarer News spring2017  

The magazine for supporters and member of MSSC

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