The Kids Rule! guide to Georgian England by English Heritage

Page 1



The turtle soup is divine!

Party time

Dress up for your own big-hair masquerade ball!


Could you make it in Georgian high society?

sta REV rting Disc OLUT a over ION t of th he sto ry e Brid Iron ge

DINNER WITH THE DUKE Join the Duke of Wellington for a feast to celebrate victory at the Battle of Waterloo



Regency you soon!

s u o e g r o g Georgians

Under the rule of four king Georges (and a William), the Georgians expanded the British empire and started an industrial revolution that transformed life at home ollowing the death of Queen Anne (the last Stuart monarch) in 1714, the British throne then passed to the German Hanoverians – distant relatives of the Stuarts. This began the Georgian period, which was named after the reign of not one but four King Georges (and one William). George I was asked to succeed Queen Anne as the king of Britain because he was a Protestant, whereas the Stuart claimants to the throne were Catholic. They were stopped from taking the throne by the 1701 Act of Settlement. THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER During the Georgian period, which lasted over 100 years, there was a huge amount of change. At the top, the kings had less power, with politicians taking more control. Opponents of the Hanoverians attempted to put a Catholic, Charles Edward Stuart (known as Bonnie Prince Charlie), back on the throne. They were defeated at the Battle of Culloden in Scotland in 1746, and Charles fled into exile. For ordinary people, there were even bigger changes. Farm workers moved in large numbers to towns and cities to work in factories powered by water and, later,

Timeline of Georgian rule

How they built an empire and started a revolution from Britain


1714 George I, who was born in Germany, becomes the first British king of the House of Hanover

steam. They made products such as textiles, metalwares, iron and steel and earned more money than they ever had before, but often lived in filthy and cramped conditions (page 8). The rise of manufacturing was known as the Industrial Revolution (page 6). During this time, Britain shipped its goods around the world to a huge number of countries. The Georgians established trading settlements and posts around the world, which developed into the British Empire. To defend them, it built up a powerful navy and fought many wars, mainly with France. Under the command of the Duke of Wellington, the allied forces finally defeated Napoleon and the French soldiers at the Battle of Waterloo (page 11). But there was more to the Georgian period than why the fighting and filthy towns. long face? There was also a rise in popularity of fashion, art, literature and music, and the creation of wonderful houses and buildings, many of which you can still see today (page 10).



Robert Walpole The Jacobite Rising becomes the first attempts but fails proper British to replace George Prime Minister. II with Bonnie He later lives in Prince Charlie, who 10 Downing Street escapes to France


How did p ! e relax duriople the Indus ng t Revolutio rial n? They let o some stea ff m!



A new machine for making cloth, the spinning jenny, helps start the Industrial Revolution

Captain James Cook sets out on a voyage where he discovers new lands in the Pacific Ocean



A day in the life…

Design a Georgian fan and send us a photo for your chance to win!


The Iron Bridge

Fans with colourful designs were fashionable accessories for women during the Georgian period. We would like you to have a go at making your own fan before taking a photo of it to send to us. We’ve got a goody bag from the English Heritage shop worth £100 to give away to the reader who designs the most impressive fan. To enter, go to uk/kids and follow the instructions.


Georgian town poster


Belsay Hall guide


What’s for dinner?


Ladies of influence






Georgian fun and games


Dress-up time

Win a cool goody bag!

Terms and conditions The closing date and time for entries is midnight on 2 May 2019. The promoter is English Heritage. If you are under 13 you need permission from your parent/ guardian before entering the competition. One winner will receive a goody bag from our online shop worth £100. All entries submitted may be featured on the English Heritage website, social media channels and in printed publications. If you do not consent to your entry being published, state this when sending in your entry. For full terms and conditions go to

We challenged you to design and t meee make a model Tudor house, and th RS here are our champion builders… E n WIN

Meet Jemima Campbell at Wrest Park

Discover an icon of the Industrial Revolution

The next part of your mega timeline!

Explore this grand Grecian hall

Join the Duke of Wellington’s banquet

The Georgian ladies who lived at our sites

Young Members meet Dido Belle

Could you make it in Georgian high society?

More Georgian-themed activities

Host your very own masquerade ball

This magazine is published on behalf of English Heritage by Immediate Media Co. For English Heritage Luke Whitcomb, Johanna Lovesey, Tom Dennis, Tersia Boorer, Tony Dike, Katie Kennedy For Immediate Media Co Group editor Matt Havercroft Senior art editor Sam Freeman Art editor Elaine Knight-Roberts Group production editor Oliver Hurley Account director Helen Johnston Account manager Joanne Robinson Director Julie Williams Editorial director Dan Linstead Design director Will Slater Contributors Andrew Hann, Andrew Roberts, Richard Nevell, Megan Leyland, Esmé Whittaker, Josephine Oxley, Adam Rees

Can you find me on page 8? 200544

Illustrations Wesley Robins

Millicent and Jessica Walker, aged 11 and 8

1811–16 Fearing technology is taking their jobs, the Luddites rebel and start breaking machinery

1811–20 George III wasn’t very well so his son, the Prince Regent, rules in place of his father for nine years

1815 Allied forces, led by the Duke of Wellington, defeat Napoleon and the French at the Battle of Waterloo

1816 George Stephenson invents a steam locomotive that runs on tracks – the first train



Slavery is abolished throughout the British Empire, freeing more than 800,000 slaves

The Georgian era ends when William IV dies. He is succeeded by Victoria, who reigns until 1901 03

A day in the life… Meet Jemima Campbell at Wrest Park, a country house in Bedfordshire, in 1731

Yawn… hello grandfather!

Jemima is nine and lives in London but regularly visits her grandparents, the Duke and Duchess of Kent, at Wrest Park. It’s late at night when she arrives in a horse-drawn carriage.

it Looks like you need a long Wrest! You’re my star pupils!

The next morning Jemima starts the day early with a service in the chapel. Compared to most girls her age she has a very good life.

Thank you Lord for blessing me…

After breakfast Jemima and her friend Catherine Talbot have lessons in geometry and surveying with their tutor, Thomas Wright. He’s a clever mathematician and astronomer who was the first person to describe the shape of our galaxy, the Milky Way.

Thomas is also a garden designer and teaches Jemima about it by taking her around the beautiful grounds. They are planted with lots of trees and shrubs, with paths, lakes and canals between the gardens.

Do you know who this is?

Can you see the box yew?

I can’t see anything past that funny hedge!

Adonis have a clue!

Jemima loves the gardens and spends a long time walking around them. Her grandfather has added many statues and buildings over the years, which show scenes from the classical world.

After their walk they have afternoon tea in the pavilion. This looks out over a formal canal called the Long Water. It’s the most beautiful spot in the garden.

Yum. This lesson is a piece of cake!

Jemima loves reading and spends the rest of the afternoon in the library. She and her friend Catherine enjoy making up a secret code so they can write poetry to each other.

I spy with my little eye…

Another statue?

No, she’s moving, I think

What is this symbol?

That’s a spider, EEK!

The girls enjoy dinner in the house with Jemima’s grandparents. The Duke tells them stories about the time he spent with the old king, George I.

What did you talk about?

Not a lot – he couldn’t speak a word of English!

Before the sun goes down, Jemima and Catherine head up to the Hill House. Looking through a telescope they get a great view of the garden at dusk and spot their grandmother, the Duchess, out for an evening stroll.

Jemima will inherit Wrest Park when she’s older and become Jemima, Marchioness Grey, That night she goes to bed thinking about how she would like to improve the gardens.

Hmmm… I must find a designer that’s capable

s otstep a’s fo t s im e r m to W in Je Walk ning a visit lishg n by pla at www.en estpark wr / Park k .u g ge.or herita



I’m a big fan of heavy metal!

TRENGT Abrah H Abraha am’s grandso m Darb n, y III, bu Iron Brid ilt g to the p e in 1779. It op the ened u b li c o Day 178 1 to bec n New Year’s o m e first cas th t-iron str e world’s uc ture.


The bridge was expected to cost £3,250 to build but cost over £6,000 (the equivalent of £520,000 today). Abraham Darby III was so eager to see the bridge finished he paid the extra himself.

G CALL CASTINraham Darbyast

, Ab ke c In 1709 way to ma d using a e d lt e e t n m inve was oal) e iron from c h e T d . a n m to ( iro s e k ld ou g co burnin oured into m ieces. nt p and p differe create



all you c ets o d t Wha ge that g ? s a bridof crease rid n Iron A e! Bridg


REVOLU T Built over the River Severn in Shropshire in 1779, the Iron Bridge was the world’s first cast-iron structure, helping to spark Britain’s Industrial Revolution

ETS Y SECRbridge R T S U IND of the


par ts ham’s All the ade in Abra ccessful m were He was so su learn es. d to furnac ople wante on. Some e ir p t t s a a th t. ec find ou e mad how h ent spies to even s

How Stott Park Bobbin Mill in Cumbria and Derwentcote Steel Furnace helped to fuel Britain’s Industrial Revolution…


The designer Thomas Pritchard died before work on the bridge star ted, so Abraham finished off his plans. The bridge weighs more than 378 tonnes, and the largest piece is nearly six tonnes .


Floodin g in 2012

H-WAT In ve ry ER MA the Ir wet wea RK The w on Bridge ther the riv cross orst fl es ca er that the riv ood w n highe er was ne as in 1795 flood. r than , whe arly n n in u as tw o dou sual. That e metres ’s as ble-d hig ecker buses h ! TOLL BRIDGE

e When the Iron Bridg y d to pa ha le op pe ed en op lking on to cross. People wa penny, a r foot could cross fo horses six th wi s he while coac e. nc pe had to pay 12


Britain changed a lot during the Industrial Revolution. The invention of the steam engine made it easier to mine for coal, which was used to power mills and steam engines. As industry grew, new roads, canals, and railways were built across Britain, making travel quicker than ever before. Derwentcote Steel Furnace near Newcastle was built in the 1730s, early in the Industrial Revolution. Lots of steel was made in northeast England because it had the materials needed. The furnace could get as hot as 1,100°C, and it could make 10 tonnes of steel in three weeks. The furnace had closed by 1891. By 1851 nearly one million people worked in mills producing cloth. Bobbins held the thread in the spinning machines that made the cloth. Stott Park Mill in Cumbria was built in 1835 to make bobbins for spinning machines. Young children worked in the mills for over 12 hours a day.

OVERU O TO Y ink ou th

do y What ould have it w ke living li been fac tories? e h t by 7



There’s lots going on in this busy Georgian town. The Industrial Revolution means many people work in mills and live in cramped conditions, while the rich have huge, elaborate mansions.

Over to you! • What’s happening in the mill? • How is the boat powered? • What is the bridge made of? • What’s happened to the fish? • What are the children playing?

Collect them all! This is the ninth of 12 posters you can collect to make a mega timeline of English history. You can find the other eight at www.

LegEnds of the HalL

Built by the Monck family to replace their former castle home, Belsay Hall in Northumberland was inspired by the ancient Greeks Sir Charle s Monck

Has anyone seen my razor?

L! LO George

d an y di Wh V carrylla? I e bre um as th w He aining ! r arch mon


Owner Sir Charles Monck got his ideas for Belsay Hall from ancient buildings that he saw when he was on honeymoon in Greece. The 20ft columns at the entrance were copied from a temple in Athens.


Sir Charles designed the house himself and worked out the proportions with mathematical precision. The house is 100ft square and sits on a plinth where each of the steps is 1ft high.


The hall required an army of servants to maintain it, including housemaids, kitchen maids, footmen, a housekeeper, cook and butler. They lived on the second floor of the house.


Belsay Hall took 10 years to build and the Monck family finally moved from Belsay Castle into their new home on Christmas Day in 1817.


Stone used to build the house was taken from the estate. The quarries made by this digging were then turned into a magnificent garden.


Discover more at

ANCIENT OR MODERN? The Moncks moved from a castle to a more up-to-date (for the time, anyway!) hall. If you had to choose, which would you prefer to live in? What pros and cons can you think of? 10



What’s for dinner? It’s 1832 and the Duke of Wellington is hosting a lavish banquet at Apsley House in London The duke hosted a banquet for about 80 people every June to celebrate his victory against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo. The menu was French and was based on service à la Française, which is lots of different dishes served at the same time


e Wheru ke of D e th gton buy el? Wellin ower g his sh ots! Bo

Turtle soup

Plover eggs in aspic

Roast mutton

This was made with real turtles, which had to be imported from places like the West Indies. There was a dish called mock turtle, which used other meats.

Aspic is a savoury jelly, so the dish would be made in an elaborate mould. Plovers are small wading birds and we would not eat their eggs today.

One of the duke’s favourite dishes as it reminded him of his time as a solider campaigning, when boiled mutton was something he ate quite a lot.

Pineapple jellies

Cabinet pudding

Flying plates – soufflés

These were made in copper moulds so it would have been the shape of the pineapple and garnished with leaves and flowers. It was served on a big silver salver.

The duke loved puddings and this one is a traditional English steamed pudding made with dried fruits and served with custard.

Some of the dishes were referred to as ‘flying plates’ because they were soufflés (cheese soufflés were popular) and needed to be served quickly before they deflated.

Make a cabinet pudding!

Now it’s time to make your own dessert fit for a duke’s dinner party. Head over to our website at to download a recipe for Georgian-style cabinet pudding!


Girl po they’re all wonder women to me!

Georgian ladies of Introducing five of the amazing discovered at our sites influence whose stories can be

The influencer

The style icon

Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk (1689–1767)

Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (1757–1806)

Henrietta Howard overcame many challenges in her life to become an extraordinary figure in Georgian court society, King George II’s close friend, and a member of a dynamic circle of writers and politicians. She was also interested in architecture and garden design. In the 1720s she built Marble Hill, a villa with a pleasure garden, next to the River Thames.

Georgiana Cavendish was known for her style and helped shape late 18th-century women’s fashion – she introduced trends such as outrageously tall hair towers. She was also vital in the restyling of one of her London homes, Chiswick House. She had significant political sway and, although women could not vote, publicly campaigned during elections.

The adventurer

The enterpriser

Eleanor Coade (1733–1821)

At her factory in Lambeth, London, Eleanor produced a hard-wearing artificial stone, which was used to create architectural decoration, statues and garden ornaments. Examples of this Coade stone can be found at Battle Abbey in East Sussex and Audley End in Essex.

Lady Hester Stanhope (1776–1839) Lady Hester Stanhope led an exciting life. From 1803–06 she lived with her uncle, prime minister William Pitt the Younger, at Walmer Castle and at Downing Street in London. At Walmer, she helped to create new pleasure gardens. In 1809, she left England and travelled intrepidly in the Mediterranean, Middle East and north Africa.

amazing inventions

Eleanor Coade’s fake stone was just one of many important Georgian inventions, but can you guess which of the following were not created during this period?

Electric motor

The power loom

The internet

Answers: mobile phones and the internet are both modern inventions

The Davy lamp

Mobile phones

wer LOL!

What d call c o you he Georga ian waigp ? A smal lp toupee!rice

Q&A Interview with Dido Belle

We sent young Members Olivia, Ela and Layla to Kenwood in London to meet Dido Belle I am very pleased to make your acquaintance. My name is Dido Elizabeth Belle and I live here at Kenwood House with my greatuncle, William Murray, Lord Mansfield, my great-aunt, Lady Mansfield, and of course my dear cousin, Lady Elizabeth Murray.

E: Where were you born? I was born in the Caribbean. My mother was an African woman named Maria and my father a Royal Navy officer. He brought my mother and I over here to England on a ship.

E: Are you pleased that your father brought you to Kenwood? I was only about four or five when I came to live at Kenwood. My mother lived in London for a while but has now moved to Florida. I miss her but at least she is free and has her own land. My great-uncle has looked after me and I enjoy the house and grounds.

L: What’s it like living at Kenwood?

The convention breaker

Dido Elizabeth Belle (about 1761–1804)

Dido Belle was the daughter of the Royal Navy officer Sir John Lindsay and an African slave called Maria Belle. Unusually for a mixed-race woman of the time, Dido was raised by an aristocratic British family. She lived in the household of her great-uncle, William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, at his home in Bloomsbury Square and, from 1780, at Kenwood in London.

I have a very full and happy life here. I was taught to read and write by my governess, and I help Lord Mansfield with letter writing and minutes. You see he’s Lord Chief Justice – in fact, you can see many of his legal texts in the library here. I also enjoy playing music, and spending time in our dairy and poultry yard.

Watch the video To watch the full interview with Dido Belle at Kenwood, go to 13

quiz TIME

Would you make it in


high society?

Why LOL! havdid Ge the e to goorge I To g denti to st et crowhis tee ? ned th !

Take our quiz to find out if you could have cut it in Georgian aristocratic circles


Your skin is looking a bit red. Do you:

A Daub it with a lead-based cream B Give it a light dusting with wheat flour C Leave it – I love a suntan!


Which picture do you prefer?




The Season has started. Do you:


Someone calls you part of the ‘beau monde’. Are you:

A Spend it enjoying an endless round of parties, masquerades and balls B Take a stroll around the local pleasure garden C Refuse to get involved – you don’t enjoy public fun

A Thrilled B Puzzled C Insulted


You put in an order for a new wig for your visit to court. Is it:


A As tall as you can make it, covered in lashings of scented powder B A modest wig with locks that fall simply and neatly to the shoulders C I refuse to wear a wig, even if the king demands it!

8 3

You need to cover up a smallpox scar on your face with a beauty patch. Yours is made of:

A Black velvet B Mouse skin C I don’t need a beauty patch – I wear my scars with pride


What would you rather read?

A Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein B I don't have time for reading C I can’t read


You want to redesign your garden. Do you:

A Add a lake, a grotto, a ha-ha and exotic plants B Hire a few orange trees for the summer C What garden? I share a house with 37 others

How did you get on? Mostly As: You’re as Georgian as the Prince Regent himself. In fact, is your name George? Mostly Bs: You’ve got work to do if

you want to mingle with the in-crowd

Mostly Cs: It's time to go back to Georgian school, imposter!

ch Take the allenge Find out how you would have fared in Georgian times with these challenges… Grand designs Despite having to pay taxes on windows (yes, really!), Georgians loved including them in their houses. They also liked symmetry, panelled front doors and ornate columns. Use the pictures in this magazine to design your own Georgian house – how many windows can you fit in?

Law and order Britain’s North American colonies declared independence in 1776 and became a new country called the United States of America. If you had to set up a new country, what laws would you put in place?

Rural vs urban The Industrial Revolution meant that many people left the countryside to live and work in towns and cities. Would you prefer to live in the city or the country? Can you list the advantages and disadvantages of each?

n a i g r o e G fun & games

LO Wh y of Wdid L! hav ell the D i t e t ngt uk The he aro leavon e m e y the gave y? boo him t!

More Georgian-themed puzzles, crafts, challenges and jokes Answers

Fact or fib?


at the f bottom oe the pag

Founded in 1759, Wedgwood became famous for its blue and white jasperware pottery. Here’s how to make your own…

be king 1 George I was invited over from Austria to cal politi three were 2 I n Georgian times there parties that people could vote for ustralia was used a prison for 3A criminals from Britain

George I

It’s a dirty job…

The Industrial Revolution created lots of new jobs. Can you match the job title to the correct description?

Doffer Carder Trapp er

Answers at the f bottom oe the pag



OL W Georghat did ! Frencians catl he h em l the when front he stoperor of a c od in Napo annon? le Blow napaon rt!

Replacing empty bobbins on the loom with a full one Operating th e trap doors in min es Repairing broken threads in the loom Combing through co tton and wool to remove dirt


a Hair sca

re has The Duchess of Devonshi le wig. nab hio fas ite our fav her t los her? for on k Can you draw it bac

Make it big and beautiful!

You will need • Air-drying clay in pale blue and white • Silicone moulds in small shapes such as flowers, leaves and curlicues (you can buy these online) • Cocktail stick • Strong glue • Ribbon or string Instructions 1 Push the white clay into the mould to make some 3D shapes and release from the mould. Ask an adult to trim the edges if needed, then leave to dry. You could also make your own shapes by hand. 2 Make a background shape from pale blue clay that works with your 3D shape, such as a square, oval or rectangle. Make sure your 3D shape can fit in it. Use a cocktail stick or similar to make a decorative border around the edge and make a hole on the top edge. Allow to dry. 3 Attach the white shapes to the blue shape using strong glue. Thread a length of ribbon or string through the top as a hanging loop.

ANSWERS FACT OR FIB: 1 False – he came from Hanover, which is now part of Germany 2 False – there were two, the Whigs and the Tories 3 True – the first prisoners arrived in 1788. A HARD DAY’S WORK: Doffer – replacing empty bobbins on the loom with a full one. Trapper – operating the trap doors in mines. Piecer – repairing broken threads in the loom. Carder – combing through cotton and wool to remove dirt

INSTANT dress-up


Prepare to make an entrance at a Georgian masquerade ball with your wig and mask!


www.english Go to .uk/ki to get star ted

You’ll be the talk of the town with this stylish Georgian wig and mask!



Follow the instructions to download your printable wig and mask. Print out the prop templates and glue each of the pages on to card before cutting them out


At tach string or elastic to your your mask and wig


photo. Ask a grown-up Strike a pose and take a ian selfie using org Ge r to share you @EnglishHeritage #EHmembership and tag

Calling all Georgian gents! It wasn’t just the ladies who wowed the crowds. We’ve got a fabulous mask and wig for the boys too!

Get ready to join the party!

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