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Revivalism No.9 2012

Hussein's Museum: History mirrors the grandeur and sanctity of the Prince of Martyrs

General director Muhammed H. Al-ameedy Editor-In-chief Haidar M. Al-manqoshi Editors Sabah al-Talkani Fadhel al-Sharifi Salah al-Khaqani

ISSN ID 63960 Iraqi JS ID 1020 Registery NO.1305

Art designer Mohsin Maash Maytham M. al-Husseini Checked by Dr. M.-R. Fakhr-Rohani Mr Aga sultan Mr Salah G. Photographers Hassan Maash Kasem Al-ammidy Mobile (964) 780 1950850 Tel+964 32 325194 +964 32 321776 E-mail


Printed by: Dar Aldhia - Iraq - Najaf

welcome We would like to express our gratitude to those who contributed in our magazine. This magazine aspires to convey the message of Imam al- Hussein to all the world informing people what they should know and investigate about Imam al-Hussein and his blessed movement.

Respecting Religions

When you read about the history of Muslims, especially in the earliest periods of the Islamic history, you may get surprised by the level of charity and tolerance which Muslims had toward people who believed in other religions. They lived together as one community without reinforcing the differences of religions, their various relations, and manners of dealing everybody as a mankind. It follows that one of the most important aspects of the Islamic religion is respecting the codes of laws of other religions and denominations. There have been some accusations against Islam. There are many accusations raised against Islam as a religion that restricts the scope of other religions and its treating them with utter injustice, together with denigrating them. The coexistence of the Great Prophet at Medina with followers of other religions. From this framework of religious tolerance, it follows that Islam rejects persecution of people on the ground of their religion or belief systems. Rather, Islam recommends and seeks for the ideal in ethics and having good deal with others. This is all to the effect of eliminating socio-morally inappropriate behaviour in Islam. In this regard, it is noteworthy that the Holy Quran encourages Muslims to having philanthropic attitudes toward non-Muslims who have not shown any hostility against Islam. Allah the Almighty says marks in the Holy Quran as follows: "Allah does not forbid you to deal kindly and justly with those who have not fought against you about the religion or expelled you from your homes. God does not love the unjust people".(Sura alMumtahina, [60]: 8]. In consequence, it is an express right of all Muslims and non-Muslims who live under the banner of Islam to enjoy peace, justice, and benefit from the nation's social solidarity. There is a real anecdote from the reign of the first Infallible Imam`Ali. In his time, a blind Christian old man was begging. At the sight of this, Imam `Ali got angry, and asked of his companions thus: "What is this?" He never asked about the identity of the blind man. This is because such a situation in its entirety was unacceptable and unsatisfactory in his state, irrespective of the target person's religion and belief. At the same time, Imam `Ali ordered his companions to provide him with monthly allowance. Islam respects not only the living people of other faiths but also their dead people. In this way, when there was a funeral session of a non-Muslim person, and the crowd were passing by the place where prophet Muhammad was staying, he used to stand up as a sign of showing his respect for the dead person. Once one of his companions mentioned to him such a case and remarked thus: "O Messenger of God! It's the funeral of a Jew!" The Prophet then said: "If you see a funeral, you should stand up because it is a soul, after all.�


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contents 8

Sayyid Ahmad Al-Safi:

The culture of interest in the country and public treasury is responsibility of everybody.

Dr. Hoffman:


Steadfastness of the Muslims and their discipline show me the right way .

Fixing up the hearts in Karbala:


Safeer Al-Hussain Medical Complex in holy Karbala cooperating with Narayana Hrudayalaya, Bangalore, India has been opening telemedicine room.

Internet and the responsibility of parents:


20% of children had access to the Internet from their bedrooms,79% of whom were able to make use of the Internet without any censorship.

The Museum of Imam al-Hussein:


Albeit, and at times, difficult to define, the term “literature”, in its broadest sense, is used to refer to a body of works and texts that have (almost) the same subject-matter...

The Role of Civil Society Institutions:


The term "civil society" is not a scientific terminology; it is an expression that carries different interpretations depending on the perspective of the researcher and his thoughts.

The Holy Shrine of AL-Qasim:


Albeit, and at times, difficult to define, the term “literature”, in its broadest sense, is used to refer to a body of works and texts that have (almost) the same subject-matter...

History of Islam in Russia:


The long history of Islam in Russia is grand and glorious as well as doleful and dreadful. Many stringent steps were taken against Islam and the Muslims during and after the Russian Revolution.

Our Identity

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The Fifth authority The time of electronic media via websites of social networking, blogs and video clips begins to compete with professional media. It proves the efficiency and effectiveness which depend on the speed of deployment ,confidentiality and security of networking services sites on Internet. It is also characterized the speedy response in addition to the protection from repressive procedures which the advocates for a matter might face through traditional means. The photos, videos and files which are sent by interested people to the media contain topical and important news that may encourage professional media means to reflect the real event. It represents challenges to these means in order to activate the role of its professional ability more accurately and effectively. It is expected that the role of these popular activities will remain active because it can deliver the message of oppressed communities to all international human rights committees. The files may be proved of dictatorships violations everywhere. They Can also be a platform for incitement to revolt and to identify their goals even places of residence. There are many media means that have opened editing rooms and messaging to the views of observers ,interested and suggestions regarding the materials and the way of broadcasting. The vast amount of news that interested citizen can be broadcasted to the media means a huge information materials containers. This effective communication can be useful in quantitative terms. It is illegal in terms of quality, especially the credibility of the transferring events and the way of dealing them which may change every things. There are double standards taken by international bodies which dominant the media politically. One of them to strengthen dictatorial regimes that necked citizens’ breath for decades, and fought other systems which might carry less degree than dictatorship and domination. So, the political authorities have the last word which their activities and secret movements were characterized by media transparency and humanity laws such as human rights and democracy. Therefore, The social media was the motivation for Arab peoples revolutions. It may compete with the fourth authority But it cannot replace it.

By Sabah Al-Talqani

7 Hussein Revivalism

Gleams of Friday

Sayyid Ahmad Al-Safi, led a famous congregational Friday salat at Karbala.

The culture of interest

in the country and public treasury is responsibility of everybody.

The First Sermon The Infallible Imam `Ali b. Abi Talib remarked thus in one of his speeches: "A man who reconsiders his own deeds shall benefit from

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doing so. And, if he does not do so, he shall be the loser; he who fears from Allah shall be safe in the Hereafter; he who accepts advice shall go felicitous; he who reflects

shall understand and he who understands shall acquire knowledge of the thing he wishes." Next to the above, Imam `Ali remarked in this way: "A man

will pass through if he always reconsiders his own deeds and pays attention to them. He must look carefully into himself by asking what it has acquired, the manner of attaining that, the source, and its reason." It is all a process of revision. If you revise yourself in this way, you shall find how you can reform it, and will accordingly win in the Hereafter. In line with the above, Imam `Ali indicated thus: "If a man does not reconsider his own deeds, he shall be the loser." There are many people who do not reconsider their own deeds and do not care for such moral revision for a number of reasons. One of these problems is concerned with the point that more time is allocated for neglecting them than for reconsidering them. In this way, you find many people who do not do that simply because they forget death. In this regard, Imam `Ali's wisdom is thus: “He who fears from Allah shall remain safe in the Hereafter�. It follows that a man who is afraid of Allah the Almighty feels calm and tranquile in his heart. He does not see anything in life but Allah, and all these things are expected to last to the end. As for the Hereafter, such a person is preparing himself for those terrible moments in the Hereafter. Such knowledge in advance makes man even more stable in this world, and he must know that this world is but a bridge leading to the world Hereafter. The wise advice of Imam `Ali runs as follows: " He who accepts advice shall go felicitous; he who reflects shall understand and he who understands shall acquire knowledge of the thing he wishes." Anybody understands that

knowledge is a must for everybody to acquire because it is a way to live up. In this way, anybody can work with their knowledge; they will face troubles and bewilderment if they go without knowledge. Finally, Imam`Ali's remark is that knowledge is a requisite. One of the most important things that human beings can get from knowledge is getting respect which leads to appreciation and knowing others far better. At last, understanding will lead to knowledge. These points are to immunize the human beings, and to enable them protect themselves from the scourge. This work requires mercy of Allah, and the human beings must be ready to make it their habit.

The Second Sermon The dominant culture for everybody in the country [Iraq] is to feel having an interest in shouldering responsibility. However, this feeling differs from those who are in charge of great responsibilities to those who do not assume such positions. The Representative of the Supreme Religious Authority at Najaf remarked at the courtyard of Imam al-Hussein's Sacred Sanctuary that such a culture of feeling an interest in the future of the country must be reinforced. He further enquired about those who must be in charge of training the Iraqi citizens to care for their country. Once a person travels to other countries and nations and meets people over there and deals with their communities, s/he feels that other communities prove to be interested in their own countries and nations, yet others seems to be rather neglectful. The answer

to this mystery lies in feeling responsibility as institutionalized both in the prevailing culture of the country and in each and every individual. However, the liability of those who have high responsibilities differ from those who do not have. The culture of interest in the country will emerge from many things as possible to ease the burden of the citizen. Where a citizen always looks at the official that should manage properly to the institution or the ministry that he run. Sayyid Ahmad al-Safi referred to culture of public treasury and money. He indicated that, "People need to be trained in having a culture of respect for public money, and this culture stems from people's love of their homeland." A man should be deposited on money that he has been supervised. So, we must disseminate the culture of taking care of public money." He also added that the culture of public money does not mean to guard public money but to spend public money wherever it is necessary. It must be invested where it proves significant for rebuilding our country [Iraq]. Public money must serve the country and help rebuilding it. This culture starts with the individual: it must be instructed publicly, and we are expected to develop it and make it a national trait. In the end, Al- Sayyid Ahmad alSafi clarified that the culture of being careful of public money should start with officials and whoever has assumed a responsibility. It follows that we must select qualified people to run a public money.

Report : Editor-in- chief


Hussein Revivalism

The human dimensions of Imam Hussein Revivalism in the Christian thought 10 Hussein Revivalism

Sir Hamid Murad Peter


The Revolution of Imam Hussein is one of the greatest intellectual, cultural and religious revivalism of the world, which called for the renunciation of violence and protection of human rights and truly it was a global revolution since it included all sects and religions. It was a humanitarian revivalism which included all aspects of life and has influenced many intellectuals and scientists and became a real starting point for their thinking process Human dimension of the renaissance of Imam Hussein has been the main factor which has concerned a lot of intellectuals, especially amongst the Christians. Emphasizing on perpetuation the voice of truth, freedom, and a call for humanity, the staff of Journal of the Hussein Revivalism met Chairman of Iraqi Association for Human Rights in the United States of America, Sir Hamid Murad Peter , who came to visit

Imam al-Hussein, to shed light on the Christian concept of the human dimension of the revolution of Imam al-Hussein. Hussein Revivalism: What do Christians think about the immortality of revolt of Imam Hussein on the tyrant of his time? - A few persons get a high degree of rank and greatness to achieve Immortality. These persons are heroes of life and humanity, and their march of life will stay forever as they represent the march of human beings. Here, the immortality was the reality of the heavenly messages, messengers of heaven, and men of principle and belief . In the history of Islam, there is a bright spring of immortality and men who made greatness in the history of humanity, lit the path of humanity. The sacrifice of Imam al-Hussein is considered the greatest sacrifice around the world because it claimed the rights of human beings. Hussein Revivalism / How can Christians evaluate human dimension of Imam al-Hussein revolution? - As we said that Hussein b. Ali is the summit of the peak of humanity . Thoughts are confused in front of his personality which History witnessed on its greatness, and In the face of life full of kindness and tenderness. Whenever you read about him you will know clearly more about his life. we cannot get more on this personality unless our minds shatter the walls of self-isolation, and our souls be to the worlds of nobility and virtue. Hussein Revivalism / How do you know Al-Hussein? and how do you understand his blessing revolution? - His sacrifice has opened all

aspects of life which made him not only for Muslim but also for all human beings. Any man should know this person because his Nobel family made him a famous person. His grandfather Muhammad, the messenger of Allah and His father Ali B. abi Taleb while his mother the daughter of the messenger. Through his family and through his immortal revolution, which draw the way of greatness and virtue for all human beings, Christians know Imam alHussein and understand his aim that enlighten the path for people. Hussein Revivalism : Do you think that Imam Hussein greatness had been limited on his celebrated revolution specifically or on his life? Imam Hussein’s personality has all the elements of human values imbibed in him which prepared him to lead the nation, and carry the message of Islam in all its dimensions and components, as aided by the spiritual forces of deep faith in Allah. His immortality came from patience on the trials and calamities that no one could carry them. But through our study of Hussein, we found that the educational energies which Imam possessed, worked on the evaluation and provided him the biggest wealth of intellectual and reform. It is not limited to the similar appearances of form, but include the properties of self, and natural ingredients, as stated by the geneticists. They said that it is something among all existences for instance that seeds of cotton out of cotton, the branch take the properties of its origin and inherit all its characters. Hussein Revivalism / Are you looking at the renaissance of Hussein enough to know the motives of political and social

revolution of Ashura? Every community of human societies has special properties, and symbols of humanitarian coexist with them all the details of social life. It is the spirit of social community, and this community spirit is the ability of humanitarian, feel the problems in a clear and precise, and probably has a standard by which it measures the state of growth, development or deterioration of individual or collective community. Imam Hussein b. Ali is a good example of community spirit that feel what is going on in those communities, and the changes that lead to the deterioration and decline. The political and social reasons and motives led Hussein to rise against unjustice which will live and won't go away. Hussein Revivalism / What does Al-Hussein mean to you? We are Christians and need characters like Imam al-Hussein. He is a strong example of hard determination in the confrontation of evil and to defend the right. The renaissance has survived for centuries, and is still renewed every year and we need to really understand the meaning of this revolution which is very beneficial to all of us. The sacrificing of Imam al-Hussein is similar to the sacrificing of Christ which has established the freedom and the rights of humanity. Every year on the anniversary of their sacrificing it has an impact on the psyche of every man. They rejected humiliation and degradation. They lost their families in order to save the religion of Allah, and Imam al-Hussein and Christ remain embedded in the hearts of all of us and we remember them every day year after year.

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The Ziarat-Texts Issued in Favor of Imam al-Hussein: By Dr. Muhammad-Reza Fakhr-Rohani University of Qom A ziarat-text is a piece of discourse, originally spoken and later on transcribed, in Classical Arabic and issued for being read out to discharge one's veneration unto either an infallible dignitary or an infallible-like one. The followers of the Shi`i denomination of Islam are honored to have inherited a large number of such ziarat-texts. Amongst the Infallibles in Shi`i denomination, the 3rd Infallible Imam al-Husayn has received the highest and most varied types of ziarat-texts. A great majority of such ziarat-texts were issued by the 6th Infallible Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq. Although the 4th Infallible Imam `Ali al-Sajjad was the surviving son of Imam al-Husayn and one of the few survivors of the Ashura Battle of Karbala (61 AH/ 680) was present at Karbala, almost no ziarat-text has been related to have been issued by him in favor of his father Imam al-Husayn. This point indicates the very suffocating and harsh political situation of Medina and the whole Islamic empire of the day under the tyranny of the Umayyad and later on Marwanid dynasties who brought nothing but devastation, catastrophe, massacres, and tears for the true followers of the Prophet Muhammad. The Ashura Battle of Karbala is still a good yardstick to find out who was the true successor to the Prophet Muhammad. However, with the downfall of the Marwanid tyrants the whole situation got a bit better so that in the interim peaceful days of the time lapse between the Marwanid and later on

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`Abbasid caliphs, the two Infallible Imams, Imam Muhammad al-Baqi and Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq, made the most of the opportunity to instruct people about the religion of Islam. A glance at collections of the ziarattexts issued in favor of Imam alHusayn reveals that they are both high in number and varied in size. The ziarat-texts can be classified in a number of ways of which one is rendered below. Ziarat-texts can be classified according to their source. Sourcewise, ziarat-texts can be (i) Divine or (ii) non-Divine. A famous example of (i) a Divine ziarat-text is the Ashuraziarat-text whose source goes back to Allah the Almighty. Had there been no other ziarattext in favor of Imam al-Husayn but this one, the very ziarat-text is well indicative of the sublime value of his matchless sacrifice to safeguard the true version of Islam and to rescue people from bewilderment and abysmal ignorance. Those of (ii) non-Divine origin can be subdivided into (ii.i.) those issued by an Infallible Imam in contrast to (ii. ii.) those issued by non-Infallibles. Several specimens of (ii.i.) ziarattexts issued by Infallible Imams are available in Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Qulawayh al-Qummi's book Kamil al-Ziyarat: the Arba`inziarattext was issued by the 6th Infallible Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq. Of (ii.ii.) those issued by non-Infallibles, mention can be made of the one issued by Ibrahim b. Abi al-Bilad and ratified by the 7th Infallible Imam Musa alKazim.

The ziarat-texts can also be classified on the basis of occasion. Although any ziarat-text can be read out at virtually any time, some are (iii.i.) general, while others are (iii. ii.) occasion-oriented. Granted that the Ashuraziarat-text is expected to be read out on Ashura, it is highly recommended to be read out everyday, if possible. Perhaps Imam al-Husayn is the only Infallible Imam who has the shortest ziarat-text. Such a singlesentence ziarat-text was issued by the 6th Infallible Imam in answer to an inquirer who was a devout Shi`i but could not perform a ziarat in situ at Karbala owing exclusively to the harsh punishment waiting for any Shi`i who dared to get to the sacred tomb of Imam al-Husayn. This is indicated in the late Allamah Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi'sTuhfa al-Za'ir and Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Qulawayh al-Qummi's book Kamil al-Ziyarat. Interestingly, everybody can pay a ziarat unto Imam al-Husayn from anywhere. Such a ziarat can be performed in situ at Karbala or from afar at the virtual pilgrim's residence. The point is that paying ziarat unto the Infallible Imam al-Husayn must not be forgotten or underestimated at any rate, for this is a right of Allah the almighty that everybody must discharge their utmost respect toward Imam al-Husayn. Content-wise, the ziarat-texts issued in favor of Imam al-Husayn are replete with several noteworthy points; this will be tackled in the future, Insha Allah.


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Hussein Revivalism





ss Interview

Dr. Hoffman was born in Germany in 1931, and graduated from Union College in New York. He completed his studies at the University of Munich, Legal, where he received a Ph.D. in legislation in 1957. Hoffman became an assistant researcher in the research, which aims to reform the federal civil law. In 1960, He obtained on LL.M Master of Law a degree from Harvard Law School. Hoffman was responsible for the work of gathering information for NATO in Brussels in the period between 1983s and 1987s . Then he was appointed an Ambassador to Germany in Algeria in 1987, and Morocco in 1990 where he worked for four years. many experiments Led Dr. Hofmann to Islam, the first one was in 1961, when he was appointed at the German Embassy in Algeria. He found himself in the midst of a guerrilla war between the French and Algerian National Front, which was fighting for the independence of Algeria for eight years, where he became a witness to the massacres and persecution to which the Algerian people was hardship. Every day, they executed about ten people because they talked about independence which Hoffman said about them: "I saw the patience of the Algerian people and their steadfastness in the face of great suffering, their discipline during the month of Ramadan, and their confidence in victory

as well as their humanity in spite of their misery ". Dr. Hoffman felt that religion made Algerian strong, and steadfast. So, he began to study their Heavenly book the Holy Qur’an, he says: "I did not stop one day to read the Qur'an to this day." The secret is the religion of Islam presences in all aspects of life. Hoffman had been a lover of the arts, especially Arabic: Arabic calligraphy , arabesque motifs , forms of carpet, the architecture of mosques and homes as well as urban planning. He used to say: "I always meditate in the design of mosques, where they built their ancient Islamic cities based social function, which promotes the spirit of society. He also emphasizes on the integration between e mosque and poor schools, markets and places of living care centers. His knowledge in Christian religion and its sectors lead him to look for truth . He was aware that there is a huge difference between believing Christian believer, and what the history teacher is learning in the university. He refused the idea that human beings relate with original sin and the Lord has tortured and killed his son on the cross in order to preserve his creation says: “I began to realize that the Lord Almighty cannot make a mistake in His creation, or be unable to do anything about the disaster by the assumption of Adam and Eve and then sacrificing his

son. " Dr. Hoffman Returned to the basic question about the existence of Allah, after having analyzed the work of philosophers such as Wittgenstein, Pascal, and Swinburne, Hoffman intellectually convinced the existence of God. The logical question that faced him after his conviction is: how does Allah communicate with human beings to lead them to the straight path ? This question led him to think in real religion. Hoffman Found the answer on this question when he read the Quranic verse (No one will suffer for the sins of others) Al-Isra, this verse show him the right way and opened his eyes. This verse provided him the solution to the dilemma that was faced with the clear and unambiguous, where denies this verse, the idea of the burden of original sin and mediation of the saints. He said: "Muslim is free and he can directly contact with the Allah, and this religion is devoid of mysterious things." According to Hoffman, "the Muslim believer is free from persecution, and a high degree of sophistication." On the day of his son in 1980, Hoffman prepared a manuscript of 12 pages contain things are undoubtedly true from the philosophical perspective . He asked Ahmed Mohammed imam of mosque in Cologne to take a look at this manuscript. Then He informed him that if he believes

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Nukhayla Mosque: Discovering an Illuminating Past Mr. Wasam Lateef Safi

The mosque of al-Nukhayla and the tomb of Ezekiel had been rebuilt in the time of the Mongol.

Nekheila Mosque, with its minaret and the shrine of the Prophet Ezekiel it covers, have since made historic landmarks, hence the basic quarter of the city al-Kifl in Iraq. Historically, the name of the city was derived from the name of the Prophet Ezekiel. It is located on the fertile plateau and gives beauty to the city, with a panorama of abundance of agricultural products, all located along the river of the Euphrates. It represents

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the nerve of survival and sustenance. The central mosque of the region is located about 30 kms to the south of the city of Hilla and at 130 kms to the south of Baghdad. It is characterized by being of the few cities reminiscent of the past, shining with its location, history, and cultural significance. The minaret of the mosque and shrine was built beside the Mosque with the latter decorated by fine Islamic inscriptions. Inside the mosque, there

is a marked place that shows the location where the first Infallible Imam `Ali performed salat en route back from the Battle of Siffin. For more details about the historical mosque of Nukhayla which still keeps the precise locus where Imam `Ali performed salat, the periodical Hussein Revivalism conducted an interview with Mr. Wasam Lateef Safi, the Deputy Secretary of the shrine of the Prophet Ezekiel.

He gave us some background information about the mosque in that its history dates back to the first Hegira century. He added, "The name of al-Nukhayla means "the small palm tree". It is the precise place where Imam `Ali performed salat en route the Battle of Siffin. He added that the mosque had been built at that place, for it was the exact location of the tomb of the Prophet Ezekiel; more importantly, Imam `Ali and his son, the 2nd

Report: Sabah al-Talaqani and Faysal Ghazi

Infallible Imam al-Hasan, performed salats at the very location. According to his explanations, the historical sources indicate that the mosque of alNukhayla and the tomb of Ezekiel had been rebuilt in the time of the Mongol Ilkhan and monarch, especially during the reign of Sultan Oljiato (later known as Sultan Muhammad Khuda Bandeh (703-716 A.H.). During the interview, Mr. Wasam Safi showed us the parts of the mosque which contained a well located to the south of the minaret. Connected with the old fence of the mosque, it was discovered in 2009 A.D. The towers of the mosque are visible from some long distance, with its five towers discovered in 2009. Interestingly, the section of the mosque in which Imam `Ali spent some time is located to the left of the entrance of the shrine of Ezekiel. Mr. Wasam gave us more details about a platform

of the mosque. He indicated that historians believe that Mr. Tajuddin Alaoa Alavttsa, who was killed over there in 171 A.H., had a monument a platform made of rock in the courtyard of the mosque. A mosque had a wall surrounding the shrine and located at a place about 663 square meters, with 35 cms width and 9 meters high just before its demolition. The history of the surrounding wall dates back to over 700 years ago. The remaining part was later discovered by using earth radar because of numerous excavation difficulties in the area. The fence and the minaret carry many of the motifs and writings which combine elements of engineering and plant, together with Kufic script and other cursive Arabic writings. All of them are inspired by local Iraqi elements that were then common before the Mongol invasion of Iraq. Perhaps the finest

of these remnants were written on the middle part and the top of the minaret, all consisting of a rare Kufic script in the Islamic world. These decorative writings consist of four words, written in overlapping triangles. Reconstruction of the Mosque Sheikh Hazem al-Amiri, the imam of the mosque, gave us some information about the status of the mosque before the fall of the former Ba`athist regime. He echoed, "After the fall of the dictatorial regime in 2003, the features of religious freedom began to take their normal course without any repression or restrictions. One of the most important things was of course to explore the Nukhalyla Mosque, with its shrine of the Prophet Ezekiel. The first step was to restore the value and sanctity of this place through establishing performance of congregational Friday prayers at the shrine of

the Prophet Ezekiel." The place was formerly called Khan Kurrish, that meant the Quraish place; unfortunately, in the former regime it was used as a warehouse and a large store of foodstuff. Nobody knew about the mosque and its brilliant historical significance and historical value. It was hence a mission of the local people and authorities to highlight the mosque and instruct the people about its importance. In 2003, Mr. Ri'ad alHakim visited the place; he recommended that its historical value must be promulgated publicly. He asked from Dr. Khalid al-Moussawi, an archaeology specialist affiliated to the University of Kufa, to provide the local people with the maps pertinent to the precise location, with indications of the original wall around the mosque. In this way, the original wall was reconstructed to protect it anew.

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Hussein Revivalism

hearts in Karbala

Fixing up the

Report : Mr Aga Sultan


Safeer Al-Hussain Medical Complex in holy Karbala cooperating with Narayana Hrudayalaya, Bangalore, India has been opening telemedicine room. The Technical feasibility was provided by Narayana Hrudayalaya along with the support and Co-ordination of Mr Aga Sultan, Consulting Engineer and an Eminent Educationalist , who is a former member of Syndicate & Academic Council - Bangalore University, Visvesvaraya Technological University in the form of state of art hardware and software to run the programme in Karbala. He along with Mr P. Lakshman Kumar, Telemedicine Manager and a Cardiac Surgeon flew from Bangalore to Iraq and camped in Karbala for a week to install, test, verify and train the local technicians and doctors the methodology of working of telemedicine. This facility was launched by Dr Devi Prasad Shetty and Dr Sanjay Mehrotra at Narayana Hrudayalaya and Sheikh Mahdi Al- Karbalayi, Mr. Syed Saad Al-Deen Hashem & Dr. Ahmed Hyderi at Safeer Al Hussain Medical complex, Karbala in the third week of January 2012. It may be noted that Karbala is the first city in the MiddleEast to have been linked up with this facility with Narayana Hrudayalaya. This would facilitate Transfer of all reports and the Specialists Doctors will advise the mode of treatment through Tele conferencing and only cases requiring Operations need to come here. This facility is free of cost. According to Mr. Aga Sultan who has been coordinating the Health activity between Narayana Hrudayalaya and The Holy Shrines for several years and also instrumental in the entire process of telemedicine linkup between India and Iraq says, “This linkup will save the trauma and expenses involved to travel only for diagnosis .�Also he recalled the gesture of Dr Shetty in providing Health care to the needy from Iraq at affordable prices since many years as well as free Heart Surgeries to poor Children referred by the holy Shrine of Imam Hussain A. S.,Karbala. It may be recalled that doctors from this hospital have performed complicated surgeries in the past with generous contributions and support from Narayana Hrudayalaya headed by Dr. Devi Prasad Shetty. Anyone interacting with Dr. Shetty and his team will find comfort level; this was visible while inaugurating the facility. On the successful installation of telemedicine facility Dr. Devi Shetty congratulated Mr. Aga Sultan and the team on accomplishing the task of successful linking of telemedicine facility network in karbala, Iraq. Referring that The complex is directed by the Holy Shrine of Imam Hussain .

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and the responsibility of parents

Modern technology is one of the factors that helps life to sustain and go smoother. Inventing computer has been one of the industrial revolutions which have come to assist developing all structures of the human life. Many companies competed to develop this device through reducing its size and producing portable and handy computers, that is, laptops. Man has insisted on giving a nonstop impetus to this extent, so he invented networks to allow any person have access to almost everybody in the world. This invention has transformed the world into a village for ease of communication; it was a dream of everyone on the planet. Indeed, networks became

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widespread and stronger day by day to be used by all age groups. It is used not only via computers, but also on mobile phones. Despite the benefits offered by the Internet, it brings about many troubles. Therefore, the responsibility of parents to oversee the children and watch them in all aspects of daily life remains the fundamental strategy to get rid of the troubles. Unfortunately, old-timer parents have not been familiar enough with children's problems on these websites, in addition to most of the parents who do not have adequate resources and information about Internet. Miss Tahreer Abdel-Mon`im, a Karbala kindergarten supervisor: After the emergence of the

advanced means of communication, it is necessary to teach our children how to use. However, we must pay attention to the manner we may control our children in how they make use of the Internet. This is because their mind is like a white page on which virtually everything can be written. When s/he uses the Internet in a right way, s/he will take the correct path in old age. The use of Internet is very important which fosters developing the intelligence of the child as well as helping her or him learn reading and writing. At this time, the explosion of the information and technological revolution have made it a necessity for almost everybody to learn how to make use of the computer. She indicated that the use of the

20% of children had access to the Internet from their bedrooms,79% of whom were able to make use of the Internet without any censorship.

By: Haider. M. and Maitham R. Internet at a young age brings about a number of problems and drawbacks; however, when they make use of the Internet under the control of their parents and/or a teacher, the drawbacks will become less. She added: “We look forward to bringing the Internet to kindergartens. The availability of computers in schools has enabled our children to use it. They must know its pros and cons and make the most of its useful services. It may also be available at many houses, so I appeal to those families to teach their children how to use the Internet.� Sonia Livingstone, a professor at the London School of Economics and Political Science, conducted

a study about children and the Internet. In her study, the subjects included 1,511 children aged between 9 and 19 years as well as 906 parents. She mentioned it in her study that 20% of children had access to the Internet from their bedrooms,79% of whom were able to make use of the Internet without any censorship. The report pointed out that a third of the subjects never received any lessons at school in how to make use of the Internet. The best way to change children's behaviours is participating parents their children in the right way to chat with others. Some of the experts in the United States have suggested applying a number of strategies. Their advice was to classify the children according to their age into five categories, namely, (1)1-7 years and less. At this age, they cannot deal with electronic messages only under the guidance of their parents. However, the parents may find them using the Internet. In view of this, the instructions on this age group include the following: A- Use the Search Engines for children, such as Yahoo Kids, and Ask for Kids. B- By installing programs and controlling the applications parents will prevent them from viewing any bad site. This must be complemented with the parents' occasional joining them, hence they may prevent the children from entering into any interactive games on the Internet, especially those that allow them to make conversations with strangers.

C- Finally, select the times of using the Internet, e.g., half an hour a day. (2) Children aged 8 to 10-years: They always use mobile and send message; they even have access to social networks, so parents should select the sites that cater for their studies. In case parents allow them to send emails, they must oversee and approve the identity of the parties involved in the correspondence. And it is necessary that they make use of anti-spyware and anti-virus programs that appear automatically, all for the purpose of preventing any suspicious program from entering the computer's memory while children are working with it. It follows that parents must teach them respect others via the Internet, and select the period of using the Internet less than an hour a day. D- 3. Age group 10 to 12 years: The majority of children in this age range know how to deal with interactive technologies, so parents must improve their level of control. The parents should also check computers every week for detecting any pirated files might have been downloaded on the computer, whether viewing or listening to music or video files or movies. 4- Age group 13 to 15 years: In this age group, adults exchange messages and conduct conversations through the Internet either at work, with a computer at home or with a friend's PC.

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Enquiry Miss Tahreer Abdel-Mon`im

we may control our children in how they make use of the Internet. This is because their mind is like a white page on which virtually everything can be written. The most dangerous thing in this age is concerned with the convergence among the adults and strangers over the Internet and this is a major problem for parents. Parents should determine the times of fun for them on the Internet up to an hour or an hour and a half per a day, away from social networking sites and dating sites. They should prohibit image searching, and put the computer in a central location

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that allows them to supervise the way it is being used. 5. Age of 16 years and above: You have to give her/him confidence; however, the father has some obligations, including respecting for others, all in addition to the need to read the electronic information and criticizing it. He should speak with them about the dangers of sharing personal information with others, the risk of meeting others whom they get to know on the

Internet, and teach them to use anti-virus programs and firewalls. Finally, fathers should advise them not to use web cameras to transfer images over the Internet. To recapitulate, parents should recognize and know the dangers of the Internet, and respect the privacy of children in order to help them use the Internet safely. It is important that we teach our children how to deal with some unwanted content if it appears in front of them.


The universal Religion

There are no exact figures for the number of Muslims in the world today. It seems clear, however, that in terms of numbers Islam at least matches those of Christianity, the other most widespread religion today. From its heartlands in the Middle East and North Africa the religion spread before the modern period

to many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, to central Asia, to the Indian subcontinent, and to East and South East Asia. In Europe, Sicily and most of Spain were part of the Islamic world during the Middle Ages, and most of the Balkans came to be ruled by the Muslim Ottoman Empire, with its capital at Istanbul, at various times between about 1300 and the end of World War I. In modern times Islam has spread as a result of emigration so that there are now large Muslim communities in parts of Western Europe, North America, South Africa, and Australia. The Sunni form of the religion is dominant in most countries apart from Iran, but there are large Shiite populations in Iraq and Lebanon, in Bahrain and eastern Saudi Arabia, and, to a lesser extent, in Central and South Asia. It is a mistake to think that Islam has always spread by warfare. Although, as has been noted above, its birth was associated with the Arab conquest of the Middle East and North Africa in the 7th century, and although it entered the Balkans as a result of the Ottoman expansion from 1300 onwards and spread in west Africa following a jihad in the 18th century, the religion of Islam has not generally been forced upon people by the sword. Periods of military conquest have usually been aimed at expanding the territories under Muslim rule rather than at forcing the conversion of nonMuslims to Islam. Conversion to Islam has usually followed quite slowly, sometimes against the wishes of the Muslim rulers, after a territory has come under Muslim rule. The adoption of Islam as their religion has usually resulted from the wishes and actions of people wanting to become Muslim, not because it was forced upon them against their will. Why some people have been attracted to Islam and others not is a complex question involving many different religious, social, political, and economic factors. In some parts of the world, trade and the cultural attraction of Islamic civilization have been as important as preaching in the spread of the religion. Sufi brotherhoods have also done much to spread the religion in particular areas. Like Christianity (and like Buddhism) Islam is a universal religion open to all irrespective of nationality, gender or social status. Of course, normal ethnic and social divisions exist among Muslims, but one of the attractions of Islam is its insistence on the fundamental equality of all Muslims before God. One of its greatest strengths has been the way in which various peoples have been able to find a sense of their own identity in Islam.

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Photo by: Hassan Maash


Salah Al-khaqani

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Imam al-Sadiq and the Renaissance

To historians of human civilizations, the Renaissance is considered as an important upheaval in the realm of the human progress. It has been the fruit of tremendous efforts which led Europeans to another way on life on cultural, social, and scientific levels. Many scholars and architects of the Renaissance felt proud of it because they considered it as a revolution that has changed the human life. Nevertheless, if we look carefully and search in the history of the Ahl al-Bayt, we certainly find many great personalities that have expressed some thoughts that have changed our lifestyle. The 6th Shi'i Infallible Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq has since remained one of the great scholars both in the past and in the present. This article seeks to review some of the most important contributions he made to the fundamentals of the Islamic Renaissance and the thoughts associated with it. It is a matter of respect for different faiths and beliefs and not to deal with them on the basis of despotism on the intellectual or practical level. There are many examples which show his commitment to this thought where he dealt with all the people of other faiths as well as inviting them to come to wisdom. Imam al-Sadiq was indeed a major proponent of respecting the beliefs of others. One day, Imam al-Sadiq met a man who called an immigrant teenager by way of abusing him. Upon noticing this, Imam al-Sadiq got angry; the man accompanying Imam al-Sadiq echoed: "But he

is a Zoroastrian and married his own sister." Then Imam al-Sadiq returned: "This is permissible in their religion�. “Because Imam al-Sadiq respects their religion laws ". To adduce but one example from the astronomical revolution that characterizes this Renaissance that has changed man's weltanschauung regarding the world and thus has led to the revolution against the church. When Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq was still a young man at the age of eleven in the school of his father Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, one of the students of his father returned from Egypt. That student took a miniature globe made of wood flour composite on a round base. In its sky there were twelve groups of stars from the Aries to the Pisces, with its shape resembling a belt encircling the ball as Ptolemy depicted in his book Almagest in the second century AD. In it, the sun falls behind the globe and rotates around the earth once a year, passing on the zodiac, as well as the moon and other planets which revolve around the earth. That globe was the first miniature globe of the solar system and other planets. In it Imam al-Sadiq noticed a big mistake that Ptolemy made. Upon observing the globe, Imam al-Sadiq cast a doubt upon the claim that the sun orbits around the earth and moves from the zodiac to the other celestial body in thirty days [to be its once a year ?]. Then, he asked the person about the reason of the absence of the

sun at night time and its coming up in day time. Had it been the case that the sun was settled in each zodiac for a month, the sun must be seen constantly; therefore, what must be the reason for its going out of sight every evening? Other features of the Renaissance concern a great revolution in the experimental approaches in various scientific fields which led the human mind to work out a sound experimental and scientific method. Here, we find in the school of Imam al-Sadiq an amazing upsurge is noticeable in medicine, chemistry, and other experimental sciences. This is evident in the writings of his student Jabir b. Hayyan whose scientific approach is clear in the experiments. It can be delineated in three steps: (1) A chemical substance must have a characteristic, as confirmed by experiment; (2)the scientist must form a hypothesis which will lead her or him to the results; and (3) s/he must ascribe these results to the nature of the substance, whether they ratify the new observations. If it ratifies, it will prove to be a scientific law. The letters and arts are yet other realms with which the Renaissance was expected to be concerned. No doubt, Imam al-Sadiq was watchful of the role of literature, especially poetry, in the yet greater realm of socio-academic enterprise expected to be created or emerge.

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T h e

M u s e u m

o f

I m a m

a l - H

History mirrors the grandeur and

The Museum reflects the history of the Sanctuary which belongs first and foremost to Imam al-Hussein. Mr. SaĂ ed Zmezm The administration of Imam alHussein's Sacred Sanctuary has long been profoundly concerned with displaying the really enchanting face of Islam so as to help the mankind appreciate the thought and culture of the Ahl al-Bayt worldwide. In this way, it has been zealous to make a firm

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foundation for cultural, religious and doctrinal training for the public in addition to holding religiouscum-national ceremonies and festivals. This dire need has made it a necessity for Imam al-Hussein's Sacred Sanctuary to make an international center for the intellectual and cultural

Report: Muhammoud A.

facets that reflect the real face of Imam al-Hussein's blessings and the everlasting fruits of his graceful revolution that he completed against the tyranny. He has successfully achieved disseminating the word of peacefulness around the world. On the basis of these hallmarks

u s s e i n 's

S a c r e d

S a n c t u a r y

sanctity of the Prince of Martyrs

A conference held regarding documentation of the valuables preserved in the museum according to scientific and international standards Mr. AlaĂ dia al-dden and criteria, a museum has been established and officially opened within the courtyard of Imam al-Hussein's Sacred Sanctuary. It was indeed a long-needed necessity to reflect and show all visitors a portion of Imam alHussein's grandeur and sanctity. This is because Imam al-Hussein

has been the sublime personality whom many historians, writers, and thinkers have followed and took lessons from throughout the ages. Establishing steps Mr. AlaĂ dia al-dden, the museum curator, clarified the original idea of establishing the museum and the first steps taken

in this regard. The conception of the establishing the museum goes back to several years ago; it was necessary to show the pilgrims and visitors the fine and priceless objects that belong to Imam alHussein's Sacred Sanctuary throughout the ages and centuries. Therefore, the administration of

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Report the shrine started looking for a suitable location whereat the valuable objects could be reserved. In this way, the idea of establishing a museum emerged; it then received further turnovers and refinements. He also added that “the Sacred Sanctuary posses several complete collections, including a lot of beautiful and historical treasures and we are currently working on making a complete list of those priceless objects, plus documenting them and issuing an identification card for each and every of them. The treasures preserved cover a wide range of items on the basis of the periods and ages they were donated to the Sacred Sanctuary." Specialist Conference The Museum curator talked about a specialist conference held regarding documentation of the valuables preserved in the museum according to scientific and international standards. He maintained that they had held a conference for documenting, numbering, and evaluating the priceless objects and materials. A large number of specialists and academic experts in the fields of preservation of cultural heritage, antiquities, and manuscripts attended the conference. Dr. Qays Hussein Rashid, the President of General Authority for Antiquities and Heritage, and the director of the Iraqi museum, attended the conference and presented a talk, too. The Museum curator also added that the conference lasted for two days. The experts participated were zealous on the holdings of the Museum, especially for the gifts and antiques presented to Imam al-Hussein's Sacred Sanctuary, all donated by Muslim figures throughout the ages. The

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participants took part in the process of documentation and offered their proposals and suggested ways for completion of the project in accordance with precise scientific and standard methods and procedures. An invitation to people interested in Islamic history Mr. Ala’a also addressed a ignificant matter regarding Islamic history. He invited all people who have an interest in Islamic history to participate in enriching the holdings of the museum, for there are still many antiques that were lost in the time of the former regime. Therefore, if anybody has any valuable piece or object that belongs to Imam al-Hussein's Sacred Sanctuary, they can deliver and return the objects concerned to the office of the museum

within Imam al-Hussein's Sacred Sanctuary, or they may contact the authorities concerned via . The renowned author and historian Mr. SaĂ ed Zmezm talked about the role of establishing a museum within courtyard of Imam alHussein's Sacred Sanctuary. He maintained that the museum of Imam al-Hussein's Sacred Sanctuary has a high value. It reflects the history of the Sanctuary which belongs first and foremost to Imam al-Hussein and represents such a most sacred place, venerated by people of various nationalities, religious background, and denominations. Mr. Zamzam also emphasized that all the valuable antiques in the museum have come from various countries and ages.

Nahaj Al-Balaghah

Imam Ali once said to his son Imam Hasan, My son, learn four things from me and through them you will learn four more. If you keep them in mind your actions will not bring any harm to you: The greatest wealth is Wisdom; the greatest poverty is stupidity; the worst unso- ciableness is that of vanity and self-glorification; and the best nobility of descent exhibits itself in politeness and in refinement of manner. The next four things, my son, are: Do not make friendship with a fool because when he will try to do you good he will do you harm; do not make a miser your friend because he will run away from you at the time of your dire need; do not be friendly with a vicious and wicked person because he will sell you and your friendship at the cheapest price and do not make friend of a liar because like a mirage he will make you visualize very near the things which lie at a great distance and will make you see at the great distance the things which are near to you". *** . Recommended prayers cannot attain the pleasures of Allah for you when obligatory prayers are left unattended. *** . A wise man first thinks and then speaks and a fool speaks first and then thinks. ** A fool's mind is at the mercy of his tongue and a wise man's tongue is under the control of his mind *******. If I cut a faithful Muslim into pieces to make him hate me he will not turn into my enemy and if I give all the wealth of this world to a hypocrite to make him my friend he will not befriend me. It is so because the Holy Prophet has said: " O Ali! No faithful Muslim will ever be your enemy and no hypocrite will ever be your friend. "

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Books Interview

The Treaties of Rights

Right Of Acts

1-The right of your ritual prayer (salat) is that you know that it is an arrival before God and that through it you are standing before Him. When you know that, then you will stand in the station of him who is lowly, vile, beseeching, trembling, hopeful, fearful, and abased, and you will magnify Him who is before you through stillness and dignity. You will approach the prayer with your heart and you will perform it according to its bounds and its rights. 2- The right of the hajj is that you know it is an arrival before your Lord and a flight to Him from your sins; through it your repentance is accepted and you perform an obligation made incumbent upon you by God. 3- The right of fasting is that you know it is a veil which God has set up over your tongue, your hearing, your sight, your stomach, and your private part to protect you from the Fire. If you abandon the fast, you will have torn God's protective covering away from yourself. 4-The right of charity (sadaqa) is that you know it is a storing away with your Lord and a deposit for which you will have no need for witnesses. If you deposit it in secret, you will be more confident of it than if you deposit it in public. You should know that it repels afflictions and illnesses from you in this world and it will repel the Fire from you in the next world. 5-The right of the offering (hady) is that through it you desire God and you not desire His creation; through it you desire only the exposure of your soul to God's mercy and the deliverance of your spirit on the day you encounter Him.

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Migration to non-Muslims countries

The Ritual Prayer Question: If a traveller leaves his home town immediately after the adhan of noon prayer, i.e. without saying that prayer, and reaches his destination after sunset, has he committed a sin? And is it obligatory on him to make up for noon prayer? Answer: Yes, he has committed a sin by neglecting the obligatory prayer in its appropriate time, and he has to make it up. 2. Question: Is the ink that had dried [on our hands, for example] a barrier to perform wudhu or ghusl? Answer: If it does not form a mass that would prevent water from reaching the skin, the wudhu and ghusl is valid. However, if one has doubt whether it forms a mass or not, it must be removed. 3. Question: Is it permissible for a Muslim to involve in pleasure by continuing to watch an entertaining movie even, though salat time is due, and then he goes to say his prayers just before it becomes overdue (qadha)? Answer: It is not appropriate for a Muslim to delay the saying of salat from its preferred time (i.e., at the beginning of its time span) except for an excuse; what has been mentioned in the question is not an acceptable excuse. 4. Question: Is cream a barrier to water reaching the skin, and if so should it be removed prior to wudhu and ghusl? Answer: Apparently the effect left on the skin after it is applied is nothing but just moisture, and so it does not constitute a barrier to water reaching the skin. 5. Question: Some women let their nails grow longer than necessary for beauty. Sometimes a nail breaks up, requiring a cover that must be placed over the broken nail. Knowing that such a cover prevents water from reaching the nail in wudhu and ghusl, is it permissible to use it? How should wudhu and ghusl be performed with that cover? Answer: Wudhu and ghusl with such a cover over the nail is not valid; therefore, it is necessary to remove it for ablutions. And the purpose mentioned above for the cover is not justifiable.

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The term "civil society" is not a scientific terminology; it is an expression that carries different interpretations depending on the perspective of the researcher and his thoughts. To define it in a simple language, "civil society" consists of a group of wide-ranging non-governmental and non-profit organizations which have are active in public life. It has exhibits the interests of its members or those of others based on ethical, cultural, political, scientific, religious, and charitable denominators.

Report : Faysal G. And Ali H.

The Role of Civil Society Institutions in the World's Cultural,

Intellectual and Charity Activities In order to learn more about these organizations and their range of activities, in addition to what goes on in these organizations, the periodical Hussein Revivalism

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has had an interview with Dr. Muhammad Jawad, the Consultant of General Inspector of the Iraqi Ministry of Health. Dr. Jawad said that the role of civil society

institutions are general and quite widespread in the world's range of cultural, intellectual and charitable. Each institution and organization has a

particular idea. Keeping an eye on the society is the responsibility of all people who live in a particular place. In consequence, we hope that a man accomplishes his missions in a wide range of activities such as fighting smuggling the drug, an unfavourable phenomenon that has got widespread in Muslim

communities in the last decade. Open borders , weakness of the authorities and there were many bad traders result from these phenomena which impose on all citizens to contribute and work seriously with charitable organizations to be able to eliminate health and intellectual pandemics in communities around the world.

Dr. Jawad added that we activated our cooperation with the organizations of civil societies for the purpose of alerting young people from doping in sport because a lot of young athletes who lost their lives due to doping. Therefore, the Inspector-General of the Iraqi Ministry of Health ordered to activate the role of civil society and charity organizations in the elimination of unfavourable health cases. The ministry of health must contribute to the principle of prevention which is far better than treatment; this can be achieved through charities and civil society organizations. He added that religious institutions should increase their efforts to show the right way to the youth. The religious men should get closer to the youths in society and do not let them down, especially those whose level of religious literacy is rather low. Many youths are proud of getting closer to such religious and charity organizations because most of religious institutions follow a moderate way and lifestyle. Dr. Muhammad Jawad added in his interview with the periodical that “I warn the young people and request them to get away from suspicious religious movements and institutions that kill others in the name of Islam. Imam al-Husayn's revolution is a good example in that he his uprising took place in the name of Islam, as soon as he noticed an error had taken place in the society." Therefore, he introduced himself, his family, and his companions for reliving the Islamic religion and showed the right way to all the world. This being so, we should pay attention to the so-called religious organizations and institutions that

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kill people under the rubric of Islam. As such, they are the real enemies of not only Islam but also every religious society. Sheikh Jafar al-SaĂ k, of Bahrain, said that a person should be looking for the right and reliable organization and/or institution before joining them. According to him, any institution must prove careful of Islamic religious institutions because these institutions follow the right path. There are some civil societies that have had a friendly relationship with religious institutions and authorities; they can prove sources of confidence and bright future for the common culture. It follows that

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such institutions and organizations must stand at a high level amongst the world's cultural, intellectual, and charity institutions. Dr. Saad Muhammad Saleh from the Iraqi ministry of health said that youths always like sports and other activities. Therefore, they are after the scientific and intellectual institutions more than religious institutions because religious institutions will limit the youths' energies. Religious institutions in different countries have adopted sports clubs which attract youths and urge them that the level of religious guidance offered to the young people is not enough. It follows that the majority of those

who go to religious institutions are rather old men. Dr. Saad added that the work of religious institutions do not provide adequate support for the communities. This shortcoming includes lack of helping the elimination of administrative corruption, whether in the private or public sectors. This support will lead people to receiving growth and upgrading their lifestyle. As such Arab countries are in dire need of social organizations and charities, for instance , there are charity organizations that help citizens in treatment of their children.

One One

Line Advices

A Bedouin's questions to the Prophet of Islam Muhammad The Bedouin: "I wish to be the most learned of men" The Prophet: "Fear God" The Bedouin: "I wish to be among the special ones before God" The Prophet: "Read the Qur'an day and night" The Bedouin: "I wish my heart to be always illuminated" The Prophet: "Do not forget Death" The Bedouin: "I wish to be always under God's mercy" The Prophet: "Do good to God's creatures" The Bedouin: "I wish that no harm reaches me from my enemy" The Prophet: "Always put your trust in God" The Bedouin: "I wish never to be despised by men" The Prophet: "Adopt piety" The Bedouin: "I wish to have a long life" The Prophet: "Be on good terms with your relatives" The Bedouin: "I wish my sustenance to be expanded" The Prophet: "Always be in a state of ablution " The Bedouin "I wish not to be burned by the fire of hell" The Prophet: "Keep your eyes and tongue from what is forbidden" The Bedouin: "I want to know what washes away sins" The Prophet: "Humility and abject repentance" The Bedouin: "I wish to be the most dignified of men"

The Prophet: "Do not ask for anything from anyone" The Bedouin: "I wish that the veil of my chastity is never rent" The Prophet: "Do not rent the veil of another (do not make known his faults)" The Bedouin: "I wish that my grave will not be narrow (that I will not be punished)" The Prophet: "Always recite Surah al-Mulk" The Bedouin: "I wish that my wealth may increase" The Prophet: "Always recite Surah al-Waqi'ah every night" The Bedouin: "I wish to be safe tomorrow on the Day of Judgement" The Prophet: "Be involved with the remembrance of God from the evening until sleeping at night" The Bedouin: "I wish to experience God's presence during prayer" The Prophet: "Take great care while performing Wudu" The Bedouin: "I wish to be of the special ones" The Prophet: "Adopt uprightness and honesty" The Bedouin: "I wish not to suffer the punishment of the grave" The Prophet: "Take care to keep your clothes clean" The Bedouin: "I wish my register of deeds to be free of sins, and always have good in it" The Prophet: "Do good to your mother and father"

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Article Tourism

The Holy Shrine of

Al-Qasim Report: Maytham S. and Sabah H.

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Mr. Ahmed Jabbar Jassim The holy shrine of al-Qasim b. Imam Musa al-Kazim is located at the city of Swri, about 37 kms to the south of the Babylon governorate. As such, it is called the al-Qasim city, due mainly to such a great personality buried there in. Located on the main route to Karbala, it has since been regarded as a major station for all Muharram processions that come from cities and towns located in southern Iraq toward Karbala, the site of Imam al-Husayn's sacred sanctuary.

A brief history of the shrine According to Mr. Ahmed Jabbar Jassim, the curator in charge of the cultural activities held there in “When Imam Musa al-Kazim was martyred in the prison of the Abbasid ruler Harun, al-Qasim disappeared to escape the enemies and chose to go to the city of Hilla.� Al-Qasim started working there as an ordinary person so as nobody would identify him. However, just before passing away, he requested his relatives to take his daughter to his hometown, that is, Medina. Ahmed added that the shrine is located on the road between the provinces of Hilla and Diwaniyah. Therefore, a large number of

pilgrims come to visit the shrine for receiving its blessings. The first building of the holy shrine was constructed in the late 13th century hegira/ 19th century. According to him, the history of the shrine dates back to 179 A.H. or 192 A.H./ 795 or 808, respectively. The earliest building had been built by the citizens of the same locality , then in the 13th and 14th centuries, the same building was renewed. It was the Iranian Safavid king Shah Abbas who expanded the outer wall of the shrine in the 1200 A.H./ 1800. The latest building was completed in 1993 A.D. after the shrine was destroyed in effect of which the whole site was rebuilt anew from the ground. Ahmad maintained that the location of the shrine has long made it a religious tourist resort to which pilgrims come from various cities of Iraq as well as other countries. It is located within groves and includes date palms and other trees. The al-Qasim shrine as a site for Husayni processions and rituals Regarding the Husayni mournful processions held in the months Muharram and Safar, Mr. Ahmad Jabbar Jassim eched that those two months are special for holding mournful rituals, not only in Iraq but also in most parts of the world. In the mourning season, everybody, both Muslim and non-Muslim, ardently commemorate Ashura, the martyrdom day of Imam alHusayn and his companions in the battle of Karbala. At al-Qasim city, the citizens relive this anniversary by reciting khutbas. This is for the purpose of promulgating the wisdom of Imam al-Husayn's revolution which has

since made the fountainhead of freedom for the mankind, both Muslim and non-Muslim. It was indeed a revolution against the tyranny; it proved a source of reinforcing the human rights. In such rituals, the public dress in black and cover most of the city walls with black cloth to mark their prfound sorrow in commemoration of the unparalleled and imposed Battle of Karbala. For this anniversary, when Month of Muharram comes, the employees of the holy shrine and main personalities in the city change the flag above the holy dome from red to black which represent the month of sorrow.

Lack of media Media is usually considered as the fourth authority which reflects important things. The shrine lacks media technology: there is no live broadcasting and there is no magazine to spread the news of the activities of the shrine and important occasions held. Importance of the shrine for the region The population of city is about 170,000. It indicates a huge number of visitors who come to visit there and get blessing from the shrine. In consequence, there are many pilgrims who come from various parts of Iraq, and this contribute to the higher income of the local population. The cities al-Hashimi and al-TaleaĂĄ are located in the same region, hence their inhabitants come to al-Qasim for shopping as well as visiting the shrine. Al-Qasim has already made a good and profitable market for the region.

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Imam Hussein

the founder of


From the inception of the Islam, historians, thinkers, philosophers, writers and followers were attracted by al-Imam al-Hussein’s personality and his revolution which he declared against the government and policies of Yazid. Al-Imam al-Hussein has inspired future generations in relation to the stances he initiated in the land of Karbala. He confronted unjust rulers and their governors, rejecting to pay an oath of allegiance to them on the basis of the tradition of his grandfather Prophet Mohammad ( peace be upon him and his progeny) “ Do not obey a creature against his creator .” Due to his piousness and political ethics, al-Imam al-Hussein was followed by a small group of his family and companions who were devoted to his leadership. These people were renowned for their piety, God fearing, honesty, commitment and obedience to their Imam Al-Imam al-Hussein's revolution can be expressed as the pillar of the Islamic political thought and the axis of its millstone. Had the civilization of every nation been measured by the Imam's message, dignity and honor, it could be argued that Imam alHussein would have been the founder of civilization. The treatise of Imam al-Hussein to decline the oath of allegiance to unjust rulers can be a torch for nations to enhance their civilizations because al-Imam al-Hussein is not correlated to neither a certain place or time. It is the duty of all the nations irrespective of their religions and languages to become familiar with the legacy of al-Imam al-Hussein. Also it is the duty of every scholar, philosopher, teacher, author and the like, to introduce al-Imam al-Hussein to his/her pupils and citizens because he is one of the Twelve Imams who upheld Allah’s command and consequently appointed the master of the martyrs, whose blood protected the religion of Islam.

By: Dr. Ahamd Hamud

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Islam in Russia

The long history of Islam in Russia is grand and glorious as well as doleful and dreadful. Many stringent steps were taken against Islam and the Muslims during and after the Russian Revolution. Those tough and tight measures, however, failed to wipe out the Muslims and their rich cultural heritage. On the contrary, the present position rather confirms the fact beyond doubt that like all other Muslim regions of the world the Russian Muslim areas are also in the grips of a rising wave of awakening. The more recent upsurges in all the Muslim states of Russia are simply eye-opening for everyone. All awakening movements among the Russian Muslims have always been distinctly Islamic in letter and spirit.

Islam and Muslim in Russia Islam entered on the Russian scene in the seventh century A.D. (first century A.H.). The Muslim armies had started making penetrations into Russian soil. In 642, Azerbaijan came under Muslim control. The Muslims also occupied the extreme border town of Darbund in 658.

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By: Dr Abdur Rauf

History of Islam in Russia

After the conquest of eastern Caucasia (Qafqaz), Islam began to spread in these areas without any resistance. The Muslim armies crossed river Oxus in 673. Bukhara fell to the Muslims in 674. The series of such conquests went on up to the tenth century when Islam became the most popular religion in the entire central Asia. With the passage of time these very areas began to be considered as the main centres of Islamic civilization and culture. Thereafter Islam’s popularity went on increasing in the whole of Russia. Unfortunately, however, Russia had a tight grip over the Muslim territories from the middle of the sixteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth. But despite her oppressive operations there was never any decline in the spread and popularity of Islam in Russia. The pace of Islam’s dissemination maintained a high momentum in eastern Russia. The Russian Muslims of these areas maintained their brotherly links with the rest of the Muslims world for quite a long span of time. Central Asia and Qafqaz played a

vital role in promoting the Islamic civilization and its culture for full one thousand years. These areas enjoyed the same honours in the rise and glory of Islam as have gone to Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and the indo-Pak subcontinent. Khawarizam was the ancestral city of the renowned Muslim physician-cum-philosopher, Avicenna.

Movements for Autonomy After the Russain Revolution of 1917, the Russian Muslims faced a highly hazardous situation. The leaders of the communist revolution were determined to impose such an authoritarian system over the entire Russia as It was totally hostile to the religion and traditions, civilization and culture, politics and polity of the Muslims. Around 1924, a tight iron curtain was imposed on the Muslim areas. Consequently, the Russian Muslims got dissociated from the rest of the Muslims world. Immediately after the start of the regular official moves against Christianity in Russia, a series of organized onslaughts started against the Muslims in 1928. All

Soviet attempts at uprooting Islam and the Muslims failed flatly. The period of the Russian Iron Curtain from 1928 to 1968 was the most painful tragedy of the Russian Muslim history. During that perilous period attempts to lure Muslims away from Islam and their

forcible conversion to communism became a recurring routine with those in power. Tyranny and oppressive measures gave birth to a wave of new awakening among the Muslims. Movements for independence and self-determination erupted all over

the Muslim areas. Among these freedom movements, the guerilla organization called the "Basmachi Movement" is quite well-known. Unfortunately, however, the Russian Muslims got entangled into the wilderness of mutual differences and dissensions, rifts

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and conflicts. They were then unable to defend themselves as a united block. Consequently, all Muslim areas were forcibly annexed to the Russian territory one after the other. Ever since Russian occupation of the Muslim territories the Soviet Union had utilized all possible devices to put an end to the distinct spiritual, moral, cultural and political identity of the Muslims. All sorts of traps of atheism, baits of modernization and lures of lewd recreations had been tried in quick succession. All sovereign Muslim States enjoy some God-given distinctive advantages as compared with the rest of Russia. Some such unique boons are: (1) Significant Strategic Setting: By virtue of their close location to Iran, Afghanistan, the Persian gulf and Pakistan the special political and military significance of these areas look quite manifest. Russia in particular and the rest of the world in general can never overlook this significant strategic setting of these territories. (2) Mineral and Agricultural Wealth: These areas have been blessed with valuable natural resources. World’s largest gold mines lie in Uzbekistan. Azerbaijan’s Baku has the biggest oil fields. Similarly desert areas of several Muslim territories have huge reservoirs of minerals, gas and oil. From the agricultural point of view these areas are not only self-sufficient but also the major sources of good supply to the rest of Russia. Unfortunately, however, it is these very areas where the Muslims had been subjected to a pathetic state of utter economic deprivation.

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(3) Population Growth Factor: Since the movement of family planning has met with little success in the Muslim areas, their population growth rate was five times higher than the average Russians. The unusually high rate of population growth has also generated apprehensions that in times to come the Muslims may form majority in the entire Russian set up. This basic demographic factor was a unique advantage favouring the Russian Muslims. The Muslim areas have a network of mosques, religious education institutions and cultural centres. But extremely subtle and severe restrictions had been imposed on the religious festivals and gathering of the Muslims. Simultaneously, however, it never refrained from a repressive and even barbarous policy towards its own Russian Muslims of Central Asia as it had done with the Muslims of Afghanistan during the recent past. It is Russia which was actually responsible for all that was happening within the Muslim states. The two major factors responsible for the more recent unrest and uprising were as follows:-

(i) Economic Exploitation of the Russian Muslims: Despite their rich natural resources all the Soviet Muslim republics had been purposely kept backward. They looked like typical colonies of the vast-Russian empire. They were obliged to export their raw materials to the developed Russian republics for paltry returns. They were constrained to import everyday

consumer goods from them at exorbitant prices. This unjust and unbalanced situation has sown the seeds of poverty, deprivation, frustration and unrest in these states.

(ii) Systematic Suppression of Muslim Culture: The other main factor was the constant cultural suppression of the Muslim population. All sorts of the alien Russo-European cultural patterns and practices were being imposed on them rather unthinkingly. The Muslims felt like living in a foreign land.

Rising Strength of Renaissance The most painful aspect of this cultural suppression was the fact that a variety of shrewd and irrational measures were being constantly adopted to alienate the Muslims of these republics from the rest of the Muslim world. The Russian Muslims remained more resolute than ever before they regained religious, political and territorial independence from the iron curtain. The other concrete proofs of the growing strength of the rising wave of renaissance among the Russian Muslim republics were: 1. increasing interest in the reading of the Holy Qur’an; 2. rising attendance at the mosques for prayers and other religious programs and construction of new mosques; 3. increasing projection of Islamic features in the radio and television programs; 4. growing demand for the restoration of the original Arabic scripts in their languages, etc.

History of Orientalism in Russia It was in the 18th century that Russia started developing its interests' in Orientalism. It was when Peter the Great Tsar ordered that copies of all Arabic inscriptions to be gathered at the city of Polgar. This was because most of its population converted to Islam in 922 A.D. It is clear that the process of publication of these inscriptions and books played an important role in the development of Russian Orientalism in that period. A famous writer by the name of Kantimir (1673-1723) intended to establish the first printing press with Arabic letters, and in 1716 he issued the first full translation of the Holy Quran. Then, the Great Tsar ordered to establish schools of translation for subjects pertinent to Orientalism. In the second half of the 18th century, the Arabic language entered the secondary school curricula at some Russian cities such as Astrakhan. However, the beginning of the modern era in Russian Orientalism goes back to the beginning of the 19th century. Many Russian universities were offering courses in Oriental

languages. The earliest Arabic language departments had been established at Kharkov and Kazan and later on in Moscow. The actual beginning of the academic Orientalism took place in Russia in 1817 when the Asian Museum was established at St. Petersburg by the famous Russian Orientalist K. D. Wolverine (1782-1851). He conducted a wide range of research projects on Arabic coins and numismatics, and studied Arabic references dealing with the history of the Russian peoples. Later on, the Asian Museum turned to the Institute of rientalism of the Academy of Sciences at the city of St. Petersburg. A School of Oriental Languages was established in 1854 at the University of St. Petersburg; it included, inter alia, the Department of Arabic Language and its Literature.

The Main Institutes of Oriental Studies in Russia

1. The Institute of Oriental Studies, the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2. Section of Manuscripts, Eastern Institute, the Russian Academy of Sciences.

3. Institute of Asia and Africa, the University of Moscow. 4. College of Oriental Languages, the University of St. Petersburg. In addition to the above, there have been several notable Orientalists: 1. The Orientalist Mikhail Piotrovsky. He is a leading Orientalist and director of the Russian Armitage Museum, St. Petersburg. 2. Yevgeny Primakov, the Russian Soviet politician 3. Ignatius Kraczkowski, the first translator of Holy Quran into Russian. 4. Nikolai Aouchmanov , he is the author of the book "A Grammar of the Classical Arabic Language", one of the basic references for students of Arabic at Russian high schools. 5. D. Isaac Valsteinski who is famous for his book Between the Poems of al- Maari and a Biography of Antar. He translated many pieces of Arabic literature, including works of al-Jabarti and al-Tanukhi and developed a biography of Antar and Maari. His book "The History of Arabic Literature," is still regarded as a main reference for all students of Arabic literature in Russia.

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Steadfastn When she went to Widad’s house Islam that has enlightand knocked at the door, Widad ened my life and given opened it and embraced her me a spiritual weapon to with love and passion saying: face false modernization. Congratulations, Wifaq on this good news. I felt so happy for you. and so- called modernization. Take Feeling surprised for that warm the letter. Read it to enjoy yourself. congratulating, Wifaq asked: which Wifaq took the letter but because good news do you mean, Widad? she was happy, she couldn’t read -Haven’t you received your it. God has responded to her and brother’s letter, Wifaq? Haven’t you supported her in the most critical heard that he was on his way home moments in her life. Islam, morals, and that he may arrive today or and principles have succeeded in tomorrow? getting back her absent brother Wifaq felt in Widad’s arms with who rejected fake European wide open mouth and deep sob. civilization. She begged Widad to "Really" she exclaimed. Widad took read the letter. Widad read: her hand and led her in. " Dear friend, I’ve been deceived After coming to herself, Wifaq for a long period of time. I used to began to realize that her brother think that such false life was the had become completely western. way to happiness but the western He might look at life from western world cheated me in away that point of view. He might have been I forgot all my responsibilities another picture of her uncle who towards my young sister whom I drove her away half an hour ago. left earlier. I confess that I forgot -How did you know, Widad? I mean myself as well. But gradually what made him come back home? I began to discover that life in Reading Wifaq’s mind, Widad staying-up skyscrapers with smiled encouraging: cups and music included terrible -He wrote to my brother that he tragedies and horrible fate. Night could no longer stand the false clubs that were full of adultery and civilization as he lived and saw its jesting were only traps to mislead tragedies, poisons and diseases. young people. Furthermore He decided to come back home to women who were enjoying protect you from the fake civilization freedom and equality with men

46 Hussein Revivalism

were just a cheap commodity among men directed wrongly as men desired. The western society included big hidden problems, so


I rechecked myself and thought of my sister who has grownup. I felt afraid that she might have deviated from the right way and joined the

written by:Bint al-Huda Translated by:Sir Sa`ad Shareef

false current which began to invade Islamic world under false names of modernization and progress; therefore, I decided to come back


home to protect my sister. Yes, I want to take her to the right way to touch the real pleasure via Islamic rituals.

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Prepared by: Haider Al-jarah

Numbers, and Signs... Security, Poverty and Investment

Arab food gap Arab Organization for Agricultural Development explained that the Arab world faces a food gap estimated at 28 $ billion, indicating that agriculture investments in the Arab world, amounting to 9 percent of total investments in general is very low. The production of major food from grains in the Arab world does not cover even 50 percent of actual needs, while sugar and oil constitute only 33 percent. Arab food shortage was estimated at $ 12 billion in 1997, $ 19 billion in 2007 and $ 25 billion at the beginning of 2009. Arab world is producing less than 70% of its requirement in terms of food.

Poverty, Hunger and Malaria

One of the World Bank experts has said “that the attendance in the school shall not increase and there shall not be any improvement in the maternal health. The poor countries shall suffer from hunger & lack of ability to fight diseases due to shortage of clean water. Due to this crisis there will not be any progress in the health conditions of life and gender equality�. Malaria is life threatening and yearly it kills 2 to 3 million people, 90% of them from the south part of the desert of Africa, Pregnant women and children in particular. Around 3 thousand children under five years of age have been killed, and 400 thousand pregnant women suffer from anaemia due to Malaria. Hence, the estimated losses in Africa and south of desert is more than $ 12 billion annually. The expenditure incurred for resistance of Malaria was 1.25 billion dollars in 2009 & most of it was spent in purchase of wet nets. In Africa, a woman dies every minute & more than 500 thousand women a year during pregnancy or childbirth.

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Investments 146 banking institutions have Invested amounts estimated at $ 43 billion, in the institutions of weapons and bombs. These banking institutions belong to 15 countries, and most of them signed the Convention of Oslo on the prevention of spread of weapons in the year 2008.

Movement of funds

China topped the list of exporter’s funds with 23.4% of the total funds followed by Germany, Japan, Norway, Russia and Switzerland.

Oil and Companies Exxon Mobil the largest oil company in the world achieved revenues amounting to 90.3 billion dollars in the year 2010. Oil leaks According to a recent study conducted at the request of Member States in the office of "UNESCO" Regional countries of Arabian Gulf in Doha, which include the UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, 75% of oil spill incidents are located in the waters of Arabian Gulf. A major disaster in oil spill was in the Arabian Gulf on 10th of February 1983. During the first Gulf War the oil tanker crash (Oil well of Nowruz), led to a leak of about 1,500 barrels per day. in 1991, there was a leak of an estimated 8 million barrels of oil in the Arabian Gulf after Iraqi forces opened the valves of oil wells and pipelines after its withdrawal from Kuwait.

Environment - The Hybrid Genes A comparative study, for about two years - targeted the 3 generations of animals (mice and other) and concluded that the consumption of food products and genetically modified agricultural products lead to infertility and death in adults with young children at birth had gone up by 25% of the total births, in addition to the deformities and diseases, and not to be revealed.

49 Hussein Revivalism

e Will?


Is it Pred


n or Fre

The no tio has pre n of whether ma va sect, be iled Islamic th n has free wil ink lo lie by Allah ve that man h ing for a long r he is predes t time. T as been to him. he Ash ined in advanc Accord have st arites, a e opped ing to t created with n h man to h econom have fre em, there are is deeds pred Islamic ic, and eter ew cer e On the other h ducational(Sh ill. These fact tain factors wh mined ors are irazi, 20 and, so is free. environ ich me 04: Th mental, the free erefore, huma other sects, li 241). ke the M dom to n being s do their conseq u ue own ac master what t tazilites, think hey do, ts, ther that ma Both sc nces of such efo i.e n a hools o n the tw cts(Al-Qazwin re, they are re . they have First of s i, o all ponsible 2 Second , both schools extremes have 001: 17). for the ly, hum c r e o c n eived a tradict t an bein decide great d he pu gs on eal of As rega certain, but n feel that they re point of vie w of reli criticism. have a rds the ot all , a m gio factors ffairs. are only argin of reli freedom n. b example ases, which a ed on by the f to atalists re cons is alway id ( p body n e s r ed red or ig given in ee nored b estinators), th this res of thirst ds water. To b ese y p e hum c t: e obed ,a ient to A fasting in a ve an beings. An conside nd embark in ry ho llah fa r Howev such factor an sting; to be dis , we should ig t summer. Ou er, pred d do no nore th o r bedien es e factor t accord t, on th ing to s tination has b fast. e other om een his hand, w factor. P torically e olitician e factors: the adopte most im s see th least, to d and s portant at it is t neutrali tren he o z their re volution e human bein ir duty to dist f these is the p gthened r gs as re act the o on dep should attentio litical riva gar th n of, or free wil ink that rulers tion, poverty, ds what they at su l to an ar will rese decide on th e sent by Allah d oppression ffer from, to st .H is o , mble a machin , i.e. it is a Dev and, therefore uman beings p choice e, i.e. b ine affa , they h in their ir. av fait ot Anothe r impor h (Al-Qazwin h the faithful a According to t e no tant cas i, 2001 his, ma nd the and pre unfaith ,16 e is de ful have n contrad stination at th that no religio ). no ic e n Howev tion(Chirri, 20 same time wit advocates bo er, 02: 81) t hout c . ausing h Allah's justic Ja'far A according to a great the beli s-Sadiq deal of e ef o solution (p to this p buh) (699- 76 f Ahlul-Bait, th called t he '' M roblem by giv 5 AD, 83-148 e Sixth infallib iddle W ing fort le Imam accept h the th AH) introduc ay '' bo es the ird poin It mean th Allah's just (Shirazi, 200 t of vie 4: ic s Qur'an, "something b e as well as th 251), accordin w which is etween e there a g to wh re two ext freedom offe verses red to u ich we remes." express hundreds of s v ing pre by man destina erses talking a This is why in by Him. himself tion. Th the Ho bout fre , theref the Day ly e be e wil ore o individu f Judgment, t , people who haviour of ma l, and other n in fac co he al t is birth, t is stressed. B y are punishe mmit sins are ime of b d, since ut man blamed chosen h ir , the res questio t a ponsibil and in ned ab h, or choosing s no hand in ity of th out the determ his na m in th e Day o tionality, there ining his place e fore, he f Judgm o will not f ent. be Dr Ahmad Hammoud

50 Hussein Revivalism

By: Dr Hameed Hasoon



Photo by: Hassan Maash

The Holy Shrine of Sayda Zaynab - Damascus 51 Hussein Revivalism

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