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Securing perimeters

Neutralizing emerging threats Stopping drones Protecting our troops

2018 | 02

CBNW – Chemical, Biological & Nuclear Warfare

Thwarting enemy attacks

2018 | 02

Next-generation

Protection SPECIAL REPORT: Syria to Salisbury – the Year of the Chemical Attack battelle.org/cbnw This device has not been authorized as required by the rules of the Federal Communications Commission. This device is not, and may not be, offered for sale or lease, or sold or leased, until authorization is obtained.

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CONTENTS

05

Foreword Andy Oppenheimer reviews the Year of the Chemical Attack.

06 08 42

72

76

10

Events & Advertisers

Triton the Messenger Duncan Young presents a new partnership between the leading explosive intelligence database and CBNW.

10

SPECIAL REPORT: Syria to Salisbury Col Hamish de Bretton Gordon argues that chemical weapons are a prime threat in a new Cold War.

52

Mitigating risk Col Ram Athavale highlights CBRN policies in developing countries.

56

Safe house Katja Kiukas describes buildings protection against CBRN threats.

60

One World, One Health Gary Flory sets out new ways to combat pandemics.

INTERVIEW: Strong suit David Oliver meets Ludovic Ouvry, founder of protection systems company Ouvry.

64

20

66

Radiation realism Steven Pike describes simulation in training for radiological incidents.

24

72

28

76

34

80

38

83

42

87

Anthrax to Novichok Joe Hill describes an aqua-based substance for safe clean-up.

Blocking the Nuclear Highway Andy Oppenheimer reprises the RDD threat. COUNTRY FOCUS: Beware the Russian Bear David Oliver reports on Russia’s expansion of its NBC Forces. The pH of terror Frank G. Rando investigates acid attacks in London.

The Big One is coming Col (Ret) Zygmunt F. Dembek asks if a novel flu virus will cause the next pandemic.

Fighter pilots are equipped with the Ouvry Personal Protective System (OPPS).

INTERVIEW: In the forefront David Oliver meets Daniel J. AbdunNabi, CEO of Emergent BioSolutions.

14

The air that I breathe Martin Crawford looks at gas detection safety.

ON THE COVER

46

Failure to communicate Dee Ruelas reviews US emergency alert systems.

COUNTRY PROFILE: North Korea’s other WMD Brig Gen Xavier Stewart analyses Kim’s chemical and biological arsenals.

What’s in the box? Phil Duffy looks at nextgeneration radiological scanning of cargo.

Tracking the trafficking Eleanora Pacciani examines ways to counter radiological smuggling.

Critical support Bob Terbrueggen rolls out a radiological biodosimetry test. Awarding contracts Emily Powell provides advice on procurement by the UK MoD.

CBNW is published by React Media Publishing, 15 Heritage House, Chase Side, London N14 5BT. Telephone: +44 20 8886 2133 E-mail: tina@chembio.biz www.cbnw.co.uk

Publisher Tahmiena Naji | Editor-in-Chief Andy Oppenheimer AIExpE MIABTI Deputy Editors Dr. Salma Abbasi, David Oliver | US Correspondent Frank Rando Designer/Production Manager Mariel Tabora Foulds Printed by: The Manson Group, 8 Porters Wood, Valley Road Industrial Estate, St Albans AL3 6PZ. Tel: 01727 848440

©Ouvry

ISSN 2051-6584. © React Media Publishing 2018. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, reproduced, stored in an information retrieval system or transmitted in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of React Media. This publication has been prepared wholly upon information supplied by the contributors and while the publishers trust that its contents will be of interest to readers, its accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The publishers are unable to accept, and hereby expressly disclaim any liability for the consequences of any inaccuracies, errors or omissions in such information whether occurring during the processing of such information for publication or otherwise. No representations, whether within the meaning of the Misrepresentation Act 1967 or otherwise, warranties or endorsements of any information contained herein are given or intended and full verification of all information appearing in the publication of the articles contained herein does not necessarily imply that any opinions therein are necessarily those of the publishers.

CBNW 2018/02 03


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FOREWORD

The Year of the Chemical Attack

B

arely half-way through, the year 2018 is turning out to be the year of the chemical attack. For two whole months the world’s media headlines were focused on the first chemical warfare agent (CWA) attack on British soil. In early April Syria launched one of its most lethal CWA bombardments on civilians in Douma, east Ghouta. The poisoning of a former Russian double agent, Sergei Skripal, and his daughter Yulia, in Salisbury marked the third known assassination incident involving a nation state wielding a CBRN material against specific individual targets. A police officer, Det Sgt Det Sgt Nick Bailey, was also injured. In Syria, at least 72 were killed and at least 500 injured: many of them children, the culmination of 390 recorded CW attacks in Syria since 2014. The targeted assassinations in Salisbury required complicated investigation, response and remediation. Novichok in Salisbury; VX in Kualar Lumpur; Litvinenko in London: three CBRN incidents with a specific target, and so far as we know, all state-sponsored. While these poisonings may not be intended as weapons of mass effect or destruction, the main precedent to the Salisbury incident – the murder of Russian dissident Alexander Litvinenko in London in November 2006 with the rare radioisotope polonium-210 – was designated by the attorney representing Litvinenko’s family at the 2016 public inquiry as “an act of nuclear terrorism on the streets of a major city.” For the first time in Britain, military specialist CBRN personnel were deployed in support of a chemical weapon attack investigation: Falcon

Squadron from the Royal Tank Regiment, with the renowned Fuchs mobile laboratories to carry out tests, decontamination and sensitive-site exploitation. Over 200 counter terrorism officers continue to work on one of the most complicated cases ever investigated in the UK, examining 5,000 hours of CCTV footage and 1,350 seized items. In mid-April the OPCW confirmed the findings of Porton Down after examining samples of the nerve agent from all three victims and sensitive sites. Like Porton Down, the OPCW’s remit is not to apportion responsibility, but UK national security adviser Sir Mark Sedwill said in a letter to NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg that Novichok had been developed at the Shikhany Russian research facility as part of an offensive CW programme codenamed Foliant, in which defectors were regarded as “legitimate targets for assassination” with application to door handles as a suitable CW delivery method. As for the victims’ recovery, questions abounded if Novichok is the most lethal nerve agent known, how did they survive? Their recovery was mainly due to the excellent hospital treatment after they were found. Nerve agent is metabolised and excreted and the blocked enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, is re-made in the body while supportive care and antidotes are administered. While Novichok is said to have no known antidotes, atropine – now kept on board all UK NHS ambulances – would help eliminate nerve agent chemicals in the system. The unfortunate people of Syria have rarely had the benefit of such intensive, top-line medical intervention despite the heroic efforts of beleaguered rescue and medical workers. Military air strikes against three known CW facilities on 14 April accompanied calls by western powers for the UN to further investigate Syria’s stockpiles. But the OPCW was only required to certify if a chemical attack occurred on 7 April, not who by, and were met with Syrians and Russians blocking access. That the bombed facilities were allowed to continue producing CW after the country was deemed to have declared and dismantled all its CWA stocks (but not the chlorine) by mid-2014 is of great concern. Chemical attacks in this appalling war are due to any of the following – undeclared state stocks; manufacture of new CWAs; lack of inspections due to the war; additional CWAs supplied by an ally; and – of prime significance – the Syrians, supported by Russia, knowing they can cross red lines. ❚❙

In this edition we review and assess recent chemical warfare - from chlorine and sarin in Syria to Novichok in Salisbury and acid attacks in London; Joe Hill shows how new decon is working in Salisbury and beyond; David Oliver reviews Russia’s latest developments in NBC protection, and meets leading companies Ouvry and Emergent BIosolutions; we home in on matters radiological, with Steven Pike on radiation simulation training and Phil Duffy on cargo detection while Andy Oppenheimer rides the nuclear highway; Zyg Dembek and Gary Flory confront the next pandemic; Dee Ruelas opens up communications; and not forgetting North Korea, Xavier Stewart examines Kim’s other WMD.

CBNW 2018/02 05


EVENTS & INDEX EVENTS 2018

3-5 JULY

4-5

SEPTEMBER

19-20

SEPTEMBER

NCT Europe Vught, Netherlands www.nct-europe.com

4th International CBRN Symposium Berlin, Germany www.cbrn-symposium.com

The Emergency Services Show Hall 5, NEC Birmingham, UK www.emergencyuk.com

ADVERTISERS INDEX AIRBOSS DEFENSE ARGON ELECTRONICS

26-28

SEPTEMBER

www.ici-belgium.be

9-11

OCTOBER

NCT Asia Hanoi, Vietnam www.nct-asia.com/

BC

BERTIN INSTRUMENTS

59

BRUKER DALTONIK GMBH

27

CQC LTD

19

CRISTANINI

17

DECON7 SYSTEMS

17-19 OCTOBER

1-2

NOVEMBER

20-21

NOVEMBER

28-29 NOVEMBER

06 CBNW 2018/02

natoexhibition.com/forum/event/9_ cbrn-workshop

Euro Transport’s Technology & the Passenger Experience Conference QEII Conference Centre, London www.intelligenttransport.com/

20th International CBRN Symposium Farnborough, UK www.cbrneportal.com/event/20thinternational-cbrn-symposium/

International Security Expo London Olympia www.internationalsecurityexpo.com/ organisers

IBC

DXTERITY

45

EMERGENT BIOSOLUTIONS

31

ENVIRONICS OY

4

FIELD FORENSICS

55

FIRST LINE TECHNOLOGY

82 IFC

HOTZONE SOLUTIONS GROUP

33

I-BODI TECHNOLOGY

13

INDRA

63

JOHNSON MATTHEY (TRACERCO)

41

KÄRCHER FUTURETECH

37

NBC-SYS

67

OWR GMBH

75

OUVRY SAS

35

PAUL BOYE TECHNOLOGIES World CBRN & Medical Congress Prague, Czech Republic

9

BATTELLE

FLIR INC 21th International Symposium on Measurement and Control in Robotics Les Bons Villers, Belgium

27

7

PROENGIN

71

SMR-TECH

79

XPLOSIVE

69

SHOW ADS 4TH SYMPOSIUM ON DEVELOPMENT OF CBRN PROTECTION CAPABILITIES BERLIN

51

IB CONSULTANCY NCT EVENTS

49

UK SECURITY EXPO

69

WORLD MEDICAL & CBRN CONGRESS PRAGUE

51

20TH INTERNATIONAL CBRN SYMPOSIUM FARNBOROUGH

85

ADVERTORIALS AIRBOSS DEFENSE

88

CQC LTD

88

DXTERITY

89

FIRST LINE TECHNOLOGY

89

HOTZONE SOLUTIONS GROUP

90

KÄRCHER FUTURETECH

90


INTELLIGENCE Duncan Young presents Triton – the world’s leading source of explosive threat intelligence

TRITON the Messenger Optima Group is pleased to announce that Triton is now the official explosive intelligence contributor to CBNW and CBNW Xplosive. Triton will provide regular global threat intelligence and technical analysis across

2

all publications 018 has been an exciting year of development and growth for Triton following their acquisition by Optima, the global leader in Explosive Threat Mitigation. On Optima’s acquisition of Triton, a team of worldclass analysts and practitioners were put together. The Triton team is headed up by a vastly experienced management group, predominately ex-military and intelligence services personnel, who have first-hand technical expertise. Triton analysts gather open-source intelligence to create a narrative of threats related to Explosive Hazards as they emerge around the world. Triton offers relevant, timely reporting of incidents as they occur and provides expert analysis through a range of reports and briefs. Supported by a comprehensive Explosive Threats database spanning 15 8 CBNW 2018/02

years, Triton ensures their research is conducted to the highest of standards through collaboration with leading defence and security universities, providing high levels of assurance. Even in areas that are traditionally difficult to access, Triton is well-informed. Triton recently launched a brand new website which uses the very latest in-web technology to collate global terrorist-related incidents across the globe as they happen. The new website provides visitors with a complete

overview of the level of information that Triton generates, and a breakdown of the reporting process. Example reports are available for download so that visitors can view the type of information that is available to them. A demonstration video is also available on the website which allows viewers to see the database in action, how searches can be undertaken, and reports produced and charted across a live map. It is also possible to sign up for a trial. ❚❙

“It has been an extremely exciting and busy time for Triton this year so far. We’re all excited by the launch of the new Triton website and think our clients will greatly benefit from this new and improved way of accessing data that is so important to their fight in countering terrorist threats. We are also very pleased to be providing our unique capability to CBNW and can’t wait to demonstrate the value of our reporting and capabilities.” TRITON AND IED LEAD, DUNCAN YOUNG

Duncan Young has had a 20-year career with the British Army as an IEDD Operator at all levels. As Triton and IED Lead he is responsible for the overall management of Triton which includes business and client development. To contact Triton: email info@tritonintel.com


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CHEMICAL WEAPONS SPECIAL REPORT

SYRIA Courtesy of Sarmin field hospital/Al Jazeera

➊ The nerve agent attack in Salisbury in March 2018 brought chemical weapons to the UK for the first time. But there have been at least nine documented chemical attacks

T

by the Syrian regime in this time

hese have predominantly been chlorine, dropped as barrel bombs or fired in rockets. However, the most recent attack on Douma on 7 April, in which at least 70 died, most certainly involved chlorine and possibly also sarin, and on Saraqeb on 4 February appears to have been sarin, allegedly killing three children.

Syria: sarin and chlorine

As we approach the seventh year of this shockingly violent conflict, the Syrian Civil War has become synonymous with two distinct and irrefutable crimes against humanity: the use of chemical weapons and the direct targeting of hospitals and medical personnel. In this seven-year period there have been over 1,000 documented uses of chemical weapons by the Syrian regime and Daesh. The UN’s inspectors – the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) – have been called in to investigate some attacks, but the Russians have vetoed their activities ten times to date. I have also investigated a number of attacks, and on 29 April 2014 published the results of our investigation into the 10 CBNW 2018/02

attacks on Kafr Zita and Talemenes a few days before in The Telegraph. This unequivocally showed chlorine was used and that the Syrian regime was responsible. With the same information the OPCW agreed with this assertion six months later. This cannot be the best we can do, given

the instant real-time news available across social media?

Onslaught on Ghouta

In the past six months the use of chemical weapons in Syria has continued almost unabated. The regime has  continued to hammer the Damascus


CHEMICAL WEAPONS

to Salisbury Courtesy of Aleppo Media Centre /Al Jazeera

Col Hamish de Bretton Gordon argues that chemical weapons are now a big threat in a new Cold War

➌ ➋

Crown copyright Crown copyright

1 2

Ruins of a Syrian family home after a chlorine canister fell on it on 16 March 2015. Human Rights Watch documented 24 chlorine attacks in Syria from 2014 to March 2017, in which 32 people were killed and hundreds were injured.

3/4

British Army troops were deployed in Op Morlop in Salisbury.

➍ CBNW 2018/02 11


CHEMICAL WEAPONS suburb of Ghouta with chlorine barrel bombs which have had the same effect as they did in Aleppo in December 2016, forcing people above ground to get hit with conventional weapons. There are now wholesale evacuations from Ghouta as the civilian population has been gassed into submission. There are also worrying stories of Syrian soldiers using sarin in hand grenades

agent has transfixed the world for two weeks and, pending final confirmation, greatly increased the tensions between the West and Russia. The OPCW were called in to verify the results and produce a report for the consideration of the UN Security Council. Any resolution to sanction Russia will undoubtedly be vetoed by Russia. UK Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson has

confirmed Russia has been developing and stockpiling Novichoks for the past ten years. It is possible that jihadists might get their hands on these deadly weapons.

Role of the OPCW

The OPCW is a Nobel Peace prize winner, and a well-deserved one – but its modus operandi, though well suited for a Cold War-type scenario, are out of kilter with the fast-moving conflicts and terror attacks we now see. An urgent review is required of its operating procedures in order that it can produce timely results which the UN can act on to prevent further atrocities and proliferation. Notwithstanding the fact that Russia is likely to veto any change, the other permanent five members of the UN Security Council – the US, UK, France and China – must act together to ensure this review happens. The OPCW is responsible for investigating the nerve agent attack in Salisbury. Let’s hope this will be a major

Below Left: Chemical weapons experts in full PPE examine the bench in Salisbury town centre where Sergei Skripal and his daughter had collapsed. Below Right: The Ministry of Defence deployed around 180 military personnel to Salisbury following the incident.

to hill people sheltering in tunnels and bunkers; emboldened no doubt by the lack of response to ‘red lines’ and chemical weapon usage? This low-level use of chemical weapons is something never envisaged by the UK or NATO and is now a tactic we must be able to counter.

Salisbury: Novichok

We now know that in the attack in Salisbury, the ultra-secret and very deadly nerve agent Novichok was used to poison former Russian spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter, Yulia. A police officer, Dt Sgt Nick Bailey, was also injured. Novichok was developed in the 1970s and 1980s at the Central Russian Shikhany military establishment – chiefly to over-match NATO chemical defence capabilities and to avoid detection. Novichok is thought to be ten times more toxic than VX and very persistent. Probably less than half an egg-cup-full of 12 CBNW 2018/02

©Via Ian56/Twitter

©Special Operations.com


achievement and reflect good lessons learnt from shortcomings in the Syrian conflict.

International response

French President Emmanuel Macron stated on 13 February that France would strike Syria if there is evidence of chemical usage. At least one Western security service is sure President Bashir al-Assad is still using sarin and investigation of the latest attack point actually involved sarin, as were a number of attacks in Ghouta in recent months. However, there is a worrying suggestion that some do not now regard chlorine and other toxic materials as chemical weapons. Is this perhaps the reason for Western inactivity in the face of clear and multiple uses of chlorine? The Geneva Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) are clear that it is illegal to use any toxic substance to kill or injure people. This promise of action by world leaders, which has not hitherto been followed through – with the exception of President Donald Trump’s strike on the Syrian airfield on 6 April 2017 after the Khan Shaykhun nerve agent attack and the recent targeted strikes on CW facilities – has ultimately lead to the 100-year taboo on the use of chemical weapons being broken, and the possibility of every despot, dictator, rogue state or terrorist using them in future – with impunity. Most NATO countries, including the UK, have paid lip service to the chemical threat since the end of the Cold War because they believed it had disappeared, and in military parlance, have taken a ‘capability holiday’ with chemical weapons defence. This no doubt all changed with the Salisbury nerve agent attack.

Russian involvement

While Russia continues to deny the use of chemical weapons in Syria, in the face of overwhelming evidence, and has actively prevented the UN investigating such allegations, I do not believe they are directly involved in the use in Syria but we must be aware of it. The Syrian jets which dropped the nerve agent on Khan Shaykhun last April, took off from a Russian air base. Even the most casual observer would have noticed suited and gas-masked soldiers loading these bombs? What the UK nerve agent attack confirmed was that Russia had only destroyed its ‘declared’ chemical weapon stockpile by 2017 – not its undeclared stockpile of Novichoks. It is not anticipated that Russia has thousands of tonnes of these nerve agents, but the fact it has this most deadly of WMD is of great concern to NATO – especially as Novichoks appear to over-match NATO’s chemical defensive capabilities. In the new Cold War with Russia, NATO must be prepared for chemical weapon usage. Although Russia and the US have destroyed their chemical stocks, they still maintain the capability to produce new ones – and there is speculation that research has been done on new ‘superchemicals’ that are many times more potent than nerve agents like sarin and VX. All have seen how effective chemical weapons have been in Syria and Iraq, especially in fighting in built-up areas – and that if there is conflict between East and West we must now assume that chemical weapons will be used. This sadly being the case – quite apart from the very real threat of terrorist use anywhere, anytime – NATO, including the UK, needs to re-invest in its chemical defence capabilities. We must be prepared to fight in this ‘dirty’ environment – or we could be quickly rolled over by a concerted attack from the East.❚❙

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CBNW 2018/02 13


INTERVIEW CBNW Deputy Editor David Oliver meets Ludovic Ouvry, founder of protection systems company Ouvry French company Ouvry specializes in the development and production of CBRN personal protective systems based on air-permeable filter textiles CBNW: Could you give CBNW a short history of your company, and how it became involved in the market? LO: As a textile engineer with a specialty in chemistry, it was my first experience in the manufacture of technical textiles for

the space industry – which convinced me to create in 2003 my own company in CBRN personal protection and to develop solutions based on innovative technologies in this high-tech industry. Fifteen years later, Ouvry specializes in personal and respiratory protection systems. Our innovative products are intended for all operators of defence, safety and security interventions: those who risk their lives to defend ours. We have a dual field of expertise. Our equipment and systems are also appreciated in health crisis and industrial disasters with the more frequent use of preventive personal protection for the industry, agriculture and critical infrastructure. Ouvry’s head office is located in Lyon, a major industrial and technological centre whose history is strongly marked by textiles and chemistry, particularly in the Vaise district, in the former spinning mills of Rhodiacéta – where our offices and production facilities are located today. We are at the heart of a true industrial and technological ecosystem that includes

14 CBNW 2018/02

weavers, suppliers of chemical products, garment makers, technical and research centres and laboratories, and universities. This fits perfectly with our DNA. Today, Ouvry is more than ever a creator than a follower, knowing how to integrate innovative technological bricks designed with the partners of this ecosystem. CBNW: How many staff do you employ and how many are involved in research and development? LO: Ouvry employs about 20 employees but its workforce reaches 50 when taking into account the whole of its ‘ecosystem’ that includes student researchers, military advisers and consultants. The R&D centre is composed of four employees as well as an engineering doctor, two laboratory technicians, and a scientific university. Ouvry invests in various R&D activities and programmes in the field of its core business, CBRN PPEs and decontamination. The main activities are flame-resistant, anti-trauma, selfdetoxifying textiles, human factors with three pillars: ergonomics, physiology and sensorial tolerance, and decontamination technologies (active, absorption, neutralization) for chemical and biological agents. CBNW: Can you explain the products that are marked under your main brands?

Strong Ouvry founder Ludovic Ouvry.

All photos ©Ouvry

Ouvry’s air permeable TF filter material.


INTERVIEW LO: Through years of experience in the creation of CBRN systems, Ouvry has developed a large product portfolio covering a wardrobe of PPE and masks, decontamination solutions, accessories and innovative products. Polycombi is a personal protective suit designed for first responders. Based on an air-permeable technology incorporating activated carbon spheres, the Polycombi is compliant with NATO standards and is also CE certified as a category III PPE. The suit includes an internal filter lining with activated carbon spheres and an external oil- and water-repellent-treated outer shell. Polycombi protects against CBRN agents and TICs in liquid, vapour and aerosol form for 12 hours, radioactive particles suspended in the air, and biologically contaminated aerosol and dry microbial penetration. Extremely lightweight and ergonomic, it gives the user comfort and optimum protection. It allows a rapid evacuation of heat, thus reducing the risks of heatstroke. This suit has been tested and adopted by many firefighters and rescue services, medical units, law

enforcement units, and other first-responder services. The DECPOL emergency decontamination mitt represents the next generation in emergency CBRN decontamination and is a simple, rapid and effective solution for chemical and biological decontamination. It avoids the potential for cross-contamination which exists with current systems. The DECPOL mitt is a polyvalent device which incorporates superabsorbent material with active agents for the destruction of chemical and biological contamination intended for military, firstresponders and industrial use for the decontamination of people, weapons and sensitive equipment. The three main actions of the DECPOL mitt are absorption by capillarity, the fast transfer of contaminants within microfibres. The contaminants will then diffuse throughout the thickness of the hyperabsorbent material, allowing an optimal 

Ouvry protective equipment made of O’CPU is worn by an EOD team.

Suit

Fighter pilots are equipped with the Ouvry Personal Protective System (OPPS).

CBNW 2018/02 15


INTERVIEW contact with the catalysts in the material. Catalysts are distributed homogeneously throughout the thickness of the hyperabsorbent material that enables decontamination of the chemical agents and disinfection of the biological agents. Degradation by-products are not toxic. Its physical design makes it possible to optimise its efficiency and prevents any release of toxic. DECPOL therefore avoids the risks of cross contamination by limiting the release of powder and inhalation that may contain toxic substances. Developed by Ouvry, DECPOL has been tested on several CWA agents conforming to NATO standards and is now in production. The Ouvry SIM-KIT introduces a new

generation of realistic chemical simulants for the nerve agents sarin and VX and the blister agent sulphur mustard. They are specifically developed to simulate environmental behaviour of corresponding CWAs for appearance and detection response. The SIM-KIT works with equipment and detection systems in the following categories: Detector paper PDF1, CALID 3, Anachemia, flame or ion mobility spectrometers, detection, warning and identification devices AP2C, AP4C, LCD3 .3, etc. The simulants are also fluorescent, and therefore detectable due to the UV lamp supplied in the kit. They are easy to use, safe for both the user and environment, and biodegradable. Ouvry bought the patent of these simulants last year, and we now produce them in our facilities in Lyon. CBNW: What are the advantages from your perspective of concentrating on air-permeable textiles? LO: Based on air-permeable technologies, Ouvry provides a PPE portfolio as an alternative to impermeable plastic suits. Suits made with air-permeable technology are robust and physiologically tolerant, especially in sweat and thermal exchanges. Carbon microspheres allow a rapid evacuation of heat which thus

Top: French National Police Intervention Unit – RAID, wear Ouvry equipment. Right: Special Forces wearing Ouvry desert camouflage suits.

16 CBNW 2018/02

reduces the risk of heatstroke. The operational benefits are clear, simultaneously giving comfort and optimum protection. Operators can work longer even in a hot climate, which will reduce rotation of personnel in a crisis management event – and give better resilience, which decreases the risk of secondary contamination when doffing. Air permeable suits are the best compromise for protection, durability and comfort. CBNW: What are the advantages of your products over other PPEs in the market? LO: Ouvry has developed a wide portfolio of products adapted to operational requirements. Our mission is to define with our customers the CBRN protection and decontamination system best suited to their mission and environment – then manufacture them in compliance with the standards and regulations in force. Ouvry offers a complete system with optimised interfaces between different equipment, training solutions and intuitive and didactic documentation. Compared to other air-permeable PPEs on the market, our suits and products have a better durability, a higher protection factor, and comfort.


INTERVIEW CBNW: What percentage of your business is in the military sector? LO: The military sector represents 40% of our business in France. CBNW: Could you highlight the advantages of your protection solution for fighter pilots? LO: The Ouvry Personal Protective System (OPPS) is a whole system for fighter pilots, divided into two subsystems: above-the-neck protection with a specially designed integrated hood with oculars and a demisting system, a CBRN-reinforced oxygen mask – and below-the-neck protective equipment made of O’CPU, a CBRN protective undergarment, undergloves and socks. OPPS provides total individual aircrew with respiratory and percutaneous protection against CBRN warfare agents. It is designed for sustained operations in the presence of these threats and is readily integrated with existing aircraft and crew-mounted breathing equipment. By concept, this system is compatible with in-service helmets and flight suits and the interface is compatible with most in-service oxygen masks. An optionally CBRN-proof oxygen mask is also available. Originally designed for the most demanding fighter pilot requirements, the system works with all fixed-wings platforms and a rotary-wing configuration is also available. Without

First responders wearing Polycombi PPE take part in a CBRN exercise in Nimes.

18 CBNW 2018/02

needing a replacement of the pilot or crew equipment for CBRN protection, this system provides protection and comfort at minimum investment, operation and training costs. CBNW: Can you explain what training you offer to customers? LO: Our professional training programmes are dedicated to public and private entities: specialized civil and military operators exposed to CBRN threats, technical staff involved in logistics, maintenance and support operations, and trainers who provide theoretical and practical CBRN-related modules to a specific audience. We offer tailor-made beginner/ intermediate/advanced level programmes through the use of training equipment and toxic, liquid or gas simulants. Our teaching methods are based on case scenarios, the sharing of good practice, and operational feedbacks. Ouvry has gathered a pool of experts and trainers who can provide equipment, legal support and broad knowledge regarding CBRN risks. All our training includes evaluation and refresher courses. We first propose an ‘audit’ to assess CBRN needs and provide dedicated recommendations in terms of response capability. We then propose a general training on CBRN risks. The main objective for the customer is to understand CBRN and toxic industrial

chemicals risks and challenges. Finally, we offer operational training focused on practice, with operating procedures, regulation, and response protocol through the use of equipment and didactical tools such as simulants. We also offer maintenance training for masks, including NTI1 and NTI2 training, BACANOP control tests training, and non-conformity analysis. Lastly, we offer training in quality control and support of CBRN textiles to understand standards and technical specifications and use test equipment and protocols. CBNW: Where do you see the greatest potential growth sector for your products and services? CBRN military specialists – such as fighter pilots and EOD teams – with our OPPS, and SIM-KIT; we also anticipate a strong potential for first responders – fire-fighters, ministries of health, public health, and law enforcement looking for air-permeable PPE adapted to their tasks, CBRN masks, and didactical tools for their training. Finally, Ouvry has begun to enter the market of industrial activities as their requirements are quite close to those of first responders. We apply our know-how to industry operators involved every day in chemically hostile environments and who need comfort and increased protection. ❚❙


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DECONTAMINATION

Anthrax to NOVICHOK:

All photos ©Decon7 Systems LLC

making the clean-up safe Personnel decon is carried out with the D7 BDAS+ ready-to-use applicator.

Joe Hill describes an aqua-based substance for safe and versatile decontamination 20 CBNW 2018/02


DECONTAMINATION Decontamination is often defined as the reduction or removal of hazardous agents by physical means or by chemical neutralization or detoxification. And in the specialized world of emergency and military response, interpretation of decontamination is generally derived from one’s specialization and profession.

M

ention decontamination to a law-enforcement professional and they may state, “Decon is a firefighter responsibility.” Mention decontamination to a firefighter and they may respond, “Talk to our HazMat team.” The same can be said for the military, as discussions concerning decon often lead to referrals to the unit’s CBRN specialists. That being said, a simple vernacular change from decontamination to clean and sanitize takes on a whole new meaning. No matter the profession or specialization, equipment, vehicles, uniforms, and structures require regular cleaning and disinfecting in order to function properly, increase lifetime, and for personnel safety. Thus, all the men and women in the emergency services and military conduct a form of decontamination in the performance of their duties, at some point. Whether it is the police officer cleaning up bodily fluids from their patrol car, the firefighter removing soot from their turnout gear, the paramedic washing blood from an ambulance, or a CBRN specialist scrubbing their equipment after a white powder call, all are conducting a form of decontamination in some form or another.

not neutralizing the threat. Hence, a detoxifying or disinfecting substance is required to fully minimize health and safety risks to responders, the public, and the environment.

Decon – then neutralization

Bleach – the drawbacks

So really the question remaining is, “Is the chosen decontamination process physically removing hazardous agents or is it also neutralizing the agent as well?” If soap and water are the only substances employed to clean up blood, bodily fluids, carcinogens, or toxic chemicals, then the process is only moving the hazard. While this may be effective in some instances and with some substances, the unnecessary risks of sickness, poisoning, and polluting remain from

D7 Foam is applied to sanitize a food processing facility.

compounds. Also, bleach is a logistical and operational burden. For instance, personnel in the field have to estimate water-bleach mixture percentages, with improper mixtures exacerbating the problem instead of resolving it. So, field mixing can result in ineffective, low-percentage mixtures creating a less effective solution. Additionally, bleach sprayed onto surfaces provides no visual feedback to indicate effective target coverage. Finally, bleaches cannot adhere to horizontal/ vertical surfaces and dry out quickly before achieving adequate contact time to neutralize agents. As a result, both instances require continuous rewetting to ensure contact time/effectiveness.

Versatile substance The D7 BDAS+ applicator is ready to use.

Arguably, the mostly widely used disinfecting substance is chlorine, sodium, or calcium based bleach. While bleaches can be effective in many situations, there are several drawbacks to its use. Firstly, it is corrosive. Bleach is highly corrosive to metals and can severely damage equipment, to include equipment used during application. It is also toxic and some cleaners containing bleach can react to generate cancer causing, toxic volatile organic

This robot is using the D7 BDAS+.

Since using soap plus water and bleach has drawbacks and poses some inherent additional risks of their own when used, a capability gap is apparent. Resultantly, a substance is needed to clean and detoxify a variety of chemical, biological, and toxicological hazards, while at the same time is versatile enough to be used on an array of surfaces, textiles, and materials; is flexible enough to be easily applied through different methods without complex or time-consuming preparation; and is safe enough so as to not pose additional risks to personnel, equipment, the public, and the environment. Enter D7, which was originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories as DF200 and is currently commercialized by Decon7 Systems LLC. D7’s formula is one of the most versatile, effective, easy to use, and safe decontamination technologies available. The aqueous-based D7 technology rapidly neutralizes CWAs, BWAs, toxic industrial chemicals, and volatile organic compounds. Additionally, D7 has low toxic and corrosive properties, so it is considerably safer to use and less caustic than bleach and other potential decontaminants. D7 is versatile enough for use on most equipment, materials, and surfaces encountered. It can also be applied effectively to vertical and horizontal surfaces by an array of applicators, to include the only ready-to-use applicator the D7 BDAS+.  As a result, D7 can be used easily CBNW 2018/02 21


DECONTAMINATION

“Hunter has a high growth business in the care and maintenance sector offering technically superior cleaning and repairs for users of our technical PPE. We aim to make wearers of our PPE benefit from superior design and performance with the most comprehensive aftercare platform on the market to help protect their long-term health. Long-term latency disease cannot be ignored; the hot button issue and our technology-led aftercare solutions provide a way for employers to introduce best practice. The addition of D7 to our portfolio of products and services allows us to provide the industries with the most specialist, but comprehensive, decontamination solution to our customers.” SIMON HUNTER, CEO OF HUNTER

and effectively by patrol officers/military police to completely neutralize threats from blood and bodily fluid borne pathogens that find their way into the back seat of patrol cars. Equally, firefighters can use D7 to neutralize carcinogens on their turnout gear, equipment, and engines via on-scene spraying and laundering of uniforms at the station. EMS personnel’s use of D7 ensures their ambulances are free from bacteria, viruses, and germs. Hazardous Materials Teams can use D7 to neutralize threats

©Hunter Apparel

Recently, Curtis Alexander, Managing Director of Decon7 Systems’ UK affiliate, Decon 7 UK Ltd, met with the then UK Home Secretary The Rt Hon Amber Rudd. This is not the first time Curtis has had the pleasure of an audience with Amber having previously met with her in July 2017. During their most recent meeting, they discussed how Decon7 the company and D7 the chemistry can help in many regimes, particularly our handheld and ready-to-use D7 BDAS+, our D7 decontaminant chemical, and our other various application systems we offer. Mr. Alexander has since been in contact with Ministers and Public Health England, DEFRA (Department of the Environment), who are involved with the Novichok problems in Salisbury and has offered D7 to eliminate the hazards associated with this highly toxic chemical warfare agent. Mr. Alexander explained that with over £39 million invested in research and development, these are the exact scenarios that D7 was designed for. “Keeping our public and emergency response teams safe must be paramount and D7 without doubt does this.” The D7 formulae are eco-friendly and biodegradable -converting to non-potable water after eight hours – so there is no environmental impact. Additionally, Decon7 UK Ltd recently entered into a distribution agreement with Hunter Apparel ©Decon7 Systems LLC Solutions Limited, supplying D7 for laundry. Hunter Apparel provides carcinogenic hazards and dangerous from toxic industrial chemicals and full laundry care and maintenance contaminates in situ. Together, Decon7 volatile organic compounds during spills services for emergency services, Systems, Decon7 UK, and Hunter and leaks. Military personnel can also government bodies, and industrial Apparel provide a consummate and use D7 to neutralize BWAs such as comprehensive capability to responders anthrax, and – of current significance – fire services. and warfighters across the globe. ❚❙ CWAs such as the Novichok nerve agents implicated in the Salisbury attempted murder incident in March. Hunter offers full decontamination Joe Hill is a CBRNE Specialist with 10 years of active duty service in the US of emergency service personnel, their Marine Corps and 12-years of industry experience. He deployed multiple times apparatus, and vehicles on site, using in support of Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom and has worked in various Decon7’s effective and proven D7 aspects of industry including logistics, operations, training, technical services, chemistry, which reduces the possibility project management and business strategy. He currently serves as Vice President of cross-contamination – removing of Defense for Decon7 Systems. 22 CBNW 2018/02


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RADIOLOGICAL WEAPONS ©US Marine Corps/Sgt. Keonaona Paulo

Blocking the NUCLEAR HIGHWAY Andy Oppenheimer reprises the RDD threat

Since 9/11 a stream of warnings, reports, and analyses has ebbed and flowed concerning the threat of terrorists obtaining the materials to fashion and deploy a radiological dispersal device (RDD). Since the

T

emergence of Daesh from around 2014, that stream has resurged Daesh and other terrorist groups are not the only likely perpetrators, considering that the only radiological dispersal event due to a criminal act – the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in November 2006 – was carried out by a state actor.

24 CBNW 2018/02

here has been no documented case of RDD deployment since the oft-mentioned cesium-TNT device emplaced by Chechen separatists in a Moscow park in December 1995 and sundry other attempts made by the same group, mainly to disrupt Russian rail convoys.

Enter Daesh

The diminution of Daesh by military action to drive the world’s most deadly terrorist group out of their tyrannised

territories in Iraq and Syria has not eliminated the threat of their deployment of novel weapons in other countries where they have adherents. Media reports out of Iraq in 2016 suggested that Daesh could have stolen enough material to build a RDD – dubbed a ‘dirty bomb’ by the media and others. One such claimed that up to 10 g of iridium-192, a radioisotope used in cancer treatment, stored in a laptop-sized protective case, went missing from a US-owned storage facility in Basra province. There were “no broken locks, no smashed doors and no evidence of forced entry” according to local officials. Also in 2016, Belgian investigators discovered terrorists were monitoring an employee at a highly enriched uranium reactor that produces medical isotopes.


RADIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

The FBI helped Moldovan authorities three times from 2010 to 2015 to thwart potential smuggling of nuclear and radioactive material. ©CNN

Main: US Marine Corps CBRN defence specialists with Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron (MWHS) 3, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, perform decon during a training exercise.

Smuggling in Moldova

In October 2015 the Associated Press unearthed four examples over the previous five years of “a thriving black market in nuclear materials” in Moldova, including a ‘sting’ where an arms smuggler tried to sell in the capital Chisinau, “for 2.5 million euros… enough radioactive cesium to contaminate several city blocks” – to a ‘client’ who turned out to be an informant. Once money changed hands, the seller was apprehended and sentenced. It is not clear how much of the materials involved in the reported cases, and their vendors, remain at large. Much of the Daesh (and al-Qaeda) ©BBC threat predictions are also based on their documented uses of chemical weapons in IEDs and mortars in Iraq and Syria. But it is a substantial leap from incorporating either mustard

Below: In February 2015 undercover agents in Moldova were offered a large amount of cesium-137, said by investigators to have come from Russia.

December 2013, Mexico: an armed gang stole a truck filled with obsolete medical equipment containing cobalt-60. It was being hauled to a waste facility by Mexican authorities, who had parked it a gas station. The cobalt-60 was found about a half-mile from the truck and its empty protective lead container near Mexico City. Radioactivity was detected in the area near Hueypoxtla, pop. 4,000. March 2018, Turkey: Turkish police detained four men in Ankara for possession of 0.4 kg of californium, which is produced in US and Russian laboratories and nuclear reactors. Discovered in the suspects’ vehicle, it was intended for sale for $70 million. It has a half-life of 2.6 years.

Left: Based on meteorological software by the US NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, a dispersal plume is shown 10 minutes after detonation of the IRA Bishopsgate bomb on 24 April 1993. The southerly wind on that day would have blown particles from a RDD beyond north London. ©NOAA ARL Such models can be used to map radiological dispersal following an IED blast. ©NATO

©PRI

Left: Uranium-238 is photographed in a car in the Moldovan capital, Chisinau in August 2010. Right: Unlike most non-CBRN attacks against civilian populations, decontamination of people and property would be a priority.

CBNW 2018/02 25


RADIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

“In wiretaps, videotaped arrests, photographs of bombgrade material, documents and interviews, Associated Press found that smugglers are explicitly targeting buyers who are enemies of the West. The developments represent the fulfilment of a long-feared scenario in which organized crime gangs are trying to link up with groups such as Daesh and al-Qaeda, which have made clear their ambition to use WMD.” agent, itself a highly dangerous CWA, or chlorine – a widely available chemical – to acquiring and placing radioistopes into a bomb and getting it to target.

Civilian-use radioisotopes

The components for a RDD are the very same isotopes used to save, not take, lives. Cesium-137 and cobalt-60 are used in cancer radiotherapy, other medical procedures, and in industry, research, medicine and mining. They are located at thousands of sites in more than 150 countries, many of them poorly secured and vulnerable to theft. Hospitals equipment may be unguarded; staff turnover can be high and many staffers have access to the machines housing the isotopes. However, while radioisotopes in civilian use could be purloined or acquired through criminal gangs, the fabrication and emplacement of such a device may be deemed too risky to complete even for a suicide bombing mission. Exposure to unshielded cesium-137 or iridium-192 is likely to prove fatal to anyone close to it in a matter of days or even hours.

Wide-ranging effects

The medical effects of an RDD explosion or other type of radiological dispersal event (RDE) have been disputed. Especially in an urban setting, a RDD attack could cause billions of dollars of

“It could be a rogue nation whose ballistic missiles might not be quite as reliable as a shipping container destined for Los Angeles.” RICO CHANDRA, HOMELAND SECURITY TODAY.US

26 CBNW 2018/02

damage due to the costs of evacuation, relocation, decontamination and loss of access to prime economic sites or infrastructure. Civilians and firstresponders could be fatally irradiated while rescuing the injured or breathed in radioactive dust. Unless effective detection was conducted post-blast it may not be realised that a radioisotope was incorporated into the IED. ©Andrew Magill/ Wikimedia

A small button from an ionization-type smoke detector contains 1 microcurie of americium-241 dioxide, within aluminium metal casing.

Hard-metal isotopes would be dispersed as fragments and picked up from the ground or extracted from buildings after a detonation. Buildings affected by cesium-137, a highly dispersible powder with a half-life of 30 years, may have to be demolished and the debris removed. Access to the contaminated area could be denied for years while the site was cleaned up sufficiently to meet minimal environmental guidelines for public protection.

New countermeasures

After the 2014 and 2016 Nuclear Security Summits several countries initiated ways to eliminate cesium-137 from medical equipment. Alternative X-ray technologies have been developed with equivalent medical outcomes. These need

far less security and shielding, eliminate liability, and no expensive disposal at the end of the machine’s life-cycle. That makes replacement more cost effective than increasing security around radiological sources – and goes some way towards eliminating this specific threat. France’s Nuclear Safety Authority set out to replace all 30 of its cesium-137 irradiators at the country’s national blood transfusion centres, working with operators and manufacturers to replace The clean-up of 20 premises in London after the 2006 Litvinenko murder formed an invaluable case study for the time it took to identify the material and the extent of sampling and decontamination required over several months. and dispose of the equipment safely. All France’s cesium-137 blood irradiators were replaced with X-ray equipment by the end of 2016. In the US, medical equipment is held in both public and private hands. Among 327 licensees of 575 cesium-137 blood irradiators, New York City alone has about 30. In 2012 the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of non-radioactive X-ray devices for sterilizing blood, from 2015. Two types of new devices were available, costing around $270,000 per unit.

Blocking the nuclear highway

Other measures focus on preventing smuggling of radioactive materials. The FSU nation Georgia lies on a smuggling route dubbed the ‘nuclear highway’ that runs from Russia down through the Caucasus to Iran, Turkey and territory formerly occupied by Daesh. The US has helped install nuclear detectors at Georgia’s borders and have trained police units to intercept traffickers. Intelligence and equipment is provided to Georgian nuclear regulators. In 2016 Georgian police made a series of arrests of nuclear smugglers, including an attempt in January to smuggle cesium-137 across the border into Turkey. Three months later in April Georgian police caught traffickers attempting to sell a consignment of uranium for $200 million. However, large batches of Soviet-era nuclear fuel are said to be still unaccounted for and accessible to black-market traders. ❚❙


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COUNTRY FOCUS

Beware the

RUSSIAN BEAR David Oliver reports on Russia’s expansion of its NBC Forces

All images (excluding ‘Bear’) ©Russian MOD

28 CBNW 2018/02


COUNTRY FOCUS

Since the end of the Cold War, NBC equipment and exercises were a low priority for NATO forces. But this is not the case for the Russian military. Recent events have also shown that Russia is fully capable of developing and producing an advanced range of chemical weapons, and its troops are well equipped and trained for NBC warfare

I

n March 2017 a German-led battle group that included NBC defence troops and equipment deployed to Lithuania as part of NATO’s Enhanced Forward Presence (EFP) to reassure the Baltic States in face of a more assertive Russia; 58 personnel from the 3rd Company of the German Army’s NBC Defence Battalion 750 were deployed to Kaunas in Lithuania, and 34 vehicles arrived by train at Sestokai and drove in convoy to Rukia, where the German NBC force was deployed.

Developing Russia’s NBC forces

Russian Armed Forces NBC protection can trace its history back to November 1918, when by order of the revolutionary military Council of the Republic No. 220 was created by the Chemical Service of the Red Army. Today, the Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protection Troops of the Russian Armed Forces (RChBD) are special forces designed to conduct a complex set of measures aimed at ensuring that combat tasks assigned to land forces during operations in conditions of chemical, biological and radioactive (CBR) contamination are protected – as well as enhancing their survivability and protection against high-precision weapons.

The RChBD’s role

The main tasks of the RChBD include identification and assessment of the CBR environment, scale, and effects of hazardous NBC damage, and the protection of formations and units against the effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), CBR contamination, and damage recovery. They are also responsible for causing loss to the enemy by using flame-throwing incendiary weapons. RChBD defence includes the collection and processing of data and information on the CBR environment, and the distribution of that information to frontline troops. The force identifies contamination and conducts decontamination, degassing and disinfection of armaments, military equipment and buildings as well as personnel – while taking counter action against an enemy’s reconnaissance and targeting assets. Developed as a dual-purpose force, the RChBD should be able to solve tasks in both war and peace, including the aftermath of HAZMAT accidents and disasters in industrial facilities. In addition, it is planned to equip formations, units and subdivisions of the RChBD with new, highly effective equipment for NBC reconnaissance, individual and collective defence, and technical means of reducing the enemy’s visibility and masking with flame-throwing incendiary weapons, as well as introducing improved methods of decontamination.

In February 2017 Russia’s Southern Military District announced that NBC field exercises involving some 2,000 specialist personnel and more than 350 NBC vehicles were taking place in training areas in the Volgograd, Stavropol and Krasnodar regions, North Ossetia, and in Armenia – too close for comfort to Eastern Ukraine for Western observers

New vehicle deployments

More than 200 new and 50 modernised vehicles were delivered to Russian NBC protection units in 2017. These included the TDA-3 smokescreen-generating vehicle, which can generate a chemical curtain to camouflage major military installations and equipment as well as the movement of military personnel. A key feature is the chemical curtain’s ability to work effectively – not only in the visible range but also the infrared (IR) range, and to provide ground cover for large vehicles and buildings. The RKhM-5 Povozka D-1, unveiled in December 2011, was designed to be used as an NBC reconnaissance armoured vehicle for Russia’s elite Airborne Troops, the VDV, and the first vehicles were delivered to the 106th Airborne Division in 2012. Mounted on the chassis of the BMD-3 tracked infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) developed in the late 1980s, the RKhM-5 has the ability to provide CBR intelligence in complex topography, in all weather and night conditions. It is equipped with NBC-Intelligence systems and database for identifying different types of NBC detectors, as well as navigation systems for collecting,  CBNW 2018/02 29


COUNTRY FOCUS A soldier of the Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protection Troops of the Russian Armed Forces (RChBD) wears a Level A HAZMAT suit during an exercise.

A Russian NBC specialist is pictured using a FLIR indentiFINDER 2 digital handheld Gamma spectrometer.

processing and transmission by radio or in a global military network. The crew can distribute information in safety against the effects of WMD weapons on the battlefield. The Russian Central Military District main forces have begun to operate the latest RKhM-6 chemical reconnaissance vehicles, which recently entered into service with NBC troops in the Sverdlovsk Region to eliminate simulated industrial disaster at the CW processing plant in the Kurgan region. Based on the hull of BTR-80 8x8 wheeled amphibious armoured personnel carrier (APC), the RKhM-6 features a conventional layout accommodating the driver’s compartment at forward hull, and NBC laboratory in the middle and engine at the rear. The vehicle features the PRKhDD2B, a fully automated long-range chemical reconnaissance device that analyses the composition of toxic substances at a distance of up to 3 km. It can detect vapours and aerosols of toxic and hazardous substances in a contaminated environment at 10 sq m per minute. The vehicle runs at a speed of 20-50 km/hour in accordance with the level and complexity of contamination. The advanced meteorological suite provides coverage across 4 sq km of area or accurate direction up to 6 km. It can measure wind speed and direction, air samples, weather conditions, rain and snow. Although the vehicle lacks personal protective equipment (PPE), it carries three sets of individual protective equipment (IPE) including 30 CBNW 2018/02

Troops from an NBC protection unit decontaminate ARS-14KM multipurpose spray vehicles during an exercise.

a mask filter/hood for dismounting troops in a radiation environment. The RKhM-6 is equipped with an SN-RKhM inertial navigation system and a 14Ts834 Perunit-V satellite navigation system based on GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System, Russia’s GPS).

New NBC equipment

A batch of the new ARS-14KM multipurpose spray vehicles based on the KamAZ-43114 6x6 truck has been introduced in the NBC protection regiment of the Eastern Military District, located in the Amur Region. The system is designed to conduct degasation, deactivation and decontamination of military hardware and armament, including sensitive equipment such as optical and communications equipment. Characteristics of the new vehicle allow it to perform wide range of tasks, including fire fighting, aerosol screening, preparation of special solutions, and decontaminating roads and terrain.  As well as new vehicles, Russia’s Saratov State


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COUNTRY FOCUS University chemists have developed an air-and-vapour-permeable membrane solution that can defend military personnel from chemical and biological weapons. The project was developed in cooperation with industrial partners, and experimental suits were made for Defence Ministry and Interior Ministry personnel to wear during a test period. By the end of 2017, testing of suits was completed and the material’s certification

was scheduled to follow. The membrane fabrics are impermeable to water, viruses, bacteria, toxins and allergens and the wearer of the suit is safe from the hazardous effects of chemical and biological agents. The nanofibre fabric is microporous – allowing air and vapour circulation. It has been created within the framework of a larger project of the Fund for Perspective Research for creating combat gear for the future soldier. The RChBD regiment located in the Leningrad region of the Western Military District is to receive a large consignment of specialized NBC equipment in 2018. The troops will be provided with the ARS-14KM systems, and USSO-D universal decontamination stations, as well as a remote-control system for an aerosol countermeasures (KDUD) system, and a modernised control and mobile distribution point for controlling the decontamination system (KPPP-2). A total of 40 vehicles will be delivered, including the RKhM-6 and RKhM-8 reconnaissance vehicles and KLP-10 mobile analytical laboratories.

Upgraded decon

Russian Central Military District main forces have begun to operate the latest RKhM-6 chemical reconnaissance vehicles.

At the end of 2017 the NBC units of Airborne Troops upgraded its special reconnaissance, armament and military vehicle decontamination and smokescreen vehicles. More than 20 special vehicles were used to perform special tasks in air assault and parachute formations of the Airborne Troops and to participate in a special tactical exercise. RKhM-14KM and ARS-14KM decontamination systems are replacing RKhM-2S and UAZ-469RKh 4x4 light utility reconnaissance vehicles, which are currently in service, as well as outdated mobile spray vehicles. Russia’s Armed Forces received more than 350 items of special NBC equipment from the industry in 2017, including RKhM-6 reconnaissance vehicles, USSO-1 universal decontamination stations, TDA-3 smokescreen generators based on the KamAZ-5350 Mustang 4x4 chassis, and TOS-1A heavy flamethrowers mounted on a T-72 tank chassis – replacing 60% of the armed force’s NBC equipment, with 70% planned to be replaced by 2020.

And training RChBD troops on exercise in Rostov are being equipped with a fleet of new KamAZ-5350-based multipurpose vehicles.

A member of an RKhM-6 analyses and identifies toxic substances in the vehicle’s on-board laboratory.

32 CBNW 2018/02

Large-scale field training for the RChBD Troops started earlier in 2018 at the training centres of Russia’s Eastern Military District. The troops practised reconnaissance of terrain and en route contamination, operating the advanced RChM-6 reconnaissance vehicles. More than 3,000 troops and some 700 pieces of military hardware were involved. At the same time Baltic Fleet NBC protection units have began their field training. At the Pavenkovo training ground, the troops practised their professional skills in NBC reconnaissance, decontamination of equipment, crossing contaminated terrain, and installing mobile and fixed smoke screens. The month-long field training culminated in a tactical exercise including counterterrorism tasks in the training conditions of applied chemical weapons. ❚❙ CBNW Deputy Editor David Oliver is the author of 18 defencerelated books and a regular correspondent for defence publications.


CHEMICAL WEAPONS

The pH of

terror

CBNW US Correspondent Frank G. Rando investigates corrosives and caustics in an increasing number of attacks Flammable, reactive, corrosive, explosive, toxic, oxidizing and inert hazardous materials available to commerce and industry can be utilized as weaponized agents in hundreds of criminal acid attacks to maim specific, targeted individuals

T

he UK has experienced a steep incline in the rate of criminal corrosive attacks utilizing strong acids. Some have included the use of highly alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide (lye). Since 2012 London has emerged as the concentrated epicentre of these atrocious attacks in experiencing well over half of them. With 465 incidents reported in 2017, the UK has the highest number of reported corrosive acid attacks per capita in the world. The community of Newham, east 34 CBNW 2018/02

London has suffered the most – with 400 of London’s 1,500 reports over the past five years. This is three times as many acid attacks than in Barking and Dagenham, the second highest corrosive/caustic substance attack location in the capital. Many attacks are carried out by marauding criminal street gang perpetrators, often on mopeds. Overall, the trend of escalating acid attacks, especially in east London, is predominantly the young male demographic between ages of 26 and 35 against other young males as victims, with both perpetrators and victims affiliated with marauding urban street gangs. Some are ‘copycat’ attacks.

US, Pakistan and Bangladesh

In US cities such as Chicago and New York, chemical attacks have also taken their toll in creating mayhem and significant chemical burn injuries. Many have been crimes of passion or profit, often motivated by jealousy or revenge – rather than acts of political

©Samuele Madini/Wikimedia

This ‘mild’ chemical burn on forearm skin has been caused by 40% sodium hydroxide. Sadly, many of the recent acid attacks in London have been far worse.

violence or terrorism. Historically, Pakistan and Bangladesh have been cited for many acid attacks perpetrated against women accused of violating the tenets of Islamic religious doctrine, or are criminal gang activity. Worldwide, 80% of acid attacks are against women. The objectives of these vicious and barbaric acts of violence and chemoterrorism are to disfigure, blind and maim, and to make the victims living examples of punishment. These heinous crimes instill fear and are intended to warn others to modify their behaviour to comply with extremist views.

Chemicals – harm done

The physicochemical properties of hazardous materials have a direct


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CHEMICAL WEAPONS RAPID RESPONSE  Decontamination involving rapid clothing removal and copious and prolonged rinsing with water are of paramount and critical importance  In HAZMAT or possible CBRNE operations, the operational venue and its contents must be assessed for acidity or alkalinity (pH) by the initial entry team

Above: The London borough of Newham has suffered 400 of London’s 1,500 acid attacks since 2013.

©The Telegraph

Left: Five brutal attacks were carried out in just 90 minutes on 13 July 2017 in Hackney Road, east London, and surrounding areas.

Copious and prolonged rinsing with water must be done as quickly as possible after an attack.

Right: Hydrofluoric acid is a common hazardous chemical increasingly used in attacks. ©Dorgan/ Wikimedia

©NHS England

relationship to the mechanisms of harm generated by exposures to these chemical substances. Such classes of hazardous compounds include strong corrosives and caustics with extremes in pH ranges – extremely acidic or extremely alkaline (basic). In the CBRN realm, strong acids and strong alkalis can be analogous to the chemical warfare vesicants – blister agents – such as Lewisite or sulphur mustard, although commercial and industrial corrosives and caustics are not as potent or toxic as vesicant CWAs. In clinical toxicology we attempt to characterize and classify any chemical exposure with the use of a toxidrome (toxicological syndrome) model with a specific constellation of associated signs and symptomatology. Corrosives and caustics can denature proteins and liquefy lipids, respectively, resulting in extensive tissue damage. Strong acids exposure can cause coagulative necrosis, while exposures to strong alkali or bases such as sodium hydroxide can result in 36 CBNW 2018/02

@SARAH_COBBOLD via Twitter

liquefactive necrosis and saponization, which dissolves lipids (fats) in skin, which become ‘soapy.’ The pathophysiological changes that occur are also dependent upon pH, concentration, and exposure duration times. With corrosives and caustics, dermal and ocular chemical burns are common – as are hypovolaemic shock and electrolyte imbalances due to physiological losses in fluids and electrolytes. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) -a common hazardous substance utilized in petroleum and petrochemical production – is extremely dangerous and can produce extensive and deep burns as well as calcium electrolyte disturbances. Strong industrial and commercial acids and bases in transit or in fixed

facilities can be used as weapons of mass effect by terrorist factions or to commit atrocious crimes. These acids and alkalis may also be found in illicit laboratory operations producing methamphetamine and in scientific, medical or research laboratories, as well as in terrorist ‘bomb factories’ making improvised chemical devices (ICDs). Weaponized uses of corrosives and caustics are on the rise and pose a clear and present threat to local communities. Clear, stringent and extensive judicial, political and progressive social policies must be implemented or upgraded to address this disturbing trend. ❚❙

Frank G. Rando is a national SME, trainer, first responder and health professional with over 30 years’ experience in emergency management, tactical, disaster and special operations medicine, environmental health and safety, and counterterrorism.


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GAS DETECTION

The air that I

A system set up at Swagelock showing the ACG+ set up in their panel. ©Swagelock

substitute for real-time monitoring. Furthermore, the measured concentration of the same compound may vary among different manufacturers’ tubes. Compounding this are the many similar chemicals and level of humidity that can interfere with the sample. Additional errors can occur when the operator attempts to judge the stain’s end-point, the tube’s limited accuracy, and the potential for misinterpretation by the tester.

©Analox Ltd

The Analox ACG+ analyser shown as both a portable and fixed version.

Many organizations today still use colorimetric tubes as a method of gas analysis. This methodology was developed even before Frank Whittle had invented the jet engine and has changed little since its inception in the 1930s 38 CBNW 2018/02

Multi-gas analyser

I

n essence, colorimetric tubes are glass tubes that change in colour when they react with a component of a gas mixture under analysis. They are used mainly to measure micro-concentrations of toxic impurities in gas mixtures. However, colorimetric tubes can only give the user a grab-sample ‘snapshot’ of the air, and can never

Analox, a specialist gas sensor technology company based in Stokesley, north Yorkshire has developed a multi sensor gas analyser specifically designed for real-time analysis of compressed breathing air. Named the ACG+, it can be used as a portable unit for use between compressors on site, or can be permanently connected to a compressor outlet, enabling the user to continually verify the quality of breathing air. This delivers a much


GAS DETECTION

breathe

Martin Crawford looks at gas detection safety in the 21st century

©Analox Ltd

greater degree of system safety than a three- or six-month spot check. The unit provides continuous ‘on line’ monitoring of O2, CO2, CO, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and water vapour in compressed breathing air lines. It is primarily used by military air-divers, medical air treatment teams, emergency responders, military firefighters and decompression chamber operators.

How ACG+ works

The regulated sample gas is supplied to the ACG+ from the compressor. Under normal operating conditions when no contaminants exist in the sample gas and levels of gases are within the set points, the ACG+ will display green status indicators. Low/High-going alarms will be triggered if the sensor reading is not within the alarm set-points. When an alarm is triggered the horn will immediately sound and the system status indicator will turn red, displaying ‘sensor alarm’. The sensor reading will

Top: An example of how the ACG+ can connect within a compressor system.

be displayed with a flashing red status indicator and the bar graph will turn red. Relay contacts can be used to shut down a compressor if it is in a dangerous situation. Data is logged every 10 seconds, eliminating the need for third-party data verification. Data logging provides a 90-day rolling data log (1.5 MB) which can be downloaded daily as a .csv file. The data log is date- and time stamped with the oldest data being continuously over-written. A full set of data log files can be downloaded directly to a USB memory device or PC. The data log can then be provided for post-event data analysis to be used in detailed Health and Safety records,  due to its full traceability and history of air contamination.

“The ACG+ samples faster datalogs results; reduces costs; and is far more accurate than tube samples. It is simple to use, operator-friendly and portable. The data-logging capability is a major draw as well as being able to do away with detector tubes.” JAMES FISHER DEFENCE

CBNW 2018/02 39


GAS DETECTION

“On one occasion it tripped the dewpoint alarm prompting DAP to change the filters straight away. A real-time alarm is much more effective than a three-month sample. The ACG+ is really easy to operate. It is straightforward to use and the calibration procedure is quick and efficient.” DIVEX ASIA PACIFIC

Calibrating the ACG+

Calibration of the ACG+ could not be easier. It is normally performed at three-monthly intervals and takes less than 20 minutes for both zero and span of all sensors. Calibration is carried out on site by the user. The presence of oil mist in compressed breathing air is a significant problem. Inhalation of either mineral or synthetic oil mist can cause respiratory irritation, dizziness, nausea and even unconsciousness. The presence of oil mist also results in the pipes of a compressed air system being coated with oil. This increases the risk of fire, particularly if used with enriched oxygen, and can be difficult and costly to clean up afterwards. During normal operation the movement of a compressor’s internal parts leads to the deposition of a thin oil residue on all surfaces. The high-speed motion and force required to compress air results in some of this oil being atomised. In order to give an online warning of possible oil mist contamination, the ACG+ employs several sensors that measure contaminants typically found when oil mist is produced by a compressor (VOC/ CO/ water).

a breathing air system which used a Bauer 320E compressor and a 275 banking cylinder. The ACG+ was mounted onto the pipework after the compressor and before the split regulators – one filtering to the clean room and the other to the cylinder bank. The ACG+ was used to check the breathing air for the RAN. DAP wanted to investigate whether or not there was a requirement for such high-purity nitrogen gas to be used, and the ACG+ could help to prove this theory. Also, as the ACG+ offers 24/7 coverage, any failure in the process can be identified quickly and rectified, rather than the gas having to be dumped. DAP identified a number of benefits they gained from using the ACG+. ❚❙

Test cases

During the development of the ACG+ Analox carried out two specific test cases. The first was conducted by the Joint Services Sub Aqua Diving Centre (JSSADC) located at HMNB Devonport – and is the main UK-based military recreational diving centre. It runs diving courses for servicemen and women from February to December and may have up to 550 students, with each student diving at least twice per day. JSSADC took the ACG to be trialled by the staff and the MOD Diving Standards Officer (MOD DSO). The trial lasted for three months. Over this period the unit was connected to the Centre’s high pressure air supply and was operated each time the compressor was used. The ACG was sometimes allowed to run continuously for up to three days. At the height of the training season the Centre was typically filling more than 50 air cylinders each day. The second trial was conducted by Divex Asia Pacific (DAP), which were contracted by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) to improve the monitoring of air quality of RAN ‘B-type’ submarine rescue chambers. Historically, RAN’s air monitoring comprised of a quarterly spot check using colorimetric tubes followed by ‘lab testing’. However, this did not provide a continuous 24/7 reading and the results were open to interpretation due to subjectivity and variations in personal perception. AMS proposed the ACG+ continuous multi-gas analyser and DAP installed the ACG+ into

Above: A screen shot of the ACG+ display showing the O2 sensor in alarm. Below: A screen shot of the ACG+ display showing all sensors working and in range.

Martin Crawford is the Technical Author at Analox Sensor Technology. He has 21 years’ experience as a Technical Author and graduated from Coventry University with a BA in Technical Communication.

40 CBNW 2018/02


PED ER

PED ER+

For the silent and invisible hazard we’ll give you a sixth sense The Tracerco Personal Electronic Dosimeter (PED) ER and PED ER+ provides the ultimate radiation monitoring, measurement and management solution for those working in challenging environments. With an extended dose rate range of up to 1 Sv/h and a light, compact, robust and reliable design, the PED ER and PED ER+ ensures that users are equipped to see, hear and feel any radiological hazard.

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PANDEMICS

The surface proteins of H1N1 influenza virus particles (shown in black) are targeted by flu vaccines.

The first case of the new H7N9 avian influenza outside of the H7N9-affected area of China was detected in a traveller in Malaysia in February 2014. ©US DoD/CDC

The

BIG ONE is coming

©DoD

Col (Ret) Zygmunt F. Dembek asks if a novel influenza virus will cause the next pandemic The recent influenza season has been particularly severe, causing 119 deaths in children in the United States as of March 2018. Hospitalizations have been the highest in the last decade. The ‘Aussie flu’ was also severe in the UK this winter, with as many as three times the number of deaths attributed to influenza as during an average flu season

T

he viral strain causing this year’s severe influenza is H3N2. The ‘H’ in the influenza virus designates haemagglutinin, also abbreviated as HA, while ‘N’ is neuraminidase (NA). Both influenza virus proteins are capable of mutation, which may render them to be more readily transmitted from animals to people or from person to person. HA enables the viral molecules to enter host cells, while the NA facilitates its release (virus ‘shedding’) and to be more readily transmitted. In the US, influenza annually kills as many as 49,000 people, with as many as 700,000 hospitalizations. In a severe influenza season, about 56,000 mostly older adults die from complications of influenza.

Pandemics past

An influenza pandemic is a worldwide outbreak of influenza that can cause high levels of illness and death. The most recent influenza pandemic occurred in 2009, when H1N1 influenza caused more than 270,000 hospitalizations, over 12,000 42 CBNW 2018/02

A CDC scientist looks for signs of influenza cell growth while examining a culture flask containing Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. ©CDC


PANDEMICS

Haemagglutinin (HA) surface proteins on the influenza virus bind to the sialic acid receptors on the surface of a human respiratory tract cell.

©CDC

The devastating influenza pandemic in 1918 is estimated to have infected about a staggering one-third of the world’s population at that time – causing as many as 50 million deaths, including 675,000 in the US. There were over 228,000 deaths attributed to this pandemic in the UK deaths, and an estimated 60,000,000 influenza cases in the US. That pandemic particularly affected children, with 317 pediatric deaths in the US from complications of H1N1 infections. In England, 70 children died from H1N1 infection complications, with a total of 214 deaths attributed to H1N1 infections. A total of 284,000 deaths worldwide were attributed to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. In March 2018, chair of the Global Health Council Dr. Jonathan Quick warned that the world may soon face a viral pandemic worse than the 1918 influenza pandemic. The influenza virus is on his shortlist of likely culprit pathogens to cause such a global disaster. Dr. Quick describes the potential for the H5N1 influenza virus to become the next pandemic influenza strain. H5N1 emerged in Hong Kong in 1997, where it

killed its first human victim. Since that time, 846 human cases have occurred from H5N1 infections in 16 nations. While not a large number of infections, Dr. Quick points out that it becomes concerning when one considers that over half of those infected with this virus have died.

Avian influenza: H7N9

Another influenza virus normally found in birds (avian influenza virus), H7N9, has a greater pandemic potential than H5N1, as it contains genomic characteristics similar to influenza readily spread among humans. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has declared H7N9 as the influenza virus with the highest potential pandemic risk. Among influenza viruses, the H7N9 influenza strain transmissions to humans in China since 2013 have caused a great deal of concern among global medical

and public health authorities. Both H5N1 and H7N9 influenza strains are transmitted from birds to humans. The greatest potential influenza virus reservoir in China is domesticated bird flocks, and poultry markets are common throughout the country. H7N9 cases in China have been associated with close contact with poultry through poultry farms or markets. Unfortunately, outbreaks of H7N9 virus affecting tens of thousands of domestic poultry in China continues in 2018, leading to enforced culling of flocks. The one method that has been shown useful to stop the spread of H7N9 from poultry to people is screening and culling poultry flocks. This method attempts to eliminate circulating H7N9 virus from further transmission to humans. The H7N9 virus has recently been isolated from a deceased case in China  contracted from Highly Pathogenic

“The big one is coming: a global virus pandemic that could kill 33 million victims in its first 200 days. Within two years, 330 million people could die… It’s a disaster movie nightmare, yet it is waiting to come true, thanks to influenza – the most diabolical, hardest-to-control and fastest-spreading potential viral killer known to humankind.” DR. JONATHAN QUICK, GLOBAL HEALTH COUNCIL

CBNW 2018/02 43


PANDEMICS

©CDC

H7N9 viruses isolated from infected patients have been found to have mutations associated with reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors. These mutations emerged during antiviral treatment. Research is underway at the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to create a universal influenza vaccine. Such a vaccine would be able to provide durable protection in all age groups against several strains of influenza virus. Immunoassays that identify

Top: Recombination of genes led to formation of this new strain of H7N9 reported in China in 2013. Right: A microbiologist conducts an experiment inside a negatively-pressurized biological safety cabinet in a Biosafety Level 3-enhanced laboratory at the former Influenza Branch of the CDC.

C

M

Avian Influenza (HPAI). This virus has commonly been discovered in Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (LPAI) virus. This is concerning as the more common LPAI strain has caused a human case fatality rate of about 30% in China. It should be noted that HPAI and LPAI are commonly used to designate influenza virus pathogenicity in chickens, and both can cause severe human illness.

Incidence and symptoms

As of February 2018, the WHO reported 1,625 worldwide cases (mostly in China) of H7N9, with 621 deaths – a 38% case fatality rate. In people, H7N9 infection causes a severe form of pneumonia which can progress into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with septic shock and multi-organ failure. The median age of H7N9 infections in China is 63 years old, but infections occur in all age groups. Very few of those infected with H7N9 in China recovered in the absence of medical attention. This indicates the potential need for substantial medical resources in the event of an H7N9 human influenza pandemic.

Human-to-human

Since most cases have a history of contact with birds, the greatest concern with H7N9 infections is the potential for human-to-human disease transmission. Of the annual waves of H7N9 infections occurring in China since 2013, the 44 CBNW 2018/02

Y

CM

MY

CY

greatest number of cases (750) was in the fifth wave which occurred 2016-2017, leading to concerns for increased viral pathogenicity. During that wave, 14 clusters of human-to-human influenza transmission occurred. Fortunately, sustained human-to-human transmission did not occur.

The race for a vaccine

Methods commonly used to protect against influenza infection include vaccination and the use of antiviral medications. The annual influenza vaccine can vary in effectiveness from 10-60%. Unfortunately, the annual vaccine does not confer immunity against a novel pandemic influenza strain. The H7N9 vaccines developed to date have been based on H7N9 virus isolated from the initial 2013 outbreak in China. A vaccine based upon the LPAI H7N9 strain which has caused the most human infections since 2013 is now under development at the CDC. To further complicate matters, HPAI

influenza – rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) – can yield influenza test results in less than 15 minutes. They can be a useful clinical assessment tool, and new RIDTs have been developed which can differentiate between H5, H7, and H9 haemagglutinins. This can provide a useful tool in the diagnosis of H7 influenza to help stop outbreaks. Given the enduring concerns for the growth of H7N9 infections and potential for an H7N9 pandemic, in 2017, the US government prioritized the development of vaccines to protect against this influenza virus. These vaccines would be included in the US Strategic National Stockpile in the event of an H7N9 pandemic. At least one avian influenza H7 DNA vaccine has successfully passed phase 1 clinical trials, and other vaccine candidate development is ongoing. While research and development continue for an influenza vaccine which may be effective against the H7N9 influenza virus, will this vaccine be developed before the next pandemic? ❚❙

COL (Ret) Zygmunt F. Dembek, PhD, MS, MPH is an epidemiologist and biochemist. He has written extensively on biodefence and has conducted international biosecurity training on five continents.

CMY

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INTERVIEW

IN THE

All photos ©Emergent BioSolutions

CBNW meets Daniel J. Abdun-Nabi, CEO of Emergent BioSolutions Inc CBNW: Could you provide a history of the company – and how it became involved in the market? DJA: Our company history began in Lansing, Michigan, USA, in 1998 when we acquired the Michigan Biologic Products Institute, through a public auction, from the Michigan Department of Health. The assets included a 12.5-acre campus, approximately 180 employees, along with several products licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Since then we have grown our global footprint, core competencies, and product portfolio – leading to a 20-year track record of providing US and allied governments with critically needed medical countermeasures to protect their military and civilian 46 CBNW 2018/02

populations from serious public health threats, including bioterror weapons like anthrax, smallpox, and botulism, known chemical warfare agents (CWAs), and emerging infectious diseases (EID) like Zika, Ebola, and pandemic influenza. In addition to our products, Emergent also offers contract development and manufacturing services for both bulk drug substances and sterile injectable drug products for global customers through several facilities throughout North America, including those that have been inspected by multiple regulatory agencies worldwide. Emergent has experienced organic growth accelerated through a successful M&A growth strategy. In recent years, we have expanded our portfolio of products addressing biological and

chemical threats, product candidates for EID, and platforms, including auto-injectors, hyperimmunes, broad-spectrum antibacterials, and broad-spectrum antivirals. While the bulk of our customer base is in the US, we recognize the significance of the global market, particularly in Europe and Asia, and we are committed to expanding our international footprint. Emergent is partnering with key government agencies to ensure that they have access to critical countermeasures to address their preparedness and national security needs. CBNW: What physical and personnel assets does Emergent BioSolutions bring to the market? DJA: Across 13 sites, we have around


INTERVIEW

FOREFRONT Emergent’s Center for Innovation in Advanced Development and Manufacturing (CIADM) provides development and manufacturing of medical countermeasures.

1,300 employees who embody our company’s values. We have an experienced leadership team focused on diversifying the business, strengthening our leaders across the organization, engaging employees, and innovation. It is because of the expertise and commitment of our workforce that Emergent is recognized as a trusted government partner and service provider. Additionally, we receive important counsel and oversight from a diverse group of highly respected industry leaders who make up the company’s Board of Directors. Emergent’s core competencies include government contracting, quality manufacturing, advanced product development, M&A and partnerships, and these position us for sustained growth and success.

We have manufacturing operations in seven facilities in the US and Canada. Our international footprint includes R&D as well as manufacturing operations in Canada, along with sales and marketing offices in Singapore, the UK, and Germany. Recently we have announced a contract to supply one of our products out of Germany and to house another in a warehousing and distribution facility in the country. Our field teams offer significant expertise in providing chemical and biological threat preparedness solutions to international organizations, including the European Commission, NATO and WHO, as well as to allied governments. CBNW: Can you outline the different products that you offer to healthcare  CBNW 2018/02 47


INTERVIEW providers, government and military colleagues? DJA: Emergent has eight products, including vaccines, therapeutics, and devices that address biological and chemical threats and almost all our products are being delivered to our customers under active long-term government procurement contracts.

CBNW: What percentage of your business is in the safety and security sector and are your main customers in the civil sector? DJA: A significant proportion of our business is in the safety and security sector. Emergent is focused on providing specialty products that address accidental, intentional, and naturally

BIOLOGICAL THREATS

€ BioThrax – the only FDA-licensed anthrax vaccine in the world for the prevention of anthrax disease in a pre- or post-exposure setting € Raxibacumab – anthrax monoclonal antibody for the treatment of inhalational anthrax € Anthrasil – the only FDA-licensed anthrax immune globulin in the world for the treatment of inhalational anthrax € ACAM2000 – the only FDA-licensed smallpox vaccine for the prevention of smallpox disease € VIGIV – the only FDA-licensed vaccinia immune globulin in the world for the treatment of complications from the smallpox vaccine € BAT – the only FDA-licensed botulism antitoxin heptavalent in the world for the treatment of botulism

CHEMICAL THREATS

€ Trobigard – atropine sulphate obidoxime chloride auto-injector for chemical threats. (This is not currently approved or cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration or any similar regulatory body, and is only distributed to authorized government buyers for use outside the US. This product is not distributed in the US) € RSDL – reactive skin decontamination lotion kit, the only FDA-licensed device in the world for the removal and neutralization of known chemical warfare agents from the skin

Laboratory technicians in one of Emergent BioSolutions’ 13 facilities.

48 CBNW 2018/02

occurring public health threats, including CBRN threats and EIDs. Our goal is to help ensure medical countermeasures are available for the protection of military and civilian populations. With the increased risk of CBRN attacks, seen with recent white powder incidents and the Salisbury chemical attack in the UK, emergency responders are also at risk. As the threat assessment has evolved significantly over the past few years, we have expanded our reach to also prioritize offering protection to first-responder teams and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations that operate in potentially high-risk areas such as NATO, WHO, Red Cross, and Doctors Without Borders. We continue to be agile so that we can respond to governments by offering our expertise in product manufacturing and supply to meet their changing needs. CBNW: Can you give details about the advanced development of CBRN medical countermeasures at the CIADM facility? DJA: Since 2012, the US government and Emergent entered into a 25-year public-private partnership to establish one of our facilities as a Center for Innovation in Advanced Development and Manufacturing (CIADM), one of only three such facilities in the US designated by the US Department of Health and  Human Services (HHS) to provide

Daniel J. Abdun-Nabi, Chief Executive Officer, Emergent BioSolutions Inc.


NCT Europe A Vision of IB Consultancy

Simultaneous Training of 20 Teams on CBRNe Scenarios - Parallel Conference and Workshop Streams - Europe’s Largest CBRNe Exhibition - Workshop on Novichoks and One Workshop with the Syrian Opposition. The 7th edition of Europe’s highly successful NCT event series, NCT Europe 2018, will take place from 3-5 July at the National Training Center (NTC) at the Bredero barrack in Vught, The Netherlands. The Dutch Ministry of Defense is a partner of the event and the most high-level CBRNe stakeholders from all over Europe will attend. The three-day event will feature live CBRNe capability demonstrations on each day, one conference stream, multiple workshops, training sessions for civil and military responders, a large indoor and outdoor industry exhibition and the famous NCT BBQ Party. Alongside the traditional NCT elements, NCT Europe will introduce a new feature at our NCT event series: NCT CBRNe multinational and multidisciplinary trainings. As CBRNe events increasingly require an international response, the purpose of these trainings is to promote operational cooperation across Europe in CBRN and EOD/C-IED preparedness and response. Each team will be matched to a team from a different country. Join us now to experience the perfect balance between live exercises, demonstrations, interactive workshops and conferences. We look forward to welcoming the international CBRNe community to the Netherlands in 2018! Upcoming events include +31 71 744 0174 www.ib-consultancy.com @ibconsultancy facebook.com/ibconsultancy vimeo.com/ibconsultancy

NCT Europe, 3-5 July 2018, NTC Vught, The Netherlands www.nct-europe.com NCT Asia, 16-18 October 2018, Hanoi, Vietnam www.nct-asia.com NCT South America, 5-7 February 2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil www.nctsouthamerica.com


INTERVIEW advanced development and manufacturing of medical countermeasures to support the US government’s national security and public health emergency needs. The facility, comprised of laboratory, manufacturing and office space offers flexible manufacturing of drug substance from microbial, cell culture or viral production platforms and is equipped with disposable manufacturing technology. The 112,000-ft (37.000-m) facility employs single-use manufacturing technology where applicable and has surge capacity readiness. The CIADM facilitates advanced development of CBRN medical countermeasures and ensures domestic manufacturing surge capacity to address the US government’s preparedness priorities and needs. The CIADM has been awarded four task orders by the US government to develop Ebola and Marburg therapeutics and a Zika vaccine. One of the key goals for this facility is to establish the capability to produce 50 million doses of a pandemic influenza vaccine within four months following an outbreak. CBNW: What is the core of the medical countermeasures for potential bioterror threats that you are developing? DJA: We have a robust pipeline of products in development both for biological and chemical threats as well as EIDs, with a number of them potentially for dual-market use. This means products could be used by governments for stockpiling as well as in the traditional commercial settings of hospitals and specialty clinics. We are currently developing a next-gener-

A selection of Emergent BioSolutions’ products.

ation anthrax vaccine with an enhanced product profile that includes requiring fewer doses and eliciting a faster immune response. We are also developing autoinjectors that can deliver nerve agent antidotes specified by our various government customers and an intranasal spray treatment for cyanide exposure potentially for first responders. In our EID portfolio, we have a Zika vaccine in a phase 1 trial, a therapeutic for serious complicated influenza A disease in a phase 2 trial, and a Zika therapeutic that we expect will be in a phase 1 study this year. An important component of our strategy is to grow through acquisition, so we are constantly evaluating what products for CBRN threats might be out there that could complement our portfolio. CBNW: What percentage of your business is in the military sector? DJA: A significant proportion of Emergent’s business comes from contracts with the US government. In 2017, Emergent reported annual revenues of $560.9 million, 78% of which is revenue from US government customers. We have 89% of our revenue coming from the US market, and 11% from international markets. We also look forward to

expanding our partner relationships with allied governments across the globe to fully address the growing CBRN and EID threats that are of importance to them. CBNW: What are the advantages of your products and services over your competitors in the market? DJA: Emergent is in a unique space with specialty products for specialty markets. We leverage our core competencies to meet our government customers’ needs to protect their respective military and civilian populations. We have six only-in-class products that are the only products licensed by the FDA for their stated indications. These are our anthrax and smallpox vaccines, CWA decontaminant lotion, botulism anti-toxin, anthrax polyclonal immune globulin, and vaccinia immune globulin. CBNW: Where do you see the greatest potential growth sector for your products? DJA: Our biggest opportunity is to serve our US customers while simultaneously expanding further into international markets, with a focus on the preparedness needs of government ministries of health and defence. There is a heightened awareness of public health threats and there are concerted efforts to address them. For example, the European Commission has a Joint Procurement Agreement that aims to secure equitable access to medical countermeasures and an improved security of supply, coupled with more balanced pricing for participating EU countries. Our role is to meet the needs of these customers and supply the vaccines, therapeutics, and devices that align with their preparedness plans. Preparedness against CBRN threats and emerging infectious diseases is an important component of global security and Emergent is proud to be in the forefront. ❚❙ Emergent is developing next-generation anthrax and Zika vaccines.

50 CBNW 2018/02

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CBRN POLICY Col (Dr) Ram Athavale explains the importance of formulating CBRN policies in developing countries

Courtesy of the author

ŠInt. Federation of Red Cross & Red Crescent Societies

A biohazard symbol decorates a bus in Africa.

Mitigating risk in the CBRN risks and threats, natural, accidental or terrorist related, loom large on all nations of the world. These threats do not differentiate between developing or developed states. However, national priorities, level of poverty, economy and state of development and industrialisation dictate the level of importance being given

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to accepting and addressing CBRN threats and risks BRN threats are seen as Western or developed nations’ problems. In reality, they are greater in developing countries due to various other pressing issues. In most developing nations, issues like poverty, lack of health infrastructure, conflict situations, unstable governments, lack of good educational facilities, ignorance of or inability to provide adequate safety measures and rampant corruption at all levels are issues that take precedence. While some countries are well aware of the CBRN risks and national vulnerabilities to these, the situation in these countries inhibits taking positive action towards risk mitigation. Some countries lack basic education on health, safety and disaster management matters. Public health and personal hygiene are either ignored or not followed due to lack of funds, resources and institutional support. Growing industrialization, increased imports of chemicals and machinery, coupled with lack of, or non-stringent regulations on, customs, safety and transportation leads to huge gaps in securing these assets. Corrupt practices and lack of awareness at grassroots levels and upwards leads to accidents and environmental hazards. Such lack of laws and effective border control measures have also led to dumping of huge amounts of toxic waste by developed countries on the shores of developing nations. Waste management of toxic and hazardous substances is another key shortcoming in developing nations.

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Acceptance and awareness

Awareness of CBRN threats and risk mitigation measures is necessary at all levels. While speaking to top government officials from a developing country on CBRN risk mitigation needs, someone remarked that his country does not possess nuclear weapons - and so why are we talking of CBRN risk mitigation. There is an urgent need to educate and train all concerned stakeholders in CBRN risks and threats and the need to adopt risk mitigation measures. Recent trends show enhanced interests of terrorist groups in CBRN material. Syria and Iraq are glaring examples where industrial-grade toxic chemicals have been used to cause large numbers of casualties. Clandestine efforts have also surfaced like the attempt by Al Shabaab cadres (trained medical interns) who were caught trying to stabilize animal extract anthrax cultures in county hospital laboratories for transportation and use in European cities. The network of such operatives was found to be in African countries. There is a reported smuggling network for radiological substances in the Central Asian region. Global movement of industrial material and chemicals has also added the issue of dual-use goods. Unchecked cross border movement of toxic material and industrial goods is of concern. There was a case of 21 tons of acetic anhydride seized by Pakistani customs coming from Tanzania. It was later found that the consignment originated elsewhere but changed four to five owners before landing at Karachi. The chemical is used in


CBRN POLICY Avian flu incidents have led to culling of large flocks of birds in many parts of the world.

CBRN specialists from South Korean KCSF participate in a counter-terrorism drill at a subway station.

©Wiki24

developing world CBRN firstresponder training is conducted at National Civil Defence College, Nagpur, India. Hazardous material CBRN technician training conducted in Kenya.

heroin production and manufacture of IEDs and was destined for the northwest borders of Pakistan.

Recommendations

©US Africa Command

Reinforcing resilience against CBRN threats in terms of prevention, preparedness and response requires significant investments on the part of states. Countries need to make a focused CBRN risk mitigation strategy. This is a key document providing understanding of CBRN threats, risks and national vulnerabilities. It also gives out key objectives for a country to  CBNW 2018/02 53


CBRN POLICY SOUND CBRN RISK MITIGATION CAPABILITIES DEPEND ON:

CBRN RISK MITIGATION: KEY PILLARS

Realistic and detailed assessment of CBRN threats and risks, to include direct and indirect threats from: € Natural outbreaks and mining

Enhancement programmes are a must for enhancing public and stakeholder awareness of CBRN risks. € Ensuring a more robust preparedness for and response to CBRN security incidents. Dedicated Incident command system and duly (and regularly) trained and equipped response teams would form the backbone of effective response to a CBRN incident, with correct use of technology matched with domestic expertise

€ Accidents at industries, laboratories, storage warehouses € Transportation and handling hazardous substances € Deliberate spread of toxic substances, terrorism related incidents € Risk and threat assessments should be coupled with vulnerability assessments to get the real picture of the problem. Risk zoning and identification of high-risk facilities and areas is important € Institution of effective laws and regulations for all aspects of CBRN matters to cover prevention, protection, response and recovery € These laws should be in consonance with the country and domestically adopt its essential commitments towards International legal instruments, conventions, protocols and treaties in the field of CBRN risk mitigation: CBRN safety and CBRN security matters

€ Reducing the accessibility of CBRN materials. While response to a CBRN incident is vital, adequate emphasis on preventive measures is a prime need, with effective laws and their optimal enforcement backed by safety and security protocols € Building stronger internal-external links in CBRN security with key regional and international partners. To mitigate CBRN risks of criminal, accidental or natural origin requires a very high level of co-operation and co-ordination, both between different national agencies as well as among countries and international and regional organizations € Exchange of knowledge and expertise in the area of CBRN are crucial considering there is lack of harmonization of national prevention measures and preparedness and that fragmentation of information sharing and responsibilities exists at international level. These reduce the effectiveness of prevention strategies and compromise a proper response during a crisis situation

€ They must be backed by dedicated management agencies, ministries and organisations to ensure optimal enforcement of these laws. The CBRN security governance approach should cover prevention, detection, protection, preparedness and response

empower itself for negating or mitigating the threats, risks and vulnerabilities. The objectives spelt out in the CBRN Strategy should be achieved through a CBRN Plan. This should bring out existing status of CBRN risk mitigation apparatus and measures instituted. It should also identify the gaps in the CBRN risk mitigation and address the gaps by laying down activities to be undertaken by specific ministries and agencies with firm timelines and budgets. The plan should lay down the lead agencies for various actions and also give supporting ministries and agencies a whole-government approach towards CBRN risk mitigation. Tackling CBRN risks requires a horizontal approach, cutting across diverse areas and actors such as law enforcement, emergency

©EU CBRN CoE

Zambian CBRN response personnel undergo training as part of EU-sponsored project.

©FPRI

On 6 March 2015, 22 canisters, each weighing 45-70kg and containing radioactive cobalt-60, were stolen from a Poznan warehouse in Poland.

management, protection of critical infrastructure and public spaces, public health, and the private sector. Hence it should be closely coordinated with all relevant stakeholders in the CBRN field. Increased globalization and industrial growth has enhanced availability of CBRN material worldwide. While curbs and restrictions are in place, clandestine movement of toxic hazardous substances continues unabated. Developing nations with grave issues to tackle like poverty, corruption, unemployment and lack of basic resources may find it difficult and unrealistic to deal with CBRN threats. However, CBRN risks know no boundaries. All countries need to empower themselves against the menace of CBRN threats and risks and institute optimal measures to deal with them. zy

Col (Dr) Ram Athavale has been a Key Advisor to the Government of India on CBRN Security and Incident Management. Currently he is deployed as a Key CBRN Expert for On-Site Technical Assistance to the EU CBRN Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence Regional Secretariat at Nairobi, Kenya. 54 CBNW 2018/02


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BUILDINGS PROTECTION Katja Kiukas examines CBRN threats in buildings and sets out ways to enhance preparedness

SAFE HOUSE Have you ever thought how many years of your life you spend in buildings? From your home to the office, factories, schools, hospitals, shopping centres and transportation hubs – buildings form our modern 24/7 environment. Considering how much time people spend indoors, occupants, properties and businesses must be protected from a range of threats – including CBRN

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or most types of premises the acquisition and use of video surveillance systems, control of access, crash- and attackresistant bollards, and explosives detectors provide protection. But when it comes to CBRN threats, the story becomes more complicated.

Accidental and deliberate

Terrorist and other malign threats against buildings and their occupants include vehicle rammings, bombings and cyber-attacks. Indoor facilities involved in governmental, educational, cultural, financial, commercial and industrial operations and, especially, critical infrastructure, are perennial and attractive targets for terrorism. As well as intentional CBRN attacks, accidental releases affecting buildings are of considerable concern. According to analysis by the Major Accident Hazards 56 CBNW 2018/02

Bureau for the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), there were 668 chemical incidents involving fatalities, heavy environmental costs or social disruption worldwide between October 2016 and September 2017. Possible threat scenarios include e.g. the following: a toxic gas is released from a nearby chemical warehouse; a stolen truck of chlorine is detonated outside a workplace; a radicalized contractor worker or insider disperses radioactive or hazardous biological agent via the HVAC (heating, ventilation & air conditioning) system into an office. What happened in Salisbury and Kuala Lumpur to a few unfortunate individuals may take place anywhere – and possibly on a wider scale, and with different, and possibly improvised, CBRN agents. While most buildings occupants do not think constantly about these threats,

employers and buildings security managers have to plan accordingly. Although CBRN events are typically of low-probability, they are of highconsequence – and countries are currently facing challenging and evolving threat environments. Terrorists look for and find new methods to cause panic, disruption, loss of life and economic damage. Threat agents may end up in the hands of well-trained terrorists or criminals who will exploit lack of protection in a building or our preparedness to detect and tackle attacks in the early stages.

Building vulnerabilities

Buildings are vulnerable to indoor and outdoor releases of CBRN threat agents for many reasons. Buildings are still constructed in accordance with building codes that lack any substantial design considerations intended to prevent or


BUILDINGS PROTECTION

A PARTNER IN BUILDING PROTECTION Environics Oy, a Finnish company with over 30 years’ experience in CBRN detection, provides scalable CBRN monitoring systems for buildings protection. Environics works with building designers, administrators, security experts and integrators to create and implement proportional CBRN monitoring for buildings.

High-profile buildings are attractive targets for CBRN terrorism. ©Shutterstock

minimize the impact caused by CBRN attacks. Guidance and strategies are defined for tackling CBRN threats in critical buildings on a national level, but no related legislative and effective regulation exists, except for safety directives such as SEVESO. The main EU legislation dealing with the control of onshore major It is vital to identify of the sources of possible CBRN threats and the most vulnerable assets and locations most likely to be targeted in buildings.

accident hazards involving dangerous substances, SEVESO aims to reduce major accidents in the EU involving dangerous chemicals in industrial establishments where dangerous substances are used or stored in large quantities. Buildings are vulnerable enclosed spaces where masses of people gather for long periods. They receive mail and ©Environics Oy/ Shutterstock

cargo and have high occupant density compared to outdoor areas. When a building has unrestricted public access, harmful quantities of CBRN agents could be handdelivered into the building or introduced directly into its ventilation system.

Dispersal of CBRN agents

HVAC systems and movement of people can effectively transport harmful airborne material throughout the facilities. Enclosed spaces with rather stable atmospheric conditions can retain high CBRN agent concentrations and reduce the amount and durability requirements for the release agents. In the wider context, buildings and their occupants are prone to airborne, waterborne or foodborne contamination. CBRN agents can be used to contaminate the air transported into a building, or be disseminated into the water supply or contaminate the food served in the facility. Although a successful CBRN release does not destroy the building itself, it causes casualties and fatalities, destroys the functions of the building, interrupts business and leads to  CBNW 2018/02 57


BUILDINGS PROTECTION Environics provides plug-and-play CRN detectors with effortless and cost-effective integration to existing building management platforms.

©Environics Oy/Shutterstock

©Environics Oy

EnviScreen CBRN Monitoring systems with dedicated CBRN detectors, data processing and system software are a turnkey component of building protection.

contamination of the building contents and occupants. Depending on the severity of the incident, targeted buildings may be inaccessible for significant periods of time and require expensive and time-consuming decontamination processes and sometimes even demolition or rebuilding.

Risk assessment

A well-defined, predictive strategy that covers phases from design to deployment helps to implement appropriate and proportional CBRN protection, safety and security measures for buildings. As indicated in the US Department of Homeland Security’s Reference Manual, a successful protection strategy originates from a risk management framework that defines the processes for combining threat, consequences, and vulnerability information. This is based on a comprehensive, systematic, and rational assessment of risks. The risk assessment provides the basis for prioritizing protective activities for reducing the risk – by improving the performance of buildings and their operations.

active or passive countermeasures, and installing security systems. Building designs have to include both physical security measures and resilience as objectives of an integrated design process to reduce the risks from CBRN releases. If building administrators can maintain continuity of operations, the organization’s key functions will not be Buildings are vulnerable to accidental and deliberate CBRN releases.

significantly affected by an event – and will gain increased resilience and a lowered overall risk. In the changing threat environment, it is vital to identify the sources of possible CBRN threats and the most vulnerable assets and locations most likely to be targeted in high-occupancy buildings. Similarly, it is important to establish solid co-operation with all the stakeholders – including the authorities and first responders – and to determine which automated responses, processes, and capabilities need improvement. Many tools, techniques, and products are available for the design of new build and renovation of existing buildings to reduce vulnerabilities to accidental and intentional CBRN releases and their consequences, and to increase building performance and resilience. The steps towards preparedness and prevention can be taken by combining passive and active protective measures, with enhanced physical and operational safety and security, mechanical response systems, and CBRN sensor systems that are integrated cost-effectively with existing building management platforms. Selection of components for building protection requires evaluation of many facility-specific aspects on a case by case basis. Buildings vary in their locations, surrounding areas, facility operations, resistance to infiltration of outside air, leakiness of air transport systems, degree of physical security available, public access, training of occupants, and level of personal protection on site – and in the ability of the surrounding resources to respond to CBRN incidents. Active protection is scaled to achieve the level desired for a particular building. Depending on unique needs and requirements, detection capabilities

Effective protection strategy

Protection incorporates hazard resistance into initial facility design, initiating 58 CBNW 2018/02

©Shutterstock


BUILDINGS PROTECTION ©Environics Oy/US DHS/FEMA

Risk assessment covering threats, vulnerabilities and consequences is a starting point for determining protective measures.

CBRN threats is a challenging task. It is difficult to estimate the risks or even predict how, why and when a CBRN incident will take place. Rather than relying on luck, security managers must protect buildings by being prepared in a continuous improvement cycle of prevention, preparation, response and lesson learning in every effort to prevent the worst. ❚❙ can be built upon turnkey solutions provided by CBRN detectors, data processing and system software, or fixed installed, plug-and-play CRN detectors with effortless integration to existing building management systems. Enhancing safety and security and making indoor facilities resilient against

An effective protection strategy combines passive and active protective measures with operational responses to tackle CBRN threats to buildings.

Katja Kiukas, MSc, BBA has over 10 years of application, business and technology expertise in biodetection and CBRN monitoring systems for naval vessels, land vehicles, area monitoring and critical infrastructure protection. She is currently Product Manager for Bio Detection and CBRN Systems and Application Specialist for Building CBRN Monitoring at Environics Oy, Finland.

©Environics Oy/US DHS/FEMA

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PANDEMICS

ONE WORLD, ONE HEALTH Gary Flory sets out ways to combat pandemic threats A pandemic is the greatest threat humanity faces. The 1918 ‘Spanish’ flu sickened a staggering 500 million people and killed nearly 50 million. More recently, the 2014 Ebola crisis killed more than 11,000 and the swine-flu pandemic of 2009 may have killed up to

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203,000 people worldwide.

ith increasing global travel and trade and population growth resulting in more interactions between humans, wildlife, and livestock, infectious disease threats are increasing rapidly. In 2017 Bill Gates warned “The next epidemic could originate on the computer screen of a terrorist intent on using genetic engineering to create synthetic versions... of a super contagious and deadly strain of the flu.” Naturally occurring or intentionally introduced, we must prepare for the next infectious disease outbreak.

Fighting back with One Health

To combat these ever-increasing threats, the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) was launched in February 2014 to strengthen both global capacity and each individual nation’s capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious diseases threats. Since that date, the GHSA has expanded to include over 60 countries. The initiative brings together nations, international organizations, and non-governmental stakeholders to make measurable strides to address public health emergencies. It supports collaboration not just among countries but also between public health, agriculture, security, and environmental sectors. The GHSA is one way to operationalize the One Health concept—the idea that the health of humans, animals, and the environment is inextricably connected. As described on the GHSA website, the vision of the initiative is a world safe and secure from global health threats posed by infectious diseases whether naturally occurring,

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Decontamination procedures are exercised in Malaysia.


PANDEMICS

“Whether it occurs by a quirk of nature or at the hand of a terrorist, epidemiologists say a fast-moving airborne pathogen could kill more than 30 million people in less than a year” MICROSOFT CO-FOUNDER BILL GATES

disease and include efforts to address antimicrobial resistance, zoonotic diseases, biosafety and security, and immunization. Of the 1,415 pathogens known to infect humans, 61% of those disease organisms are zoonotic – transmitted from animals to humans. Examples are avian influenza, rabies, Ebola, and anthrax. To reduce the emergence and spread of infections of zoonotic diseases, the first step is to identify the diseases not only in humans but also in wildlife and livestock. With enhanced animal disease surveillance, it may be possible to identify and respond to disease outbreaks before they pose a significant risk to human populations. Once identified in an animal population, responders can implement measures to prevent the spread of the disease within the animal population and minimize human exposure. A comprehensive animal disease response plan may include quarantine in infected animals, vaccination, movement control, enhanced surveillance, stamping out, carcass disposal, and facility disinfection. Strategies will vary depending on the disease organism and the type of animal infected. The Biosafety and Biosecurity Action Package focuses on the storage and handling of dangerous pathogens. This is important to avoid not only the theft and intentional misuse of pathogens, but also the accidental release and spread of diseases. Implementing effective biosecurity programmes requires extensive training wherever these organisms exist. Strong biosecurity protocols can often be more difficult to implement in the agricultural setting than in the controlled laboratory environment. Preventative  Action Packages are designed to address microbial

©2013 Gary Flory

deliberate, or accidental. The pathway to this vision is organized around three main objectives: to prevent, detect, and respond to disease threats. Within these three broad objectives are eleven specific targets critical to the goals of the GHSA. These targets are identified as Action Packages and were developed by participating countries during two commitment development meetings in 2014. Each Action Package includes a five-year target, an indicator to measure progress, desired outcomes, country commitments, and long-term actions.

Preventing zoonotic disease

The Action Packages focus on preventing avoidable

DETECTING THREATS EARLY This second broad objective of the GHSA includes four Action Packages: 1 2 3 4

National laboratory systems Real-time surveillance Reporting Workforce development

These save lives by improving our ability to quickly identify disease outbreaks, share disease detection information with public health officials, and train staff to detect and investigate disease outbreaks.

CBNW 2018/02 61


PANDEMICS resistance and to prevent death and illness through the implementation of a robust vaccination programme.

Responding to disease threats

The third and final objective is to enhance response to confirmed disease threats. In a disaster, the difference between success and failure often lies in the effectiveness of communications. Emergency Operations Centres with well-trained staff are able to efficiently monitor and respond to disasters by deploying resources where they can do the most good. The action packages Linking Public Health Law & Multisectoral Rapid Response and Medical Countermeasures & Personnel Deployment support the deployment of trained, cross sector responders from the Emergency Operations Centre.

Measuring capabilities

At the heart of the GHSA is the country assessment conducted by a standardized Joint External Evaluation (JEE) process. This measures a country’s current capabilities and progress toward building capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats, and highlights gaps in capabilities. As a two-stage process, JEE includes a self-evaluation

“Most of the new and emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses. Accordingly, they occur at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in remote areas in the tropics with limited infrastructure and resources, while the capacity to run diagnostic assays is centralized in national or regional laboratories. Valuable time is lost and correct diagnosis missed due to sample transport delays and inferior sample quality. Valid diagnostic results start with correct sampling procedure and sample processing.” EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE SPECIALIST DR KATHERINE KOPP

Vaccination programme in Mogadishu. ©Wikimedia

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Decontamination procedures are implemented following a zoonotic animal disease outbreak.

©2013 Gary Flory

GHSA SUCCESSES  County-level One Health units in Kenya conducting joint human and animal health outbreak investigations  Successful piloting of an event-based surveillance programme in Vietnam that engages local community leaders  Significantly increased rates of reporting and investigating human and animal diseases in Cote d’Ivoire GLOBAL HEALTH SECURITY AGENDA MEMBER COUNTRIES* Afghanistan

India

Saudi Arabia

Argentina

Indonesia

Senegal

Australia

Israel

Sierra Leone

Azerbaijan

Italy

Singapore

Bangladesh

Japan

South Africa

Burkina Faso

Jordan

Spain

Cameroon

Kenya

Sweden

Canada

Laos

Switzerland

Chile

Liberia

Tanzania

China

Malaysia

Thailand

Colombia

Mali

Togo

Côte d'Ivoire

Mexico

Turkey

Democratic Republic of Congo

Mongolia

Uganda

Denmark

Netherlands

Ukraine

Ethiopia

Nigeria

United Arab Emirates

Finland

Norway

United Kingdom

France

Pakistan

United States

Georgia

Peru

Vietnam

Germany

Philippines

Yemen

Ghana

Portugal

Zimbabwe

Guinea

Republic of the Congo

Guinea-Bissau

Republic of Korea

* as of February 2018


PANDEMICS Food and Agricultural Organization, and others. The Joint External Evaluation Team and experts from the host country assign scores to the country’s capabilities in the 19 areas covered in JEE. As well as scoring each area the team identifies strengths, best practices, areas of improvement, challenges, and priority actions. The information collected is published in a Joint External Evaluation Mission Report containing some 60 priority actions identified in the external evaluation process.

Filling the gaps

A healthcare worker wears protective clothing at a field hospital in Monrovia, Liberia, during the Ebola epidemic in 2014.

©Wikimedia

conducted by in-country representatives from ministries of health, agriculture, wildlife, environment and defence. Together these stakeholders collect the necessary information to evaluate the country’s capabilities to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious diseases. An external evaluation follows the self-evaluation phase. This is conducted by a Joint External Evaluation Team made up of experts from member countries, the World Health Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health, the

With the gaps and priority actions identified through JEE, countries can develop a five-year action plan to address gaps in capabilities. Called Roadmaps, these plans include annual milestones and provide a way to prioritize and match action items to available resources, and a way for potential funders to identify projects that match their organization’s mission. Since its launch in 2014, membership in the GHSA has risen steadily from 40 participating countries to over 60. Each year more JEEs are conducted, Roadmaps developed, and priority action items addressed to increase our global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats. ❚❙ Gary Flory is the Agricultural Program Manager for the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. He also founded G.A. Flory Consulting, a global consulting firm, to help clients with a range of services including animal disease and natural disaster response, agricultural emergency planning, and emergency response training.

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COMMUNICATIONS

“What we’ve got here is… Dee Ruelas looks at success and failures in 50 years of the 9-1-1 system

FAILURE TO Screen shot from the film Cool Hand Luke. ©Warner Bros

On 16 February 1968, in Haleyville, Alabama, the first 9-1-1 call was placed in the United States. This year we are celebrating 50 years of our emergency communications system. Much has changed over those five decades given the explosion and expansion of technology – and

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ix days later the second call was placed in Nome, Alaska. This was the dawn of a new age in emergency communications, and although it was an exciting time, it would still be a decade or more before most of the country would have full access to this life-saving system. Today, in some jurisdictions, you can access 9-1-1 from a wireless phone. The dispatcher will be able to pinpoint your location to within a matter of metres, even if you are unable to give them your location. The preponderance of cell towers, more and improved satellites, more and better carriers and providers, upgrades in communications centres – and the hard work put in by agencies like the National Emergency Numbering Association (NENA) and Association of Public Safety Communications Officers (APCO), as well as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) – all come together to provide the state-of-the-art emergency communications and notifications systems we herald as the best yet in our history. This system, even in its simplest form, has helped to save countless lives and warn our citizens of imminent danger going back to the Cold War era. Many of us in the ‘baby boomer’ generation still remember the civil defence sirens going off on a Saturday morning each month for that regular test of the system. Those sirens are still used, albeit upgraded, to warn of tornadoes and other severe weather events today. They can also be called upon to alert for other more nefarious events such as an imminent attack on our nation by another.

When the system fails

People are not flawless and technology certainly is not without its flaws, catastrophic at times. We are all aware when there is 64 CBNW 2018/02

much still needs to be done an overload of the 9-1-1 system and for a brief period some calls do not get through, the line actually has rung ‘busy’, or callers are held in a queue until a dispatcher can take their call. This generally occurs when a major event has taken place, usually locally – like a major weather event, major motor vehicle accident, explosion, large fire or active shooter situation. After a few minutes the call volume dies down, the reports have been taken, emergency units are dispatched and responding – and the normal call volume to the communications centre returns to daily ebb and flow. What happens when the system is supposed to notify the citizens of an imminent threat and it does not work? What if the system is being tested and someone makes an error, suddenly causing the drill to become a real world event? We saw such a failure of the Emergency Alert System in Oahu, Hawaii in January. Due to both human error and a lack of adequate failsafe backup measures for the technology that was in place, a major failure occurred resulting in a drill becoming a real world event by the push of a wrong button. This can happen anywhere if you do not take


COMMUNICATIONS ©US Forest Service

COMMUNICATE”

Bottom far left (previous page) and above: The Yarnell, AZ fire began on 28 June 2013 from a lightning strike around 3 km away.

care of business in your ‘house.’

All-alerts approach

An operator takes a call at the Jackson, Tennessee 911 Dispatch Center.

FEMA/Mark Wolfe

If you can’t communicate with your team and they can’t communicate with you or each other, you have a serious, potentially life-threatening problem. Added to which, if you can’t communicate with your citizens, quickly, clearly and effectively to warn them of imminent danger, or you can’t run a drill without inadvertently sending your population into a full-blown running panic, you again have a serious, potentially life-threatening problem. Do we have agencies at risk of this happening still? Yes. All levels of government, Federal, State and Local, from the White House to small rural towns, need to thoroughly examine their emergency alert notification systems. And it needs to be done from an all-alerts perspective. If we are unable to communicate in times of emergency with our citizens, then we have failed them at a basic level. Military and civilian communications

An image of the alert erroneously sent to cellphones in Hawaii on 13 January 2018. Human error by local emergency officials was blamed: an employee pushed the wrong button.

Wikipedia

HAWAII: “THIS IS NOT A DRILL” On 13 January a false incoming ballistic missile alert was issued at 8:07 a.m. local time in the state of Hawaii via the Emergency Alert System and Commercial Mobile Alert System over television, radio, and cellphones. The alert advised residents to seek shelter, and concluded “This is not a drill.” No civil defence outdoor warning sirens were authorized or sounded. A second message, sent 38 minutes later, described the first as a “false alarm.” State officials blamed a miscommunication during a drill at the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency for the first message. alike must be checked and re-checked. Redundancy is necessary, not a luxury. Equipment must be tested and upgraded. The Government needs to ensure the inviolability of our emergency communications infrastructure. Most of the time the system works, and it works well – but there have catastrophic failures: 9/11; the Yarnell Wildfire in Arizona; and the Oahu Early Warning System failure, to name but a few. We must work to ensure they are not repeated. ❚❙

Dee Ruelas is a retired Public Safety Communications Dispatcher. She is a currently a certified emergency medical technician and Instructor with ICSAVE.org and is a former radiological technologist. CBNW 2018/02 65


TRAINING

RADIATION

realism All images ŠArgon Electronics

Steven Pike describes simulation to support training and compliance In the rare event of exposure to high levels of radiation, contamination or a spill or release due to accident, nature or a deliberate act of aggression, it is crucial that exercise scenarios ensure those charged with initial response are trained to recognise, react to and contain the situation

M

ost radiation detection instruments are in themselves fairly straightforward to use. They ensure that trainees understand the full significance of detector readings that initiate any decisions or actions and the importance of changes in units of measurement. However, the effects of shielding, practice of survey, dose reduction, contamination avoidance, and decontamination procedures can be challenging to comprehend.

Hands-on experience

Equally important is the need to ensure those accountable for response management and stakeholder liaison with local and national authorities are well rehearsed in their organizational, decision making and communication processes. While theoretical understanding and classroom teaching will always have its place, nothing beats the experiential learning that can be acquired from life-like, hands-on search, monitoring and survey scenarios that accurately replicate both the complex physical conditions and the demanding psychological challenges of a live radiation incident. The vast array of legislative, administrative and Health and safety implications associated with storing, transporting and using live radiological sources or dispersing radioactive contaminants makes the use of live sources a challenging, if not unviable option for radiation safety training that simulation can help overcome.

Some typical scenarios

Training scenarios should be as simple as possible to set up – with the potential to be carried out in any location, perform  consistently, and in the context of an individual or group 66 CBNW 2018/02

PlumeSIM is being used in this radiation field exercise.


TRAINING exercise, provide the ability to review trainees’ performance to enhance learning outcomes. Students need to interpret instrumentation readings, understand the significance of any changes in the units of measurement, the importance of personal dose, and the significance of shielding, time, distance and inverse square law (1/r2). They also need to practice relaying their findings to those further up the chain of command accurately. Response teams may be called to identify and contain an accidental release of an isotope as the result of damage to equipment containing a sealed radioactive source – such as a cell irradiator, which can contain a 137Cs source >2000 Ci [74 TBq]), or a laboratory X-ray machine. Accidental releases may also occur due to the incorrect storing, handling, transport, or disposal of radioactive material or waste. Industrial incidents that response teams may need to manage include a leak of ionizing radiation due to damage to an X-ray generator used for security inspection, or Positive Materials Identification (PMI) of the accidental release of radioactive isotopes, or sources during non-destructive testing (NDT). Incidents can also result from road traffic accidents involving vehicles that transport radiological sources.

Acts of aggression

While deliberate acts involving a radiological source are rare, the potentially devastating impact of nuclear terrorism makes it crucial for response teams to be comprehensively trained to handle such events. Threats include use of an explosive or similar means to

deliberately distribute radionuclides, a mobile radioactive source carried on a person or in a vehicle, the deliberate placing or dumping of a container of radioactive material in a public place, or the theft of a radioactive source – such as the suspected inadvertent theft of an iridium-192 medical source in Mexico in April 2015.

Practical application

Safe and environmentally friendly radiation training systems can be used in a variety of scenarios, both indoor and outdoor, for beta/gamma search and survey, radionuclide identification, contamination monitoring, and dose and dose rate measurement. Simulators offer significant time-saving advantages. They mitigate – indeed

CIVIL NUCLEAR FACILITY INCIDENTS Since 2014 there have been more than 100 serious nuclear accidents and incidents from the use of nuclear power. These include: Three Mile Island – 28 March 1979: the nuclear emergency in Unit 2 (TMI-2) of the TMI power plant near Middletown, Pennsylvania: the most serious incident in US commercial nuclear operating history Chernobyl, Pripyat, Ukraine – 25-26 April 1986: the world’s most severe facility incident was attributed to a combination of human error and violation of procedures. These have been well documented and underpin the need for thorough training and testing of all procedures and drills Fukushima, Japan – 11 March 2011: the tsunami that followed the Tohuku earthquake disabled the generators that would have powered the cooling system pumps at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in Okuma, resulting in catastrophic failure and subsequent release 68 CBNW 2018/02

German THW using the FH40G simulator.

eliminate – the costly and time-consuming administrative effort associated with the transport, deployment, safe handling of radionuclides to the training facility and source end-of-life costs. Renting locations where sources are permitted, transporting and accommodating students is also expensive.

Replicating radiation

Radiation behaves as it does due to the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which it exists, coupled with the nature for the source. A single isotropic or directional emitter or particles producing contamination/fallout or liquid presents specific challenges when we try to implement simulation. Ultimately you will want to consider what you want your trainees to experience during the exercise and the learning outcomes you seek, and accept that achieving this has priority over specific physical representations of what occurs in reality. For many operatives the detailed physics are inappropriate. Replica detectors ensure that trainees learn to trust the values displayed on their instruments and that they develop an understanding of the relationship between the measurements on their survey meter and their own personal dose readings. They will also experience and understand the real-time effects of Time, Distance, Shielding and any dose alarms that may be activated.

Simulating contamination

For contamination exercises, options 


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TRAINING Right: PlumeSIM shows the plume emanating from Esso Fawley refinery. Bottom Left: This plume shows a simulated radiological release from a nuclear power station for survey training. Bottom Right: The app-based PlumeSIMSMART radiation simulator is shown in field exercise mode.

include the placement of powder or liquid substances that can represent an actual contaminant – not just on people, but also food and being soluble, to simulate contaminated water. These substances have the advantage of simulating cross-contamination and are often ideal to teach the handling of open sources in a laboratory environment, for example. Alternative methods include the ability to hide a safe item underneath a surface such as clothing or a protective suit, to simulate contamination for the instructor to influence the maximum level or reading – and to simulate partial or full decontamination based upon observation of the task.

Simulating gamma and beta emitters Simulation of gamma and high-energy beta emitters present their own unique challenges – but within reason, are feasible. Simulation sources are able to represent either specific radionuclides or mixes, which can present simulated readings on simulated dose, dose-rate meters and spectrometers. While shielding effects may not be 70 CBNW 2018/02

100% accurately simulated, the results achieved certainly provide training value with shielding represented to a reasonable degree. This enables students to appreciate its importance for protection; however, instructors need to clarify the appropriate differences for the lesson being delivered.

Better learning outcomes

Practical training sessions, especially when team-based, always reinforce learning. Software based tools that facilitate table-top and field exercises in particular make powerful use of afteraction review (AAR), which can help ensure trainees follow clearly set out procedures, and understand where improvements to be implemented in future training exercises. Immersive training that replicates all the elements of a real-life incident, exposing trainees to the range of emotional responses they may encounter in high-stress settings, imparts great impact upon students. Ultimately what is important for all aspects of simulation is the need to clarify your training objectives to apply the most suitable

technology to achieve the desired outcomes; enhance training, and verify procedures. Simulated radiation safety training has a crucial role to play in efficient and effective response to any radiological incident or emergency, whether small or large in scale -either accidental release or a deliberate terrorist act – in addition to enhancing day-to-day practices. ❚❙ Steven Pike is the founder of Argon Electronics and has been granted a number of international patents in the field of hazardous material simulation. Established in 1987, Argon has become a world leader in the development and manufacture of hazardous material detector simulators.


COUNTRY PROFILE

North Korea’s

Brig Gen (Ret) Dr Xavier Stewart looks inside Pandora’s Box in North Korea and discovers an existential CBN threat

The North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un has recently changed the calculus on the ability of the United States to pre-emptively strike his nation. His previous belligerence and reckless use of missile system launches, continued nuclear testing and articulated threats to reach Guam, Hawaii or the US mainland and beyond has become an existential threat to the US and its allies

©Dr Bruce Teft

The North Koreans possess the type of missile that could launch a chemical or bioweapon system. ©Dr Bruce Teft

K

im’s cunning, strategically planned high-level delegation meetings with South Korea and entry into the Winter Olympics has broken the two-year stalemate between the two nations. This move has placed a wedge between the US and South Korea, which would like to see a diplomatic solution to North Korea’s aggression. Will Kim’s engagement continue beyond the Winter Olympics event, the subsequent summit with President Trump, and Kim’s ‘promise’ to denuclearise? Or will he return to the status quo of his past reckless behaviour? Much will depend on whether he gets some of his

72 CBNW 2018/02

demands met. While the international community is increasingly alarmed about North Korea’ nuclear weapons arsenal – the latest test attaining an estimated yield of 100 kilotons (kt), 20-60 nuclear warheads, and a possible ICBM reach to continental US and central Europe – a growing concern is its biological and chemical arsenal.

Chemical and biological stocks

North Korea possesses thousands of tons of chemical weapons (CW), including nerve, blister, blood, and vomiting agents, as well as some biological weapons (BW), including anthrax, cholera, and even smallpox, previously thought to be held in one facility each in the US and Russia. Whether it has nano-weapons, bio-regulators, genetically modified and engineered warfare agents and other toxic nanoparticles that could

be released in the environment is uncertain. Accurately assessing North Korea’s biological warfare capability is challenging at best – since large-scale pesticide production facilities and biotechnology centres have dual-use potentialities. In 2014 South Korea estimated that its Northern neighbour had stockpiled 2,500 to 5,000 tons of CW and had the capacity to produce a variety of BW. If so, North Korea has the potential to launch clandestine and asymmetrical attacks in South Korea’s rear areas, Japan and even the US – targeting projection and deployment platforms at selected bases. In 2015, when US forces accidentally brought live Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis samples to Osan Air Force base in South Korea, it validated false beliefs and narratives from North Korea and may have caused them to increase their biological and chemical programmes.

Delivering CBW

Added to North Korea’s reputedly strong


COUNTRY PROFILE

other WMD

In this US military exercise mock casualties are treated and decontaminated. ©Dr Xavier Stewart

conventional capability of 8,000 rocket launchers and artillery cannons and a million-strong army, it has 120,000 highly trained special-operations soldiers. Special Operations Forces armed with CBW could disrupt most military targets if delivered properly. This would cause high morbidity and mortality rates. In addition to clandestine operations, North Korea’s missile systems could deliver aerosolized CBW against a variety

of military and civilian targets in South Korea. For example, the scientific community has posited that 1 kg of anthrax could spread lethal effects over 3 sq km, depending on meteorological environmental factors, aerosolization and weaponization constructs, and stabilization of the agent. With an estimated population density of 20,000 people per sq km in the South Korean capital Seoul, some 50,000 people could be adversely affected per kilogram of anthrax. 13 February 2017: Kim Jong-nam, the half-brother of the North Korean leader, died en route to hospital after a woman rubbed a chemical onto his face in Kuala Lumpur airport terminal. Tests conducted by Malaysian police confirmed the chemical was the highly toxic nerve agent VX.

Potential for a pandemic

In 2007, 900 million people travelled the globe as far afield as Africa, Alaska, Australia, and Southeast Asia. Cambodia alone hosted 856,000 tourists in 2007. As travel becomes more readily available and affordable, the transport of a weaponized highly infectious biological agent (WHIBA) released by North Korea is  a possible pandemic scenario. CBNW 2018/02 73


COUNTRY PROFILE The mounting risk of a worldwide pandemic event would become reality if North Korea released a WHIBA like smallpox. The release of such a weapon system in airports would be catastrophic due to its high infectivity and morbidity, with much of the world’s population no longer immune. North Korea would pose an overwhelming public health management and economic problem that would weaken even the most robust health care delivery system. The devastating consequences of a WHIBA event would kill a large number of individuals and dramatically reduce the number of available workers in all sectors of a nation’s workforce by up to 40%. Critically important employees would be similarly affected placing a nation at risk in terms of national defence and disruption in the movement of people and essential goods. These dire consequences would threaten essential services across any nation and disrupt critical infrastructure and diminish key resources, adversely impacting continuity of operations and continuity of government.

Cornering a rat

ous, increasingly uncertain, and complex when dealing with a world community of over 195 states. I posit that the diplomatic, moral, political, economic and military obligations that reside in any international strategic leadership construct requires world leaders to look at all options with a high degree of patience to any existential threat – before using kinetic force.

Diplomacy and leadership

With a potential worldwide biological pandemic in mind diplomacy, collaboration, coordination, communication and command constructs in decision-making processes with Kim Jong-Un is paramount. The world community must provide clarity, understanding, vision, leadership and direction through unambiguous policy in this complex and uncertain era. The US and its allies must consider a diplomatic approach for North Korea that incorporates an analytical cultural framework for strategy and policy (ACFSP) formulation. This must guide US policy. In the current dynamically changing global environment, American

leadership in this geopolitical, multilateral relationship with the Trans-Pacific nations can help to stabilize this region. And through collaborative efforts between the US and these nations, the global powers can share a sense of purpose and make mutually beneficial decisions. By incorporating ACFSP, these nation’s leaders and policy makers can formulate policy through the cultural, political, and religious lens of North Korea. These leaders will then be able to adopt methods that mitigate bias and encourage internal support to create decisionmaking environments that accommodate competing strategic plans. By doing so, the US and regional partners will be able to work with North Korea to solve this existential threat. ❚❙ Dr Xavier Stewart is a retired Brigadier General (PA) and is currently President and CEO of Stewart and Associates, a company which helps the US Government combat WMD, develop biological laboratory protocols, security measures, and national policies on homeland defence.

Cornering a rat, forces it to bite. North Korea has the potential to bite quite hard. UN sanctions may have isolated the country but it has not impacted adversely its military machine. Today, over 90% of North Korea’s trade is with China. The world community has a responsibility to ensure that a CBRN war on the Korean Peninsula is prevented at all costs. The global strategic environment has always remained turbulent. World leaders are faced with the juxtaposition of deterrence versus preemption on global security matters. The security environment is always volatile, ambigu-

Specialist US units train and prepare for the worst scenario. ©Lt Col William Oberholtzer

74 CBNW 2018/02


DETECTION Phil Duffy casts a wide net for safe ports, safe roads, and safe towns

What’s in the BOX? All images © 2018 Passport Systems, Inc.

Trade depends on travel. Whether travel by ocean or highway, virtually all goods arrive at your local store by public travel routes. For bad actors intent on smuggling nuclear material or other contraband into the country, each container port represents an open door. But for the government, each of these ports represents a potential chokepoint against the smugglers

T

he United States has over 19,200 km (12,000 miles) of coastline, and most international cargo arrives through 26 cargo container ports; the UK has almost 12,800 km (8,000 miles) of coastline and five such ports.

What’s in the box?

After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, cargo inspection was elevated as a prime concern for national security. In 2002, the US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) launched the Container Security Initiative (CSI) to increase safety for cargo shipped from overseas ports to the US. Subsequently, the SAFE Port Act of 2006 and the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 mandated that 100% of foreign-originating cargo be screened before entering the US. 76 CBNW 2018/02

Under this mandate, cargo can be inspected at the port of origin, or at the port of entry into the US, changing these ports from open doors to chokepoints. Classic cargo container inspection techniques provide limited information about the cargo. An X-ray image shows relative densities, but no identification as to what the material is or whether it actually matches what is declared. A hands-on inspection can take hours, requiring unloading the container with forklift or handcart, opening every cubic inch of volume, and verifying that all content matches the manifest.

Next-generation scanning

SmartScan 3D technologies provide the next generation of technologies to help improve the inspection process. Operating much like a conventional carwash, the cargo and its carrier are

loaded into the scanner, and the doors are closed. (The driver exits the scanner before the X-ray begins.) A network of passive radiation detectors in the walls sense and locate any radioactive material as cargo is being loaded. As cargo moves through the scanner, a 9MeV X-ray beam sweeps through every cubic inch. Sensors along the walls watch the backscattered X-rays; sensors in the floor watch how much of the X-ray beam is transmitted through the cargo; and specialized sensors provide active detection of nuclear material during the scan. In less than two minutes, the entire volume is scanned. The sensors in the wall measure both the quantity and the energy of the backscattered X-rays, allowing the system to identify the density and the elemental composition of the material being scanned. In the control room, the system


DETECTION SPOTTING A COBALT-60 RDD Imagine medical cobalt 60, stolen from a local hospital, added to a backpack-borne explosive, and carried to the finish line of the local marathon. During normal patrol, uniform and plainclothes officers equipped with SmartShield detectors walk among the civilian attendees. Eventually, one walks past the bad actor with the hidden RDD. When radioactive material is detected, advanced algorithms identify the material and dose rate; the system marks the location of the radioactive material and generates an alert shared with all units in the network. Police are able to isolate one individual out of a crowd of thousands.

displays a 3D reconstruction of the truck and cargo. Algorithms automatically match the ‘elemental fingerprints’ of the material, and the system displays an alert for any contraband or threat. If the X-rays caused the material to give off neutrons, the system also displays an alert for fissionable material, its location marked in the 3D reconstruction. To confirm identification, the cargo is moved back under the X-ray beam for a secondary scan. Within minutes, the material is identified with over 95% confidence, even behind many inches of steel shielding. Safe cargo can be cleared in minutes. Cargo with contraband is redirected for

On the road

Once a cargo container is cleared, it leaves the port and moves out onto national roadways, joining other international and domestic cargo. In the US, the National Highway System includes 256,000 km (160,000 miles) of roads which pass within five miles of 90% of the US population. The UK has over 48,000 km (30,000 miles) of roads and eight cities with a population exceeding 1 million. These roadways present efficient routes to move cargo, and they also provide opportunities to screen for radioactive threats that may not have entered through a port. While ports of entry present opportu-

Left: When the SafePassage system detects radiation, it correlates the source to a moving vehicle. The radiation data, vehicle image, and license plate are included in an alert to all networked responders. Right: All SmartShield dose rate data is mapped and can be observed at headquarters to monitor coverage area and watch for threats.

Above: A typical SafePassage roadway radiation monitoring system configuration uses cameras to identify vehicles, ALPRs to identify license plates, and a network of sensors to identify radioactive sources.

hands-on inspection with extreme confidence that contraband is present. Any contraband smuggled through these chokepoints is confirmed, located, and identified in minutes, all without ever opening the box.

nities for screening, domestic roadways typically do not. However, deploying radiation detectors along roadways would allow governments to detect the movement of potentially illicit radioactive material around the country. The SafePassage System adds sensitive radiation detectors and fusion algorithms to existing technology, such as Automatic License Plate Readers (ALPRs) and traffic cameras. These can be installed along roadways using existing infrastructure (bridges, lightpoles, sign gantries, etc.) in as little as a day. As vehicles drive along, the system passively monitors for radiation. Even in high-speed traffic, the system is capable of detecting and identifying a radioactive isotope, differentiating among vehicles, and capturing the target vehicle’s license plate - all in real time, all without interrupting the flow of traffic. Imagine a box-truck carrying medical cesium-137 atop an ammonium nitrate/ fuel oil explosive – in effect, a RDD (radiological dispersal device). The SafePassage system detects the radiation emitted by the cesium-137. Algorithms correlate the location of the radioactive  CBNW 2018/02 77


DETECTION Alarm conditions are shared with all users.

SmartShield G300 detector and smartphone map the radiation dose rate in real time and share data across all networked SmartShield units.

source with a specific vehicle seen by the cameras and notify law enforcement. Within minutes, police identify and locate the target vehicle, and pull it over.

The finish line

While roadside detection portals present many opportunities to stop the movement of radioactive material, they may not cover all channels. A RDD using radioactive material from a local hospital and moved to a local crowded venue would not have to use a port or highway. Fortunately, the same radiation detectors and fusion algorithms available for our roadway portals are scaled down for portable (handheld) use. Where the SmartScan 3D and SafePassage systems present chokepoints along roadways, a network of SmartShield detectors can be deployed in and among the ultimate target: people.

Using belt-worn detectors paired with smartphones, the SmartShield system detects radiation dose rate, maps its location, and shares information with all other units in the network. SmartShield detectors can also be mounted at fixed locations, like entrance gates at stadiums, acting as man-sized radiation detection portals.

harm. A cargo container at a port is just one box among hundreds. A college student with a backpack in a crowd isn’t suspicious, a fact the Tsarnaev brothers used at the Boston Marathon, and Salman Abedi used in the Manchester Arena, each to devastating effect. Radioactive material, however, won’t stay hidden. To a spectroscopic radiation detector, radioactive material stands out like a beacon in an otherwise dark landscape. Passport Systems’ network of detectors allows us to create an effective defence against radiological terrorism. ❚❙

Hiding in plain sight

Terrorism, like trade, depends on travel. And as bad actors move, they depend on blending in with the crowd to cause

Passive scanners detect radioactive material as soon as the cargo is loaded. An initial scan confirms the location and identity of nuclear material.

Cargo containers are loaded into the SmartScan 3D facility. The initial scan locates contraband; a secondary scan confirms contraband detection with over 95% confidence.

Phil Duffy has been a technical writer for 25 years. He is currently Documentation Manager at Passport Systems, Inc., which specializes in the design and development of advanced radiation detection technology. 78 CBNW 2018/02


RADIOLOGICAL SMUGGLING

ŠApplied Nuclear Physics Program

In 2016, followers of Daesh were found to be monitoring a Belgian nuclear power plant, affirming that terrorists are actively exploring ways to gain access to nuclear sites and acquire radioactive materials. That threat remains undiminished

Tracking C

the trafficking

ommon trends and patterns emerge from information showing that, for the most part, radiological materials being trafficked and which are usable for nuclear terrorism, including the deployment of radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), come from theft (more than 20% in 2015), and that most thefts take place during transport (55%).

Smuggling routes

According to the Black Sea Region trafficking report (2015-2016) the Black Sea Region is synonymous with strategic crossroads for smuggling between Europe, Asia, Transcaucasia, Russia and 80 CBNW 2018/02

Top: The RadMAP system is able to provide real-time detection, localization and identification of radioactive materials when on the move, and can combine radiation data with data from the contextual sensors.

The Middle East, especially of drugs. Around two decades ago the region was involved in a new type of illicit goods: nuclear and radioactive materials. Similar as for drug trafficking, this region has become a transit country for radiological smuggling, with the Armenian or Russian border as point of entry. From 2015 several events confirmed this trend. In February 2015 in Moldova three smugglers attempted to sell cesium-135 to an undercover agent posing as a buyer. After their arrest, one of the smugglers expressed his hope to use the material for the purpose of build and blow up a RDD. In January 2016 in Georgia, three men tried to sell an unknown quantity of

cesium-137 for $100,000. In March 2016 in Ukraine authorities searched a warehouse containing strontium-90 belonging to an unnamed businessman – who had plans to illegally sell the material. In April 2016, also in Georgia, six men of Georgian and Armenian origin attempted to sell an unknown quantity of depleted uranium for $200 million. As six countries share thousands of kilometers of Black Sea coastline, maritime routes are an obvious choice for criminals trafficking radioactive substances. Small volumes of material are easier to conceal and more difficult to detect on large vessels and sea cargo is rarely monitored for radioactive emissions.


RADIOLOGICAL SMUGGLING Eleonora Pacciani argues that nuclear and radiological terrorism is one of the greatest challenges to international security

The Tihange Nuclear Power Station in Belgium, which followers of Daesh were found to be monitoring in 2016.

©IAEA

NUCLEAR FORENSICS

©Wikipedia

IAEA SECRETARIAT INCIDENT SCENARIOS SINCE 2016:  GROUP I: incidents that are, or are likely to be, connected with trafficking or malicious use;  GROUP II: incidents of undetermined intent;  GROUP III: incidents that are not, or are unlikely to be, connected with trafficking or malicious use. As of 31 December 2016, the ITDB listed a total of 3,068 confirmed incidents reported by participating States since 1993. Of these:  8.8% involved a confirmed or likely act of trafficking or malicious use (GROUP I);  29.5% had insufficient information to determine if related to trafficking or malicious use (GROUP II);  61.7% were not related to trafficking or malicious use (GROUP III).

Tracking the trafficking

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) maintains the IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) on illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and radioactive materials (such as uranium, plutonium-beryllium and thorium). Established in 1995, the ITDB is an essential component to support the IAEA’s Nuclear Security Plan, which disseminates information to 134 participating States and international organizations. Instances in the database include illegal possession, attempted sale, smuggling, unauthorized disposal of material, and discoveries of lost radioactive sources. In this complex exchange of information, it is useful to categorize traffickers and scenarios to improve nuclear and radiological border security. In classifying traffickers and scenarios, a distinction should be made between traffickers with malicious purpose who are also the “end-user” and organized groups attracted by the value of selling, and traffic ‘mules’, who are unaware they are

Nuclear forensics is an important tool in assisting authorities in the fight against illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material. Radiological crime scene management requires ensuring appropriate measures are taken to ensure the integrity of evidence. This includes setting up a perimeter, rendering the area safe, and making sure no device can explode. involved in radiological smuggling. In 2016, 189 incidents were reported to the ITDB by 34 States indicating that unauthorized activities, trafficking and malicious use continue to occur. On 15 March 2016 the Belgian government deployed 140 troops to guard nuclear sites, a specially trained Federal Police department already having been deployed in late 2015. After the Brussels bombings on 22 March 2016 the nuclear power plants of Tihange and Doel were preventively evacuated – as per standard procedure when the threat level in Belgium reaches level 4. The power plants continued running with a minimum amount of staffing. The IAEA’s Division of Nuclear Security and the US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) conducted an International Nuclear Forensics Methodologies training course  CBNW 2018/02 81


RADIOLOGICAL SMUGGLING ©Wikimedia commons

A US Custom and Border Protection mobile X-ray machine scans all cars and trucks entering the Super Bowl venue.

at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Some 26 experts from 10 Member States learned about the specialist nature of nuclear forensics and the importance of communication between agencies, including law enforcement, radiation protection and competent national authorities.

Better border protection

The International Conference on Illicit Trafficking Issues in the Black Sea Region

82 CBNW 2018/02

in 2013 in Moldova set out recommendations listed as International Efforts to Counter Nuclear Smuggling, to improve countries’ efforts and co-operation. They included opting into standards and regulations, harmonizing legislation with States where there are norms for response to nuclear smuggling, and developing these norms in countries that do not have them (e.g. Moldova). They also aim to test the effectiveness of existing response procedures with

tabletop exercises to identify possible gaps or overlaps. The objectives could improve the ability to detect unauthorized possession of nuclear and radiological materials at the borders of countries of concern, such as Moldova and the Black Sea ports, as well as promoting wider use of monitoring systems – mobile detection, night-vision devices, thermal imaging cameras, and radiation detection for cargo and passenger luggage. Enhancing and enforcing border procedures and technologies also depends on specialist training for all front-line officers in radiological smuggling and nuclear forensics, and on collaboration between border control agencies. Supporting nuclear experts will also be vital in making patrolling of vulnerable borders work more effectively. zy Eleonora Pacciani is a biomedical engineer and consultant. She has contributed to civil-military cooperation courses at the Centre for High Defence Studies, Rome, the Italian Army’s National Interagency Institute, and EU projects dealing with health preparedness and response.


RADIATION BIODOSIMETRY

© iStock/TkKurikawa

CRITICAL SUPPORT Since 2011, the Fukushima nuclear reactor incident continues to loom large in people’s minds with regard to radiation safety and preparation.

at a crucial time

Bob Terbrueggen expands on the critical need for a high throughput radiation biodosimetry test after a mass-scale radiological event “When we look at the threats against us in chemical, biological, nuclear and radiological, the threat is real. It’s evolving in its persistence. Whether the threat comes from rogue states or terrorist groups, our adversaries are interested in creating terror and destruction through the use of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons” ELAINE C. DUKE, SEVENTH DEPUTY SECRETARY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, THE FUTURE OF COMBATING TERRORISM AND COUNTERING THE USE OF WMD, DECEMBER 2017

N

orth Korea’s recent missile and nuclear tests, along with rising political tensions between the United States and Russia have led to renewed interest in preparedness for a nuclear attack. While significant progress has been made in the development and stockpiling of medical countermeasures to radiation, as well as detailed planning on how and when to use them, a critical unmet need has been the lack of a rapid high throughput radiation biodosimetry test that can be used to determine individualized levels of absorbed radiation post-event. A nuclear reactor incident like Fukushima, a radiological dispersal device (RDD), and a nuclear detonation  CBNW 2018/02 83


RADIATION BIODOSIMETRY are the three most commonly planned-for nuclear events. A nuclear detonation is by far the most severe in terms of actual medical casualties; however, a deep-set fear of radiation leads these other events to being viewed by the general public as similar, all resulting in large ‘worried well’ populations that could overwhelm emergency response personnel and hospitals.

©DxTerity/Scottsbluff Exercise/Sept 2014

Fukushima

The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) disaster shows how even a well-planned-for event can result in a significant need for radiation biodosimetry testing. Fukushima was caused by a magnitude-9 earthquake off the east coast of Japan, leading to a massive tsunami and damage to three of the Fukushima nuclear reactors. Six of the local area hospitals designated as primary radiation emergency facilities prior to the event were closed or failed to function properly owing to evacuation or indoor sheltering orders, damaged

THE GOIÂNIA INCIDENT The 1987 incident in Goiânia, Brazil shows how discovery of a thimble-sized capsule of the radioactive isotope cesium 137 by two child scavengers can lead to 120,000 people (about 10% of the Goiânia) flooding a local Olympic soccer stadium demanding testing for radiation exposure. This incident overwhelmed the available emergency response resources, and in the end 249 of the triaged 120,000 (0.2%) were diagnosed with ARS (acute radiation syndrome), meaning 99% of the civilians triaged were part of the worried well.

REDI-Dx testing has been demonstrated to be easily integrated into response plans and workflows for government and healthcare agencies tasked with response and recovery efforts from radiological incidents.

facilities and infrastructure disruption caused by the earthquake, or outflow of medical staff in fear of radiation danger. No lives were lost at Fukushima due to radiation exposure; however, 50 elderly people died during the initial emergency evacuation due to hypothermia, dehydration, and their underlying medical conditions. Some ambulance drivers refused to transport patients out of fear of radiation exposure, and others could not accept or transport contaminated victims because their vehicles and facilities were not properly sanctioned to handle high levels of radiation. People, fearing radiation contamination, flooded the hospital system, which was already dysfunctional due to the damage caused by the earthquake and ensuing tsunami. In total, the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima disaster led to more than 460,000 people being displaced to 2,400 shelters. According to

the report on disaster related deaths, 2,688 people died at shelters and temporary houses in the two years following. About 90% of the disasterrelated deaths were elderly, and poor medical care was partially to blame, even though 24,000 medical personnel were actively involved in the response. According to Japan’s Health Ministry, fear of radiation (understandable in Japan) was listed as a primary reason behind medical resources being less than effective. Information on radiation and the situation of vulnerable people was not properly shared – nor was sufficient communication among related personnel established during the disaster response.

Testing for radiation dose

Clinical guidelines for the triage and treatment of individuals following a nuclear event are based on a combination of physical injury, absorbed radiation dose, and availability of resources.

Complexity

Sensitivity

Specificity

Time to Result

Testing Capacity

Radiation survey meter

+

< 1 Day

High

Personal dosimetry device

+

< 1 Day

High

Clinical symptoms alone

+

7+ Days

High

Dicentric chromosome assay

+

+

7+ Days

Low

Lymphocyte depletion kinetics

+

3+ Days

Medium

Comparison of traditional biodosimetry tests: radiation survey meters can only detect if a person has external contamination but they are not able to measure the level of absorbed dose. The current gold-standard absorbed dose biodosimetry test is the Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DIC) - but it takes three days to deliver results. Blood samples must be tested within 24 hours post-collection, and there is insufficient throughput to respond to a mass-scale radiation event. ©DxTerity/REDI-Dx White Paper/2017

84 CBNW 2018/02


RADIATION BIODOSIMETRY Estimated population numbers of victims following a given radiological event based upon projections within the centre of a densely populated city. ©DxTerity/REDI-Dx White Paper/2017

Population requiring medical treatment Population worried about explosure “worried well”

Absorbed dose is measured in Gray (Gy), and individuals receiving a dose of greater than 0.7 Gy are likely to experience ARS. Doses above 2.0 Gy start to require medical treatment, and 50% of people receiving 5 Gy will die without medical treatment. A total body dose of 8 Gy or higher is usually fatal even with intensive medical treatment. Unfortunately, accurately determining an individual’s absorbed radiation dose, especially in the immediate wake of a radiological event, is not a simple task. ARS can be asymptomatic for days to weeks after initial exposure, and the clinical symptoms of exposure are irregular and non-specific, making accurate diagnosis difficult. Today, the most commonly referenced

RADIOLOGICAL EVENT Nuclear Reactor Incident

Radiological Explosure/ Dispersal Device

Military Nuclear Device Detonation

10 – 1,000

100 – 1,000

10,000 – 250,000

10,000 – 250,000

10,000 – 500,000

500,000 – 2,000,000

radiation biodosimetry test is the dicentric chromosome assay, which has been in use for more than 50 years. This cytogenetic test examines chromosome breaks from a cultured blood sample and has proven effective at helping to understand the long-term effects of radiation exposure. However, the dicentric protocol is labour intensive, requires highly skilled cytologists, has limited worldwide capacity, and requires rapid, controlled transport of samples to the testing laboratory.

First CE-IVD test

Recognizing the critical unmet need for radiation biodosimetry testing, BARDA (Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority), a division of Health and Human Services of the US

Government, has invested more than $365 million since 2009 in the development of next-generation radiation biodosimetry tools. These efforts have evaluated traditional cytogenetic techniques, as well as advanced proteomic and genomic methods. Gene expression testing has been shown to be particularly promising, and in 2016 BARDA awarded DxTerity Diagnostics up to $150 million for the advanced development and delivery of REDI-Dx,* a gene expression-based biodosimetry test, for potential placement in the US Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) through 2026. REDI-Dx estimates absorbed radiation dose from a post-event-collected blood sample, which is shipped ambient and 

CBNW 2018/02 85


RADIATION BIODOSIMETRY

The REDI-Dx assay has been designed to be fully compatible with today’s high throughput lab automation systems, allowing for high volume and fast turnaround of test results for rapid response.

©DxTerity/Scottsbluff Exercise/Sept 2014

Effective management of civilians following a mass-scale nuclear event requires a high throughput way to estimate absorbed radiation dose.

Non-specific, overlapping clinical symptoms (vomiting, headache, fever, diarrhoea, confusion) and haematology are currently used to prioritize victims of absorbed radiation for potentially life-saving medical interventions.

stable for up to 14 days, greatly simplifying response logistics over the dicentric chromosome assay. The REDI-Dx test can be analysed using Thermo Fisher’s existing install base of ABI 3500xL Dx Genetic Analyzers with associated REDI-Dx Biodosimetry Interpretive Software. Each high throughput instrument can process over 1,000 samples per day, enabling a capacity of tens of thousands per week on existing infrastructure. 86 CBNW 2018/02

©DxTerity/REDI-Dx/2018

While radiological response to an unknown disaster will still present challenges and difficulties we must all overcome, past events like Fukushima and Goiânia have taught us there is still a need for a next-generation radiation biodosimetry solution like REDI-Dx: a test that could help provide critical support to emergency responders and clinicians when they – and those affected – need it the most. ❚❙

REDI-Dx is CE-IVD marked. Not for Sale in the USA. Limited by United States law to investigational use only. *The development of REDI-Dx has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No: HHSO100201000001C and HHSO100201600034C.

Bob Terbrueggen, PhD is the Founder and CEO of DxTerity, a Los Angeles-based diagnostics company specializing in the development of cost-effective, high-precision genomic tests. REDI-Dx is a product of DxTerity Diagnostics and the first and only radiation biodosimetry test with CE-IVD mark.


PROCUREMENT

Awarding contracts When awarding contracts, the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) is obliged in most circumstances to apply the Defence and Security Public Contracts Regulations 2009 (DSPCR). What does this mean for companies seeking to supply to the MoD and what are the specific issues for those in the CBRN and counter-IED market?

T

he DSPCR requires, in most circumstances, that MoD contracts are awarded following a fair and transparent competitive process. Contracts awarded under the DSPCR on a competitive basis will be advertised, opening up competition to a wide audience, and then awarded to the bidder offering the lowest price or most economically advantageous solution. The MoD will follow one of a number of possible competitive procedures to identify the winning bidder:  The restricted procedure: used where the MoD’s requirement can be precisely defined. Any company may express an interest in response to an advert usually by completing a pre-qualification questionnaire (PQQ). Of those bidders satisfactorily completing the PQQ stage, the MoD will select a number of the highest-ranking bidders to submit a tender.  The negotiated with notice procedure: used where a degree of negotiation is required. Following a PQQ stage, MoD will select a number of bidders to submit tenders. It will then negotiate with bidders to adapt tenders to meet its requirement.  The competitive dialogue procedure: used for particularly complex contracts where the MoD cannot define its requirement or the legal or financial make up of a project at the outset. Following a PQQ stage, MoD will invite bidders to dialogue to identify the means best suited to satisfying MoD’s requirements. However, procurements in the CBRN and counter-IED field frequently involve capabilities and technology which are particularly sensitive. Where this is the case, the use of a transparent and widely advertised competition may be inappropriate. Helpfully, the DSPCR includes provisions permitting contracts to be awarded without advertising and competition in several specific circumstances. These include where for reasons of secrecy and security running a competition would require the disclosure of information that would not be in the interests of the UK. Where this is the case, MoD may procure outside the framework of the DSPCR. This does not necessarily mean that it will award a contract on a single-source basis and it may choose to run a limited competition outside the DSPCR. For example, it may run this among a group of List X companies or companies which have

Emily Powell provides timely advice on procurement by the UK MoD relevant staff satisfying nationality or security clearance requirements. Whenever you are tendering for a MoD contract, whether within or without the scope of the DSPCR, it is of critical importance that you comply strictly with the instructions outlining how the competition will be run and the requirements placed on bidders. Both for competitions run inside and outside the DSPCR, the MoD is under a duty to treat all bidders equally and is therefore heavily restricted in the latitude it can allow bidders whose tenders deviate from the instructions in any way. ❚❙ Emily Powell recently joined Hugh James Law, a top 100 law firm, as a partner in the commercial team after eight years at the MoD as a legal advisor handling complex procurement and commercial contracts. CBNW 2018/02 87


ADVERTORIAL: AIRBOSS / CQC

A

irBoss Defense is a world leader in the design, manufacturing and supply of CBRN personal protective equipment (PPE), emergency preparedness disaster relief, healthcare and decontamination equipment. Renowned internationally for our CBRN equipment, our portfolio includes

handwear, footwear, gas masks, powered air purifying respirators (PAPR), respirator filters, extreme cold weather boots, rapid deployable shelters and mass-casualty decontamination shelter systems, as well as individual patient isolation and transportation systems (ISO-PODs). ABD’s emergency response and protective equipment is utilized by all

active military services; the US Coast Guard; the National Guard; Department of State; numerous homeland defence organizations such as the FBI, DHS, DOJ, DOS and FEMA, and with similar organizations throughout the world. National Guard Civil Support Teams (CSTs), CBRNE Enhanced Response Force Packages (CERF-Ps), Homeland Response Force (HRFs), the Marine Corps Chemical, Biological Incident Response Force Team (CBIRF) all utilize AirBoss CBRN products. All ABD activities are conducted under the guidelines of an ISO 9001:2008 Quality Program. This extensive range of capabilities provides ABD the responsiveness and capacity to meet the most demanding delivery requests. ABD is capable and willing to work with customers to design and manufacture full turnkey solutions to their most challenging needs. AirBoss Defense recognizes that Soldiers, Law Enforcement and Homeland Security Personnel need the highest level of protection. That is why our dedication and focus remain to deliver The Ultimate Protection. zy

www.airbossdefense.com

CBRN protective CQC: garments

C

QC is the sole manufacturer of specialist CBRN protective garment systems in the UK, and have over 30 years’ experience in the CBRN garment manufacturing industry. With its in-house design and manufacturing capability, CQC works with material manufacturers from around the world to design, develop and test their garment systems to NATO standards, and integration with ancillary CBRN products is paramount. Working with some of the world’s leading test houses, CQC have a long experience in the integration of their garment systems with CBRN ancillary product manufacturers, and are able to offer solutions that ensure compatibility with all CBRN masks, gloves and boots. With an emphasis on lightweight and breathable fabrics, ALL our garment systems are classed as low-burden, and thus offer the wearer additional comfort while working in challenging

88 CBNW 2018/02

CBRN environments. Designed for multi-agency use, CQC currently offer both over-suit systems and undergarment systems that both provide high comfort, high protection and functionality for both the military and civil security services around the world. zy For more information on our lightweight CBRN protective garment systems, please visit

www.cqc.co.uk Contact: Jim O’Hara joh@cqc.co.uk Caroline Noonan ctn@cqc.co.uk Tel: + 44 (0) 1271 345678 Fax: + 44 (0) 1271 345090 CQC House, 2-3 Brannam Court, Brannam Crescent, Barnstaple, EX31 3TD


ADVERTORIAL: DXTERITY / FIRST LINE

CRITICAL SUPPORT AT A CRUCIAL TIME The first and only CE-IVD radiation biodosimetry test REDI-Dx*

Radiation Biodosimetry Test is the first CE-IVD assay for radiation biodosimetry with high throughput testing. This molecular diagnostic test can fulfill a critical unmet need of preparing and responding to a mass-scale nuclear incident.

Quantitative

REDI-Dx provides a quantitative estimation of an individual’s absorbed radiation dose after a nuclear event from an ambient shipped post-event blood sample. REDI-Dx is designed to integrate into existing clinical testing infrastructure with read-out on the installed base of ABI 3500 Dx Capillary electrophoresis instruments.

Scalable

A radiological event, from the use of a nuclear weapon or a large-scale radiological disaster, could potentially expose thousands to high or moderate levels of radiation that would require immediate assessment and medical intervention.

High-Throughput Testing

REDI-Dx has been developed to fulfill a critical unmet need for rapid, high throughput radiation biodosimetry testing.

Clinical

The REDI-Dx absorbed radiation estimate, in conjunction with clinical signs and symptoms, can help physicians identify and prioritize the highly and moderately exposed who need immediate treatment.

Prioritize treatment: Of those likely to

develop Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and help calm the concerned public. High-throughput testing: Mediates surge volumes of potentially affected individuals. 6-hour processing time: To support urgent medical management needs.

For more information:

€ (310) 537-7857 (US) € info@redidx.com € www.REDI-Dx.com/CBNW2 REDI-Dx tests are available in kits of 1000. Blood Collection Tubes in packages of 50 and cases of 1200.

REDI-Dx is CE-IVD Marked. Not for Sale in the USA. Limited by United States law to investigational use only. *The development of REDI-Dx has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No: HHSO100201000001C and HHSO100201600034C. LAB-0199 [01].

First Line DeconTect

F

irst Line Technology’s DeconTect product line provides high-efficacy decontamination products that can effectively neutralize chemical and biological warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals and materials, and synthetic opioids like fentanyl and carfentanil from personnel, personal protective and sensitive equipment, and critical infrastructure within minutes.

remove hazardous materials from any surface and locks in toxicity to avoid further contamination. € Dahlgren Decon – a three-component, fast-reacting decontaminant for scenarios that require wet decon, Dahlgren Decon can be used with any sprayer apparatus, in hot and cold environments, and is truly material compatible and non-corrosive. Dahlgren Decon has the power to decontaminate virtually any hazardous material, including fentanyl and its lethal analogs.

Dahlgren Decon, FiberTect, and custom decon kits are all available under the DeconTect family:

€ Decon Kits – custom kits provide a solution for all decontamination needs. Available decon kits range from individual to large-scale decontamination capabilities. Contact a First Line Technology Representative today to learn how Decon Kits can be integrated into your arsenal.

€ FiberTect -- a three-layer activated carbon material developed specifically for dry decontamination methods. Fielded in a variety of forms, FiberTect comes in wipes, pads, rolls, and mitts. FiberTect’s absorb and adsorb technology allows the user to completely

Are you ready to be a part of the next generation of CBRN decon? DeconTect has you fully covered. To learn more about DeconTect and its capabilities, please contact decontect@firstlinetech. com, call +1.703.955.7510, or visit us at www.firstlinetech.com. zy CBNW 2018/02 89


ADVERTORIAL: HOTZONE / KÄRCHER

Hotzone Solutions: new plasma technology for hazardous waste treatment

T

oxic waste is a serious problem for many countries worldwide. Until the mid1980s, waste combustion was widely considered to be the basic method of environmental protection. As a result, the industry of incineration plants and various installations was born. These traditional combustion furnaces lead to further atmospheric pollution – such as heavy metals containing ash, soot, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, chlorine compounds and dioxins. Hotzone Solutions has a solution for the hazardous waste problem: the Mobile Hazardous Material Plasma Treatment Unit (MHMTU). Temperatures more than 5000°C can be created. Such high temperatures normally lead to complete destruction of all known organic and many inorganic hazardous waste compounds to atoms and the simplest molecules. The mobile plasma unit is configured and optimized for destruction of:

€ Solid or liquid material € Chemical waste, such as PCBs, mineral oils, plastics, heavy metals, asbestos, pesticides, and highly toxic chemicals including CWAs € Medical waste € Radioactive waste € Industrial sludge € Contaminated drilling mud from oil extraction processes.

Flexibility

The Hotzone Solutions Mobile Hazardous Materials (Plasma) Treatment Unit is modular and compact. It can be delivered fully assembled in a vehicle (mobile version) or completely assembled into 20- or 40-ft (6.6- 13.3m) shipping containers (transportable version). The flexibility of the mobile unit gives the system an advantage edge as it can

be deployed quickly to the waste sources or storage points without delays or transport arrangements.

For more information, please contact: Hotzone Solutions BV, Prinsessegracht 6, 2514 AN, The Hague, The Netherlands Telephone: +31 70 262 9704 E-mail: info@hotzonesolutions.org

Strong on their own – together unbeatable Clean water is an essential companion for CBRN Decontamination. Germany's Kärcher Futuretech offers both: Innovative solutions for water purification and CBRN decontamination

O

ne of the challenges in managing the response to a CBRN contamination incident is providing clean water for the decontamination process. When local water resources are contaminated, clean water has to be brought in by truck from outside the hazard area – a procedure that consumes precious time and resources. This can be avoided if contaminated local water resources are treated to make them suitable for decontamination activities. At Eurosatory 2018 in Paris, Kärcher Futuretech presents its new water treatment system WTC 500 and the new decontamination system MPDS 2 – as two players on the same team. The new WTC 500 water purification system is the perfect companion if the 90 CBNW 2018/02

quality of the raw water is unclear, and with some adaptions also suitable if the CBRN incident has also affected local water resources. It offers retention of particles, microorganisms, and viruses as well as salts and chemicals dissolved in the water. If the untreated water source is in difficult terrain, the WTC 500 can be carried to the deployment location by personnel thanks to its compact design (euro-pallet size) and its integrated carrying handles. The system is built using the highest-quality materials and industry-approved components, resulting in its extreme reliability. The new MPDS 2 is an independent, universally applicable diesel-powered high pressure unit for the complete

decontamination of vehicles, material and protected persons. An additional pump for the discharge of non-aqueous decontamination agents can be integrated and this enables three-lance operation at the same time (pre-, main- and post-treatment). Alternatively, a two-lance operation can be carried out simultaneously at each treatment station. Thanks to an integrated power generator and Kärcher Futuretech's specially formulated decontamination and cleaning agents, the MPDS 2 is ready for immediate use nearly anywhere. The compact design, ease of use and compatibility with cleaning and decontamination agents from other manufacturers make the MPDS 2 the most advanced device of its kind. zy


WE STEPPED UP SO YOU CAN STEP BACK. The new FLIR identiFINDER® R440 lets you scan for radiological threats from farther away to keep you and your community safe. The new R440 is a lightweight, sourceless RIID that can be operated with one hand and is IP67-rated to survive tough missions. Not only does the 2x2 NaI detector deliver sensitive and fast detection, but it also provides accurate identification during secondary screening. The new 360° EasyFinder™ Mode expedites decision-making to keep you safe. Go to booth 1153 to learn more and for a chance to win a FLIR ONE.

FLIR identiFINDER R440 Highly Sensitive, Sourceless Handheld RIID


Securing perimeters

Neutralizing emerging threats Stopping drones Protecting our troops

2018 | 02

CBNW – Chemical, Biological & Nuclear Warfare

Thwarting enemy attacks

2018 | 02

Next-generation

Protection SPECIAL REPORT: Syria to Salisbury – the Year of the Chemical Attack battelle.org/cbnw This device has not been authorized as required by the rules of the Federal Communications Commission. This device is not, and may not be, offered for sale or lease, or sold or leased, until authorization is obtained.

ANTHRAX TO NOVICHOK Safe clean-up

TRITON INTELLIGENCE Partners with CBNW

WHAT’S IN THE BOX? Spotting radiological threats

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CBNW 2018 Issue 2  

CBNW 2018 Issue 2  

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