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February 2009



78 TRAIN, EAT, GROW 112 The TEG men put the X-Rep pedal to the metal with Power/Rep Range/Shock.

114 SCIENTIFIC CARDIO The Wilson brothers reveal the best fat-burning-exercise edge. Is it HIIT?

128 A BODYBUILDER IS BORN 43 Ron Harris explains that when it comes to training, you are not a clone.



Rod Labbe probes how one up-and-comer went from scrawny to brawny.



From the archives, Kris Gethin lays out a plan you can use to pack on mass—from traps to calves.

182 FIRE IN THE WHOLE Jerry Brainum looks at controlling inflammation for more muscle and health.

192 THE BIRTH OF BODYBUILDING A photographic look at bodybuilding’s muscular roots. Is that Steve Reeves?



216 SHOCKING SHOULDERS An efficient seam-splitting POF delt workout—to get you side-to-side wide.

232 POWER SURGE New series: Sean Katterle talks bench press—history, records and raw lifts.

248 HEAVY DUTY Another Mike Mentzer classic on high-intensity muscle building.

268 X-FILES Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson on muscle-morphing metamorphosis.

274 VOLUME-TRAINING VARIATIONS C.S. Sloan constructs innovative plateau-busting workouts.

284 THE SUPER MEN AT THE OLYMPICS Randall Strossen weighs in from Beijing on the weightlifting competition.

302 ARNOLD CLASSIC RETROSPECTIVE Full-page pics of the muscle stars who’ve won this prestigious event.

336 PROFILE: DAVID HENRY The bodybuiding pro dynamo gives his bio and more.

338 HARDBODY Michelle Poulin takes it off to show that weight training pours it on.

Chris Jalali and Camille Anderson appear on this month’s cover. Hair and makeup by Kim Carlson Photo by Michael Neveux.



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Vol. 68, No. 2

Coach Bill Starr outlines how to enhance endurance with weight training.

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PLUS: • Power Surge—New Heavy-Metal Training Series • Birth of Bodybuilding—Blast-From-the-Past Pics • Arnold Classic Retrospective—All 12 Winners, Including Cutler, Coleman, Jackson, Martinez, Gaspari 12/2/08 11:22:19 AM





36 TRAIN TO GAIN Getting stronger forever, aging and injuries and Joe Horrigan’s Sportsmedicine.

52 SMART TRAINING Coach Charles Poliquin talks training loads: customize for size and strength.

64 EAT TO GROW Novel fat fighters, less stress for more muscle and aminos for testosterone.

94 NATURALLY HUGE John Hansen discusses cardio, splits and bodypart hits.

104 SHREDDED MUSCLE Dave Goodin on a rock-solid plan for big-gain hunters.

108 CRITICAL MASS Steve Holman provides ingredients for the ultimate mass workout.


262 MUSCLE “IN” SITES Eric Broser surfs the Web and finds Team Universe winner Skip La Cour, now a life coach. Cool! Plus, Broser helps you put more size—and sweep—on your thighs..


298 BODYBUILDING PHARMACOLOGY Jerry Brainum discusses testosterone, rapid weight loss and a world without estrogen.

322 NEWS & VIEWS Lonnie Teper’s bodybuilding banter. Plus, the All-American Strongman Challenge.

348 PUMP & CIRCUMSTANCE Ruth Silverman’s behind-the-lens look at the ladies’ physique sports.

372 MIND/BODY CONNECTION Laziness may be genetic, a review of Sandow the Magnificent, BodySpace Physique of the Month and Dave Draper’s Bomber Blast.


In the next IRON MAN:

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COVERAGE Get the latest, greatest results, photos, video and blogs from the biggest events.

CLIPS LIBRARY >PDF >BEHIND>HOT THE-SCENES Feel your heart Read and/or VIDEOS See and hear interviews with the stars of the muscle world.

race when you view these studio sessions with fit, gorgeous gals.

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Next month we bring back the Legends of Bodybuilding—Rod Labbe interviews Rory Leidelmeyer, one of the most classically symmetrical bodybuilders ever to grace a posing dais (check out the pics). Plus, there’s a new muscle-pumping powder in big town ready to engorge you. It’s GPLC, and the latest studies say it’s nitric oxide nitroglycerine. Then, we have back training with drug-free pro Derik Farnsworth, and Ron Harris keeps you on track with his mind-blowing, body-growing negative-to-positive techniques. Check out the March issue on newsstands the first week of February.

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Publisher’s Letter by John Balik

Muscle Beach Memories I first met Zabo Koszewski in 1965 at the original Gold’s Gym on Pacific Avenue in Venice, California. By then the golden age of Muscle Beach was over—the original Santa Monica location was gone—and we’d soon be seeing the arrival of the Arnold era. Zabo was and is one of the originals, along with Joe Gold and others, who were the nucleus of bodybuilding on the beach. The stories and photos of that beach that appeared in the bodybuilding magazines were like a beacon for all of us who saw them. It was a fantasy world of endless summer, bodybuilding and, of course, girls. The apparent freedom and fun of those guys and girls became a powerful draw to the susceptible, me in particular. In the late ’50s, as I worked out in my unheated garage with the inside temperature below freezing, I saw photos of Zabo on the beach working out—in January. I promised myself that I’d somehow get to experience it. I was too late for the golden age, but I made it in time to be a charter member of Gold’s in 1965. In early 2008 I was talking to Zabo about my odyssey to Muscle Beach, and he mentioned that he’d kept some scrapbooks. I asked to see them, and the result is the pictorial of Zabo’s Muscle Beach memories that starts on page 192. I want to thank him for sharing his personal vintage photos with me and with the many thousands who will get to see them. I hope you enjoy them as much as I do. Randall Strossen, Ph.D., is a recognized expert on the worlds of Olympic weightlifting and feats of strength. He travels the globe covering the sports for his magazine Milo, and for many years he also penned a column, IronMind, for this magazine. While we no longer cover those sports in depth, I like to feature Randy’s work from time to time. He combines a deep knowledge of the sports with the photographic skill it takes to capture them at their best. Randy’s photos express the superhuman athleticism that is the hallmark of the Olympic lifter. No other sport requires the raw explosive power, unbelievable flexibility and fearlessness of Olympic weightlifting. See page 284 for Randy’s highlight coverage of the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. Erratum: In the interview with Terry Baldwin, “Strapping Up to Glory” (January ’09), the Web address listed for information on Flexsolate was incorrect. The correct address is IM

Founders 1936-1986: Peary & Mabel Rader Publisher/Editorial Director: John Balik Associate Publisher: Warren Wanderer Design Director: Michael Neveux Editor in Chief: Stephen Holman Art Director: T.S. Bratcher Senior Editor: Ruth Silverman Editor at Large: Lonnie Teper Articles Editors: L.A. Perry, Caryne Brown Assistant Art Director: Brett R. Miller Staff Designer: Fernando Carmona IRON MAN Staff: Mary Gasca, Vuthy Keo, Mervin Petralba Contributing Authors: Jerry Brainum, Eric Broser, David Chapman, Teagan Clive, Lorenzo Cornacchia, Daniel Curtis, Dave Draper, Michael Gündill, Rosemary Hallum, Ph.D., John Hansen, Ron Harris, Ori Hofmekler, Rod Labbe, Skip La Cour, Jack LaLanne, Butch Lebowitz, John Little, Stuart McRobert, Gene Mozée, Charles Poliquin, Larry Scott, Jim Shiebler, Roger Schwab, Pete Siegel, C.S. Sloan, Bill Starr, Bradley Steiner, Eric Sternlicht, Ph.D., Randall Strossen, Ph.D., Richard Winett, Ph.D., and David Young Contributing Artists: Steve Cepello, Larry Eklund, Ron Dunn, Jake Jones Contributing Photographers: Jim Amentler, Ron Avidan, Roland Balik, Reg Bradford, Jimmy Caruso, Bill Dobbins, Jerry Fredrick, Irvin Gelb, Isaac Hinds, Dave Liberman, J.M. Manion, Merv, Gene Mozée, Mitsuru Okabe, Rob Sims, Ian Sitren, Leo Stern

Director of Marketing: Helen Yu, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1 Accounting: Dolores Waterman Subscriptions Manager: Sonia Melendez, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 2 E-mail: Advertising Director: Warren Wanderer 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1 (518) 743-1696; FAX: (518) 743-1697 Advertising Coordinator: Jonathan Lawson, (805) 385-3500, ext. 320 Newsstand Consultant: Angelo Gandino, (516) 796-9848 We reserve the right to reject any advertising at our discretion without explanation. All manuscripts, art or other submissions must be accompanied by a selfaddressed, stamped envelope. Send submissions to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033. We are not responsible for unsolicited material. Writers and photographers should send for our Guidelines outlining specifications for submissions. IRON MAN is an open forum. We also reserve the right to edit any letter or manuscript as we see fit, and photos submitted have an implied waiver of copyright. Please consult a physician before beginning any diet or exercise program. Use the information published in IRON MAN at your own risk.

IRON MAN Internet Addresses: Web Site: John Balik, Publisher: Steve Holman, Editor in Chief: Ruth Silverman, Senior Editor: T.S. Bratcher, Art Director: Helen Yu, Director of Marketing: Jonathan Lawson, Ad Coordinator: Sonia Melendez, Subscriptions:

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Train to Gain Ronnie Coleman’s training style changed very little over his Mr. Olympia reign.

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I know I’m definitely heading toward middle age when I make sweeping generalizations about the younger generation, but here we go: People today are never satisfied. On the whole, no matter how good they have it or how good things are going, they can’t help worrying that they are missing out on something better. In part, that explains the astronomical divorce rate as well as why people move from job to job and city to city far more frequently than in decades past. So it is with bodybuilders and their training. Most are forever on the lookout for the magic exercise or workout routine that will catapult their physique to the next level. I confess I fit into that category too. In a sense, it’s an excellent quality to have because you tend to keep an open mind trying new things. The downside is that we often switch from routine to routine without ever giving a program any real chance to perform. Perhaps even worse, we’re quick to ditch productive workouts and techniques in our haste to give something new a try. I’m often asked, How long should I stick with a routine? My blunt reply is, as long as it keeps working for you. Look at someone like Ronnie Coleman, who racked up an incredible 26 pro wins, including eight consecutive Mr. Olympia titles, without changing a thing about his training. His workouts while preparing for his first bodybuilding contest in ’89 were remarkably similar to his workouts leading up to his last contest in ’07 (unless he comes out of retirement). Clearly, Coleman found what worked best for him, which was using mostly free weights, a lot of basic exercises and an explosive rep tempo, and he stuck with it. Another prime example is David Henry. He began training DC style in the summer of 2004 and has been faithfully following that system ever since. The steady improvements to his physique

every year demonstrate that he has indeed discovered the best way to train for his body. Many other top pros I speak with make only minor adjustments to their training as the years go by unless they have a weak bodypart that isn’t responding. The lesson to be learned is that we all do need to try a wide variety of routines, exercises and techniques so that we may find what delivers the best results for us. Once we do, however, we must not abandon them simply because we feel there must always be something better just around the corner. Try to remember the old adage, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” In the long run it could very well make a big difference in your physique. —Ron Harris Editor’s note: Ron Harris is the author of Real Bodybuilding, available at www.RonHarris

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Getting Stronger Forever

Is it possible?

When we start training, a magical thing happens. Our bodies, struggling to adapt to the new challenges posed by hefting unwieldy iron, grow bigger and stronger as a result of just about every workout. A weight we could hardly budge in the beginning is an easy warmup months later. Nothing, of course, lasts forever, and after a couple of years progress slows considerably. Eventually it becomes exceedingly difficult to use more weight. After about five to 10 years most trainees find that they either have reached their full potential or aren’t willing to make the herculean effort necessary to make any further progress. Training systems like DC have stirred interest with the theory that no matter how long you’ve been training, you must still make strength gains your main goal if you want to keep growing. “A stronger muscle is a bigger muscle” sums it up pretty well. There’s a lot to be said for that idea, and thousands of bodybuilders have applied the concept successfully. One question, however, has always nagged the back of my mind: Is it truly possible to increase strength forever? Wouldn’t there be a lot of guys handling 300-pound dumbbells for presses and squatting 1,500 pounds for reps? But let’s set that aside for a moment. The real reason I’ve been pondering the issue is that I’ve been plagued by several injuries that make it impossible for me to make progress on some free-weight movements. Back in the day, full squats with 500 pounds and rack deadlifts with 700 were no big deal for me. Now I wonder if I’ll ever be able to hit those numbers again. Twenty-five years of heavy lifting have taken their toll on my lower back, shoulders, hips and elbows. Fortunately, being no stranger to injuries, aches and pains, I know just how to work around them so I don’t miss any training—God forbid! Techniques like preexhaustion, drop sets and slowing the rep speed to focus on the contraction go a long way toward making a moderate weight feel heavy. Wonder of wonders, I’m still able to make progress. Considering how long I’ve been doing that, my age—39—and the fact that I gave up performance-enhancing drugs in February 2006, that ain’t too shabby. Here’s what I’m getting at: If you can continue to increase your strength, assuming you’re using more moderate rep ranges and not the one-to-three range favored by powerlifters and other strength athletes, go for it. If injury or other limiting factors prevent you from adding a little more weight to your exercises on a consistent basis, however, you don’t have to give up hope of making progress with your physique. A stronger muscle is a bigger muscle, but getting stronger isn’t the only way to stimulate muscle growth. —Ron Harris

Many of us are never quite sure when to train traps. They could be considered part of either the shoulder or the back, so it’s hard to tell when to schedule them. We could take our lead from Toney “X-Man” Freeman, winner of five pro shows, including the IRON MAN Pro, and a top-five finalist at the recent Mr. Olympia. Toney hits his trapezius muscle at what may seem an odd time, but he has an explanation. “The traps are involved in a lot of shoulder exercises, and sometimes it’s easy to let them take over when you get tired,” he says. “It makes sense to me to work them before shoulders so they get prefatigued. That way your delts are forced to work harder with less assistance from the traps.” His favorite training method for traps is to superset barbell shrugs to the front and back, five times. The reps are in the eight-to-15 range, and he uses no more weight than what permits a full range of motion. “If the bar is hardly moving and your traps are almost immobile,” he explains, “you need to lighten up and do it right.” Since Toney has some of the most impressive shoulders and traps in pro bodybuilding today, it wouldn’t hurt to give his method a try. —Ron Harris

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Aging, Injuries and Heavy Training

A: I think the key to training longevity and making gains is knowing your body’s musculoskeletal system and exactly which exercises are biomechanically perfect for each bodypart. For instance, you say that you use “mostly free weights.” Why? Is it a matter of limited equipment? Or did you read somewhere that you can build big muscles only with free weights? Free weights aren’t the only way to build muscle—at least not for everyone—and it’s not so smart as you age to rely on free weights only. I believe in finding your most leverage-advantageous exercise for each bodypart and sticking with it. Let’s start with your knee pain. I bet you’re one of those guys who believe that your thighs won’t grow unless you grind your femur into your kneecap with heavy squats. As I’ve said on numerous occasions, squatting fits some but not all people who train with weights. You can build great thighs with leg presses and hack squats—and leg extensions and leg curls done after the multijoint movements. What about your shoulder problem? Have you been benchpressing for 30 years? I assume the answer is yes. How wide are your clavicles? How long are your arms? How much pectoral muscle do you have to work with? Some men are simply not built for bench-pressing and should do dumbbell declines, machine presses and perfected-form cable exercises or pec deck flyes. Those who need help with chest development see the guy with huge pecs bombing away on bench presses every other day and think that it has to be the way to huge pectorals—right? Wrong. While it has worked for many, heavy free-weight bench-pressing can cause severe long-term injuries. If you have very long arms and narrow clavicles, you’re probably going to get very little out of heavy free-weight bench presses besides rotator cuff injuries—or serious nerve-pinching immobility. I’m not saying that’s going to happen to all, or even most, people; however, it can happen to anyone who’s built like that. Dumbbell decline presses often are a much better choice. Long-armed people usually have, at minimum, a great grip and forearms and, at best, great arms all around. Doing just three moderately heavy preacher curls and one 25-rep barbell wrist curl set before decline dumbbells presses can give you a 10 to 20 percent advantage. That adds extra thickness to the two places that touch during the hardest phase of any press-

ing movement. Now do another set of preacher curls and wrist curls and start heavy machine vertical bench presses and see how that feels. When you do flat-bench or even incline barbell presses, you have a psychological block. For years you’ve struggled with them, and you’ve failed so many times that your mind won’t let you relax enough to go up in weight. Any professional in any sport should make that sport look easy. You should be cranking out those reps as if you had pistons in your arms; if you’re not, you’re doing the wrong exercise. With the machine vertical bench press the fear is gone. You do some really smooth decline dumbbell presses, and you slide over to the vertical bench machine and load the weight on. Watch how your rhythm changes—from awkward and heart-thumping uselessness and embarrassment on the flat bench to smooth, crisp sets of 10 to 12 without stopping. You resemble Tiger Woods driving a 360-yard tee shot straight down the fairway. What changed? You didn’t. The weights didn’t. The exercises and how you approached them mentally did. Lastly, your tennis elbow. Three sets of wrist curls and reverse wrist curls for the ulna and radial heads three times a week should help. Do both with a barbell, and use very short strokes and high reps. With forearms on your knees and your hands at the edges of your knees, move the bar in toward the bellies of your forearms and let your hands roll back so that they’re just even with your forearms. Do as many reps as you can while squeezing both hands on the bar. For the outer heads, do the same thing, but your hands should be nearly pronated. Bring them up as high as you can, squeezing the bar and the outer heads of the forearms. When you’re done training them, ice both the inside and outside forearms. (If you can, ice both for two 20-minute periods after training them— with at least 20 minutes between icings). Change your strategy from a “this worked for Arnold so it will work for me” approach to a “this seems to work for me just right, and the movements are biomechanically perfect for me” mind-set, and you have the rest of your life to enjoy training and the fruits of that labor—more muscle, more power and no injuries! —Paul Burke Neveux

Q: I’m 47 years old, and I’ve found myself being injured more and more. I have bad knees, both of my shoulders ache after I benchpress, and one elbow has what the personal trainer calls tennis elbow. I train pretty heavy, with mostly free weights. Do you have any suggestions for how I can limit injuries as I age but continue to train moderately heavy?

Editor’s note: Contact Paul Burke via e-mail at pbptb@ Burke has a master’s degree in integrated studies from Cambridge College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He’s been a champion bodybuilder and arm wrestler, and he’s considered a leader in the field of over40 fitness training. You can purchase his book, Burke’s Law—a New Fitness Paradigm for the Mature Male, from Home Gym Warehouse. Call (800) 4470008, or visit His “Burke’s Law” training DVD is also now available.

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Train to Gain / HARDGAINER A bodybuilding odyssey, part 11

It’s time for an update on what the brothers have been doing since I took them under my charge a little over a year ago. Stelios is now 19 pounds of muscle heavier, and Yiannis 17. Their terrific progress testifies to the effectiveness of proper, drug-free training. The physical change in the brothers has been considerable; moreover, they now have such purpose when they are in the gym. They really know how to train, and it’s given them tremendous confidence. The “train and hope” mentality they used to have is gone. They know that their training will work provided they deliver in the gym—and also deliver on the components of recuperation when they’re out of it. They’ve become brilliant examples. In the gym they are absorbed by their training, but when they’re out of the gym, they get on with the rest of their lives. They eat perfectly every single day and sleep sufficiently every single night but without obsessing. They still follow the format they adopted right from the start under my charge: an upper-body/lower-body split over three days a week—Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. That gives them four full rest days each week, which they need. So they train each bodypart three times every two weeks, which is once every four or five days. Stelios’ lower-body routine has been side bends, barbell squats, leg curls, standing calf raises, partial stiff-legged deadlifts from knee height and machine back extensions. His upperbody routine consists of machine crunches, low-incline bench presses, seated back-supported dumbbell presses, seated shrugs, pulldowns, incline dumbbell curls and hand grippers. Yiannis’ routines are the same except that instead of barbell squats and low-incline bench presses he does parallel-grip deadlifts using a hexagonal shrug bar and parallel-bar dips; and instead of partial stiff-legged deadlifts he does regular bent-legged deadlifts from the floor, reflecting his physical structure—longer limbs and a shorter torso than his brother has. Recently we made two exercise changes. The brothers substituted one-legged calf raises for machine standing calf raises and seated EZ-curl-bar curls for incline dumbbell curls. With the one-legged calf raise, the lads could push themselves more than they could with the machine. They held the dumbbell on the same side as the leg being exercised and alternated legs. They did EZ-curl-bar curls seated, with their backs supported on a near-vertical bench, making for partial reps, briefly resting the bar on their thighs at the bottom of each. They had to drop Hammer seated shrugs because there was a problem with the Hammer machine. I had them do standing dumbbell shrugs instead—but they continued using the correct exercise technique: parallel grip, straight elbows and a high shrug on every rep with a momentary pause at both the top and bottom of the rep. I didn’t keep the guys to a fixed set-rep format for their work sets, although there was never any variation on their

warmup work. Here are the three workset formats I used, which I rotated from workout to workout: 1) Two hard work sets on each exercise, with fewer reps on the second set. 2) A single work set to failure on each exercise. Rather than having them do two hard work sets per exercise, I’d push the brothers even harder on just one. They would typically do one, two or three reps more on a to-failure set than they would in their regular “hard” mode, but the compensation for the extra effort was fewer work sets in total. 3) Four work sets for each exercise, with the weight reduced slightly on each successive set, in order to maintain a steady rep count. I would change the weights between sets. By rotating the three different workset formats, the brothers got mental and physical variation while sticking with the same exercise selection so that they could most effectively focus on getting stronger on them all. Although I placed great importance on poundage progression—through gradual weight increments using small weight plates—it was never at the cost of exercise technique. The brothers loved the gradual progressive-resistance mentality: “Inch by inch, training’s a cinch” has become their mantra. Progressive resistance is the heart of bodybuilding because it’s a simple, quantifiable and incremental approach that’s easy to track. I had, however, explained to Yiannis and Stelios that it’s not the weight added to a given exercise that causes strength gain and possibly tissue growth. The ability to handle additional weight comes about only after the body has adapted to stimulation from previous workouts, which may include a tiny increase in muscle mass. Exaggerated focus on progressive weights is detrimental because it leads to degradation of exercise technique and rep-speed control, which should never be compromised just so you can add more weight to an exercise. Because I supervise every workout, I ensure that their training is never “dirty.” Because hardly anyone has expert supervision to ensure that correct technique and rep speed are used, you must discipline yourself. That’s the bedrock of safe and effective training. Combine correct technique, rep speed and range of motion with brief, hard training and proper recuperation. That will provide the best opportunity for the adaptations that produce increased strength and growth. —Stuart McRobert Neveux \ Model: Steve Kummer

The Brothers Grimm

Editor’s note: Stuart McRobert’s first byline in IRON MAN appeared in 1981. He’s the author of the new 638-page opus on bodybuilding Build Muscle, Lose Fat, Look Great, available from Home Gym Warehouse (800) 447-0008 or www.

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What About Workout Planning? student. I read about, and watched, Robby Robinson and Denny Gable train. They were on a double-split routine. My training was at a plateau. I told my friends I wanted to try Robinson’s routine. A friend asked how I was going to do that while going to school full-time, working part-time and studying. I replied that I didn’t know, but I had to do something about my plateaus. It was difficult at first, but then I noticed I was sleeping less and less. “It’s unbelievable,” I told my friend. “I’m doing all this training, and it must be giving me more energy because I don’t need to sleep as much!” Needless to say, I was developing insomnia from severe overtraining. I was an average guy in the gym who liked to work out, and I copied a routine used by one of the best professional bodybuilders of his era. Two more weeks of the double-split routine and lack of sleep, and I was exhausted. The weights all felt way too heavy—and that was the end of the double-split routine. The lesson for us all is that we can make better gains—and avoid injuries from the fatigue that goes with overtraining—by having a plan. The plan can be stages of a yearly workout program, with a goal for each stage and weekly and daily plans for workouts. All training programs for other sports follow a plan. Once called cycling, it later became known as periodization. Your body isn’t physically or psychologically capable of maintaining a peak day in and day out, week in and week out or month in and month out. It must recover from the peak performance in strength, speed, explosiveness, endurance and so on and then work to achieve another and probably higher peak of performance. In the gym, a peak can occur every eight to 12 weeks. Look at the way powerlifters train. They plan to lift a certain amount of weight and add to it each week until they finally reach their maximum bench press, squat or deadlift. That usually occurs about a week before they compete—the week that they devote to light training in order to recover before the contest. It’s exactly what happened to our frustrated friends and training partners who took a week off from training only to return and have the best bench press they’d done in six months. Let your body recover for the week before the meet (more on that next month). Think about your training plan. —Joseph M. Horrigan Neveux \ Model: Nathan DeTracy

How do average trainees plan their workouts? They go to the gym, see how they feel on that particular day and then lift the best way they can. They do that for bench presses, inclines, seated cable rows, dumbbell rows and even pulldowns. It can lead fairly quickly to a plateau that can last for years. Many years ago I watched Arnold Schwarzenegger and a gym regular say hello to each other. Arnold watched him squat for a moment and said, “Isn’t that the same weight you’ve been using for the last couple of years?” Schwarzenegger was right.

Cycling intensity in the gym is essential for making the best size and strength gains possible.

We’ve all encountered plateaus in training. Our training partners and friends grumble and complain that their bench press hasn’t changed in six months. They may have focused on the bench press—specialized on it for one month. They increased the sets. They tried adding more dumbbell flyes, more triceps work, more of everything. What was the usual result? Either no improvement, or the bench press weight went down. They became so frustrated that they left the gym saying, “Nothing works. I’m taking a week off.” A week later they came back to the gym, went straight to the bench and quickly discovered that they could bench-press more than they had in six months. What happened? They were overtrained. One of the first signs of overtraining is declining performance. Most trainees usually step up training when performance declines. That simply speeds up the decline. Other symptoms go with overtraining: lack of desire to train, sleep disturbances or insomnia, loss of appetite, irritability and mood swings. My first real experience with overtraining was as a college

Editor’s note: Visit for reprints of Horrigan’s past Sportsmedicine columns that have appeared in IRON MAN. You can order the books, Strength, Conditioning and Injury Prevention for Hockey by Joseph Horrigan, D.C., and E.J. “Doc” Kreis, D.A., and the 7-Minute Rotator Cuff Solution by Horrigan and Jerry Robinson from Home Gym Warehouse, (800) 447-0008 or at

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Train to Gain / COMPETITION

Past Juice Use: Advantage or Disadvantage? low-calorie diet and doing increased cardio. Powerful fat-burning compounds, such as thyroid and asthma medications, also greatly speed up the ripping process. So it’s safe to say that a lot of drug-using bodybuilders are accustomed to dieting for 10 or 12 weeks at most and not losing any size in that time. Once they go natural, they’re in for a rude awakening. The fat doesn’t disappear anywhere near as quickly as they think it will. By trying to lose the same amount of bodyfat in the same time span they used to, they find themselves losing size and fullness as well. At that point, either they refuse to lose any more mass and put the brakes on the diet—showing up out of shape but still “big”—or they find themselves behind schedule and unable to get in shape by the day of the show. Another disadvantage many former steroid stackers have is that they’re used to training with a certain volume and frequency that works fine with the aid of drugs but that overtaxes the body’s ability to recover without them. Very often they overtrain and lose precious mass through yet another mechanism. So if you think that former steroid users have an unfair advantage in tested competitions, think again. The scales may actually tip in favor of those who have learned how to look awesome with nothing more than good food and supplements, hard work and plenty of rest. —Ron Harris Editor’s note: Ron Harris is the author of Real Bodybuilding, available at

Does prior drug use give competitors an edge in drug-tested contests like the NPC Team Universe?

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A topic of frequent debate when it comes to natural bodybuilding competition is whether it’s fair for former juicers to compete against lifetime drug-free athletes. Are guys like Dave Goodin and Skip La Cour at a disadvantage when they step onstage next to guys who cycled steroids for a decade or more and only recently gave up the needle? My observations at the ’08 NPC Team Universe competition tell me I can offer some insight. Several former steroid users who had competed successfully in nontested events for years were indeed represented in the heavier weight classes. On the whole, they did carry more sheer muscle mass than most of the men they were competing against. Contrary to what some believe, you don’t lose all the extra muscle you build with the assistance of drugs once you stop using them, as long as you continue to train hard, eat well and pay attention to rest and recovery. Interestingly, however, although those guys were some of the biggest in the show, they were the least impressive overall. Why? They just weren’t in proper contest condition. A guy who’s big and smooth never looks as good as a smaller man who’s shredded to the bone, with deep separations and striations from head to toe. Having been a natural competitor for several years and competing for a time while on steroids before returning to tested events, I have a unique perspective on diagnosing why those guys at the ’08 NPC event were not in top form. When you compete using steroids, you’re accustomed to maintaining all or at least the vast majority of your muscle. The drugs preserve the mass you have even when you’re following a

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Training Loads: Customize for Size and Strength Q: You don’t use percentages to determine training loads. Why not? A lot of strength coaches do. A: You can’t argue with results. I’ve coached Olympic medalists in 17 different sports and world-record holders in 10 different sports. Methodology determines results. I don’t use percentages for exercises because each muscle group has a different fiber type. Thus, the quads, which are primarily type 2A, respond differently to a spe-

cific intensity prescription than the hamstrings, which are mostly type 2B. An athlete who uses 90 percent of his onerep maximum on leg presses might perform 20 reps in a set, whereas he or she may be able to do only five reps with that percentage when performing leg curls. Also, neurological efficiency changes with training age: As athletes get stronger, they need to shift toward using weights that are closer to their one-rep maxes. As a result, I usually determine the repetition bracket I want my athletes to train in and then let the repetitions determine how much weight they should use. Percentage systems frequently lock athletes into specific weights, regardless of what they’re capable of lifting that day. If somebody isn’t having a good training day, the weight would be too heavy, and on a good training day it’s too light. Furthermore, many athletes get frustrated trying to follow precise percentage-based workouts and thereby increase their risk of injury. For example, if you’re told to perform 90 percent of your

In many trainees, the quad fibers are mostly type 2A, while the hamstrings are type 2B. That means you can get many more reps on leg presses than leg curls with the same percentage of 1RM load.

Neveux \ Model: Danny Hester


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look like if an athlete feels strong: Set 1: 90 x 2 Set 2: 92.5 x 2 Set 3: 95 x 2 Set 4: 95 x 2 Set 5: 95 x 2 Each set depends on how many reps are performed in the previous set or how difficult the previous set felt. If the athlete is having an off day, he or she could stay at the lowest weight in the intensity bracket, as follows: Set 1: 90 x 2 Set 2: 90 x 2 Set 3: 90 x 2 Set 4: 90 x 2 Set 5: 90 x 2

Numerous variables influence an athlete’s performance on a given day, including the time of the workout or how much sleep he or she got the night before.

best clean and jerk for three sets of two reps and you miss both reps on the first set, rather than reducing the weight you may continue trying that same weight for the remaining sets, thus subjecting yourself to a greater risk of injury as your technique becomes compromised. Given all the variables that can influence your performance on a given day, including the time of day you lift or how much sleep you got the night before, it’s nearly impossible for a coach to predict the exact weights you can use in a given exercise. Coaches who want more control over their athletes’ training or who are simply uncomfortable with allowing them to select their own weights—especially when working with young athletes—could make effective use of the Okunyev method. Rather than using a repetition bracket to determine how much weight to use, you use an intensity bracket that gives you a range of specific weights to use based on a percentage of a 1RM. Here are a few examples: 1-rep max: 100 kilos Intensity Bracket: 90-95 percent Weight range: 90-95 kilos Workout: Set 1: Warmup: 50 kilos x 5 reps Set 2: Warmup: 70 kilos x 4 reps Set 3: Warmup: 85 kilos x 3 reps Work sets: 90-95 kilos x 2 reps x 5 sets Using the above formula, here’s what a workout could



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As a general rule the intensity bracket depends on the complexity of the exercise. A complex exercise that requires a high skill level, such as a snatch or clean, requires a wider intensity bracket, such as 10 percent. Simpler exercises, such as a bench press or biceps curl, require a narrower bracket, such as 5 percent. With the Okunyev method a coach can build in some safety guidelines about what weights to select in an intensity bracket.

Q: What’s the best supplement to use for an instant strength increase? A: Want to increase strength by 5 percent in 45 minutes? A lot of supplements make all sorts of claims, but here’s a simple trick for increasing strength in less than 45 minutes. It can give some people as much as a 7 percent increase. This trick is for people who won’t be drug-tested by any sport governing body. Don’t worry; it’s not illegal to obtain or use. It’s simply caffeine, but the trick is in how you absorb it. More on that later. Take caffeine tablets or capsules, 10 milligrams per kilogram of bodyweight. If you weigh 90 kilograms (about 198 pounds), that would be 900 milligrams. That’s the dose shown in the scientific literature to be most effective. It’s much easier to take the tablets than drinking coffee, as you would need to drink six to 10 cups to get that much caffeine. Swallow the caps with two ounces of grapefruit juice and

Caffeine can give you an instant strength boost, but it takes more than a few cups of coffee.

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One speaker, a.k.a. the Anorexic Albertan, sporting arms thinner than linguine, told the audience that isolation exercises were basically evil. Wrong!

sold. Seems the contraption was the training secret of the Navy Seals (which would explain why they got their asses kicked at the Eco race). I heard the same kind of crap from an Aussie physiotherapist at Fitpro 2008 who said that athletes don’t need to curl. We all know that a single muscle can limit performance, and performing singlejoint exercises is a way to combat that. Famed strength coach Louie Simmons and I both espouse that concept for developing maximal strength. Pet Peeve 2: The belief that chains are great for every exercise. Chains, thanks to Arthur Jones and Louie Simmons, have become a valuable way of accommodating what’s called ascending strength curves, like the varying torque capabilities you see in the range of motion on squats, presses and deadlifts. Now, however, they’re applied to every single exercise by dorks who don’t understand their application. In one video, you can see a guy applying them to the Azamat Bagatov curl (invented by Borat’s hairy-ass producer—people say he was listening to Barry Manilow’s “Copa Cabana” with his headsets to get that glaring intensity). Only in the fitness industry do you see people using the wrong tool for a task just so they can look cool. Power cleaning a medicine ball? Come on. I’ve never seen a carpenter trying to saw with a hammer or a plumber using a screwdriver to wrench something. Now I feel better. I got a few peeves off my chest. Neveux \ Model: Greg Plitt


Smart Charles Training Poliquin’s

two ounces of club soda. The grapefruit juice contains a substance called naringin, which helps metabolize the caffeine rapidly and which gives grapefruit juice a bitter taste. It’s the substance responsible for the warning on drug bottles: “DO NOT TAKE WITH GRAPEFRUIT JUICE.” The club soda is included simply to break down the tablets or capsules rapidly. Caffeine levels and its effects are amplified, and you can expect greater training drive and work capacity. Now, how do you get rid of the jitters, if any, you experience after the workout? Take two grams of vitamin C with your postworkout shake. It helps detoxify the caffeine rapidly. Q: What are your two greatest training-philosophy pet peeves? A: Easy. Pet Peeve 1: The belief that single-joint movements are useless for athletes. At a conference called “Meeting of the Minds” that was hosted by PT on the Net and held last March in Colorado, many industry leaders talked for 20 minutes each about what they did and how they could help gym owners. One speaker, a.k.a. the Anorexic Albertan, sporting arms slightly thinner than linguine—told the audience that isolation exercises and even some compound movements like the bench press were basically evil and that we should get rid of all barbells and dumbbells and trade them for the nylon contraption he

Editor’s note: Charles Poliquin is recognized as one of the world’s most successful strength coaches, having coached Olympic medalists in 12 different sports, including the U.S. women’s track-and-field team for the 2000 Olympics. He’s spent years researching European journals (he’s fluent in English, French and German) and speaking with other coaches and scientists in his quest to optimize training methods. For more on his books, seminars and methods, visit Also, see his ad on page 195. IM

Only in the fitness industry do you see people using the wrong tool for a task just so they can look cool.

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Nutrition With a Get-Big Mission NUTRITION SCIENCE

PS: Less Stress, More Muscle A supplement that’s garnered a lot of interest among bodybuilders is phosphatidylserine. It consists of phosphates, fatty acids and the amino acid serine and is categorized as a phospholipid. It’s produced in the human

body and concentrates in organs that have higher metabolic activity, such as the brain, lungs, heart, liver and skeletal muscle. Located in the inner layer of cellular membranes, it plays a pivotal role in modulating the activity of cell re-

Lowering cortisol can help build more muscle mass.

ceptors and enzymes and, most important, in controlling cellular fluidity. The original phosphatidylserine supplements were derived from bovine sources, but the fear of contracting deadly diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob—a.k.a. mad-cow disease—led to the development of a soy-based version. The variants differ primarily in their fatty acid composition. Several studies have shown that phosphatidylserine is present in the membrane structure of neurons and can therefore favorably influence brain function. A study in which older adults were given phosphatidylserine even concluded that using PS reversed brain aging by an average of 12 years. In younger people it enhances the mood of those who are under great mental stress. For example, researchers recently found that it improved golf-playing performance by reducing the golfers’ stress. In fact, its effect on stress hormones is of most relevance to bodybuilders. Making maximum gains in muscular size and strength requires an optimum ratio of anabolic to catabolic hormones. The primary anabolic hormones are testosterone, growth hormone and insulin. The main catabolic hormone is cortisol, secreted by the adrenal glands under highstress conditions. High stress includes overtraining, which can result from too much training volume, not getting enough rest between workouts—even from doing too much aerobic exercise. When that happens, the hormone scale tips toward cortisol and against the muscle-building hormones—thus Neveux


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The greater the exercise intensity, the more effective phosphatidylserine is in blunting cortisol’s impact. the loss of muscle size and strength. Anabolic steroids produce such dramatic effects because they block the impact of cortisol and neutralize the side effects of overtraining. Bodybuilders who don’t juice up have limited choices in curtailing excess cortisol release. Yet contrary to what you might expect, you never want to completely curtail cortisol. Not having cortisol could result in death from shock if you were exposed to trauma. In addition, cortisol is a big-time anti-inflammatory agent. Without it, you experience severe joint pain after intense workouts. The ideal situation, therefore, would be to regulate but not completely curtail cortisol release. Several studies have demonstrated that phosphatidylserine can hasten muscle recovery, prevent muscle soreness and perhaps even produce ergogenic effects during sports and exercise. Experiments involving cyclists showed that a daily dose of 800 milligrams of PS blunted cortisol response by 30 percent; 400 milligrams had no effect. The 800-milligram dose also lowered the cortisol response to a weight-training session by 20 percent. Although lower doses did limit muscle damage, 800 milligrams a day worked out to be the most effective dose for blunting cortisol release due to exercise. Exactly how phosphatidylserine affects cortisol isn’t yet clear. Researchers agree that the main sites of its interaction are in the brain. The theory is that PS lowers corticotropin-releasing factor, or CRF, which is produced in the hypothalamus and controls the re-

lease of yet another hormone, called ACTH, that’s produced in the pituitary gland. ACTH travels in the blood to the adrenal gland, where it governs the release of cortisol. Phosphatidylserine is thought to work by manipulating the CRF receptors in the brain. Another theory is that high-intensity-exercise stress leads to the pituitary gland’s release of a substance called arginine vasopressin, which leads to the secretion of both ACTH and cortisol. Phosphatidylserine prevents oxidation and other activity that would otherwise lead to cell death. In muscle that means it favorably affects ion or mineral balance, which can reduce muscle fatigue. A study recently confirmed the cortisol-blocking effects of phosphatidylserine and also found that using 600 milligrams a day for 10 days favorably affected the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio. While phosphatidylserine didn’t directly increase testosterone concentration, it did prevent the depletion of testosterone that usually occurs when lots of cortisol is released. Cortisol prevents both the synthesis and release of testosterone in the body, and the authors suggest that phosphatidylserine may help prevent overtraining. The researchers also found that the greater the exercise intensity, the more effective phosphatidylserine is in blunt-

ing cortisol’s impact. It did not appear to affect growth hormone, however. Perhaps the best news about the new study is the finding that a dose of 600 milligrams may work as well as the 800-milligram doses used in previous studies. Meaning: phosphatidylserine may be more affordable than everybody thought. Based on how it’s incorporated in cellular membranes, I’d say that you’d probably get better results with chronic long-term use. As it happens, I can attest to the safety of phosphatidylserine. For about 10 years—no break—I’ve been taking it to get its beneficial effects on brain function. I figure that means that I’m about 12 years younger than my chronological age. At least my brain is. —Jerry Brainum Starks, M.S., et al. (2008). The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. In press. \ FEBRUARY 2009 65

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Food Facts


That can affect your workouts, weight and wellness


Supplemental Carbs

For more training intensity?

Several studies have proven that taking a supplement having no more than 8 percent carb content during training can give you an ergogenic boost. Those studies, however, involved moderate training intensity, which doesn’t deplete muscle glycogen. So could taking a carb supplement aid the performance of higher-intensity training? That’s what a recent study sought to determine.1 Eight healthy weight-trained men got either a placebo or a carb supplement that provided 0.3 grams of carb per kilogram of bodyweight. They took the supplement or the placebo before exercise and after every other set. They did five progressively heavier sets of squats, with the heaviest set amounting to a weight equal to 85 percent of one-rep maximum. The final set qualified as high intensity. It turned out that taking the carb supplement didn’t affect exercise performance, perhaps because the volume of training—five sets of squats—wasn’t enough to make significant inroads into muscle glycogen stores. Another possibility is that while muscle glycogen was affected by the exercise, it wasn’t the limiting factor in lower-volume, high-intensity training. The researchers didn’t take measurements of glycogen before and after the exercise. The more likely fatigue factors at that level of exercise were the depletion of muscle phosphocreatine and a rise in muscle acidity, both of which everybody knows cause fatigue during high-intensity training. Those who do high-intensity, lower-volume training would be more likely to get an ergogenic boost from supplemental creatine and beta-alanine. The creatine would maximize muscle creatine levels, and the beta-alanine would increase intramuscular carnosine, thus lowering the muscle acidity that training generates. Does that mean carbs are useless for this style of training? Not by a long shot. As the authors note, not getting enough dietary carbs would deplete muscle glycogen levels after a few days, which would adversely affect training intensity and could lead to premature muscle fatigue. That would affect high-intensity training only, however. During moderate- or lower-intensity training, the body could adapt to other fuels, such as fat. —Jerry Brainum Kulik, J.R., et al. (2008). Supplemental carbohydrate ingestion does not improve performance of high-intensity resistance exercise. J Str Cond Res. 22:1101-1107.

Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) improves a specific cell function that can reduce headaches, according to a study reported in Neurology. About 100 milligrams a day produced those results. Vitamin C, in sufficient doses, can help reduce belly fat. A study reported in the Journal of Public Heath Nutrition showed that women who took in less than 60 milligrams a day accumulated more midsection fat. Calcium appears to be another fat fighter. Dieting subjects who got about 1,200 milligrams a day of the mineral showed three times the midsection fat loss as those getting the same calories but less calcium. Vitamin K, found in broccoli and other dark greens, helps deposit calcium in bones, making them denser. If you squat heavy, eating your broccoli could help keep you from busting your back. Wine for your liver? Isn’t alcohol supposed to damage it? Not according to a University of California, San Diego, study, which found that those who drink a glass of red or white wine a day have less liver damage than nondrinkers. But hello, moderation: The lab coats didn’t say what happens when you drink two, three or four glasses a day. —Becky Holman

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Coffee Caution

It’s good for you, if you drink the right kind We’ve seen a lot of good news about coffee lately. For example, the majority of studies have found zero link to heart attacks, and other studies have shown health benefits from the brew’s antioxidant content. Some research even shows that drinking coffee can help prevent sun damage to the skin, including melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. As for workouts, coffee’s been proven to increase intensity and endurance in the gym, and it can support fat loss. Almost all of the research points to it as being a health food, but there is one caveat: Make sure you drink filtered coffee. Unfiltered types—such as coffees prepared in espresso machines or percolators— tend to raise both low-density-lipoprotein and total cholesterol. Filters take out most of the coffee oils, which contain the terpenes that lead to those negative effects. Also, use paper filters. The popular gold filters aren’t very good at trapping the oils. —Becky Holman



Wrinkle Reduction

Preworkout Chocolate?

Many IM readers are familiar with phosphatidylserine, a soy lipid (see page 64). It’s big on helping reduce cortisol, the stress hormone routinely linked to obesity, cancer, heart disease, depression and muscle loss. A few years ago researchers found that it can reduce cortisol by more than 30 percent in hardtraining athletes who want to avoid muscle breakdown and build more muscle size and strength. Now a new study from Korea shows that it can fight wrinkles caused by sun damage and natural aging. It appears to stimulate the production of new collagen in the skin. —Becky Holman

Lots of bodybuilders take a nitric-oxide precursor supplement to get a bigger pump during workouts. The supplements contain such compounds as arginine or glycine propionyl-Lcarnitine, which help the body produce NO, which in turn dilates blood vessels. Could chocolate do the same thing? A recent study revealed that dark chocolate helps regulate blood pressure by improving blood flow. Its flavonol content may be the reason. Sugar is also a known vasodilator, as is alcohol. A preworkout wine and darkchocolate pop, though, may be an idea ahead of its time. Try the chocolate by itself. You don’t want to compromise your balance on squat or bench day. —Becky Holman

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Novel Fat Fighters

given a high-fat diet.1 Another amazing flavonoid, glabridin, is found in licorice flavonoid oil. Mice that received the supplement reduced bodyfat and bodyweight gain.2 Another combination that seems to lower bodyfat by improving insulin and glucose counts is that of the isoflavones genistein and daidzen. Scientists concluded that they play important roles in regulating glucose homeostasis and may help prevent diabetes.3 Another study showed that genistein combined with carnitine fights obesity.4 We’re clearly seeing that whole classes of compounds out there may confer more than just health benefits. Perhaps by fine-tuning the cellular machinery of our bodies, they can also improve body composition. The fat loss category is chock full of surprises. —Jose Antonio, Ph.D. Editor’s note: Jose Antonio, Ph.D., is the CEO of the International Society of Sports Nutrition ( and is a sports science consultant to VPX/Redline.

References 1 Soh,

J.R., et al. (2008). Effect of cheonggukjang supplementation upon hepatic acyl-CoA synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, acylCoA oxidase and uncoupling protein 2 mRNA levels in C57BL/6J mice fed with highfat diet. Genes Nutr. 2(4):365369. 2 Aoki, F., et al. (2007). Suppression by licorice flavonoids of abdominal fat accumulation and body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 71(1):206-214. 3 Choi, M.S., et al. (2008). Genistein and daidzein prevent diabetes onset by elevating insulin level and altering hepatic gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzyme activities in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 24(1):74-81. 4 Yang, J.Y., et al. (2006). Effect of genistein with carnitine administration on lipid parameters and obesity in C57Bl/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. J Med Food. 9(4):459467. Neveux

In your quest for a lean, ripped physique, you’ve tried supplements like caffeine, synephrine and octopamine. Many of them jack up your metabolic rate and stimulate fatty acid breakdown. A few lesser-known ingredients out there are also worth a look. A recent study investigated the effect of cheonggukjang on various aspects of fat metabolism. For those of you who’ve never heard of cheonggukjang (me included), it’s a fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine. It contains whole as well as ground soybeans. Scientists placed 30 male mice in three groups: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with 40 percent cheonggukjang. The soy-paste mice ate a lot more calories than those in the other groups, but get this: The cheonggukjang group normalized in weight gain and epididymal and back-fat accumulation. So compared to the high-fat group that didn’t get the soybean paste, they were leaner, meaner mice. Okay, maybe not meaner, but at least they were less fatty. The soybean-paste mice also had serum concentrations of triglycerides and total cholesterol significantly lower than those in the high-fat group. Conclusion: Cheonggukjang supplementation leads to increased mRNA expressions of enzymes and protein involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver, reduced accumulation of bodyfat and improvement of serum lipids in mice

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Bodybuilders often have a protein-andcarb drink either before or after training. Drinking it prior to training gives you greater amino acid entry—particularly branchedchain amino acids—into muscle and may diminish excess muscle damage from training. Having the drink after the workout promotes a greater insulin response. Lifting weights helps your body secrete testosterone, but that effect is abolished when you take in protein and carbs after training, especially in younger men. A new study tested the effects of taking protein before and after a weight-training exercise. Men aged 57 to 72 were given 15 grams of either whey protein or a placebo before and after a weight-training bout. They did leg presses only: five sets of 10, with two minutes of rest between sets. Biopsies of muscle tissue were extracted from them before and at one and 48 hours after training. Taking the protein before and after training blocked the response of both active and total testosterone to the exercise, much the way that it happens in younger men. Still, weight training increased the number of muscle androgen receptors, which would have made the trained muscle more responsive to the anabolic effects of testosterone. The question is, What blunted the testosterone release in those who got the protein? One suggestion is that there was increased uptake into active muscle cells. Another possibility is that more testosterone was cleared from the blood. The mere process of digesting the protein can divert blood from muscle to the gastrointestinal tract, which may lessen muscle uptake of hormones during training. Taking in nutrients before training may also decrease testicular circulation, which would dampen testosterone secretion. Researchers found increased androgen receptors in the subjects 48 hours after training. Researchers also tested whether the protein intake affected levels of insulinlike growth hormone 1, a potent anabolic hormone. IGF-1 has three variants, two of which are

Neveux \ Model: Jonathan Lawson

Protein Intake, Testosterone Uptick?

produced locally in muscle, where they affect muscle repair by stimulating satellite cell activity, and a third, which is generated in the liver and has whole-body effects. Limited protein and calorie intake blunts IGF-1 release. In this study, getting protein prior to and after training didn’t affect muscle IGF-1 but may have affected the variant produced in the liver. By the way, taking creatine does appear to support muscle IGF-1 activity. The training done by the subjects appeared to affect androgen receptors in type 1 more than in type 2 fibers. Type 2s are usually considered more conducive to gains in muscle size and strength than type 1s, which are considered endurance fibers. That’s because type 1 fibers actually have more androgen receptors than type 2 fibers and thus are more responsive to androgens. The significant bodybuilding aspect of the study is that taking in protein before and after training doesn’t adversely affect muscle gains, despite the temporary blunting of testosterone release. The testosterone rebounds in a short time, and the added androgen receptor activity induced by weight training winds up making the anabolic effects of testosterone more potent, even in older men. —Jerry Brainum Hulmi, J.J., et al. (2008). Androgen receptors and testosterone in men—effects of protein ingestion, resistance exercise, and fiber type. J Ster Biochem Molecul Biol. 110(12):130.

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To Kick-Start Immediate Muscle Growth After You Train Breakthrough research in exercise metabolism now reveals this fact: What you consume (or don’t consume) immediately after training plays a critical role in determining your success or failure! That time period is known as the “anabolic window” of growth. The biggest mistake many bodybuilders make is eating a meal of chicken breasts, baked potato or rice and vegetables after a workout. This is an approach doomed to fail because by the time this meal digests, the anabolic window has slammed shut. The best way to produce this potent anabolic effect is simply by drinking an amino acidand-carbohydrate supplement within 15 minutes after training! RecoverX™ offers the ideal combination and provides the perfect blend of nutrients for postworkout anabolic acceleration. RecoverX™ contains 40 grams of the quickest-acting bio-available protein from hydrolyzed whey—extremely fast protein for immediate delivery—whey protein concentrate, glutamine peptides, arginine and 60 grams of carbohydrate to give you the necessary insulin spike.

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GRIND OUT THE GROWTH REPS™ Beta-Alanine Gives Your Muscles More Grow Power™ The biggest bodybuilders know that the last few grueling reps of a set are the key growth reps. It’s why they fight through the pain of muscle burn on every work set-—so they trigger the mass-building machinery. But sometimes it’s not enough; the burn is too fierce. Fortunately, there’s now a potent new weapon in this massive firefight to help you get bigger and stronger faster. Red Dragon is a new beta-alanine supplement that packs your muscles with carnosine—up to 60 percent more. Muscle biopsies show that the largest bodybuilders have significantly more carnosine in their fast-twitch muscle fibers than sedentary individuals for good reason: Carnosine buffers the burn to give muscles more “grow power” on every set. The bigger and stronger a muscle gets, the more carnosine it needs to perform at higher intensity levels. You must keep your muscles loaded with carnosine to grow larger and stronger. It all boils down to intensity and the ability to buffer waste products—hydrogen ions and lactic acid—so the muscle doesn’t shut down before growth activation. Straight carnosine supplements degrade too rapidly to reach the muscles; however, more than 20 new studies document that beta-alanine is converted to carnosine very efficiently. All it takes is 1 1/2 grams twice a day, and you’ll see new size in your muscles and feel the difference in the gym—you can double or triple your growth-rep numbers! Imagine how fast your size and strength will increase when you ride the Dragon! Note: Red Dragon™ is the first pure carnosine synthesizer—so powerful it’s patented. It contains beta-alanine, the amino acid that supercharges muscle cells with carnosine.

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Train, Eat,

Grow Muscle-Training Program 112

From the IRON MAN Training & Research Center by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson Photography by Michael Neveux

Model: Eric Broser

In our last installment we mentioned that our go-to workout after our grueling 17week ripping phase is our XRep version of Eric Broser’s Power/Rep Range/Shock. As we’ve said in the past, training each bodypart only once a week has never worked for us very well, but as we came off our strict, extended diet, it appeared to be just what the doctor ordered. We were right. We felt great the first three weeks with P/RR/S, and muscle growth and strength were on a serious upswing. We knew that part of it was anabolic rebound from being depleted and that, once we adapted, we’d need something more to make hitting each bodypart only once a week continue to work. Before we get to that, here’s a review of P/RR/S, which calls for changing the training protocol every week: Power: Straight sets with heavy weights, four to six reps per work set. Rep Range: On the first exercise the rep range is seven to nine, on the second it’s 10 to 12, and on the third it’s 13 to 15—or higher. \ FEBRUARY 2009 79

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w w w. I ro n M a n M a g a z i n e . c o m

© 2005 IRON MAN Magazine

It’s a big blast of workout information, motivation and muscle-building science in your e-mail box every week—and it’s all free! Tons of practical training tips, analysis and size tactics are jam-packed into this e-zine from the IRON MAN Training & Research Center, where there’s more than 50 years of training experience to get you growing fast! Here are a few of the latest editions’ titles (online now):

Train, Eat,

Grow Real Bodybuilding Anyone who’s been around bodybuilding for any length of time knows the name Ron Harris. He got his start writing about building muscles right here in IRON MAN almost 20 years ago, and he’s finally found time to write a book. I’m not sure how he squeezed it in considering he has a family and is still writing his butt off every month for a number of muscle publications—including this one—as well as his Web site. Nevertheless, what a job he’s done! Real Bodybuilding is a gem of a book that is one of the most truthful, hard-hitting works ever to be released in this genre. It’s 50 percent instruction and tips, 25 percent analysis—like genetics, drugs, etc.—15 percent diet and supplements and 10 percent raw, eye-opening confession. While his views on how to train and eat as well as his 10 big fat lies about steroids are great reading, his interview with himself about his plunge into the bodybuilding-drug world and why he did it is exceptional. It’s an I-confess-and-this-is-what-happened exposé that every bodybuilder must read. Of course, there’s plenty of how-to info as well, including a number of clear-cut mass programs—simple but effective and backed by Ron’s years of experience in the muscle game. Ron has competed in tested and untested contests, so he knows the training difference required to make gains for each type of bodybuilder. Just so you know, he’s not one of those genetic freaks who grows by looking at a heavy dumbbell. When he began messing around with weights at 14, he was 4’11” and 90 pounds. Yikes! He wanted to look like the muscular wrestlers he watched religiously on TV— and the iron was the answer. He moved to the West Coast in 1991 to attend college, but all he really wanted to do was train at the mecca, Gold’s Gym, and work out next to the muscle gods. He arrived weighing 185 pounds and grew to 230 in two years—and that was before he did any drugs, although by his own admission he did turn into “a true meathead.” Harris’ odyssey is interesting, and many hardcore bodybuilders will identify with what he was feeling and why he made specific choices. But more important are his philosophical views, which have evolved and been shaped by those choices and years in the iron game. Right up front, he writes, “Bodybuilding is a never-ending process—a journey and not a destination.” It’s not just sets and reps, it’s a commitment. Read Real Bodybuilding, and it will help you understand commitment and dedication as well as fire you up to hit the gym with a vengeance. —Steve Holman

It’s been working great, but to make it continue to work as we adapt, we’re getting innovative.

Damaged Goods For a muscle to need seven full days of recovery, you have to hammer it hard and with specific techniques for producing significant microtears in the fibers. In other words, you have to damage the target muscle. We’ve devised a few effective ways to increase growthtriggering trauma: Extra midrange-position work: Because we hit only two or three bodyparts at each workout, we can do a few more sets without exceeding our workout time limit—a little over an hour. The big, midrange exercises do a lot of damage to muscle fibers, so for most bodyparts we’re doing two or three midrange moves. For example, for quads we do two sets of hack squats, two sets of leg presses and one set of squats. For shoulders we start with two sets of overhead presses followed by two sets of dumbbell upright rows. A slower negative on stretchposition exercises can produce more muscle damage.

Editor’s note: Real Bodybuilding—Muscle Truth From 25 Years in the Trenches is available at

After Shock week, you go back to Power and begin again—and, as we mentioned, we are training each bodypart only once a week. Here’s

our current split: Monday: Chest, calves, abs Tuesday: Back, forearms Wednesday: Quads, hamstrings Thursday: Off Friday: Delts, triceps, biceps

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Model: Malliarodakis_Gus

Shock: The rep range is eight to 12 on most exercises but with intensity techniques like drop sets, slow negatives, DC training, X Reps and X-hybrid techniques to shock new growth.

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by David Goodin

Plan for BigGain Hunters

a week. Not only am I bored, but I also feel I don’t really have a plan when it comes to workouts and diet. My hope is that you can point me in the right direction for what I should be doing in the gym and at the dinner table. I want to feel that I have a plan and mission when I show up at the gym each day.

A: I’m glad to help. There are so many folks in the same boat. You don’t have to be over 40 to find yourself carrying Q: I just finished reading your article in IRON too much bodyfat and just generally out of shape. The good MAN and was very encouraged by the results you’ve thing is that you recognize it and decided to do something seen in your own workouts. As an over-40 guy, I’ve about it. Unfortunately, a lot of people decide to make the been trying to find out what routines I should use change but don’t know how to get it done safely and efin the gym. My goal is to gain muscle and lose fat ficiently. You’re absolutely right—you need a plan. If you (isn’t everyone’s?). I’ve been lifting weights the past were going to attend a party in an unfamiliar town, you year on a whole-body workout routine three times wouldn’t just jump in your car and drive around aimlessly until you happened to find the venue, would you? These days you’d MapQuest the address and print out the map and directions. Achieving the physique Dave competed in the you’re after is no different. You ’08 NPC Team Universe should think of your workout welterweight division. He and diet plan as the map to your placed second. fitness destination. So let’s lay it out. I’ll give you a specific split program a little later; first I want to discuss how to plan your workouts. Since you’ve been working out regularly, you won’t be starting from scratch. With the full-body workouts under your belt, the next step is to split your body into upper- and lower-body workouts. You can continue to train on Monday, Wednesday and Friday; just alternate between the two workouts. On that schedule you train your upper body twice one week and your lower body twice the next week. Always work the major muscle groups first, spending most of your time and energy on the basic compound movements. The basic exercises include squats and leg presses for thighs; deadlifts, chins or pulldowns and rows for back; flat-bench and incline presses for chest; and overhead presses for shoulders. Those should be the mainstay of your workouts. Start each session with two basic exercises, performing three to four work sets per exercise. Progress to isolation exercises for smaller bodyparts, Neveux \ Model: Dave Goodin


Shredded Muscle

82 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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performing one exercise per bodypart for three to four work sets. Always perform the movements smoothly and deliberately, feeling the muscle contract on every rep of every set. Keep your repetitions in the eight-to12 range. Plan your workout before you go to the gym so that you know exactly what you’re going to do. That way you won’t have to waste any time once you get there. Record all of your workouts, including exercises, sets, reps and weights (I even record my bodyweight, the time of day and which gym I’m training in). When you start your new program, record your bodyweight and measurements in your journal. If possible, get your bodyfat assessed by skinfold calipers. Jot down 12-week goals and long-term goals—be realistic. You can go back through your journal to monitor your progress in strength, weight and measurement from time to time in order to keep yourself focused. You can also use your journal for motivation. I always look back at my workout from the previous week, and I try to beat what I did then. Even if I add only one more rep for a particular exercise or add five more pounds, I know that I’ve improved. Small weekly improvements add up to huge annual gains. As for your diet, the first thing I tell everyone interested in losing bodyfat is to cut out all fried foods, junk foods and desserts. Most people will shed fat rapidly with just that adjustment. Take in plenty of protein from lean sources, such as poultry breast, fish, egg whites, lean beef and high-quality protein powder (I highly recommend Muscle-Link’s Pro-Fusion). For your total protein intake multiply your target bodyweight by 1.5, and try to take in that many grams. For example, if your target weight is 200 pounds, 200 x 1.5 = 300 grams of protein per day. For carbs eat only fresh fruits, vegetables and low-glycemic-index starches, such as brown rice, sweet potatoes and oatmeal. Since you’re interested in dropping a considerable amount of bodyfat, you’ll want to restrict your carb intake somewhat. To get the appropriate number of carbs, take your daily protein intake and multiply by a factor of .7 (300 x .7 = 210 grams of carbs per day). You will be getting some fat from your protein, so the only fats you need to add are the essential fatty acids. For basic supplementation in addition to the protein powder and EFAs, you should take creatine and a highquality vitamin-and-mineral supple-

ment. During your workout sip a drink that contains about 15 to 20 grams of carbs and 10 grams of protein. I use about eight ounces of water, 10 ounces of Gatorade and a half scoop of Pro-Fusion. Immediately after your workout have another drink with 20 to 30 grams of carbs, 25 to 30 grams of protein and one serving of creatine. I like mixing vanilla Pro-Fusion with lemon lime or orange Gatorade for my postworkout drinks. In order to speed up bodyfat reduction, I do 20 to 30 minutes of cardio first thing in the morning, six days per week. If you’re accustomed to weight training first thing in the morning, do your cardio around noon or in the evening. Above all, be patient and be consistent. I can’t stress that enough. It’s not going to happen overnight, in a week or even in a month. If you’re consistent with training and diet, in just a few months you’ll see incredible changes. Train like a champion on every rep. Live like a champion every day. Here are the workouts: Lower body: Hanging knee raises Crunches Squats (warmup) (work sets) Leg presses (warmup) (work sets) Leg curls Leg extensions Standing calf raises Upper Body: Deadlifts* (warmup) (work sets) Bench presses (warmup) (work sets) Incline dumbbell presses Cable rows (warmup) (work sets) Pulldowns to front Overhead presses Barbell curls Lying extensions (skull crushers)

4 x max 3 x max 1-2 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 1 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 5 x 12-15

1-2 x 9 3x8


1 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 1 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 4 x 8-12

*Do deadlifts only at every other upper-body workout. Editor’s note: See Dave Goodin’s blog at Click on the blog selection in the top menu bar. To contact Dave directly, send e-mail to TXShredder@aol .com. IM

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(continued from page 82)

range. The goal is to kick-start the recovery process via a muscle-engorging pump with light weights. That makes a lot of sense and also provides Steve with the longer tension time his muscles respond to best; however, we decided to use 20 reps as the ceiling and do it only on two sets of the contracted-position exercise that ends each Positions-of-Flexion bodypart routine during Power week. For example, our Power biceps routine looks like this: Midrange Dumbbell curls Cable curls

2 x 4-6 1 x 4-6

Stretch Incline curls

2 x 6-8

Contracted Concentration curls

2 x 15-20

The high-rep blood-bath chaser is making a big difference in both of our results—and we appear to be retaining more vascularity and muscle detail, which fits into our winter plan perfectly.

Just Say No to Winter Bloat Muscle damage and higher reps are good for growth, but they’re also excellent for helping to preserve leanness. As we mentioned last month, one of our goals is to stay leaner over the winter so that it’ll be easier to rip up next year. It was grueling this past summer, and part of that was due to excess winter blubber.

Model: Jonathan Lawson

Train, Eat,

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Train, Eat,

Grow While we’re trying to maintain some cardio activity, we believe our new workouts will also help keep the fat off, much as high-intensity cardio does. We’ve discussed highintensity cardio before—short, all-out sprints alternated with low-intensity walking or jogging.

Model: Jonathan Lawson

A negativeaccentuated style gives midrange exercises a unique shock effect.

IRON MAN Training & Research Center Home-Gym Program 112 Workout 1: Chest, Calves, Abs (Power) Low-incline presses (X Reps) 2 x 4-6 Bench presses or wide-grip dips 2 x 4-6 Incline flyes (X Reps) 1 x 6-8 Flat-bench flyes (X Reps) 1 x 6-8 Incline flyes (X Reps) 1 x 15-20 Flat-bench flyes (X Reps) 1 x 15-20 Knee-extension donkey calf raises (X Reps) 3 x 10-12 One-leg calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 8-10, 1 x 15-20 Seated calf raises (X Reps) 2 x 15-20 Incline kneeups (X Reps) 2 x 10-12 Full-range crunches (X Reps) 2 x 10-12 End-of-bench kneeups (X Reps) 2 x max

Workout 2: Back, Forearms (Power) Chins (X Reps) 3 x 4-6 Undergrip chins (X Reps) 2 x 4-6 Dumbbell pullovers (X Reps) 2 x 6-8 Stiff-arm pulldowns or undergrip rows 2 x 15-20 Bent-over barbell or dumbbell rows 2 x 4-6 One-arm dumbbell rows 1 x 6-8 Bent-arm bent-over laterals 1 x 15-20 Shrugs (X Reps) 1 x 6-8, 1 x 15-20 Reverse curls 2 x 8-10 Reverse wrist curls (X Reps) 2 x 8-10 Wrist curls (X Reps) 2 x 8-10 Rockers (X Reps) 1 x 20-30

Workout 3: Quads, Hamstrings, Lower Back (Power) Leg extensions (warmup) Old-style hack squats Squats Sissy squats (X Reps) Leg extensions Stiff-legged deadlifts Leg curls (X Reps) Leg curls Hyperextensions (X Reps)

1 x 20 2 x 8-10 2 x 6-8 2 x 6-8 2 x 15-20 2 x 6-8 1 x 4-6 2 x 15-20 1 x 15-20

Workout 4: Delts, Triceps, Biceps (Power) Barbell or dumbbell presses (X Reps) 2 x 4-6 Dumbbell upright rows (X Reps) 2 x 4-6 Incline one-arm laterals (X Reps) 2 x 6-8 Forward-lean laterals (X Reps) 2 x 15-20 Bent-over laterals (X Reps) 1 x 4-6, 1 x 15-20 Close-grip bench presses 2 x 4-6 Lying dumbbell extensions 1 x 4-6 Overhead extensions 2 x 6-8 Kickbacks 2 x 15-20 Dumbbell curls 3 x 4-6 Incline curls (X Reps) 2 x 6-8 Concentration curls 2 x 15-20 Incline hammer curls 1 x 6-8, 1 x 15-20

Note: If you don’t have a leg extension machine, do old-style hacks, nonlock style. Use partner resistance, towel around the ankles, if you don’t have a leg curl machine. 88 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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It’s been shown to burn fat much faster because of a higher postworkout metabolic output than steady-state cardio. Why? Because of the muscle damage created by the all-out sprints. According to the latest research, the body uses fat as an energy substrate to repair damaged muscle tissue. The more damage you inflict, the more energy your body needs for the repair process. In other words, interval cardio is a lot like an intense lower-body weight workout. And vice versa. You get a huge metabolic uptick from your weight workouts if you do a lot of muscle damage, which is exactly what we’re doing with the aforementioned trauma techniques. Also, with the high-rep tension-and-occlusion sets on the contracted-position exercises, we’re getting a lot of muscle burn. Studies show that muscle burn is caused by lactic acid, which has been shown to ramp up release of growth hormone. What’s GH good for? Fat burning, as well as amplify-

ing the anabolic effects of testosterone. Oh, and it also has a lot of anti-aging benefits, which Steve, who is 49, accepts with open, albeit wrinkled, arms.

A Few More Power-Week Comments On most of the midrange- and stretch-position exercises we keep the reps at four to six; however, there are some exceptions. For example, on any stretch-position exercise that we deem somewhat dangerous—like stiff-legged deadlifts (lower back) or overhead extensions (elbows)—we raise the rep count to six to eight and slow down the negative stroke. That enables us to use less weight for less joint trauma and potential injury but still get the muscle-building stimulation. As for the high-rep finisher sets, we usually do two, one set of two different exercises. For example, we finish triceps with a high-rep set of kickbacks, and then we do a high-

rep set of pushdowns. For biceps we end with one high-rep set of concentration curls and one high-rep set of one-arm spider curls. Obviously, for some bodyparts that’s not possible. On quads the only contracted-position exercise available is leg extensions; however, we use different foot positions on each set to slightly alter the fiberrecruitment pattern—toes angled in emphasizes the outer quads, while toes out focuses more stress on the inner quads. As we’ve often said, continuous change can bring big gains, and we think our version of Broser’s Power/ Rep/Range Shock is one of the best at doing just that. (A version of our current P/RR/S program is listed in the e-book 3D Muscle Building.) Editor’s note: For the latest on X Reps, X e-books and the X-Blog training and supplement journals, visit A few of the mass-training e-books are shown below. IM

X-traordinary Workouts — X-ceptional Results!

The Ultimate Mass Workout. This is the original X-Rep manual. Includes the ultimate exercise for each muscle and workouts.

Beyond X-Rep Muscle Building. More on X Reps and X-hybrid techniques, including X Fade and Double-X Overload.

3D Muscle Building. Positions-of-Flexion mass training. Includes the 20pounds-of-muscle-in-10weeks size surge program.

X-traordinary MuscleBuilding Workouts. The big 10 mass-program arsenal. Includes Heavy/Light, 20Rep Squat, Power Pyramid. \ FEBRUARY 2009 89

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Naturally Huge by John Hansen, Mr. Natural Olympia

Cardio, Splits and Bodypart Hits Q: I purchased your book and must say that it’s one of the best I have read. I have a few questions. I’m somewhere between mesomorph [athletic build] and endomorph [heavy build]—probably more endomorph. I obviously do not compete. My main concern is to get to 7 to 10 percent bodyfat. I’m currently between 15 and 20 percent. I’m following the sample diet you outline for endomorphs for a 175-pound body. I was able to go from 184 to 175 in about three weeks, but for the past two I’ve been stuck at 175. Should I increase cardio from 30 minutes to 45 minutes after my workout? Do you have any other suggestions? Due to a back problem, I’m not doing any squats or deadlifts. I know that’s one of my problems, and my leg training is relatively high rep. Should I designate more sets for arms and shoulders? I’m basically following the two-day alternate split on page 76, except that I’ve moved deltoids to arms day.

Monday: Chest, back, calves Tuesday: Deltoids, arms, thighs, abs Wednesday: Off Thursday: Chest, back, calves Friday: Deltoids, arms, thighs, abs I can’t work out on Saturday or Sunday. I’ve read somewhere that it’s best to train each muscle group two times per week to generate enough testosterone. Is that only for the first year—until you get very strong—or would that hold true all the time? Should I switch to a different program after six months? A: Thanks for the compliments on my book, Natural Bodybuilding. I’m glad you liked it and that it has been helpful in improving your physique. You didn’t say how much weight you wanted to lose. A 10-pound loss in three weeks is a lot, so I’m sure some of it was probably water as well as bodyfat. Most people will lose one to two pounds a week on a fat-loss diet. The diet you’re following from my book recommends 2,700 calories per day, with 294 grams of protein, 193 grams of carbohydrates and 86 grams of fat. It breaks down to 43 percent protein, 28 percent carbs and 28 percent fat. That’s a great diet for losing fat while maintaining or building muscle because it’s high in protein but only moderately The big compound high in carbohyexercises can produce drates. The lower a testosterone surge to carbs encourage fat give you better overall loss while allowing growth. for enough glycogen for energy in your workouts and postworkout recovery. I recommend cycling carbohydrates. Instead of eating the same number of carbs every day, alternate the count to keep your metabolism stimulated. That will prevent it from slowing down, but you’ll still be losing bodyfat because you’re getting fewer carbohydrates. The diet you’re following is for training days because (continued on page I102) included a postworkout drink, like 2:1:1 Recovery from Optimum Nutrition or RecoverX from

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When designing a split routine, be sure you don’t train the same bodypart two days in a row. For example, don’t train back one day and biceps the next, as working back also hits biceps. Muscle-Link. The postworkout drink adds 60 to 70 grams of carbs to your diet. If you eliminate it on your nontraining days, you’ll reduce your carbohydrates significantly. If you were to train four days a week, you’d be eating slightly more carbs (193 grams) on those days and fewer (approximately 133 grams) on the other three days. By alternating between higher and lower carbs, you reduce your bodyfat without running the risk of losing muscle because of low glycogen stores. Give the carb-cycling program a try before increasing the amount of cardio you do. By eating fewer carbs several days per week, you should gradually trim your bodyfat. Always try to lose fat by manipulating your diet before increasing your cardio. You asked about training each muscle group twice a week and how that relates to testosterone output. Training each muscle group twice a week is an intermediate program. You should do a moderate number of sets for each muscle group to make sure that the muscles have recuperated before you train them again that same week. Your body releases testosterone as a result of heavy, intense weight training—compound, basic movements such as squats, deadlifts, barbell rows, bench presses, etc. Testosterone release doesn’t have anything to do with how many times you train each muscle per week. When you feel that you’re doing too much work at each session, you can split up your routine over three days instead of two. That will enable you to train fewer muscle groups each time. You’ll also rest each muscle group for a longer period before training it again. I don’t recommend doing more sets for your deltoids and arms just because you can’t do squats or deadlifts. You can make your leg and back workouts very intense even without squats or deadlifts. Use moderately heavy weights for higher reps in your leg and back workouts. Training

Neveux \ Model: Todd Smith

Neveux \ Model: Lee Apperson


Naturally Huge

techniques such as 1 1/2 reps, preexhaust and supersets will help you heighten the intensity. Q: Does beta-alanine work as well as phosphatidylserine to reduce cortisol in the body? Beta-alanine and phosphatidylserine can each help your workouts, but they have different purposes. Beta-alanine helps buffer the lactic acid buildup in the muscles when you’re training, enabling you to train harder. I always take a scoop of Optimum Nutrition’s Threshold, a beta-alanine supplement, about 15 minutes before my workout. Phosphatidylserine works by lowering the body’s count of cortisol, a catabolic hormone that can eat up muscle tissue. By taking PS (found in Muscle Link’s Cort-Bloc), you can help keep your body in a catabolic-free state, which is more conducive to building muscle. Q: I’m 23 years old, 6’1” and 100 kilograms [220 pounds]. I’ve been training for three years—two days on/one off/one on/one off, on the following bodypart split: 1) chest and biceps; 2) shoulders, traps and back; 3) legs and triceps. I was wondering how much training I should be doing because I’m a concrete laborer and work five days a week, 10 hours a day. I’ve had good results, but I’m now struggling, which is not very motivating. I recently started training at home with a power rack, bench, barbell and dumbbells. What are your thoughts regarding a good split and how many sets and exercises I can do without overtraining? I feel that hitting the muscle only once a week isn’t enough, and I’m not sure how many rest days I should be taking. Any feedback would be greatly appreciated.

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to the gym. You should be well rested on those days, which makes them perfect for training hard and geting in some very productive sessions. During the week you train only two days a week and rest on the other three. That should really help with your recuperation. I also suggest switching around the muscle groups you work together so that you don’t overlap by indirectly training a bodypart two days in a row. Right now, you’re training chest and biceps at workout 1, shoulders and back at workout 2 and legs and triceps at workout 3. If you do workouts 3 and 1 back to back, you’ll end up training triceps the day before you train chest. That could lead to overtraining the triceps, or it could interfere with your chest workout if your triceps are sore. Also, if you do workouts 1 and 2 back to back, you’ll train your biceps the day before your back session. I recommend that you train your legs in between your two upper-body days to eliminate the overlap described above. Here is a better schedule: Workout 1: Chest, triceps, biceps Workout 2: Legs, abs Workout 3: Shoulders, back The only overlap is that you train shoulders the day before you train chest when you do workout 1 on the day after workout 3. When that occurs, you can switch things around a little—work back and biceps together, and then the next day train chest, shoulders and triceps. For example:

For smaller muscle groups like triceps keep sets at six to 10.

A: That’s a great question because recuperation is so important when it comes to growing muscle. Many people concentrate on their training routine without considering how much rest they need between workouts to maximize their muscle growth. I recommend that you modify your program so that you train on the weekend. You can keep your current program of splitting up the body over three days with five days, which gives you five days of rest between muscle groups: Monday: Rest Tuesday: Workout 1 Wednesday: Rest Thursday: Workout 2 Friday: Rest Saturday: Workout 3 Sunday: Workout 1 Schedule begins again; continue cycling the workouts.

Neveux \ Model: Dan Decker


Naturally Huge

Monday: Rest Tuesday: Workout 1 (chest, triceps, biceps) Wednesday: Rest Thursday: Workout 2 (abs, legs) Friday: Rest Saturday: Workout 3, modified (back, biceps) Sunday: Workout 1, modified (chest, delts, triceps) Monday: Rest Tuesday: Workout 2 (legs) Wednesday: Rest Thursday: Workout 3 (deltoids, back) Friday: Rest Saturday: Workout 1 (chest, triceps, biceps) Sunday: Workout 2 (abs, legs)

I recommend doing a moderate number of sets. For bigger muscle groups like chest, back and legs, perform as many as 10 to 15 sets. For your deltoids and traps, do 10 to 12 sets. For smaller muscle groups like triceps, biceps, calves and abs, keep the sets at six to 10. Good luck! Editor’s note: John Hansen has won the Mr. Natural Olympia and is a two-time Natural Mr. Universe winner. Check out his Web site at, or send questions or comments to John@NaturalOlympia .com. Look for his new DVD, “Natural Bodybuilding Seminar and Competitions,” along with his book, Natural Bodybuilding, and his training DVD, “Real Muscle,” at his Web site or at Home Gym Warehouse, You can send written correspondence to John Hansen, P.O. Box 3003, Darien, IL 60561. IM

That schedule has you training on the weekends, when you don’t have to deal with working a full day before going

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by David Goodin

Plan for BigGain Hunters

a week. Not only am I bored, but I also feel I don’t really have a plan when it comes to workouts and diet. My hope is that you can point me in the right direction for what I should be doing in the gym and at the dinner table. I want to feel that I have a plan and mission when I show up at the gym each day.

A: I’m glad to help. There are so many folks in the same boat. You don’t have to be over 40 to find yourself carrying Q: I just finished reading your article in IRON too much bodyfat and just generally out of shape. The good MAN and was very encouraged by the results you’ve thing is that you recognize it and decided to do something seen in your own workouts. As an over-40 guy, I’ve about it. Unfortunately, a lot of people decide to make the been trying to find out what routines I should use change but don’t know how to get it done safely and efin the gym. My goal is to gain muscle and lose fat ficiently. You’re absolutely right—you need a plan. If you (isn’t everyone’s?). I’ve been lifting weights the past were going to attend a party in an unfamiliar town, you year on a whole-body workout routine three times wouldn’t just jump in your car and drive around aimlessly until you happened to find the venue, would you? These days you’d MapQuest the address and print out the map and directions. Achieving the physique Dave competed in the you’re after is no different. You ’08 NPC Team Universe should think of your workout welterweight division. He and diet plan as the map to your placed second. fitness destination. So let’s lay it out. I’ll give you a specific split program a little later; first I want to discuss how to plan your workouts. Since you’ve been working out regularly, you won’t be starting from scratch. With the full-body workouts under your belt, the next step is to split your body into upper- and lower-body workouts. You can continue to train on Monday, Wednesday and Friday; just alternate between the two workouts. On that schedule you train your upper body twice one week and your lower body twice the next week. Always work the major muscle groups first, spending most of your time and energy on the basic compound movements. The basic exercises include squats and leg presses for thighs; deadlifts, chins or pulldowns and rows for back; flat-bench and incline presses for chest; and overhead presses for shoulders. Those should be the mainstay of your workouts. Start each session with two basic exercises, performing three to four work sets per exercise. Progress to isolation exercises for smaller bodyparts, Neveux \ Model: Dave Goodin


Shredded Muscle

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performing one exercise per bodypart for three to four work sets. Always perform the movements smoothly and deliberately, feeling the muscle contract on every rep of every set. Keep your repetitions in the eight-to12 range. Plan your workout before you go to the gym so that you know exactly what you’re going to do. That way you won’t have to waste any time once you get there. Record all of your workouts, including exercises, sets, reps and weights (I even record my bodyweight, the time of day and which gym I’m training in). When you start your new program, record your bodyweight and measurements in your journal. If possible, get your bodyfat assessed by skinfold calipers. Jot down 12-week goals and long-term goals—be realistic. You can go back through your journal to monitor your progress in strength, weight and measurement from time to time in order to keep yourself focused. You can also use your journal for motivation. I always look back at my workout from the previous week, and I try to beat what I did then. Even if I add only one more rep for a particular exercise or add five more pounds, I know that I’ve improved. Small weekly improvements add up to huge annual gains. As for your diet, the first thing I tell everyone interested in losing bodyfat is to cut out all fried foods, junk foods and desserts. Most people will shed fat rapidly with just that adjustment. Take in plenty of protein from lean sources, such as poultry breast, fish, egg whites, lean beef and high-quality protein powder (I highly recommend Muscle-Link’s Pro-Fusion). For your total protein intake multiply your target bodyweight by 1.5, and try to take in that many grams. For example, if your target weight is 200 pounds, 200 x 1.5 = 300 grams of protein per day. For carbs eat only fresh fruits, vegetables and low-glycemic-index starches, such as brown rice, sweet potatoes and oatmeal. Since you’re interested in dropping a considerable amount of bodyfat, you’ll want to restrict your carb intake somewhat. To get the appropriate number of carbs, take your daily protein intake and multiply by a factor of .7 (300 x .7 = 210 grams of carbs per day). You will be getting some fat from your protein, so the only fats you need to add are the essential fatty acids. For basic supplementation in addition to the protein powder and EFAs, you should take creatine and a highquality vitamin-and-mineral supple-

ment. During your workout sip a drink that contains about 15 to 20 grams of carbs and 10 grams of protein. I use about eight ounces of water, 10 ounces of Gatorade and a half scoop of Pro-Fusion. Immediately after your workout have another drink with 20 to 30 grams of carbs, 25 to 30 grams of protein and one serving of creatine. I like mixing vanilla Pro-Fusion with lemon lime or orange Gatorade for my postworkout drinks. In order to speed up bodyfat reduction, I do 20 to 30 minutes of cardio first thing in the morning, six days per week. If you’re accustomed to weight training first thing in the morning, do your cardio around noon or in the evening. Above all, be patient and be consistent. I can’t stress that enough. It’s not going to happen overnight, in a week or even in a month. If you’re consistent with training and diet, in just a few months you’ll see incredible changes. Train like a champion on every rep. Live like a champion every day. Here are the workouts: Lower body: Hanging knee raises Crunches Squats (warmup) (work sets) Leg presses (warmup) (work sets) Leg curls Leg extensions Standing calf raises Upper Body: Deadlifts* (warmup) (work sets) Bench presses (warmup) (work sets) Incline dumbbell presses Cable rows (warmup) (work sets) Pulldowns to front Overhead presses Barbell curls Lying extensions (skull crushers)

4 x max 3 x max 1-2 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 1 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 5 x 12-15

1-2 x 9 3x8


1 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 1 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 4 x 8-12 4 x 8-12

*Do deadlifts only at every other upper-body workout. Editor’s note: See Dave Goodin’s blog at Click on the blog selection in the top menu bar. To contact Dave directly, send e-mail to TXShredder@aol .com. IM

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Critical Mass by Steve Holman

The Ultimate Muscle-Size Workout Q: I just want the best workout program for building the most muscle. Please simplify all the rhetoric and tell me which one is the absolute best. A: That’s easy. There is no best routine. It’s the nature of how the human body adapts. That’s why I always say that it takes change to trigger bigger gains. Some experts suggest that the body is fully adapted after only four workouts, and that’s why my program constantly evolves—I’ll rotate in a new exercise, a new X-hybrid tactic, a drop set, etc. After 10 weeks or so I often move to a new program. If you’re looking for a program you can use for a long stretch that builds both size and strength, try one based on Eric Broser’s Power/Rep Range/ Shock protocol. That gives you builtin rep-range changes every week, as follows: Week 1: Power. You train every exercise with straight sets—no supersets, tri-sets or drop sets—and keep reps in the four-to-six power zone. You use slightly higher reps on endurance-oriented muscles like calves, abs and forearms. Week 2: Rep Range. For the first exercise you pick a weight that gets you seven to nine reps. For the second exercise you do 10 to 12 reps. On the third exercise you move the range up to the high end of fasttwitch recruitment—13 to 15 reps. Week 3: Shock. This week is for putting your muscles through the meat grinder with supersets, drop sets and so on. Reps for most muscles stay in the eight-to-10 range, but extended-set techniques are a must. You can take your current routine and simply change it each week to conform to the Power, Rep Range or Shock protocol. Increase or decrease the weights you use on each exercise to attain the rep-range goals each week. Then on Shock week, combine

exercises, do drop sets and blast your muscles into Jell-O. Your first three-week stint will be somewhat erratic because you have to figure out weights for each different protocol; just be sure to write them down. Incidentally, end-of-set X-Rep partials work well in any of the three protocols, but they’re especially appropriate for Shock workouts. For the uninitiated, at full-range exhaustion you move the bar to the semistretch position, such as near the bottom of an incline press, and grind out 10-inch partials, moving the bar up to just below the halfway point. The controlled-explosion partials extend the set and bring in more fast-twitch growth fibers, as well as increase growth hormone release. Does P/RR/S work? The first time Jonathan, my training partner, and I tried it, we were shocked. We got strong

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very quickly. Our work weights kept going up by leaps and bounds at every workout. It was almost frightening but very motivating—plus, our muscle size increased noticeably as well. After we fully adapted to P/RR/S, about nine weeks, we gave it a rest for a few months and then brought it back, applying it to our original X-Rep transformation program (we christened it X-Rep Reload). We got another round of strength and mass increases. Remember, you must continually give the muscles something new to cope with to keep them growing. Power/ Rep Range/Shock is an excellent way to get automatic variation for size and strength acceleration. [Note: The first P/RR/S program we used is on pages 103-114 of the e-book 3D Muscle Building. The second P/RR/S workout, X-Rep Reload, is on pages 76-84 of the e-book X-traordinary Muscle-Building Workouts. They are available at]

Frank Zane, motivation for the small-boned bodybuilder.

A: Scientists believe that muscle soreness is caused by microtears in the fibers. In other words, it’s damage. Training a muscle hard while it’s still sore is like scratching the scab off of a wound. It impairs the healing process and can cause damage that retards proper recovery. Note that I said training a muscle “hard.” Studies have shown that performing moderate pump-style workouts when a muscle is sore—training that doesn’t do more damage but instead pushes nutrient-rich blood into the muscle—is beneficial to healing and recovery. It also helps replenish glycogen stores to encourage size increases. I frequently sing the praises of heavy/light training—a heavy, intense workout for a muscle followed a few days later by a lighter, subfailure pumping session. If you’re prone to chronic soreness, I highly recommend using a heavy/light training protocol. You get muscle-fiber trauma at one workout, and three days later you speed the healing and growth process with higher-rep subfailure sets that engorge the recovering muscle. Seeing and feeling a big pump is very motivational as well. Q: What physiques motivate you, and how do you keep training and pushing so hard in the gym? A: For me it’s still about building as much muscle as quickly as possible; however, proportion and symmetry are at the forefront—it’s not just about muscle size. In other words, when I peel off my shirt at the beach or lake, I like women to raise an eyebrow, not blow chow. But that’s just me. If you’re into packing as much muscle on your frame as nature will allow, go for it—push your size to the limit. Get your freak physique on. To maintain the drive to train, you have to strive for the


Q: I get sore after almost every workout, and I’m still sore the next time I go to the gym. Is it bad to train a muscle when it’s still sore?

type of physique that appeals to you. To be honest, what really gets me amped is the e-mail I get saying how my training methods, from POF to X Reps, have helped someone get closer to the physique he or she is after. That motivates me to keep experimenting and hitting the gym with a vengeance, and I continue to move closer to my ideals. What is my ideal? Because of my lighter bone structure, I’m most inspired by early photos of Frank Zane, three-time Mr. Olympia. I may not ever get to his level of development, but I will do my damndest to get close—without drugs, of course. Q: I’ve been reading about 3D Positions of Flexion, and it makes total sense. Most of the three-way hits for each muscle are straightforward, but I’m confused about midback. Can a row be classified as the big, midrange exercise? With barbell rows the arms squeeze the shoulder blades at the top, which is the contracted position, so are barbell rows both a midrange and contracted exercise? A: You need to look at the lats and midback together to understand the positions of flexion for each. For lats you use pulldowns or chins as the big, midrange exercise. Then you follow with pullovers for stretch and stiff-arm pulldowns for contracted. For the midback there’s no need for a midrange exercise—unless you’re specializing. You get midrange midback work on pulldowns or chins when you work lats. Those exercises pull the arms down and back, which affects the lats as well as the midback. To stretch the midback, the best exercise is one-arm dumbbell rows, moving the dumbbell over and past the centerline of the torso at the bottom of the stroke. That’s the complete stretch position for the midback muscles. Also, as you row the dumbbell to the top, you want to keep \ FEBRUARY 2009 109

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3D POF lat routine: pulldowns (midrange), pullovers (stretch), stiff-arm pulldowns (contracted)

One-arm dumbbell rows provide the best stretch for the midback muscles at the bottom of each rep.


your arm angled slightly away from your torso to keep the midback muscles engaged. If you pull with the arm close to your torso so it brushes your side at the top, you activate the lats more than the midback. So you train your midback’s midrange position with lat work and the stretch position with one-arm dumbbell rows. Next is the contracted position. Bent-arm bentover laterals work nicely because the move is a combiYou get midback midrange work when nation row and lateral raise, with your arms bent at slightly greater than 90 degrees. You could use bent-over rows instead because, as you observed, the arms retract the scapulae at the top for a complete contraction, but the bent-arm bent-over lateral raise is more isolated. Let’s summarize.

Neveux \ Model: David Perry


Critical Mass

you train the lats’ midrange position with chins or pulldowns. 3D POF midback routine: midrange position trained with lat work, one-arm dumbbell rows (stretch) and bentarm bent-over laterals or bent-over rows (contracted); upper traps—dumbbell shrugs (stretch and contracted) Notice that the upper traps are a separate animal. To fully develop your upper traps, you should do dumbbell shrugs, which train the stretch and contracted positions. Most trainees get plenty of uppertrap midrange work during their delt routine and from other back exercises, so shrugs should be sufficient. I always like to remind trainees that POF is a logical way to train without wasting time or effort. You get max force with midrange work, stretch overload with stretch-position exercises and occlusion and continuous tension with contracted-position movements. You also work the full range of motion of each muscle, which improves flexibility and activates more complete development with fewer sets. In other words, you stimulate maximum muscle growth from a number of different pathways. [Note: The new POF manual is the e-book 3D Muscle Building.] Editor’s note: Steve Holman is the author of many bodybuilding best-sellers and the creator of Positionsof-Flexion muscle training. For information on POF videos and Size Surge programs, see the ad sections beginning on pages 370 and 360, respectively. Also visit for information on X-Rep and 3D POF methods and e-books. IM

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Model: Greg Smyers

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Scientific Cardio

To Maximize

Fat Loss Part 1:

HIIT vs. Long Duration

by Jacob M. Wilson, M.S., CSCS and Gabriel J. Wilson, M.S., CSCS Photography by Michael Neveux

Most competitive bodybuilders do hours of aerobics with the goal of adding new striations and cuts at each session. Well, let’s face it: Cardio can be boring and monotonous. In fact, it’s often thought of as a necessary evil for achieving road-map veins, shredded quads and delineated abs. The debates about cardio are vast, and the subjects include high-intensity interval training vs. long-duration work; optimal frequency and timing of cardio; and precardio and postcardio nutrition. Because of their complexities, we’re dividing the discussion into a series. We begin with one of the most heated debates of all: HIIT vs. long-duration cardio. \ FEBRUARY 2009 115

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Cardio The first way of enhancing fat metabolism from aerobic workouts is during the session itself, in which the goal is to increase total calorie expenditure and fat burning. The second way is to actually produce metabolic effects in your body after the workout—for example, by improving insulin sensitivity, decreasing fat storage after a meal and speeding metabolism. HIIT advocates claim that the latter effect of cardio is much more important and is maximized following HIIT sessions, while long-duration-cardio advocates suggest that the former effect is more important and that long-duration cardio will burn more calories and use more fat during the workout than sprints. So who’s right? Well, as you’ll discover shortly, it may very well be both.

Calculating Your Cardio Intensity

Model: Skip La Cour

In the lab we measure exercise intensity by the amount of oxygen you can take in and use, but that’s clearly impractical for you. A second way is to estimate the percent of your VO2 max at which you’re doing cardio, which is your heart rate reserve. Heart rate reserve is calculated by subtracting maximum heart rate by resting heart rate. To figure your maximum heart rate, use what’s called the Karvonen formula, which is 220 minus your age. If you’re 20 years old with a resting heart rate of 60 beats per minute, your maximum heart rate would be 200 (220 – 20), and your heart rate reserve would be 140 (200 – 60). Say you want to train at 65 percent of your VO2 max. Simply multiply your heart rate reserve by .65, which would be 91 beats per minute.

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Even the most grueling HIIT sessions will use only the number of calories found in a cup of orange juice.

Optimizing Fat Oxidation During Cardio Workouts You can optimize fat oxidation, or burning, during cardio workouts by manipulating exercise intensity. By intensity we mean the percentage of maximum aerobic capacity (VO2 max) at which you work, as determined by oxygen consumption. Two variables determine how to maximize fat oxidation during cardio: 1) How many calories you expend at a given intensity. 2) What types of calories you’re actually expending. A classic study compared the body’s fuel use during 25 (low), 65 (moderate) and 85 (high) percent VO2 max intensity.1 While the highest percentage of fat was used during the 25 percent exercise intensity, the highest total amount of fat oxidation occurred during the 65 percent intensity. Moderate-intensity cardio uses a lower percentage of fat, but it metabolizes more total calories.

So more total fat and calories are expended at moderate intensity. That means if you want to maximize total fat use during your cardio workouts, you should exercise at 65 percent of your VO2 max (see “Calculating Your Cardio Intensity” on page 116).

Maximizing the Metabolic Benefits of Cardio Through High-Intensity Interval Training The second issue is how to maximize metabolic benefits after your cardio session. While HIIT doesn’t optimize fat burning during the cardio session, it apparently does so afterward. You get five benefits from HIIT on postcardio metabolic adaptations: 1) Excess postexercise oxygen consumption 2) Increased fat oxidation 3) Improved muscle glucose disposal 4) Enhanced mitochondrial density

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High-intensity interval training is often said to use more calories after exercise than during it. Because of that, advocates of HIIT suggest that a 10-to-15-minute HIIT session will use more calories over a 24-hour period than a 60-minute moderateintensity session. While excess postexercise oxygen consumption is a clear metabolic benefit of HIIT, its effects have been greatly exaggerated. Even the most grueling HIIT session will use only the number of calories found in a cup of orange juice.2 So excess postexercise oxygen consumption in and of itself is not an adequate reason to perform HIIT. However, fat oxidation increases after an HIIT session. That’s because HIIT causes a greater increase in hormones that speed fat metabolism, including growth hormone and the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Another effect of HIIT is enhanced glucose uptake in muscles. After cardio your muscles can take in more carbohydrates from the blood—muscular contraction stimulates the insertion of glucose transporters, such as glut-4 proteins, in the muscle cell membrane. That’s important because if they can use a higher portion of the carbohydrates you eat, then fewer carbs will enter fat tissue and become unwanted fat storage. It’s important to understand that only the muscle fibers that are activated during cardio increase glucose uptake. Therefore, HIIT maximizes postexercise muscle glucose deployment because it activates more muscle fibers.3 Chronic HIIT training may change your muscle tissues’ ability to use fat and metabolize the meals you eat. When you train aerobically, your muscle fibers adapt by creating new mitochondria,4 the cell structures responsible for using fat for fuel. The greater the number of mitochondria, the greater your capacity to use fats. The problem with low-to-moderate-intensity cardio is that it uses only a moderate fraction of your muscle fibers to power the activity, whereas HIIT training requires your

body to recruit many of the larger muscle fibers. That leads to several adaptations, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, that enhance fat metabolism.4 Another chronic adaptation from HIIT is muscular hypertrophy, or growth. HIIT very similar to weightlifting in stimulating muscle growth—just look at the difference between sprinters and long-distance runners. Need more be said? We’re left at a standoff: Long-duration, moderate-intensity cardio will optimize total calorie expenditure and fat burning during the workout, but The problem with low-tomoderate-intensity cardio is that it uses only a moderate fraction of your muscle fibers to power the activity, whereas HIIT training requires your body to recruit many of the larger muscle fibers.

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Model: Greg Smyers

5) Enhanced muscular hypertrophy

Model: Amy Lynn and Henrik Jannson


Cardio HIIT clearly has superior metabolic benefits afterward. So which should you use? How about both?

work their magic on fat cells. We suggest performing 10 to 20 minutes of HIIT cardio to raise the secretion of hormones known

HIIT has effects very similar to weightlifting in stimulating muscle growth.

evil for any bodybuilder seeking shredded glutes and washboard abs. With our recommendations, you’ll at least have the satisfaction of knowing you’re getting the most out of every brutal second. Editor’s note: Gabriel Wilson is completing his Ph.D. in nutrition with an emphasis on optimal protein requirements for muscle growth and is a researcher in the Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana. He is vice president of the Web site Jacob Wilson is a skeletal-muscle physiologist and researcher in the Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee. He is president of the Web site ABCBodybuilding. com.


Combining HIIT With Moderate-Intensity Cardio For years we’ve advocated a concept that suggests the cardio debate is based on a false dichotomy. In other words, we don’t have to choose between HIIT and moderate-intensity cardio because we can use both. When you perform an HIIT session, several fat-metabolizing hormones increase. The problem is that at the same time the nervous system decreases the diameter of the blood vessels that carry blood to your bodyfat, meaning that you don’t get the benefit of high fat metabolism during the session. Immediately after the high-intensity session, however, when intensity is lowered, blood flow returns to fat tissue at a high rate, meaning epinephrine and norepinephrine have a chance to

to stimulate the breakdown of fat, followed by 30 to 40 minutes of moderate-intensity cardio, which can maximally use the fatty acids for fuel. Studies clearly demonstrate that traditional cardio burns more fat when it’s performed following high-intensity exercise than when it’s done alone. One study found that both the actual energy cost and rate of fat metabolism of moderate-intensity running were higher when it was performed following interval training.5 Another indicated that performing moderate-intensity cardio after resistance training resulted in maximum fat burning during the cardio session.6 Note that it’s important to perform the moderate-intensity cardio immediately after your high-intensity workout, as the metabolic effects are short lived and quickly dissipate. Cardio is a brutal but necessary

1 Romijn, J.A., et al. (1993). Regulation of endogenous fat and carbohydrate metabolism in relation to exercise intensity and duration. Am J Physiol. 265(3 Pt 1):E380-391. 2 Laforgia, J., et al. (1997). Comparison of energy expenditure elevations after submaximal and supramaximal running. J Appl Physiol. 82(2):661-666. 3 Burgomaster, K.A., et al. (2007). Divergent response of metabolite transport proteins in human skeletal muscle after sprint interval training and detraining. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 292(5): R1970-1976. 4 Talanian, J.L., et al. (2007). Two weeks of high-intensity aerobic interval training increases the capacity for fat oxidation during exercise in women. J Appl Physiol. 102(4):1439-1447. 5 James, D.V., and Doust, J.H. (1998). Oxygen uptake during moderate intensity running: Response following a single bout of interval training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 77(6):551-555. 6 Goto, K., et al. (2007). Effects of resistance exercise on lipolysis during subsequent submaximal exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 39(2):308-315. IM

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A Bodybuilder

Is Born Episode 43 You Are Not a Clone by Ron Harris Photography by Michael Neveux

Model: Tom Voss


t was chest day. I love chest day, but not for the reason that most guys do. They look forward to it as a macho ritual and a chance to prove their manly mettle by cheating up a lot of weight with the generous help of a willing spotter, who invariably screams, “It’s all you, bro!” as encouragement. The most common question asked of any man who has a modicum of muscle is usually, “How much do you bench?” I used to go into lengthy explanations of why I didn’t do the flat-bench barbell press anymore or tell them how much I used for dumbbell bench presses. Neither response ever seemed to satisfy the uninformed, so a few years ago I just started lying and saying “405.” It’s so much quicker and easier. I’m well aware that each time I do that, I’m breaking one of the 10 Commandments, but I’m fairly certain Moses and his buddies never had to deal with ignorant types in the desert demanding to know how many camels they could lift or some such nonsense.

I love chest day because I’ve always had a great mind/muscle connection with my pecs. My front delts or triceps never took over. It was always the muscle fibers of my chest that I felt straining against the resistance. My chest always gets a nice pump, it always gets sore for the next couple of days, and getting it to grow has never been a problem. I guess I just got it like that. It was on a recent chest day that I found out Randy hadn’t been entirely truthful about something for quite some time. A quick update on Randy, who went to the after-hours New Year’s Eve party at a club that didn’t let out until eight in the morning, while my wife and I opted for a local place that closed at two. Randy had been so hung over and nauseous the next day that he didn’t eat a thing until he went to bed that night, though he did sip at a protein shake over the course of the day. To his horror, when he stepped on a scale the next day, his weight had dropped from 217 down to 212. That’s what happens when you have a fast \ FEBRUARY 2009 129

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A Bodybuilder Is Born

Model: Rom Harris

So Randy and I were doing incline dumbbell preses when he announced, “You know, I feel these so much more than the barbell. I barely feel my chest doing anything when we do barbell inclines.”

tabolism, as that kid does, and miss a few meals. It took him more than a week to get those five pounds back. It was now almost a month after New Year’s, and Randy’s weight was fluctuating between 217 and 220. On the days he was 217, he was miserable; on the days he was 220, he felt on top of the world. As I’ve said before, we bodybuilders are the antianorexics. Just as the noneaters cringe at gaining an ounce, we feel the world is coming to an end

if we lose weight. Many a time I have stepped on the gym scale and cursed aloud if I had lost a pound or two, or even if I weighed the same when I was trying to gain. Some dude with a big old potbelly would often try to be sympathetic. “Put a couple pounds on, huh?” “I wish!” I would fire back. “We all want to weigh 300 pounds, but maybe it’s just not meant to be.” The heavy guy would look puzzled, as if I had just told him my goal was to be half-man, half-dolphin, and live out the rest of my life performing at Sea World for buckets of dead fish. So Randy and I were doing incline dumbbell presses when he announced, “You know, I feel these so much more than the barbell. I barely feel my chest doing anything when we do barbell inclines.” “What?” I was shocked, mainly because I had been using the bar most of the time when we trained together only because I thought he liked it. “How long have you felt that way?” He looked like a spouse getting ready to break the news that he didn’t love me anymore. “Pretty

much since I started training,” he said. Now I was starting to fume. I knew Randy wasn’t that dumb. “Why didn’t you say something, for God’s sake?” I demanded. “I’ll take dumbbells every time over barbells for chest!” “Well,” he shrugged, “you know, barbells are supposed to be the best thing for mass, real basic and everything.” My mind was reeling. “Anyone who says that is just repeating something they heard or read,” I said. “I defy anyone to tell me dumbbells aren’t as good at stimulating muscle growth as a barbell. In fact, I think that for a lot of people, they’re better. They have been for me. If you want to get into how hard the two are to control, balance, and master, dumbbells are much tougher.” “Huh,” was Randy’s inspired retort. He thought a moment. “Maybe my upper chest would be even better if I’d been using dumbbells all this time.” “Ya think? Look, just because a specific exercise is supposed to be the very best, that doesn’t mean it’s

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A Bodybuilder Is Born

Model: Eric Domer

“Straight-bar curls hurt my wrists so bad that I can never use enough weight to really hit my biceps right. I like the EZ-curl bar better.”

the best choice for everyone. You know I haven’t done the flat-bench press since I was a teenager, back in the Johnson administration.” “Huh? You mean when Magic Johnson was still playing for the Lakers?” I should have just been grateful he knew about one historical figure, even if it was sports history. “Never mind,” I said. “Another good example is squats. For most people they’re simply incredible for building leg size and strength. For tall guys with long legs, though, they’re often a waste of time. They just don’t have the right leverage for the movement. They usually do much better on the leg press, especially if they can find one with a larger platforms so they can set their feet wider apart. Any other exercises you do that you shouldn’t be doing?” He barely hesitated. “Straight-bar curls. They hurt my wrists so bad that I can never use enough weight to really hit my biceps right. I like the EZ-curl bar better. But every arm-training article says regular

barbell curls are the best exercise, and you have to do them if you want big guns.” “Don’t you see how crazy that is?” I asked. “You wrote a lot of those articles,” he deadpanned. Now he had me, the S.O.B. “Be that as it may, I have also written many times about how you need to try many different training methods and exercises and use the ones that work best for you. We’re not clones. We’re all different, with our own metabolisms, bone structures, muscle fiber makeup, energy levels, tolerance for volume, temperament, attention span, favorite soft drink, on and on. When it comes to exercises, especially, you really need to find the movements that work best for you and stick with them. Doing exercises that don’t feel right won’t help you at all. You won’t make progress, and you won’t enjoy training. It’s just an endless, vicious circle.” We talked a little more, and Randy finally understood the need

to customize his workouts to fit his particular needs and preferences rather than blindly doing what everyone else was doing or mimicking the routine of some pro bodybuilder who won his first contest the week after he started training (a pro named Dave Henry took home his first trophy a full two years before he began lifting weights—really). As always, the bottom line is results. If something works for you, no matter how much it goes against convention, it can’t be “wrong.” So if you’re stuck in a rut and not making improvements, take a long, hard look at your workouts. Are you doing what’s best for you, just doing what you think is best or doing what someone else told you is best? Don’t be afraid to be your own person in the gym and break away from the crowd. Always remember, most of the people in that crowd don’t look that great anyway. And because most of them will never step back and question whether they’re doing what will work best for them, they never will. IM

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Staying Hungry (But Eating Enough to Grow)

How Chris Jalali Went From Scrawny to Brawny by Rod Labbe Photography by Michael Neveux

Psst! I’m gonna let you in on a little secret: Interviewing someone is a breeze, but writing an effective intro—that can be brutal! The goal? To promote the person being profiled without coming across like a press release. A careful balance between outright fawning and stating pertinent facts is essential and requires finesse. Think of it as walking a tightrope, metaphorically speaking—while below beds of glistening knives await. One tiny slip, and you’re barreling toward disaster. Such were the black thoughts tugging at my brain as I composed this intro for talented young bodybuilder and Texas native Chris Jalali. Too many descriptive words (like naturally gifted, massive and classically proportioned), and the rope begins swaying dangerously. Not enough, and Chris doesn’t receive his due. I must, therefore, take each step slowly. Or I could just let Mr. Jalali do the talking and spare my poor psyche further damage.

RL: Says here you’ve been a black belt since age 15. True? CJ: Yeah. Loved martial arts and am still a huge fan. I admired Bruce Lee and wanted to be jacked like him, but our bone structures were completely different. RL: Well, you got the jacked part down. Who cares about bone structure? CJ: Exactly! [Laughs] Bodybuilding didn’t come into the picture until I saw Arnold in “Pumping Iron.” That guy was just immense! I immediately ran out and bought his Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding. One month after earning my black belt, I gave up martial arts to become a bodybuilder. RL: How’d Arnie’s book help little Christopher Jalali? CJ: You’ve heard about reading a book from cover to cover in one sitting? I almost had the entire thing memorized, and Arnold’s principles worked; they were practical. I could easily apply them to my workouts. RL: Was your biggest hurdle gaining weight or committing to a long-term goal? CJ: Gaining weight, hands down.

I’d no clue about what to eat, and I also overtrained. Typical newbie pitfalls. RL: And the commitment side? CJ: I’ve never had a problem with commitment, but my enthusiasm sometimes borders on impetuousness. With me, patience isn’t a virtue. I want it all, right here, right now! RL: You worked out at Metroflex in Arlington, home to Ronnie Coleman and a host of other pros. Hardcore or what? CJ: Metroflex is hardcore to the bone. They don’t even have an air conditioner—and this is Texas! You train and sweat and train and sweat some more. A great atmosphere for getting the job done. RL: The year 2000 was your first contest, the Ronnie Coleman Classic— CJ: Gee, has eight years already passed? Almost a whole decade. RL: What do you remember most? CJ: Posing in front of a packed house and hearing them cheer. Your routine ends, but the memories go

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Jalali on and on; they last a lifetime. The days leading up to it were scary, but my confidence level stayed high. Youth and inexperience be damned, I was ready to show off what little I had. [Laughs] It was enough for third place—a shock, given the quality of muscle I saw on that stage. RL: Third place is a decent showing. CJ: Beginner’s luck. I’d trained and dieted too long. When you’re 17 and flying by the seat of your pants, those things happen. If I’d had the services of a professional trainer, my scores might’ve been higher. RL: Good segue! You found Vicky Gates—and? CJ: She helped me prep for my next show, the 2001 Ronnie. RL: Vicky’s a genuine worker of miracles, I’ve heard. CJ: Is she ever! Without her guidance, I would’ve been so out of my league. There I was, 18, competing against guys in their 30s and making it work. I won first in the teenage and novice classes and then the overall. A tremendous feeling! RL: What did she change? CJ: My diet, mostly. I ate chicken, potatoes and vegetables. No cheating! And she had me doing two hours of cardio a day. I expected an improvement, but winning floored me! Having a savvy trainer in your corner is a major plus. RL: Despite that momentum, you sat out 2002. Why? CJ: I’d had the wind knocked out of me. Besides college and training, I was involved with a new girlfriend who didn’t understand my bodybuilding lifestyle. We fought constantly. I stopped going to the gym and dropped about 20 pounds in four months. RL: 20 pounds? Yikes! CJ: I weighed 160 on the nose and was very skinny. RL: Shredded? CJ: No, man, no. People would say I was still big and stuff, but I knew they were only trying to make me feel better. All the work I’d put into building a contest-level physique had disappeared. My motivation was basically shot. RL: What turned your head around? CJ: A cool (continued on page 142)

“I can’t describe myself as a fanatic; I try to do what’s healthy for my body.”

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Chris Jalali’s Powerhouse Workout To keep my workouts jumping, I shake up the mix. There’s nothing worse than a stale routine. On off days, when I’m not in the gym, I rest and grow. Give your body a break. Rest is as important as lifting, and you can’t grow without it. My typical workout week goes like this:

Monday: Chest and Triceps Chest: Incline barbell presses, at least 5 x 8; incline dumbbell presses, 3 x 10; incline flyes, 4 x 12. I top that with pullovers, 2 x 20. I rest approximately one minute between sets. Watch your form! It’s not about how much weight you use but the pump and volume. Triceps: I warm up with dips, 3 x 20. Skull crushers are next, 4 x 12. Rope pulldowns, 3 x 12 to 15, put a finisher on everything. My entire Monday workout takes no more than 40 minutes.

Tuesday: Back and Biceps Back: Sometimes I warm up with chinups, 4 x 12. For the real thing I do lat pulldowns to the front, 5 x 10; machine rows, 4 x 10-12; dumbbell rows, 3 x 8. To finish back, I do seated cable rows, 3 x 15. Biceps: Heavy barbell curls, 5 x 8; dumbbell curls, 3 x 12; and concentration curls, 3 x 30. I’m in the gym about an hour on this day.

Wednesday: Off Thursday: Quads and Hamstrings Leg extensions, 3 x 30; squats, 4 x 12; leg presses, 4 x 10; lying leg curls, 6 x 8; standing leg curls, 3 x 12; and

walking lunges, with no weights—just for the pump. Total workout time: one hour.

Friday: Shoulders, Calves and Abs Shoulders: Lateral raises, 10 pounds x 10 reps; 20 pounds x 20 reps; 30 pounds x 30 reps; and 40 pounds x 40 reps. I might even go up to 50 if I’m feeling ambitious. Once in a while I’ll do this: dumbbell presses, 4 x 8; bentover laterals, 3 x 15; and barbell shrugs, 4 x 12. Calves: Standing calf raises, 100 reps, nonstop. I like doing them that way because of the burn, and your calves fill with blood for a good pump. Abs: I do abs three or four times a week, right after my workouts. Regular crunches, 3 x 30; leg raises, 3 x 15; side crunches, 4 x 12 to 15. No bodybuilding regimen is short term, so if you’re expecting fast-track results, think again. Instead, look at each day as a stepping-stone. There’ll be times when the weather’s bad, or you’re not feeling up to par, but have faith. Big changes will come—you’ll see. —Chris Jalali

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Jalali (continued from page 136) cat named Herman Steel came to the rescue, but it was like pulling teeth! I hadn’t lifted in a long time and desperately needed encouragement. He helped me rediscover my inner strength. I went forward, gained weight and eventually rethought competition. RL: The ’04 Coleman Classic. CJ: My feelings are still mixed about that show. I topped out at second in the open middleweights, though I really think I deserved first place. RL: Your physical changes during that period were pretty danged startling.

CJ: Everything was maturing. I noticed better muscle density, growth and proportion. RL: Did meeting Sagi Kalev have any influence? CJ: A lot! Sagi’s an amazing person. Joe Lobell introduced us, and we hung out and trained together at Gold’s Gym in Dallas. Sagi’s excellent example motivated me to put the pedal to the metal. I started noticing real progress and climbed to 220, ripped! RL: They don’t make ’em more dedicated than Mr. Kalev. And talk about classic aesthetics. CJ: He’s one in a million, a super-

“Fitness is a longterm affair, and time will be your ally. Don’t be afraid to challenge yourself.”

lative athlete, totally dedicated to health and fitness. Before meeting him, I ate whatever I wanted during my off-season. But not anymore. RL: Are you a fanatic about sticking to a particular diet? CJ: I can’t describe myself as a fanatic; I try to do what’s healthy for my body. In Arnold’s heyday, bodybuilders incorporated milkshakes and whole eggs into their diets. It’s more scientific now. You have to pay attention to details and the way you chow and work out. RL: Chicken and protein shakes? Blech! Ever crave an occasional pizza? CJ: Nah, I don’t crave that garbage anymore. I haven’t had pizza or a burger in years. RL: What’s the secret to losing weight and keeping it off? CJ: Self-control. If you’re serious, formulate a fitness plan—and not only on paper, where it’s easy. All the planning in the world won’t build a house. Eliminate junk, eat clean and move! People read diet books and scour the Web for nutritional information, but they already know how to lose weight: Cut calories and increase physical activity. Fitness is a longterm affair, and time will be your ally. Don’t be afraid to challenge yourself. RL: I catch the drift. You gotta want it bad enough. CJ: It’s a lifestyle choice: succeed or fail. Same for me. In competitive bodybuilding the stakes are ratcheted up, but I accept them. What’s ahead keeps me chuggin’. I’m hungry for the win, not a pizza! RL: The ’04 Junior Nationals was your next career step. CJ: And a significant one. I competed as a middleweight and snagged third. My father was proud. It meant a lot to me, seeing him happy. RL: You were what, 175 pounds? CJ: I was 178. I posed to “Enigma,” a slow beat; I wanted a fluid movement—the graceful look of Arnold and Bob Paris. RL: As we speak, you’re a light heavyweight, correct? CJ: I am. In this sport you can’t afford to sit on your butt and stagnate. Whenever I compete, I watch

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“Happiness, disappointment, doesn’t matter. Any experience is worthwhile, even if your initial reaction is negative.”

the other guys and see what works for them. Then it’s off to the drawing board! RL: Aren’t you afraid of ruining your aesthetics? CJ: By gaining weight? Not at all. My tendency is to be lean, so if the scale notches another pound, I’m smiling. RL: The ’04 Nationals—a stumble? CJ: Um, yeah. A stumble and a sore spot. Five days before the competition I weighed 190, and the middleweight cutoff was 176. Crunch time! I had to drop 14 pounds fast, which left me flat. Didn’t crack the top 15, and it was my fault. RL: Objectively speaking, should you have competed? CJ: God always opens windows. A judge there, Ken Taylor, suggested I do the Excalibur [in Southern California], and I was like, no, no, but he kept insisting. Two weeks later I competed in the Excalibur as a light heavy and placed fourth—a big mood lifter! RL: Is that how you handle disappointment, by learning from it? CJ: Happiness, disappointment, doesn’t matter. Any experience is worthwhile, even if your initial reaction is negative. RL: Okay, we’re up to 2005, and you’re in primo condition… CJ: Uh-oh! RL: Scene: the ’05 USA. Things are going swimmingly. Flashbulbs pop, the crowd’s wild, your routine slays ’em, and suddenly…take it from here, boss. CJ: Disaster! I became severely dehydrated—to the point of hospitalization. My organs started shutting down, and I thought, “This is it; I’m gonna die.” RL: You were that close? CJ: Yeah, that close. It was touch and go for a while. One minute I’m fine; the next I’m hooked up to tubes and monitors. RL: The lesson here is not to take life for granted. CJ: Hell, I don’t, not anymore. RL: Your contest prep has changed since that calamity, I’d assume. CJ: The Chris Jalali prior to July 2005 has ceased to exist. No trophy is worth what I went through. And it

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Jalali was incredibly rough on my family and friends. RL: Let’s jump to another topic. When we spoke in March 2006, you were 230, with 20-inch arms cold. Remarkable, considering the condition you’d been in. CJ: Recovery was agonizing, but each day brought me closer to my old self. I tried not to let depression drag me down and am very thankful for the support of family, friends

and fans. Their love kept me from slipping away. RL: Did you lose much muscle in the hospital? CJ: I dropped to 140 and looked emaciated! Awful. Ugh! My parents told me to quit bodybuilding—but I just couldn’t. If I believed in myself and stayed consistent, I’d learn from this and become a better person. Life is full of setbacks, no matter if you’re a bodybuilder or an accountant. Me, I roll with the punches.

“I admire marketable bodybuilders with small waists and big bodyparts, guys who are symmetrical and proportionate.”

Or I try to! Hold to an ideal strongly enough, and you’ll fight for it like a madman. RL: And today? Are you feeling good? CJ: Better than ever! I’m training with renewed vigor and purpose— 2007 was an awesome year. On the 21st of April, I competed in the Ronnie Coleman Classic as a light heavy. Fourth place didn’t exactly thrill me, but I made up for it later at the Orange County Classic. RL: Where you won your weight class and the overall title, right? CJ: Winning never gets old, does it? [Pauses] Funny about the Ronnie. I don’t know what happened there. Guess I just had too much on my plate. I’d lined up a block of photo shoots in California, and they were probably distracting me. RL: Balance and proportion define the greatest bodybuilders. Are you reaching for that same ideal? CJ: I admire marketable bodybuilders with small waists and big bodyparts, guys who are symmetrical and proportioned. They’re classic, and yes, I’m after the same. RL: You’re not necessarily aiming to be a monster. CJ: I want to be bigger but without losing my uniqueness. I’ve a good eye for symmetry and instinctively know when to pull back. RL: Your video “The Real Me” wins kudos for originality. I was knocked out by its creative approach. CJ: “The Real Me” was done over a four-year period. Joe Lobell [of] followed me around with a videocamera night and day. It was his concept, from start to finish. I just lived my life— while Joe watched! RL: Your newest DVD is called “Chris Jalali—Determined.” Determined about what? CJ: Life. And success. It’s a training chronicle of my prep for cover and photo shoots. Simple enough for any average guy to follow. If you study both DVDs, you’ll see how much I’ve changed. There’s also very cool footage from the ’07 [amateur] Arnold. RL: You spent some your childhood in Iran. That had

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Jalali to have caused some culture shock. CJ: Did it ever! We have relatives there, and Dad was thinking of relocating, so I went over for a three-month visit. Bad idea! Once my three months were up, the government claimed I was an Iranian citizen. Dude, I had to stay for two long years! RL: Wow. Two years? How old were you? CJ: Ten. Nobody spoke any English, and, crazy as this might sound, I forgot how to speak it too. I lived as an Iranian, went to school, and America seemed like another world. At 12 I finally had a chance to come back home and grabbed it. RL: Quite a story. Iran’s hardly ever out of the headlines nowadays. CJ: Middle Eastern culture is light-years away from us in attitude and perspective. They view Westerners as devils. We’re so lucky to enjoy freedom on a daily basis. It’s in short supply around the world, believe me. Count your blessings, man! RL: Would you describe yourself as a happy guy? CJ: Yeah, 99 percent of the time. Affecting other people in a positive manner puts a smile on my face. I also love life’s little pleasures, the things most people take for granted. RL: And let’s not forget, you’re also an accomplished artist. CJ: Art is an outlet. Through painting I can express feelings and what’s in my heart and soul. It’s all self-taught; I haven’t had any formal training. Prismacolors, acrylics, oils, watercolors, anything goes. If I’m driving along and spot a beautiful sunset, I’ll put it into a painting strictly from memory. Working this way forces me to use the power of imagination, and once that opens up, boundaries vanish. RL: Now for a question I ask every bodybuilder: Is there one glaring misconception that strangers have about you? CJ: That I’m arrogant. Not because of my personality but because bodybuilders are bigger and can intimidate. Snap judgments hurt, and they’re almost always inaccurate. In reality, I’m a humble, subdued guy. RL: A competitive bodybuilder has to follow certain rules.

Are your days regimented? CJ: To the fullest, man. I rise early, cook my meals, go to the gym, work out, train clients, and in between, I eat. Then I do a second workout and call it a day. Not an exciting schedule for someone my age, but it suits me. RL: You mentioned overtraining when you were starting out. Any other mistakes? CJ: Let’s see, I was eating junk, and I couldn’t pace myself. Give me an hour, and I could think of a dozen more! I learned the hard way—fighting your body is futile. RL: What exactly did you learn? CJ: Not to discount genetics. They’re important! Listen to what your body’s saying. Otherwise, you’ll face frustration and failure. Consistent gains are better; consistent changes will stay. RL: In 2007 you made another change. CJ: That’s right—I got married on August 23 to a wonderful girl named Teresa. We’re the parents of a handsome baby boy named Ayden. RL: Parenthood changes everything. CJ: It’s definitely changed my view of life and the future. Becoming a daddy is the best thing that’s ever happened to me. RL: Competitively, 2008 has been hit and miss. CJ: It started out on a high note. I did the [amateur] Arnold and got third in the light heavies. And I also won third in MD’s Cyber Classic last February. RL: I noted distinct improvements in your condition for the Arnold. CJ: That’s the best I’ve ever looked. The diet was tweaked, with more cardio added. I competed at 192, a good weight for me. RL: The Junior Nationals kinda derailed you though. CJS: Yeah, I got sixth in the light

heavies, and, I dunno, it was the worst I’ve ever looked. My baby had just been born, they’d booked us at the wrong hotel, and nothing could be done about it. We ended up paying $700 for cab rides alone! Very frustrating. As every hour went by, I could feel myself getting flatter and flatter. Awful! RL: What’s this about your working with Hany Rambod? Mr. Pro Creator? CJ: Yes, and I can’t wait. Hany’s formulated an innovative training method called FST-7. He knows his stuff, and I expect great things! RL: And aren’t you opening your own training studio? CJ: That’s a brand-new development. My dad had this building and gave me the keys and said, “Do what you want with it.” I know how to train people; I’ve been doing it seriously for two years. So now, I’m going to start my own business, a private gym that’ll encompass everything associated with fitness. It’s called Chris Jalali’s Training Studio, in Mansfield, Texas. It should be open in two to three months. Anyone interested can contact me through my Web site. Editor’s note: Visit Chris Jalali’s Web site, IM

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Yourself Weeks to a Sleek,


Muscular Physique by Kris Gethin

Week 1

Week 12

I began my 12-week transformation challenge because of the massive amount of weight I gained after I injured my back and was diagnosed with a severe curvature of the spine. My asthma was extremely hard to deal with thanks to my weight gain, which motivated me even more. I lost a total of 61.6 pounds over 12 weeks. I felt much less pressure on my back, joints and lungs and had much more energy for participating in sports and accomplishing daily tasks. And now I want to help you transform your physique by late spring, so you’ll be ripped and ready for summer.

Setting Goals Setting a goal is essential for transformation success; otherwise, why are you doing it? Ask yourself that question and then write down your answer. Search deep down, and then make your answer as detailed as possible. The more answers you have to that question, the more reasons for it to be an accomplishment worth making sacrifices for. Have you exercised today? Did you go for a run or attend a kickboxing class? Or when the alarm went off, did you just turn over in bed and snatch another precious hour of sleep, vowing that you would do twice as much tomorrow? Everyone experiences something similar at one time or another. What you need is motivation and commitment. 152 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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Presents tions. The key is to recognize what motivates you. Here are a few tips to help you get motivated and stay committed. Short and long term. Without goals we tend to drift aimlessly. While the goals may not necessarily be physical, they do need to be: Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic and have a Time frame Be SMART. Formulate your goals, write them down, and reaffirm them often. Put a notice above your desk at the office or on the refrigerator door at home. Reward yourself. When you have achieved some of the goals, treat yourself to something special, such as a weekend away or new clothing. Use a trainer or train with someone. Exercising alone can be boring, and having someone to encourage you is a real bonus, especially when mornings are dark and cold and you are not convinced that going outdoors or going to the gym is a good idea. Make exercise a habit. Try to make your exercise time a regular feature of your day. If you exercise at the same time each day, it will become a habit. Eventually, if you have to miss a session for one reason or another, you will become quite resentful of whatever it was that made you miss your important workout—believe it or not. Keep it interesting. Try to vary your activity as much as possible. Keep it enjoyable. If exercise is a chore, you usually won’t keep at it. Cross-training is a great way to stay fit and interested. Be prepared. Leave your exercise gear out the night before (if you train in the morning) so you can make an easy transition from inactivity to activity. A routine is much easier to maintain than a haphazard (continued on page 158) approach.

Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time frame One of the most common reasons that people don’t exercise is a lack of motivation. It’s also often the excuse when they don’t continue a program. Unfortunately, motivation and commitment aren’t commodities that you can buy. (I’ll have three packets of motivation and a large bag of commitment, please!).

Each of us needs motivation, and it can take many different forms. What may be a stimulus for one person may be a complete turnoff for another. Encouragement or words of wisdom from a coach or trainer before an important contest can often motivate a team or individuals to perform well above their expecta-

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Presents (continued from page 154)

stantial amount of protein, its speed of absorption is increased.

Nutrition When I was training clients, many of them presumed that something was wrong with them medically because they couldn’t lose weight even though they’d been training for years and had always eaten a “healthy” diet. I’ve heard hundreds of excuses, ranging from “thyroid problems” to “my mum’s side of the family is overweight, so it must be hereditary.” Time for a reality check. Here’s an example of one of those so-called healthy diets and its pitfalls. Breakfast: Cornflakes with fat-free milk, orange juice Cornflakes: These contain a carbohydrate that’s very high on the glycemic index. That means it converts to sugar quickly, eventually turning to fat if it’s not burned by exercise. The faster the conversion to sugar, the harder it is to burn off. Fat-free milk: You would think it would be good for you, wouldn’t you? Well, you’re right, generally, but for fat loss, I’m afraid not. Fat-free milk contains sugar—yes, sugar! It’s called lactose. So when you pour milk on your already highglycemic cornflakes, you make matters worse from a fat-loss standpoint. Orange juice: Juice is a very concentrated form of fruit, which contains sugar, even if the carton or bottle states, “No sugar added.” Oranges and most fruit juices contain a naturally occurring sugar called fructose. You may hear some people say, “It’s okay to eat fructose because it’s a totally natural sugar.” That’s not correct. If it has a calorie value, it has to be burned off or it will ultimately be stored as fat. Would you rather burn off the fruit or your fat?

Lunch: Ham sandwich with white bread, Diet Coke, banana White bread: It’s a high-glycemic-index carb. Ham: It’s usually high in fat and if you purchase it at a sandwich bar or supermarket in thin-sliced form, the chances that it will be processed are great. Fat, water and lots of salt are normally added to processed meats, further decreasing their protein content and nutritional value. Diet Coke: It’s lower in calories than regular Coke, but it contains sweeteners that the body cannot recognize. The body recognizes

sugar; it’s just up to you to burn it off. The body doesn’t recognize socalled artificial sweeteners and considers them toxins; thus, it cannot process them, instead storing them around the fat cells and preventing stored fat from being transported into the bloodstream to be burned. Banana: It’s high in so-called natural sugar, about 18 grams.

Morning snack: Muesli bar Most of the time these have large amounts of added high-fructose corn syrup and other sugars. Those ingredients alone will cause a spike in blood sugar levels, forcing them to spill from the bloodstream into fat stores. If the bar contains no sub158 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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Dinner: Chicken, potatoes, greens, gravy Potatoes: The complex carbohydrate with the highest glycemic index, they’re loaded with starch. Gravy: Powder gravy—just add boiling water—is not too bad; however, it’s starchy and contains artificial coloring that the body does not recognize and therefore stores in the fatty tissue as a toxin. Apart from that, and providing that the chicken comes from the leanest part of the bird, the breast, and has no fatty skin on it, that’s a reasonable dinner. Here’s an example of a real fat-loss diet.

Presents Breakfast Oats made with half skim milk and half water 5-8 egg whites scrambled on 1 slice whole-meal toast (no butter or margarine) 1 cup decaf coffee with a dash of skim milk 1 glass ice water Morning snack 2 whole-meal rice cakes Lowfat cottage cheese on a bed of lettuce 1 small handful almonds Or 1 meal-replacement shake 2 glasses ice water Lunch Mixed seafood and potato salad with lowfat mayonnaise 1 cup green tea 2 glasses ice water Afternoon snack 1 meal-replacement shake blended with ice and water Dinner Veal with vegetables and lowfat gravy (a small amount) 2 glasses ice water Eating five to six high-protein “meals” throughout the day, every three hours, increases your energy, helps you avoid fatigue and the 4 p.m. slouch and helps eliminate sugar cravings. You’ll also tip the balance toward building more muscle, which, in turn, burns more fat. The thought of eating five to

Two Key Weight-Training Tips Speed of movement. Lifting and lowering under resistance is easier when done at high speed, but that shifts a lot of the stress to tendons and ligaments, which can be injured. Try adhering to the safe and effective two-up/three-down rule. It should take around two seconds to lift the weight and around three seconds to return to the start. Breathing. For years I have watched people hold their breath while lifting, turning a purple shade until they finally let out a huge gust of air and take a new breath. That can place a lot of stress on the heart and also deprive the brain of oxygen. It can actually lower your performance during exercise. Whenever you’re about to perform an exercise, take a few deep breaths in through your nose and out through your mouth to clear your head. That fills your brain with oxygen to help with concentration. Lift the weight and breathe continuously, exhaling on the hardest part of the exercise, the lifting phase, and inhaling on the release of the repetition, the lowering phase.

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six small meals per day may be daunting at first, but adhere to the plan and your body will eventually—probably within two to three weeks—start telling you to eat without your even having to think about it. Eating that way will eliminate the need to stuff your face. When your body has to digest a large meal, it saps your energy; thus, the couch potato is born. Large meals also give your body excess calories it’s forced to store as bodyfat.

Cardio and Weights Most people associate cardio with fat loss, although weight training is just as important. During aerobic exercise the bloodstream carries a lot of oxygen to help transport fat through the body. When commencing a cardiovascular-exercise program, such as walking, cycling, in-line skating or using rowers, steppers, ellipti-

Eating five to six highprotein “meals” throughout the day, every three hours, increases your energy and helps you avoid fatigue. cal trainers or other equipment, it’s important to pick something that you enjoy or at the very least don’t mind. If you like the outdoors, go for a scenic walk or bicycle ride. If you like company, how about a game of racquetball or tennis? Many fitness centers have TV

monitors mounted above their cardiovascular equipment to make the choice even easier. A successful transformation is one that has no excuses. Hating your cardio exercise is a perfect excuse not to do it. You should perform your cardio at a rate that builds up a sweat but doesn’t get you out of breath. It should be an intensity at which you can to talk to somebody without too much trouble. That way you mainly burn bodyfat. The most beneficial time for doing cardio (continued on page 166)

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The main reason you should do cardio the first thing in the morning is that food acts as a thermogenic and will raise your body’s core temperature. morning after breakfast. There are a few reasons for that. One, it gets it out of the way, so if something arises in the course of the day, you’ve already completed your cardio. Set your alarm clock 30 minutes earlier than normal, don’t hit that snooze button, and just get up and jump into those clothes you set out the night before, eat and walk. It gets your blood flowing for the day, and you’ll feel much better for it. Number two is actually the main reason that you should do cardio the first thing in the morning—food acts as a thermogenic and will raise your body’s core temperature. The earlier you eat upon rising, the faster your metabolism will speed up to digest breakfast, kick-starting your body’s fat-burning process for the day. When commencing a The first cardiovascular session of the day will cardiovascular-exercise be more efficient and program, it’s important to pick productive because the something that you enjoy—or body’s fat assimilatingproperties work much at the very least don’t mind. If faster when it’s under you like the outdoors, go for a the influence of a therscenic walk or bicycle ride. mogenic. The standard advice with many diets has been to exercise on an empty stomach. What many experts failed to point out was that the body is hugely catabolic after an eight-hour fast, and its metabo166 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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(continued from page 162) is in the

You will certainly burn off a lot of calories by following this program, but you’ll also build a firmly toned physique that will continue to burn calories 24/7. \ FEBRUARY 2009 167

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lism is at its slowest. Weight training is one of the key elements in your transformation. You will certainly burn off a lot of calories by following this program, but you’ll also build a firmly toned physique that will burn calories 24/7. The muscle density you create with the weight-training program presented below will also minimize any weight gain once you have completed the challenge. The muscle you sculpt in the weight room over the next 12 weeks will require a lot more calories to maintain, so you can indulge yourself here and there without a huge concern for regaining weight. A weight workout should last no more than one hour. You should keep it intense, with rest intervals

A weight workout should last no more than one hour. You should keep it intense, with rest intervals between sets at around 45 seconds.

between sets at around 45 seconds. If your bodyfat is more than 30 percent, I would recommend no rest intervals; treat your workout as a circuit, using lighter resistance and a higher rep range of around 20 to 25. It would be a good idea to get your bodyfat checked by a health professional.

A 12-Week Program On this routine you train three days per week. It doesn’t matter which days you train on, as long as you always take at least a day of rest between workouts so the muscles fully recover. For example, some people like to train on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, while others prefer Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. You choose day 1, day 2

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The key is to recognize what motivates you.

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and day 3 to make a schedule that you’re more likely to adhere to with minimal disruption.

Weeks 1 and 2 The routines listed below include only the work sets. Warm up for five to 10 minutes with cardiovascular work prior to weight training. Also, warm up with a few light sets prior to your work sets. You should reach failure at the end of every work set—it should be near impossible to get another full repetition due to muscle fatigue. Do 20 minutes of cardio every day. Day 1: Chest, triceps, abs Dumbbell bench presses 3 x 8-12 Incline-bench presses 2 x 8-12 Decline-bench presses 2 x 8-12 Cable pushdowns 3 x 8-12 Overhead extensions 2 x 8-12 Crunches 3 x 12-15 Day 2: Back, biceps, calves Pulldowns 3 x 8-12 Cable rows 2 x 12-15 Hyperextensions 2 x 12-15 Barbell curls 3 x 12-15 Alternate dumbbell curls 2 x 12-15 Seated calf raises 3 x 12-15 Day 3: Legs, shoulders, abs Leg extensions 2 x 12-15 Leg curls 2 x 12-15 Leg presses 2 x 12-15 Shoulder presses 2 x 8-12 Lateral raises 3 x 8-12 Bent-over lateral raises 3 x 8-12 Lying leg raises 3 x 12-15

Weeks 3 and 4 Warm up for five to 10 minutes with cardiovascular work prior to weight training. Also, warm up with a few light sets prior to your work sets. You should reach failure at the end of every work set—it should be near impossible to get another full repetition due to muscle fatigue. Do 20 minutes of cardio every day. Day 1: Chest, triceps, abs Incline flyes 3 x 8-12 Dumbbell bench presses 3 x 8-12 Flat-bench flyes 3 x 8-12 Dips 3 x 12-15 French presses 3 x 8-12 Bench dips 3 x 8-12 Cable pushdowns 3 x 12-15 Crunches 3 x 12-15 Day 2: Back, biceps, calves Pulldowns 3 x 8-12 Reverse-grip pulldowns 3 x 8-12 Bent-over rows 3 x 12-15 Hyperextensions 3 x 12-15 Barbell curls 3 x 12-15 Alternate dumbbell curls 3 x 12-15 Reverse-grip rows 3 x 12-15 Standing calf raises 3 x 15-20 Day 3: Legs, shoulders, abs Leg extensions 3 x 15-20 Squats 3 x 15-20

Hack squats Leg curls Shoulder presses Arnold presses Bent-over lateral raises Hanging leg raises

3 x 15-20 3 x 15-20 3 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 3 x 12-15 3 x 12-15

Weeks 5 and 6 Warm up for five to 10 minutes with cardiovascular work prior to weight training. Also, warm up with a few light sets prior to your work sets. You should reach failure at the end of every work set—it should be near impossible to get another full repetition due to muscle fatigue. Increase your cardio by adding three evening sessions per week. Begin with 20 minutes before your last meal at night. Day 1: Chest, triceps, abs Incline presses 3 x 8-12 Incline dumbbell flyes 3 x 8-12 Dumbbell bench presses 3 x 8-12 Flat-bench flyes 3 x 8-12 Overhead extensions 3 x 8-12 Dumbbell kickbacks 3 x 10-12 Reverse-grip pushdowns 3 x 10-12 Incline crunches 3 x 15-20 Day 2: Back, biceps, calves Chins 3 x 6-12 T-bar rows 3 x 8-12 (continued on page 174) \ FEBRUARY 2009 171

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Presents (continued from page 171)

Upright rows Hyperextensions Barbell preacher curls Alternate incline curls Reverse curls Standing calf raises

3 x 8-12 3 x 12-15 3 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 3 x 8-12 3 x 15-20

Day 3: Legs, shoulders, abs Leg presses 3 x 15-20 Stiff-legged deadlifts 3 x 15-20 Lunges 3 x 15-20 Leg curls 3 x 15-20 Barbell presses 3 x 8-12 Close-grip upright rows 3 x 8-12 Lateral raises 3 x 8-12 Hanging leg raises 3 x 10-15

Weeks 7 and 8 Warm up for five to 10 minutes with cardiovascular work prior to weight training. Also, warm up with a few light sets prior to your work sets. You should reach failure at the end of every work set—It should be impossible to get another full repetition due to muscle fatigue. Increase your evening cardio sessions to five per week. Twenty minutes done before your last meal at night will be enough to further spike your metabolism and to push past any plateaus that may be lurking. Day 1: Chest, triceps, abs Incline dumbbell presses 3 x 6-10 Incline barbell presses 3 x 12-15 Dumbbell bench presses 3 x 6-10 Barbell bench presses 3 x 12-15 French presses 3 x 12-15 Close-grip bench presses 3 x 6-10 Bench dips 3 x 6-10 Incline crunches 3 x 20-25 Day 2: Back, biceps, calves Straight-arm pulldowns 3 x 8-10 Chins 3 x 6-12 Bent-over rows 3 x 8-10 Deadlifts 3 x 12-15 Preacher curls 3 x 8-10 EZ-curl-bar curls 3 x 8-10 Lying cable curls 3 x 8-10 Standing calf raises 3 x 15-20 Day 3: Legs, shoulders, abs Squats 3 x 10-15 Hack squats 3 x 15-20 Lunges 3 x 10-15 Leg curls 3 x 10-15 Military presses 3 x 8-10 Bent-over lateral raises 3 x 8-10 One-arm lateral raises 3 x 8-10 Hanging leg raises 3 x 25-30 174 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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Weeks 9 and 10

Weeks 11 and 12

Warm up for five to 10 minutes with cardiovascular work prior to weight training. Also, warm up with a few light sets prior to your work sets. You should reach failure at the end of every work set—it should be near impossible to get another full repetition. The sets here are reduced from three to two. On most exercises you do a drop set, designated with parentheses. Once you reach failure on the last rep of the first set, immediately switch to a lighter weight that will enable you to get another round of the same number of reps—shown as 8(8). Do that twice on each exercise with a rest between drop sets. Increase evening cardio to five to seven sessions per week at 20 minutes a session. When possible, do 20 minutes, twice per day, seven days per week.

Warm up for five to 10 minutes with cardiovascular work prior to weight training. Also, warm up with a few light sets prior to your work sets. You should reach failure at the end of every work set—it should be impossible to get another full repetition due to muscle fatigue. Increase cardio to 20 minutes, twice per day, seven days per week, including an evening session.

Day 1: Chest, triceps, abs Incline barbell presses 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Incline flyes 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Flat-bench flyes 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Barbell bench presses 2 x 6(6), 10(10) French presses 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Cable extensions 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Crunches 3 x failure Hanging twisting leg raises 3 x failure Day 2: Back, biceps, calves Pulldowns 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Bent-over rows 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Deadlifts 2 x 6(6), 10(10) One-arm rows 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Preacher curls 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Concentration curls 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Cable curls 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Standing calf raises 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Seated calf raises 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Day 3: Legs, shoulders Leg extensions 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Hack squats 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Leg curls 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Stiff-legged deadlifts 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Military presses 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Machine presses 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Bent-over lateral raises 2 x 6(6), 10(10)

Day 1: Chest, triceps, abs Incline barbell presses 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Incline flyes 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Flat-bench flyes 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Barbell bench presses 2 x 6(6), 10(10) French presses 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Cable extensions 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Crunches 3 x failure Hanging twisting leg raises 3 x failure Day 2: Back, biceps, calves Pulldowns 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Bent-over rows 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Deadlifts 2 x 6(6), 10(10) One-arm rows 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Preacher curls 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Concentration curls 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Cable curls 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Standing calf raises 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Seated calf raises 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Day 3: Legs, shoulders Leg extensions 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Hack squats 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Leg curls 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Stiff-legged deadlifts 2 x 10(10), 10(10) Military presses 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Lateral raises 2 x 6(6), 10(10) Bent-over lateral raises 2 x 6(6), 10(10)

Editor’s note: For more on Kris Gethin’s program, including start and finish photos and tips for every exercise, more details on diet and before and after stories and photos, get a copy of his new book, 12 Weeks to Your Future Physique. It’s available at IM

Muscle-Building 101 If you’re a complete beginner, you need to break in easy with a scientifically designed weighttraining program. The e-book Quick-Start Muscle-Building Guide contains the ideal break-in workouts, followed by a six-week fast-mass program constructed around the best exercises, including one for each bodypart that boosts nerve force for faster muscle gains. You start building muscle right out of the blocks. Also included are anatomy charts, a big Q&A section and an all-dumbbell workout for those who want to train at home. To download it instantly, visit

You can follow this schedule long past your 12-week transformation. I’ve been working out consistently for eight years, and I still get great results from the program. As long as you attempt to increase the weight and/or the repetitions, changes in your physique will occur quickly. Be patient, and be consistent. Good luck! \ FEBRUARY 2009 175

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Fire Whole in the

Control Inflammation to Get Bigger, Stronger and Healther by Jerry Brainum Photography by Michael Neveux

The body responds to injuries, infections and irritations with inflammation. In an acute stage, inflammatory processes aid healing. Uncontrolled, or chronic inflammation, however, is the cornerstone of every major disease. Research shows that uncontrolled inflammation is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, cancer and asthma. Some diseases, such as arthritis, are obviously driven by inflammation. In others the effects of inflammation are more subtle but just as damaging. In Alzheimer’s disease inflammation leads to the gradual destruction of the brain. While cholesterol and saturated fat are often implicated as the main players in cardiovascular disease, the true villain is underlying inflammation. Some studies show that C-reactive protein, a general indicator of inflammation in the body, is a more reliable indicator of incipient cardiovascular disease than is blood cholesterol.

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Fire Using over-the-counter painkillers, including aspirin and ibuprofen, appears to inhibit postexercise muscle repair because they inhibit the COX enzymes your body needs to convert arachidonic acid into PGF2A. Research supporting that conclusion, however, used doses of 2,400 milligrams of ibuprofen or higher, far more than what’s used routinely to treat pain. Most studies show that a 400-milligram dose —the amount typically used to treat acute pain—doesn’t interfere with PGF2A synthesis. Inflammatory responses involve several body systems, among them hormones and immune cells. The positive side of inflammation is that it sets the stage for the healing process, along with the eradication of invading pathologens like bacteria and viruses. Special proteins called cytokines signal immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to migrate to sites of injury or damage, where they enable the body to keep

by stepping up processes such as muscle protein synthesis, which leads to increases in muscle size and strength. As with any injury, the body’s initial response to exerciseinduced muscle damage is localized inflammation. It’s a positive effect, as the arrival of neutrophils and other immune cells results in the clearance of debris and preparation of the damaged muscle for repair. Neutrophils are produced in bone marrow and circulate in the blood, where they represent 50 to 60 percent of circulating leukocytes—a.k.a. white blood cells. They constitute the first line of defense against infection.

macrophages, release cytokines and help mop up the excess debris damage that would otherwise impair efficient muscle repair and regeneration. The effects of the initial immune responses are tempered and controlled by nitric oxide. Without nitric oxide, the free radicals that immune

Some studies show that C-reactive protein, a general indicator of inflammation in the body, is a more reliable indicator of incipient cardiovascular disease than is blood cholesterol.

the invasion localized and marshal a more focused defense.

Inflammation and Training Inflammation has both good and bad effects on exercise. The muscle-growth process is initiated by exercise-induced injury. The body compensates for the injury

Neutrophils produce free radicals, which are used to kill invading bacteria. Unfortunately, it’s a shotgun approach in that free-radical release also damages the cell membranes of healthy tissue. Neutrophils begin to appear at the site of muscle damage within an hour after the damage occurs. They can remain there for up to five days. They can gobble up excess debris in the damaged area—a process known as phagocytosis—and they produce proteases, or proteindigesting enzymes, that further degrade cellular debris produced by muscle damage.1 Meanwhile, the other immune cells that react to muscle inflammation, such as

cells produce could damage healthy tissue, delaying the healing process. The muscle damage exercise inflicts also breaks down the fatlike outer layer of muscle cells, which leads to the release of arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid found in meat and eggs. Arachidonic acid is the precursor of a number of inflammatory chemicals, such as prostaglandins. Cyclooxygenases, or COX enzymes, are required to convert the arachidonic acid into active prostaglandins—the substances responsible for most of the pain caused by inflammation. One prostaglandin, PGF2A, is involved in several aspects of postexercise muscle repair, including nitric oxide release and protein synthesis. The more damaging the exercise, the greater the release of PGF2A. So eccentric muscle contractions, which usually involve

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Research shows that it’s harder for those who have excess bodyfat to build muscle. One reason is that they are releasing higher amounts of free fatty acids into their blood. Excess blood fat stimulates a protein called nuclear factor beta, which that in turn activates proinflammatory genes—a kind of double whammy of inflammation.


state of inflammation, which leads to the release of substances, such as cytokines and cortisol, that are linked to muscle breakdown. If the process continues unabated, sarcopenia, or severe muscle loss, can result in frailty and weakness. A recent study, however, demonstrated that older people who took ibuprofen and similar drugs had a dramatic increase in muscle mass, almost as if they used anabolic steroids. How can that happen if the same painkillers interfere with muscle growth? Outof-control inflammation has a cata-

lowering weights, release more PGF2A because they damage the muscle more. Using over-the-counter painkillers, including aspirin and ibuprofen, appears to inhibit postexercise muscle repair because they inhibit the COX enzymes your body needs to convert arachidonic acid into PGF2A. Research supporting that conclusion, however, used

bolic effect on older people’s muscle because of excess cytokines and other inflammatory chemicals. Block the inflammation with drugs, and the muscles perk up rapidly. The obese are also affected by excess inflammation. While in the past fat tissue was thought to be inert—or merely a storage depot for excess energy—recent research shows that fat cells release more than 100 mostly inflammatory substances, collectively known as adipokines. In other words, people who are carrying excess bodyfat are in a chronic state of inflammation and are in a position to develop cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The worst is the deep-lying abdominal bodyfat. Known as visceral fat, it’s far more dangerous than fat found on the thighs or hips because it’s constantly being broken down

Model: Clarck Bartram

Exercise must be of sufficient intensity to impart any antiinflammatory benefits. Walking won’t do the trick. doses of 2,400 milligrams of ibuprofen or higher, far more than what’s used routinely to treat pain. Most studies show that a 400-milligram dose—the amount typically used to treat acute pain—doesn’t interfere with PGF2A synthesis.

Who’s Inflamed? While a controlled amount of postexercise muscle inflammation fosters muscle repair and regeneration, too much slows muscle repair. Many older people are in a chronic \ FEBRUARY 2009 185

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Fire making exercise itself anti-inflammatory. On the other hand, moderate-to-low-intensity exercise (50 percent of maximum oxygen intake or less), such as mild walking, is inflammation-neutral.2 Exercise must therefore be of sufficient intensity

body. In fact, it also works in concert with cortisol to break down muscle, an effect most often seen in older people. One study indicates that having an abundance of inflammatory markers, including interleukin-6, limits the body’s capacity for processing oxygen.3 Active people have less interleukin-6 and other inflammatory mediators. Older people, who have

Older people who took ibuprofen and similar drugs showed a dramatic increase in muscle, almost as if they’d used anabolic steroids. How can that happen if the same painkillers interfere with muscle growth? Outof-control inflammation has a catabolic effect on older people’s muscle because of excess cytokines and other inflammatory chemicals.

to impart any anti-inflammatory benefits.


Inflammatory Compounds and Muscle

and released. That means adipokines are constantly being released into the blood. Research shows that

Recent studies show that contracting muscle produces cytokines that act on muscle in ways different from what happens with other parts of the body. For example, a cytokine called interleukin-6 exerts inflammatory effects in most tissues of the

Mice that produced interleukin-6 in their muscles did increase muscle mass. The effect was traced to a stimulation of satellite cells, the major muscle repair cells, by interleukin-6. it’s harder for those who have excess bodyfat to build muscle. One reason is that they are releasing more free fatty acids into their blood. Excess blood fat stimulates a protein called nuclear factor beta, which in turn activates proinflammatory genes—a kind of double whammy of inflammation. Among the substances it activates, tissue necrosis factor alpha, or TNF-a, is particularly catabolic in muscle, which may partially explain why it’s so much harder for those who have too much bodyfat to build muscle. Exercise blunts the release of many inflammatory compounds,

more interleukin-6 in their bodies, are more likely to have chronic inflammation as well.4 One hypothesis is that overtraining sets in due to an excess release of interleukin-6.5 That appears to be more likely with extended endurance exercise rather than shorter bouts of high-intensity work, like bodybuilding training. In any case, interleukin-6 can penetrate the protective blood-brain barrier, and once in the brain, it triggers ACTH release, which in turn triggers the release of cortisol. Interleukin-6 in the brain also aids the synthesis of serotonin, leading to feelings of fatigue. Other triggers for excess interleukin-6 release are hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, and dehydration. By and large, interleukin-6 is beneficial. It’s released directly within muscle as a result of muscular contraction. As with PGF2A, the extent of interleukin-6 release in muscle depends on the duration, intensity and mass involved in exercise.6 The primary stimuli to interleukin-6 release in muscle are the following: • Low muscle glycogen • Intake of niacin, a B-complex vitamin • Heat In contrast, here are the factors

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The effects of the initial immune responses to muscle inflammation tempered and controlled by nitric oxide. that blunt interleukin-6 release: • Carbohydrate intake • Antioxidant use • Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen

• Moderate endurance exercise The same interleukin-6 that produces inflammatory effects in nonmuscle tissue has anti-inflammatory effects in muscle. For example, it blocks the release of

inflammatory mediators such as TNF-a. TNF-a is also suspected of being an agent of insulin resistance, a precursor of diabetes. Exercise may protect against insulin resistance when a muscle contraction signals the release of interleukin-6. That may also help explain the 60 percent reduction in diabetes produced by weight training. Although the genes that produce interleukin-6 in muscle are silent at rest, activated only through intense muscle contraction, interleukin-6 also acts as an energy sensor. If you’re low on muscle glycogen, interleukin-6 released from muscle aids in the breakdown of bodyfat for energy.7 It works by activating a protein that helps your body use fat for energy and another protein that boosts glucose uptake into muscle. That helps account for why contracting muscle protects against insulin resistance—and diabetes—by releasing interleukin-6. A recent mouse study illustrates perhaps the most interesting effect related to bodybuilding and interleukin6.8 It found that mice are lacking the substance cannot develop larger muscles, even when they overload their muscles during exercise as weight-training humans do. Mice that produced interleukin-6 in their muscles, however, did increase muscle mass. The effect was traced to a stimulation of satellite cells, the \ FEBRUARY 2009 187

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Fire the flames, the most important by far being to reduce excess bodyfat.9 Eating a lot of trans fats is associated with higher concentrations of inflammatory chemicals in the body.10 Taking dietary antioxidants can neutralize much inflammation damage.11 One of the most efficient dietary supplements for reducing inflammation is fish oil. It increases a natural anti-inflammatory agent in the body called resolvin E1 and interferes with arachidonic acid’s production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Taking in too much omega-6 fatty acids, which are abundant in most vegetable oils, leads to excessive amounts of inflammatory prostaglandins and pain. Since omega-6 sources are already abundant in most people’s diets, stick with fish oil supplements and avoid the ones that contain omega-6s. For purposes of reducing out-of-control inflammation in the body, take 10 to 15 grams a day of fish oil in divided doses. Use liquid versions; trying to get that amount from capsules would mean swallowing 10 to 15 pills a day.

References 1 Tidball, J.G. (2005). Inflammatory processes in muscle injury and repair. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 288:R345-R353. 2 Markovitch, D., et al. Eccentric muscle contractions, which usually involve lowering weights, (2008). Acute moderate intenrelease more PGF2A because they damage the muscle more. sity exercise in middle-aged men has neither an anti nor pro-inflammatory effect. J major muscle repair cells, by interAppl Physiol. In press. ture as an “ergogenic aid” to build3 Kallo, I.J., et al. (2007). Markleukin-6. ing muscle and losing fat. ers of inflammation are inversely Still another muscle-produced associated with VO2 max in cytokine or myokine is interleukinControlling Bad asymptomatic men. J App Physiol. 15. Researchers observed a gradual Inflammation 102:1374-1379. rise in that substance after subjects 4 Maggio, M., et al. (2006). InWhile controlled inflammation lifted weights, with it peaking in in muscle is helpful if you’re lookterleukin-6 in aging and chronic 24 hours. In muscle, it produces ing for mass gain and bodyfat loss, disase: A magnificent pathway. J potent anabolic effects and blocks chronic overall inflammation is a Gerontol. 61A:575-584. muscle breakdown. It also appears 5 Robson, PJ. (2003). Elucidating to encourage bodyfat loss. No doubt harbinger of disability and mortalthe unexplained underperformance ity. There are several ways to temper interleukin-15 will emerge in the fu-

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For purposes of reducing outof-control inflammation, take 10 to 15 grams a day of fish oil in divided doses.

syndrome in endurance athletes. Sports Med. 33:771-781. 6 Pedersen, B.K., et al. (2007). Beneficial health effects of exercise—the role of IL-6 as a myokine. Trends In Pharm Sci. 28:152-156. 7 Van Hall, G., et al. (2003). Interleukin-6 stimulates lipolysis and fat

oxidation in humans. J Clin Endocrin Metab. 88:3005-3010. 8 Serrano, A.L., et al. (2008). Interleukin-6 is an essential regulator of satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Cell Metabol. 7:33-44. 9 Fogarty, A.W., et al. (2008). A prospective study of weight changes and systemic inflammation over nine years. Am J Clin Nutr. 87:30-35. 10 Affarian, D., et al. (2004). Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and systemic inflammation in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 79:606-12. 11 Wang, X., et al. (2004). Cosupplementation with vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 reduces circulating markers of inflammation in baboons. Am J Clin Nutr. 80:649-55. IM

Model: Greg Symers

Things that increase interleukin-6 include low muscle glycogen, nicacin intake and heat.

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Zabo’s Scrapbook

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Illustration by Ar

Ah, the early years of bodybuilding. In the late 1940s and into the ’50s it was a blossoming Southern California phenomenon with strong East Coast ties. By the late ’50s and early ’60s it had exploded into a circuslike subculture, and Muscle Beach, located in Santa Monica, California, was one of the top tourist attractions on the West Coast. That was the place to be if you were built to the hilt. Muscle scribe Dick Tyler describes it in his book West Coast Bodybuilding Scene—The Golden Era: “Every weekend was like a three-ring circus. The lifting pen was always busy with some of the best power and physique men of the time. The crowds were sometimes 10 deep to see the physical wonders. It was commonplace to see such men as Farbotnik, Reeves, Hilligan, Tanny and Eiferman and many more hitting it hard under the Southern California sun. On the adagio platform you would see the likes of Les and Pudgy Stockton, Harold Zinkin, DeForrest ‘Moe’ Most and Bruce Connors doing balancing and strength feats that would stretch the imagination. Scattered around the sands were some great ring and bar men such as Johnny Robinson executing stunts that would have the crowd gasping. Sounds like fun?” Fun and electric! If we only had a time machine. The next best thing is a historical photographic look back thanks to Zabo Koszewski, who was there and who preserved all of the images that appear on the following pages. It’s the birth and growth of bodybuilding, where the physique mystique began. —the Editors

t Zeller

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The Birth of Bodybuilding

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Shocking Shoulders Your Quick-Fix Workout for Seam-Splitting Delts by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson Photography by Michael Neveux

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Model: Skip La Cour

So you want to look big, even in clothes? Shoulder mass is key—obviously. You gotta take up more space from a width standpoint and fill out your shirts with seam-splitting impressiveness. Then, when you peel it off at the pool or lake, a pair of full, wide delts will have heads turning and eyes popping. To get that type of attention-grabbing side-to-side wide development, you must train the entire shoulder structure with an efficient workout that doesn’t overstress your recovery ability. In other words, it must leave plenty in the tank for an optimal growth response while still covering all the angles. And make no mistake: The deltoid is one of the most multifaceted muscles in the human body. It controls the movement around a ball-and-socket joint, so the fibers wrap around the area in bundles, moving in many directions for multiple patterns. Therefore, angle training is a must if you want shockingly full, round development. \ FEBRUARY 2009 217

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Doing your lateral raises and upright rows with your torso at various angles will make your deltoids pop—but you can’t get carried away or growth will stop.

Model: Jonathan Lawson

Tri-Angle Training Plus MRI and EMG studies reveal that raising the arm at different angles maximally stimulates different fiber bundles in the deltoid. Even slight angle alterations cause a change in activation patterns in the three individual heads—front, or anterior; side, or medial; and rear, or posterior. So doing your lateral raises and upright rows with your torso at vari-

ous angles will make your deltoids pop—but you can’t get carried away or growth will stop. The deltoid is a relatively small muscle group, so you want as little overlap as possible in the exercises you choose. That way you preserve growth-promoting recovery ability and avoid overtraining while still blasting all available fibers. The Positions-of-Flexion deltmass program is, in our opinion, one of the best—no fiber is left understimulated. It contains a few more exercises than the three featured in most POF bodypart programs, but that’s necessary because of the deltoid’s three heads and unique fiber positioning. \ FEBRUARY 2009 219

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After the forward-lean laterals it’s time for a big overhead-pressing exercise for the front-delt heads and the front fiber bundles in the medial heads.

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Shocking-Shoulder Program

Model: Derik Farnsworth

Start with dumbbell upright rows, which enable you to attack the side heads with the most force, the key to max-fiber activation, thanks to help from surrounding muscles, like the biceps and traps. At the top of the stroke your upper arms are in the same position as a standing lateral raise; however, you can use much more weight than on a lateral raise due to muscle synergy, or teamwork. That’s how muscles are designed to function best, so this exercise brings in a maximum amount of growth fibers toward the end of the set, when the reps are the hardest. Also, with dumbbells your hands aren’t fixed, so these are much more joint friendly than barbell upright rows. Next you hit the stretch-position move, incline one-arm laterals, which provide unique resistance on the medial and rear heads as the arm moves down and in front of the torso. The movement pattern is slightly different from an upright row, but that’s not the only reason you use this exercise. It’s the most effective at stretching the medial-delt head at the bottom of the movement. We continually refer to the impressive animal study that got a 300 percent mass increase after only one month of progressivestretch overload. Talk about anabolic acceleration! The incline one-arm lateral raise is somewhat difficult to get the hang of, but make the effort—it’s a serious mega-mass stimulator. The contracted-position exercise comes next. Since standing laterals would closely duplicate the movement pattern of the dumbbell upright rows, it’s a better choice to (continued on page 224)

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Shoulders a definite delt-width builder—if you get the form right. Remember to keep your torso leaning forward. After the forwardlean laterals it’s time for a big overheadpressing exercise for the frontdelt heads and the front fiber bundles in the medial heads. Dumbbells provide the safest motion. We like to do them standing. You can also do military presses or Smith-machine presses. Finish with bent-over laterals, which primarily hit the rear heads. Don’t skip this often neglected exercise or think it’s unimportant for delt roundness. If you keep your palms facing the floor, bent-over laterals also effectively work some of the very back fiber bundles in the medial head. Okay, here’s the simple-but-effective Positions-of-Flexion shockingshoulder routine:

Finish with bent-over laterals, which primarily hit the rear, or posterior, heads. Don’t skip this often neglected exercise or think it’s unimportant for delt roundness. Notice the rear heads as well as the medial heads working.

Model: Jonathan Lawson

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do lateral raises with a slight forward lean. For best results try them seated, or you can do them facedown on a high-incline bench (we often do them facedown on an Ab Bench). The key is to have your torso angled forward so you hit the fiber bundles toward the rear of your medial-delt heads. Larry Scott, the first Mr. Olympia, was a master at the seated forward-lean lateral raise, and he credits the move with helping him overcome his narrow-shoulder appearance (coconut-sized delts will do that). Hitting those fiber bundles along the back of the medial head gives the muscle much more fullness and jutting roundness. Incidentally, two-time Mr. Olympia Jay Cutler often starts his delt routine with this exercise, and he has to turn sideways to make it through most doorways. It’s

Midrange (medial head) Dumbbell upright rows

2 x 7-9

Stretch (medial and posterior heads) Incline one-arm lateral raises 2 x 10-12 Contracted (medial heads) Forward-lean laterals 2 x 13-15 Midrange (front heads) Dumbbell presses Contracted (rear heads)

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2 x 7-9


Multiangle training works, as evidenced by Jonathan’s delts, products of various POF workouts. Bent-over lateral raises

2 x 13-15

Rep Range Reverb You may have noticed that the rep ranges are different for each Position of Flexion. Why? To enhance the mass-building capability of the exercises. For example, using lower reps of seven to nine on midrange exercises encourages more force production, while high reps of 13 to 15 on the contracted-position exercises stress tension and occlusion, or blood-flow blockage. Add the stretch overload of the stretch-position move, and you get complete mass stimulation through a number of different pathways—efficient muscle building at its finest. That’s

what POF mass training is all about. Does it work? Check out the shot of Jonathan’s delts as he checks out his abs in the photo on the page at right. Getting ultimate delt-fiber activation with the fewest number of sets means your shoulders will get more massive and rounder fast—you’ll look much bigger with wider delts, even in clothes (careful, those seams will be stretching to the limit!). Try the above POF delt program on for size, and watch yourself get wide! Editor’s note: For more on Positions-of-Flexion mass training, see the e-book 3D Muscle Building, available at 3DMuscleBuild or IM

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Power S The Bench Press— Records and Raw by Sean Katterle 232 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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ench-pressing began in a crude form in the 1930s, when lifters literally lay on a wooden “bench” or box and pressed a barbell up off their chests. For decades before that men had trained on different versions of the floor press. Some lifted while lying flat on the ground, and others would arch during the lift the way a wrestler bridges. The bridged version of the lift was often referred to as a “belly toss” because the pressing portion of the movement began with a back and leg arching maneuver to get the bar started upward. People could obviously move more weight through belly tossing than through flat-backed floor pressing, but many recognized that it was not a true upper-body anterior strength test. Belly tossing was a form of “cheating” for the same reason that barbell-swing curling isn’t an accurate test of a person’s biceps strength. The flat-backed floor press was and is an excellent strength-building exercise, but you need a handoff person to work it properly. In the ’20s and ’30s the proper technique in England was to belly toss the barbell skyward. In 1939 the AAU made a move to standardize what it called the “pullover and press,” pointedly banning the bridging technique. Bending your legs, raising your the butt or shoulders off the ground or separating your heels was cause for disqualification. “Some men are so flexible that they do all of the lifting with the abdomen,” Bob Hoffman complained in one of his weightlifting books, “the arms catching and holding the weight only near the completion of the lift. Retaining the bar upon the abdomen, the body is lowered until the buttocks almost touch the floor, then, with a quick raise of the abdomen, or toss, the bar is thrown from its position across the body backwards over the face. There the lift is finished by a strong pressure from the arms.” John Sanchez, a noted powerlifting historian, explains why Hoffman felt the need to outlaw belly tossing as an official way to attempt a prone press:


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Rock Lewis


—History, Lifts

This is the first in a series by Sean Katterle highlighting the powerlifting and strongman scene. \ FEBRUARY 2009 233

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Rock Lewis is the lightest man in history to bench-press 600plus pounds in official competition. He’s the reigning MHP Kings of Bench light-heavyweight champ. flexibility on the raised “bench” to their chest line and a few inches the point that their range of motion upward to lockout. is basically cut in half, and overThe best way to keep those peoweight lifters use the combination ple from benching that way is to ban of a tight-fitting bench press supersupershirts altogether and to insist shirt and a rotund power gut to do a that the lifter’s entire buttocks and soft handoff to the top of their belly shoulder blades remain in contact and back with the again. They bench at hardly have all times. to move It’s okay the bar to arch, as vertically arching at all. They is part of support powerthe weight benching of the bar leverage with the and stabilultratightity, but it’s fitting, got to be reinforced kept to a bench shirt reasonable and then level. When let the bar the superAuthor Sean Katterle with big Al Davis, the drift horishirts are ’06 NPC Ronnie Coleman Heavyweight champ zontally removed in bodybuilding. He’s also the 28th biggest down their from combencher of all time. torso until petition, it reaches the arching the peak of their gut, which is very becomes less severe, and the heavyclose to the same height as where set lifters are forced to bring the bar the bar was handed off to them. up to their lower chest level. You When they get the press command, can’t pull off the belly bench drift they simply drive it back toward without the “support” of the shirt.

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Photo courtesy of

“After the rules governing shoulder bridge/belly toss technique were relaxed somewhat during the late 1920s, Bill Lilly was able to set many records due to his incredible flexibility. Lilly could slowly elevate the bar on his abdomen to complete arm lockout position. Some would take issue with this extreme maneuver, alleging it was more a contortionist’s trick than a genuine display of strength, but his records stood nevertheless. Apparently, Bill Lilly was so gifted with this new version of the shoulder-bridge movement that challenges to his 484-pound record were nonexistent during the ’30s. “While the shoulder bridge or belly toss exercise may seem rather arcane nowadays, during its heyday it was a respected lift. Impelling a barbell off of one’s belly to the degree that such a maneuver required could not have been very easy or comfortable. Nevertheless, that was the only way lifters of that era were able to exceed double, or in the case of Lilly, nearly triple bodyweight while lying on their back.” What’s ironic about the debate over belly tossing and flat-backed prone pressing was that nowadays some lifters have increased their

Photo courtesy of


It was in the 1930s that trainees began using benches and boxes for the prone press. It enabled them to plant their feet on the floor while keeping their hips low and their butt and shoulder blades in contact with the bench or box. The AAU also approved the use of a spotter for handing off the barbell to the lifter so pressers could begin the lift with the weight in position over their chest. All three variations of the press on back—prone floor press, belly toss and bench press—persisted relatively unchanged through the 1940s, but a hierarchy among them quickly developed. For bodybuilders the bench version gained dominance, and by the 1950s it was the king of upper-body movements, with noted advocates like Marvin

Eder and George Eiferman. A major reason was that, as chest-conscious athletes, they liked its effect on the pectorals. John Sanchez further explains: “Interestingly, the bench press was to remain a somewhat controversial lift during the 1950s as lifters sought to maximize their advantage with outside help during its performance. What many would object to during these times would eventually become the status quo for the sport of powerlifting, however. Benchpressing during the 1950s was an exercise in the throes of evolutionary ferment. The popularity of the lift as an aid to bodybuilders was responsible for the innovative development of rack stanchions, which some ‘traditionalists’ considered ‘cheating.’ Moreover, hand-offs as a means to get the barbell in place

“Benchpressing during the 1950s was an exercise in the throes of evolutionary ferment.” were similarly disdained by those who thought the best way to bench was by oneself, or unassisted.” Prior to 1964 the sport didn’t have a national or world championship. Lifting competitions were held by

John Kuc was the third man in history to successfully bench-press 600-plus pounds in competition. He did it in 1972 along with his training partner, the great Jim Williams, who drove up 675!

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Photo courtesy of Powerlifting USA


600-pound Classic Bench Press Roster 1) Scot Mendelson (USA), 715 pounds @ 314 bodyweight, 2005 2) James Henderson (USA), 711 @ 390, 1997

19) Pat Casey (USA), 615.5 @ 329, 19673 20) Jeremy Hoornstra (USA), 615 @ 240, 20064

37) Ben Graves (USA), 600 @ 285, 20087 38) Ryan Kennelly (USA), 600 @ 295, 20038

3) Jim Williams (USA), 675 @ 343, 1972

21) Andy Shaffer (USA), 615 @ 410, 2007

39) Luke Iams (USA), 600 @ 300, 1979

4) Ted Arcidi (USA), 666.9 @ 286, 1984

22) Tom Hardman (USA), 614.4 @ 273, 1982

40) John Kuc (USA), 600 @ 322, 1972

5) Glen Chabot (USA), 665 @ 308, 2002 6) Bill Kazmaier (USA), 661.4 @ 330, 1981

23) Doug Young (USA), 611.8 @ 275, 1978

41) Vincent Dizenzo (USA), 600 @ 328, 2007

24) Richard Schoenberger (USA), 611.8 @ 364, 1996

42) Rob Wilkerson (USA), 600 @ 360, 2007

7) Andrew Collura (USA), 650.4 @ 331, 2002

25) John Dolan (USA), 610 @ 328, 2007

43) Freddie Moore (USA), 600 @ SHW, 1983

8) Bob Hickey (USA), 650 @ 308, 1999

26) Don Reinhoudt (USA), 607.4 @ 356, 1975

44) Joe Zymewski (USA), 600 @ SHW, 1991

9) Brian Siders (USA), 650 @ 341, 20051

27) Ben White (USA), 605 @ 275, 2003

45) Mike Wolfe (USA), 600 @ 404, 2006

10) Nick Winters (USA), 650 @ 350, 20062

28) Al Davis (USA), 605 @ 291, 20075

11) Vladimir Kravtsov (Russia), 639.3 @ 295, 2001

29) Travis Rogers (USA), 605 @ 320, 2008

12) Riku Kiri (Finland), 639.3 @ 319, 1991

30) Mike MacDonald (USA), 603 @ 240, 1977

13) Steve Wong (USA), 633.8 @ 301, 2002

31) Telford Hagan (USA), 600.8 @ 340, 1984

14) Jari Sjoman (Finland), 628.3 @ 275, 1997

32) Yuri Chelobitchikov (Russia), 600.8 @ 294, 1987

15) Lars Hedlund (Sweden), 628.3 @ SHW, 1980

33) Beau Moore (USA), 600.8 @ 326, 1999

16) Lee Moran (USA), 628.3 @ SHW, 1983

34) Andy Bolton (England), 600.8 @ 326, 2003

17) Josh Bryant (USA), 620 @ 315, 2005

35) Rock Lewis (USA), 600 @ 229, 20066

18) Wayne Bouvier (USA), 617.3 @ 320, 1980

36) Sam Samiego (USA), 600 @ 242, 1983

1 MHP-sponsored athlete and current MHP Kings of the Bench Heavyweight Division Bench Press record holder 2 2006 MHP Kings of the Bench Heavyweight runner-up 3 First man to officially bench-press 600 pounds 4 MHP-sponsored athlete and current MHP Kings of the Bench Light Heavyweight Bench Press record holder 5 Current MHP Kings of the Bench II Heavyweight champion 6 MHP Kings of the Bench II Middleweight champion 7 ’07 MHP Clash of the Titans Heavyweight Bench runner-up 8 MHP-sponsored athlete and biggest supershirted bencher of all time

independent groups of athletes and promoters, and aficionados of the sport were brought in to witness and credit the “record-breaking” feats of strength. One of the first acknowledged record holders in the press on back without a bridge was the famous Russian wrestler and strongman George Hackenschmidt. In 1898 he pressed 361 pounds—with 19-inch diameter plates—and it stayed in the record books for 18 years. He was eventually exceeded by Joe Nordquest, a heavyweight who pressed 363 pounds in 1916—while using 18-

inch diameter plates. A year later Nordquest would also set a record of 388 pounds in the belly toss, breaking the previous 386-pound record of German strength phenom Arthur Saxon. Among the heavyweights, an early record holder in the belly toss was George Lurich, a Russian wrestler who did 443 pounds in 1902. Bench press stanchions—the uprights now seen on every make of pressing bench today—showed up in the 1950s, as did the first official 400-, 450- and 500-pound lifts. In November 1950 Canadian Doug Hepburn became the first to

officially pause 400 pounds. He did 450-plus (456 paused) exactly a year later and in December ’53 made the first official 500-pound lift (502 paused). Four years after that he barely missed the first 600-pound attempt. Hepburn also won a gold medal at the ’53 Heavyweight World Weightlifting Championship in Stockholm, Sweden. Tom Thurston covers the career of Hepburn, one of the icons of the sport of powerlifting, in Strongman: The Doug Hepburn Story (Ronsdale Press). Though the Olympic lifting powers attempt- (continued on page 240) \ FEBRUARY 2009 237

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Ryan Kennelly benches 675 in the rack. He’s officially credited with a 600-pound competition bench. Kennelly is the biggest supershirt bencher in history, pressing 1,074 pounds! He’s currently training to break Scot Mendelson’s all-time-biggest-bench record of 715. (continued from page 237) ed to stop

the rising popularity of the odd lifts being performed in competition, they were unable to do so. One reason is that the odd lifts were some of the best for building muscle size and brute strength. What’s more, many of them—notably the squat, bench press and deadlift—didn’t require the flexibility and coordination that the modern-day Olympic lifts demand. In addition, those three moves, now known as the powerlifts, were the most accurate way of determining who the physically strongest person was. Olympic lifts decide who the strongest, most flexible and most coordinated lifter is. Many strongman lifts are multirep events that require conditioning and a different combination of fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers. Strongman competitions are

usually designed to favor an athlete who’s taller than average and who has a bigger bone structure in his hands. Powerlifting, without the supersuits and bench press shirts, is still the most accurate way to determine who’s truly the best at limit-strength lifting. Skeletal factors influence the lifts’ leverage, but the biggest squatter of all time (Marc Henry), the biggest bencher of all time (Scot Mendelson) and the biggest deadlifter of all time (Andy Bolton) are all right around 6’ tall and all have a relatively “normal” limbs-to-height ratio. It was Iron Man’s Peary Rader who made the first powerful move to get powerlifting sanctioned in the United States. In 1958, at a National Weightlifting Committee meeting, Rader petitioned that a list of records be kept. Records set in the power movements were considered

unofficial, at least by the Amateur Athletic Union. “Nevertheless,” John Sanchez explains, “Peary Rader sought to provide a national meet venue for which AAU records could be officially set in the new AAU ‘power’ lift category. Had things gone according to plan, that would have been the first ‘national power lift championships’ ever organized and was tentatively scheduled for the fall of 1959. Unfortunately, Rader’s national meet never came to pass. Ironically, the first national powerlifting competition would not occur for yet another five years, only this time under the auspices of Strength & Health’s Bob Hoffman.” When the 1960s rolled around, Pat Casey began to take the bench press scene by storm, and he posted his own 500-pound press. He would go on to become the first person

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to officially break the 600-pound barrier, and his career high was a 615-pound push on March 25, 1967. Pat Casey was also a highly accomplished powerlifter on all three lifts, and he was the first man to total 2,000 pounds in a meet (squat + bench + deadlift = total.) Up through 1962, despite Peary Rader’s attempts, bench press records were still not being kept, and it was up to muscle magazine reporters to keep tabs on who had lifted what. The press-or-no-press

portion of the lift started getting a lot of attention because a bencher could dangerously add a lot of weight to his bench by trampolining the bar off his gut or rib cage. Bill Pearl wrote about Pat Casey: “I was afraid the benches would not hold the weight. He would do chest exercises with 220-pound dumbbells in each hand. There was a corner of the gym where Pat stored his weights for special lifts. Nobody touched Pat’s weights, and nobody other than Pat wanted to touch his weights.” Pat Casey became the first 600pound bencher in history just over 40 years ago. To this day the 600-pound classic bench press is one of the greatest strength feats an athlete can perform. When I say “classic” I mean a traditional bench press where a lifter gets the weight handed off to him on a bench and can chalk his hands and use wrist

dedication in and out of the gym, and these iron athletes should be recognized for incredible strength on the bench. A big thanks to Mike Lambert, Michael Soong, Herb Glossbrenner and for keeping such great powerlifting records. The Power Surge series is sponsored largely by MHP (www.Max MHP is the number-one sponsor in the world for powerlifting and strongman events, and I urge you to check out its Web site ( ) and its incredible line of nutritional supplements. MHP is the official brand of choice for strength sport superstars like Brian Siders, Ryan Kennelly, Derek Poundstone, Joe Mazza, Dennis Cieri, Rob Luyando, Vlad Alhazov, Jeremy Hoornstra, Phil Pfister and Jon Anderson. MHP is also the title sponsor of the Kings of the Bench and the Clash of the Titans. MHP’s Kings of the Bench III and the Clash of the Titans II will both take place at the ’09 Ronnie Coleman Classic expo in Mesquite, Texas, outside Dallas, on April 18, 2009. The events are the premier professional, classic powerlifting competitions Kennelly demonstrates the prone floor press. in the world. A week This lift, along with after the live event, the belly toss, was lifters and lifting fans the original method will also be able to of performing chest log on to Body presses. and watch the entire competition in wraps and a lifting belt. Lifters can’t streaming video. For more informause elbow wraps or a bench press tion, go to HardcorePowerlifting shirt and can’t raise their butt or .com, or contact me at (503) 221shoulders off of the bench, and they 2238 or at SeanZilla@Hardcore have to complete the lift using a full range of motion, with arms fully locked out at the end of the press. Editor’s note: Sean Katterle can The 600-pound Classic Benchbe found online, monitoring for the press Roster (see the box on page HouseOfPainIronWear MySpace 237) is a who’s who of the greatest page. He’s also the moderator of the heavyweight benchers our sport has ever seen. A 600-pound bench done message board and a writer for the without a supershirt is a remarkable Weight Lifting accomplishment that takes years of Blog. IM \ FEBRUARY 2009 241

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The Wisdom of Mike Mentzer This month we present another classic Mike Mentzer Heavy Duty Q&A. Although he died in 2001, his bodybuilding wisdom is timeless, and his columns from past issues of IRON MAN have lost none of their relevance. by Mike Mentzer

Balik \ Model: Mike Mentzer

Mass-to-Surface Ratio Q: I’ve been using Heavy Duty for six months and have grown stronger—as you say should happen—at every workout. In fact, my strength increases have exceeded my wildest expectations. My problem is that my size increases haven’t been nearly as good. I’ve been eating clean. What’s the problem? A: You did effect a positive change in your muscles, as evidenced by your tremendous strength increases. You’ve been training to failure, which is what nature requires you to do to activate the body’s growth mechanism. That in itself isn’t sufficient, however. Once it’s activated, you must supply it with the nutrition it requires to build new tissue, something you’re not doing. In my latest book, Heavy Duty II, I suggest you visualize the activated growth mechanism as a moving conveyor belt. Picture a number of little men standing on the conveyor belt, reaching out. They’re reaching for the nutritional-calorie “cement” you need to build the second story, the new muscle mass. If you con-

tinue to take in only a maintenance level of calories, you frustrate those little men. They’re reaching out, but nothing is being provided to them, as you’re only eating enough to maintain the first story, the existing mass. I rather suspect that yours is the more linear body type—naturally more straight up and down than round or muscular. As a result, you have a disadvantageous ratio of mass to surface area, or skin. Whales live in oceans because they have to. They have so much physical mass that their surface areas aren’t adequate to sufficiently radiate the heat their great mass produces. Therefore, they have to live in the cold water of the ocean, which can absorb the heat of their bodies. Otherwise, they’d overheat and die. The large, thin, vascular ears of an elephant serve a similar purpose. They’re actually radiators. When an elephant takes in water and sprays it on its ears, it does that because its surface area isn’t sufficient to radiate the heat generated by its enormous physical mass. The water evaporating on its vascular \ FEBRUARY 2009 249

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ears keeps it adequately cooled. You’re at the other end of the spectrum. Being linear, or ectomorphic, you have, in a sense, too much surface area for your mass. Therefore, more of your caloric energy is radiated into the atmosphere than occurs with other body types. People with your body type usually have to eat large quantities of food just to maintain normal body temperature. Whatever you’ve been eating is not enough to provide for your growth production needs. My advice is that you establish your present average daily calorie intake and increase it by 500. If after 10 to 14 days on the higher intake you haven’t gained a pound or two, increase your calories by another 300 to 500. When my phone clients indicate a problem with gaining weight, I sug-

gest they start including a high-calorie supplement drink in their diets, such as the ones advertised in IRON MAN. Such calorie-dense drinks enable you to increase your calories without having to stuff yourself with food.

The Neck and the Forearms Q: Every muscle magazine I read includes articles every month on how to build baseball biceps, barn-door lats, bulging pecs and huge thighs. Rarely do any of them address the issues of neck and forearm development. To my mind they’re important muscles, as they’re very visible and indicate masculinity when well-developed.

Neveux \ Model: Joey Gloor

Getting extra calories from the right food will help build muscle. Not eating enough is a sure way to stall gains.

Unfortunately, while I’ve had considerable success as a beginning bodybuilder with your Heavy Duty training, my neck and forearms are lagging. As much as I liked Heavy Duty II: Mind and Body, it seems that you, too, give the neck and forearms short shrift. Any suggestions? A: Since you’ve gained appreciably elsewhere with Heavy Duty training, your lack of progress in the neck and forearms suggests a genetic weakness. Almost all bodybuilders—even the top champs—have at least one weak bodypart. Arnold Schwarzenegger had deficient leg biceps and forearms, Dorian Yates had a symmetry problem with his arms, Boyer Coe had poor abdominal development, and I always suffered with my pectorals. None of it was the result of a lack of concern for those bodyparts. We were born with less muscle fiber density in those areas—and that’s the problem with your neck and forearms. I rarely prescribe any direct neck or forearm exercises for my clients, as those muscles receive enormous amounts of indirect work from a host of other exercises. The neck, in fact, is directly involved in a number of exercises you may not suspect— for example, shrugs and deadlifts. A few years ago I had a client who made remarkable progress with all of his major muscles, but his best progress was in the area of his neck, for which he did no direct neck exercises. His neck grew more than other bodyparts, and all he did was shrugs and deadlifts. That’s an interesting point that should impress the advocates of volume training (but won’t!), as it demonstrates how little direct high-intensity resistance exercise is required for optimal results. Reread that last statement, as the implications are profound. My client did no direct neck work, and his neck grew more than the muscles he was directly working. Another way in which the neck is worked indirectly is that all bodybuilders subconsciously flex it during all exercises. The forearms are probably the most worked—and overworked— muscle group of the entire body, as they are directly involved in almost

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Exercise Substitutions

Neveux \ Model: Derik Farnsworth

every exercise. When performing curls, pulldowns, deadlifts, rows and shrugs, haven’t you noticed that your forearms receive enormous stimulation, often giving out before the primary muscle you’re working? My advice for now is to forget about any direct forearm and neck work. Genetically weaker muscles rarely reach full parity with the remainder of the musculature. Also, you’ve only been training for six months. Over time, as you regularly impose high-intensity-training stresses to your major muscles, your neck and forearms will gain mass. Be patient. If the problem persists after another several months of training, you might try doing direct neck and forearm work periodically. Every two or three Heavy Duty arm workouts add a set of wrist curls and a set of reverse curls for six to 10 reps. For the neck, lie on a bench so that your head and neck are dangling freely over the end. Place a folded towel on your forehead so that you can place a dumbbell horizontally across the top. In essence, you’ll be doing neck curls. Allow your head and neck to extend fully over the edge of the bench, then raise them as high as you can. Repeat. Perform one set for six to 10 reps at every second or third back workout.

Muscles in the neck and forearms get plenty of work during exercises for other muscle groups. Direct exercise is usually not necessary for most bodybuilders.

Q: I heard recently that you advocate squats and deadlifts as the greatest overall strength and mass builders; however, a nerve impingement in my lower back makes it impossible for me to perform those exercises. If I did them with even light weights, I’d make the situation worse. Talk about frustration! I want

to build muscle mass as fast as possible. What do you suggest? A: You have to be realistic. I understand something about the nature of your problem, since I once owned a MedX lower-back clinic. (More than 125 million Americans suffer severe, chronic lower-back pain.) I’ve learned from medical specialists that surgery isn’t always

successful. By no means should you attempt squats and deadlifts. Remember, your goal is bodybuilding, not body destroying. All is not lost, however. I’ve had a number of clients who had the same injury. In most cases it’s due to profound weakness of the lowerlumbar muscles. About 1 1/2 years ago I was wak- (continued on page 254) \ FEBRUARY 2009 251

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ing up every morning with a lower back that was so sore and stiff it took me 30 minutes before I could stand up straight. After four—yes, only four!—MedX treatments I was completely pain-free. I suggest you substitute leg presses for squats and slow, controlled hyperextensions for the lower back. Leg presses, too, are effective overall mass stimulators, and while they’re much safer than squats, you have to be careful. Using a lighter poundage, lower the weight for 10 seconds and raise it for the same time. Don’t lower into the rock-bottom position, where your pelvis starts to curl, however. That places your pelvis in a weak position, making an injury a real possibility. Lower your thighs three-quarters of the distance you’re capable of, keeping your hands on your upper thighs in case you need a spot. Editor’s note: For a complete presentation of Mike Mentzer’s Heavy Duty training system, consult his books Heavy Duty II, High Intensity Training the Mike Mentzer Way and the newest book, The Wisdom of Mike Mentzer, all of which are available from Mentzer’s official Web site, IM

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Neveux \ Model: Robert Hatch

(continued from page 251)


Eric Broser’s

Muscle “In” Sites If you find something on the Web that IM readers should know about, send the URL to Eric at

> Skip La Cour may never have won a Mr. Olympia title, but to my mind he’s still one of the greatest bodybuilders ever to step onstage. The development Skip has achieved, drug-free, astounds me to this day, and I am a natural pro bodybuilder. Perhaps even more unbelievable than the size and thickness of his musculature is Skip’s ability to enter a show as peeled and dry as any bodybuilder in the world, enhanced or not. In fact, it’s safe to say that Skip was more detailed, separated and striated in a few of his Team Universe victories than almost any IFBB pro on his best day. Skip is also one of the most successful businessmen in the fitness industry. He’s carved a unique niche for himself as a champion bodybuilder, writer, author,

of free information available on training, nutrition,

trainer, supplement spokesperson and authority on

contest prep and supplementation, as well as dozens

motivational techniques. I’ve read several of his books

of incredible photos. Skip will even school you on how

and seen most of his DVDs, and they have never failed

you can use your love of bodybuilding and fitness

to teach, motivate and inspire. Whether you choose to

to achieve financial success. How cool is that? So

use performance-enhancing drugs in your pursuit of

check out, and put his years of

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visit Skip’s site and take a look around. There are tons

> Yes, this is a site that I reviewed in a past column, but it’s time for me to mention it once again, as Jenny Lynn’s 2009 12-Week Transformation Challenge is getting under way. Are you prepared to finally go after the body that you’ve always wanted? Jenny wants to see you succeed, and she’s going to do everything she can to help you get there. The winner will be the participant who makes the most dramatic changes to his or her physique while using Jenny’s 12-week online training program and will receive an all-expenses-paid trip to train alongside the two-time Figure Olympia champ. Check out her site for more details about the contest and how you can become part of the action. I’d like to mention that although Jenny did not do as well as she intended in the ’08 Olympia, she’s using the experience as motivation to come back in 2009 in the best shape of her life. I for one would not bet against her. See you in Vegas, Jenny!

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> As of this writing is still being set up, but because I’ve spoken extensively with the site’s managing developer, who asked me to be an integral part of its “vision,” I felt it was a good time to get IRON MAN readers geared up for its impending Internet presence—or dominance, which is what these guys are after. The goal is to create the most extensive, comprehensive and information-packed “one-stop-shop” for bodybuilding and fitness on the World Wide Web. Complete contest coverage, discussion forums, articles, training programs, diet regimens, supplementation strategies, videos, photo galleries, writing contests, tutorials, “webinars” and personal training—those are just the tip of the iceberg at I’ve written for the site myself and plan to do more. I’ve been given a special section on the forums to answer questions and disperse as much valuable information to drug-free athletes as I can. IFBB pros such as Johnnie Jackson, John Sherman, Timea Majorova and Melissa Dettwiller have contributed their time, knowledge and experience to the site as well. The plan is to get as many profes


Net Results Q&A

The Power/Rep Range/Shock innovator answers your questions on training and nutrition.

straps around a bar and feeling comfortable with them in your hand. Don’t give up, and soon enough using straps will become second nature. With regard to inhibiting forearm development, that’s rather easy to take care of through direct forearm training. I hit my forearms once per week after biceps for four or five

A: For the first several years of my training I refused to wear wrist straps. I thought that only “girliemen” wore them because they were too weak and lazy to take a good, solid grip on the bar. As I began to get stronger, primarily on back exercises, I started to notice that no matter how hard I tried, my grip would give out more quickly than the muscle(s) I was targeting—and that, my friend, is a no-no. I reluctantly decided to give wrist straps a try. I was amazed at how much more weight I could lift and how much more productive so many exercises quickly became. In other words, not wearing wrist straps was hindering my overall development by limiting my intensity on several essential mass-producing movements, such as bent rows, weighted pullups, deadlifts, upright rows, seated rows and dumbbell rows. After just a few short months of using of lifting straps, I noticed new width and thickness throughout my entire back, which caused me to change my opinion: It’s not girliemen who use straps but burly men. That said, I should point out that I use them primarily for pulling exercises and only for my heaviest sets. I enjoy having a powerful grip, so I don’t rely on straps for every working set. Besides, using straps properly and efficiently takes some getting used to. There’s a definite technique involved when securing wrist


Q: What do you think of using wrist straps? Is it good or bad, and will it hinder forearm growth?

You’ll be a burly man, not a girlieman, if you use wrist straps correctly. \ FEBRUARY 2009 263

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Net Results total sets, choosing two of the following exercises at each session: Seated wrist curls Standing behind-the-back wrist curls Seated reverse wrist curls Reverse curls Dumbbell hammer curls So there you have it, my iron-loving friend: Just say yes to wrist straps. Q: I’m a bodybuilding competitor taking the first half of 2009 off from competing in order to bring up some areas that I consider weak. I’m really looking to improve my outer thigh and the way it splits from my hamstrings and side glutes. I love the way Dexter Jackson, Phil Heath and Gustavo Badell look in all of their side shots and would like to get what they have. Any special suggestions for hitting that area?


A: I certainly agree that the three pros you mentioned truly put poses like the side chest and side triceps on a higher plane, partly because of how developed and sepa-

rated their thighs look from that angle. Their cuts, ridges and separations are so deep that they almost turn those poses into “side-thigh” shots. Undoubtedly the judges take notice of any competitor who displays dramatic development and definition there. Lucky for you I’ve been paying extra attention to that area of my physique this past year, and I’ve come up with three exercises that seem to work best for beefing and carving up the outer thighs and glutes. 1) Toes-pointed-inward leg extensions: Perform these as you would standard leg extensions, but instead of keeping your feet straight, turn them inward as you reach the peak-contracted position. Make sure to hold and squeeze for a count of two at the top before slowly executing the eccentric portion of the lift. 2) Angled single-leg leg presses: As the name suggests, you perform these one leg at a time and with your torso angled slightly inward—if you’re working your right leg, angle your body toward the left at around 30 degrees off center. That position will cause your hips, thigh and foot to be angled inward as well, which is exactly how you want to remain throughout the set. Make sure to bring the weight down slowly and under complete control, as it can be a precarious position for your pelvic structure. At the bottom of the movement your knee is at about the middle of your chest. As you push upward, try to do so with the power of your outer thigh and glute, squeezing all the way to the top. It’s not an exercise you should do with heavy weights: Try to stick with a rep range of 10 to 12. 3) Angled Smith-machine lunges: These are similar to the angled leg presses in that you work one leg at a time and angle your body inward to force greater recruitment of the outer thigh and glute. So if you’re working the right leg, you’ll angle your torso, hips, thigh and foot inward to the left at around 30 degrees off center. Don’t try to go too heavy; control both the eccentric and concentric portion of every rep. Squeeze the outer thigh and glute as you push from midpoint to the top. You can also do the exercise with a barbell or dumbbells, but I like the better control that the Smith machine affords on this type of “isolated” exercise. Two other pieces of advice I can offer would be to use a narrow stance on all of your two-legged squatting and pressing exercises and to make use of the abduction machine—you know, the one all the girls use. On squatting and pressing moves a narrow stance will more effectively recruit the outer-thigh muscles, while the abduction machine will carve more detail into the sides of your glutes. Here is a very effective program for getting a more “Dexteresque” look to your own side poses.

Phil Heath’s quad and ham separation give his side poses a new dimension.

Narrow-stance hack squats (feet low on platform) Narrow-stance hack squats (feet high on platform) Angled Smith-machine lunges or single-leg leg presses Toes-pointed-inward leg extensions Abduction machine

2 x 8-10 2 x 8-10 2 x 10-12 2 x 12-15 2 x 15-20

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Crappy Economy

= Insane

Muscle Gains by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson Photography by Michael Neveux


t’s time for some good news: With the economy in the crapper, it’s a lot easier to pack on muscle. Huh? Have we lost our minds? No, it’s absolutely true. Listen up: It’s a known fact that exercise is a major mood booster. Plus, weight training is the perfect outlet for stress—you get to pound on the iron, and the workout becomes your meditation. Put it all together, and economic woes can help you grow. In fact, the worst thing you can do is let bad times derail your training. Even if you have to spend a little more time on the job to make ends meet, skipping workouts isn’t part of the solution. Missing workouts will make things worse—like your mental state, not to mention your physique. Now is the time to channel your unrest into your best workouts for success—and grow as never before. After all, your workouts are the one thing you have complete control over, and each one fills you with a sense of accomplishment and stresslessness—not to mention a motivating pump. Those are things you need now when times are

tough. Train to stay sane, and, if you channel your emotions, create awesome gains, maybe the best of your life. Just keep repeating: When the going gets tough, the tough get growing. Q: I’m using the three-position training of POF [as outlined in the e-book 3D Muscle Building] and have made excellent gains with it. I recently purchased your Quick-Start Muscle Building Guide for my nephew. It’s excellent, and I can already see changes in his muscles after three weeks. I wonder why you don’t include stretch-position exercises, like incline curls for biceps, in the workouts. Stretch exercises, I’m sure, are one reason I’ve added so much muscle with POF, so if beginners are to make the fastest gains possible, I would think they should use full 3D POF programs. No? A: The reason we don’t include stretch-position exercises in the

Quick-Start program is that they’re more dangerous for beginners. Joe Horrigan, D.C., of the Soft Tissue Center, uses the often-injured lower back as an example: “When an average, untrained person rounds his or her back forward [to stretch], the muscles along the spine decrease in activity to the point that they actually stop firing. That cessation of muscle activity is known as myoelectric silence. At the point of back rounding, as if attempting to toe-touch, the weight of the upper body and anything you are holding is taken by the ligaments and disks of the spine. That can lead to a lower-back sprain or worse. Again, these studies were with untrained individuals.” Stretch-position exercises are out—at first. We believe that myoelectric silence can happen with any untrained muscle if it’s stretched excessively, and adding weight increases the danger. Therefore, beginners should not incorporate stretch-position exercises until after eight weeks of consistent training. At that point adding stretch-position exercises can take the trainee to

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the next plane of mass. Proof of that is the animal study that produced a 300 percent muscle increase after only one month of progressive-stretch-only workouts—that’s a triple-size muscle gain. Explosive new progress down the road with stretch moves will keep the trainee motivated, no doubt about it. Q: I’ve been hearing about fascia-expansion supersets, and they make a lot of sense. A friend of mine is using them, and he’s added five pound of new muscle in a month. He looks more ripped too— veins everywhere. I want to try

the technique, but I train after work at my gym, and it’s pretty crowded. I don’t think I can superset. Should I just give up on the idea of fascia expansion? A: Our method of fascia expansion is a big-pump exercise followed by a full-stretch movement. That enables you to stretch the muscle encasement, the fascia, by elongating it after it’s full of blood. Theoretically, loosening the fascia will eventually give you more growth due to less constriction—but you don’t have to superset to make that happen. Simply use standard 3D Positions-of-Flexion training—midrange, stretch and contracted—at one workout. Then on fascia-expansion day reverse the order of your last two exercises. So instead of midrange, then stretch followed by contraction, do midrange, then contracted followed by stretch. Here’s an example:

Heavy Biceps (straight POF) Midrange: Barbell curls 2 x 7-9 Stretch: Incline curls 2 x 7-9 Contracted: Concentration curls 2 x 7-9 Light Biceps (fascia-expansion POF) Midrange: Barbell curls 2 x 10-12 Contracted: Concentration curls (drop set) 1-2 x 9(6) Stretch: Incline curls 2 x 10-12 In the F-E program in the e-book X-Rep Update #1, we have StatC and StatS designations. Those are staticcontraction-hold sets that, according to new research, can add mass very fast. In the study we discuss in that e-book, subjects added pounds of muscle to their frames after only one static-contraction workout. In fact, the static sets may be a big reason your friend added so much size so quickly. To use it on the above program, put the hold sets on light day as follows:

Stretch-position exercises are dangerous for beginners. Start including them after about two months of consistent weight-training workouts.

On concentration curls you use a weight that gives you nine standard reps before full-range exhaustion sets in. Then you immediately grab a lighter dumbbell, curl into the top, contracted position and hold or pulse for as long as you can—shoot for 30 seconds. Do that for both arms, no rest. Yes, it’s painful, but the new anabolic bang you get is well worth the hurt. Now that your biceps are full and throbbing from the contractedposition exercise plus a static hold, move to incline

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Model: Derik Farnsworth

Light Biceps (fascia-expansion POF with static holds) Midrange: Barbell curls 2 x 10-12 Contracted: Concentration curls (drop set) 1 x 9(StatC 30 seconds) Stretch: Incline curls 1 x 10-12 1 x StatS 30 seconds

Q: I read on your X-Blog that it’s a good idea to have a cheat day during a strict diet. I can’t seem to get myself to do it. I’m very focused, and slacking just isn’t in

my nature. Is it really necessary? A: We’ve tried it both ways—with a cheat day and without—and we’ve found that adding 50 to 100 grams of carbs one or two days a week makes a significant fat-burning difference. It’s both psychological and physiological. Here’s an excerpt from our e-book X-treme Lean that explains: “It may go against your moral upbringing, but you have to cheat to get lean. (We’re talking food here, not running around behind your significant other’s back—although that does burn calories.) If you don’t have a cheat day during the week, you can sabotage your fat-loss efforts in a big way. That’s true from a psychological standpoint (you will feel deprived, and you’re more likely to binge) and from a physiological standpoint. It has to do with a specific hormone called leptin. “Leptin is known as the antistarvation hormone. If you have enough, your body doesn’t panic. If you don’t take precautions as you reduce calories, however, your body can produce less and less. When your leptin levels fall, the starvation mechanism shifts into high gear, and your body halts fat burning and triggers a voracious appetite (you start having dreams about giant chocolate sundaes). Studies show that increasing calories, primarily with carbs, only one day a week

during a diet can help normalize leptin levels, keeping the starvation mechanism in check and speeding the fat-burning process. We verified that, inadvertently, through a miscalculation Steve made during our last peaking phase....” We go on to tell the story of how Steve discovered that he wasn’t cheating when he thought he was (he was actually getting fewer carbs on his cheat day) and how it slowed his fat loss considerably—until he made the fix. We suggest at least one “cheat” day per week, and we often use two—Sunday and Wednesday. You don’t have to eat ice cream and cake, but do allow yourself enough fruit or other healthful carbs to get an extra 50 to 100 grams over what you take in on your low-carb days—and watch your physique get leaner faster with acid-etched abs. Editor’s note: For more on X Reps, POF and the e-books that include those mass tactics, visit IM

Neveux \ Model: Sebastian Segal

curls, do a standard set of 10 to 12 full-range reps and rest for about 45 seconds. Then lie back with the dumbbells just out of the stretch position, arms slightly bent, and hold or pulse for about 30 seconds—or until you can’t stand the growth burn any longer. You can probably use the same weight that you used on the first standard set. You can incorporate these mass methods in any 3D POF bodypart program—the quad routine of squats, sissy squats and leg extensions becomes squats, leg extensions (with StatC for occlusion and pump) and sissy squats (with StatS for fascia-expanding stretch) at your next leg workout. Alternate the two. It’s a size-building variation with F-E anabolic acceleration—no supersets necessary.

One fasciaexpansion technique is to get a skinstretching pump with a continuoustension exercise, like concentration curls, and follow it with a stretch move, like incline curls. \ FEBRUARY 2009 271

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Volume Training

Variations Unleash New Muscle Growth With Three Plateau-Busting Programs by C.S. Sloan Photography by Michael Neveux


or the bodybuilder trying to pack on muscle, nothing is worse than being stuck in a rut. Several factors contribute to plateaus, but a lack of training variety is a primary one. Of course, a lot of bodybuilders know that. So they typically vary sets, reps and sequence of exercises, but often it just doesn’t work. When you get to that point, the only thing to do is change your training program completely. There are many ways to do it. What follows are several of the best programs for busting through a plateau. What makes them unique is that they all rely on volume training as opposed to intensity training, but it’s also their approach to volume training. These programs aren’t the same old thing you’ve been doing. If you’ve been reading bodybuilding magazines for a long time, you’ve probably come across one or two of these workouts. I doubt you’ve seen all of them.

This is probably the most popular—and best-known—of all of the methods presented here. The term “German Volume Training” comes from strength coach Charles Poliquin, who coined it more than 10 years ago when he was writing for the now defunct Muscle Media 2000. Though it was usually called the “10-sets method,” Poliquin preferred German Volume Training because of the program’s roots in German-speaking countries, where athletes would often use it in the off-season to add muscle. German Volume Training involves completing (or at least attempting to complete) 10 sets of 10 reps with the same weight on the same exercise. For most people that works out to using a weight that you can typically get 20 reps with before reaching muscular failure.

Model: Alex Azarian

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Volume When Poliquin first wrote about it, he recommended using the following bodypart split: Day 1: Chest and back Day 2: Legs and abs Day 3: Off Day 4: Arms and shoulders Day 5: Off Here’s what a beginning routine would look like. Note that 10 x 10 means 10 sets of 10 reps.

BeginningGerman German Beginning VolumeTraining Training Volume Day 1: Chest and back Incline barbell presses 10 x 10 90 seconds’ rest between sets Chinups or pulldowns 10 x 10 90 seconds’ rest between sets Day 2: Legs and abs Olympic-style squats (high bar, close stance) 10 x 10 120 seconds’ rest between sets Lying leg curls 10 x 10 90 seconds’ rest between sets Weighted incline situps 10 x 10 90 seconds’ rest between sets Day 3: Off Day 4: Arms and shoulders Barbell curls 10 x 10 90 seconds’ rest between sets Skull crushers 10 x 10 90 seconds’ rest between sets Seated lateral raises 10 x 10 90 seconds’ rest between sets Day 5: Off Follow this program for four consecutive weeks, and then take a down week. During that time you want to allow your body to recover by using the same workout but with only about half of the poundage. You can then return to the workout for another four weeks of hard training before switching to another program.

Bench Dips

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Model: Tamer El Shahat


variety is even more important, as are lower repetitions. Poliquin compensated by using what he called the “5 percent method.” After the first workout you increase the load approximately 5 percent per workout for two workouts in a row while reducing the target reps by one. At the fourth workout you reduce the weight by 5 percent and return the rep range to what you did at the first workout. The progression begins again from there. Let’s say that you can squat 300 for 10 reps. Here’s what your squat program would look like for the next six weeks. Note that 10 x 5 x 300 means 10 sets of five reps with 300 pounds. Workout 1: 10 x 5 x 300 Workout 2: 10 x 4 x 315 Workout 3: 10 x 3 x 330 Workout 4: 10 x 5 x 315 Workout 5: 10 x 4 330 Workout 6: 10 x 3 x 345 At this point you can either switch to a new program or change exercises and work through another six-workout cycle for each bodypart.

Staggered -Volume Staggered-Volume Training Training

Model: Ahmad Ahmad

This little gem was designed by exercise physiologist Douglas Christ more than a decade ago. He claimed—and probably still does—that it’s the best program for maximizing growth hormone release. I wasn’t sure about that claim when he made it, and I’m still not sold. I do know, however, that it’s an excellent way to pack on some muscle when you’re stuck in a rut, particularly when you’ve been pounding away at Heavy Duty, low-rep-style routines. Here are three keys to making this program work: 1) Perform full-body workouts three days a week. 2) Pick one exercise for each bodypart, sticking with morebang-for-your-buck movements that work a lot of muscle groups at once. 3) Do a high volume of work. (continued on page 280) \ FEBRUARY 2009 277

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Volume Advanced StaggeredAdvanced Volume Training

(continued from page 277)

Depending on your fitness and strength, do eight to 12 exercises for 12 to 16 reps each. Also—and here’s the kicker— you perform all sets in “jump-set” fashion, alternating exercises for antagonistic bodyparts in four-set groupings. For instance, you do four sets of a chest exercise, four sets of a back exercise, then go back to the chest exercise for four sets. Continue in that manner until you’ve performed all the prescribed sets for the two exercises. Here are two examples of staggered-volume training programs The first is for beginners—or those not conditioned for full-body workouts—and the second is an advanced program.

Beginning BeginningStaggeredStaggeredVolume VolumeTraining Training Perform the following program on three nonconsecutive days a week: Leg presses Lying leg curls Leg presses Lying leg curls

4 x 12-16 4 x 12-16 4 x 12-16 4 x 12-16

Incline-bench presses 4 x 12-16 Wide-grip chins 4 x max reps Incline-bench presses 4 x 12- 16 Wide-grip chins 4 x max reps Barbell curls Bench dips Barbell curls Bench dips

4 x 12-16 4 x 16 4 x 12-16 4 x 16

Lateral raises Incline situps

4 x 12-16 4 x 20-30

Here are a few more pointers for getting the most out of this program: 1) Don’t approach muscular failure except on the last rep of the last set of each exercise. 2) Use approximately 50 to 60 percent of your one-rep maximum—that should keep the intensity at the right level. 3) Take at least one minute of rest between sets; any less and you’ll become too fatigued. Don’t take more than 2 1/2 minutes between sets; any more and you won’t be working your muscles hard enough.

This program is for trainees who already have a high level of strength and muscle development. Lessadvanced trainees can use it after training on the beginning program for a couple of months. Monday and Friday Squats Stiff-legged deadlifts Squats Stiff-legged deadlifts Squats Stiff-legged deadlifts

4 x 12 4 x 12 4 x 12 4 x 12 4 x 12 4 x 12

Incline barbell presses Wide-grip chins or lat pulldowns Incline barbell presses Wide-grip chins or lat pulldowns Incline barbell presses Wide-grip chins or lat pulldowns

4 x 12

Barbell curls Lying dumbbell triceps extensions Barbell curls Lying dumbbell triceps extensions

4 x 12

4 x 12 4 x 12 4 x 12 4 x 12 4 x 12

4 x 12 4 x 12 4 x 12

Standing overhead presses 4 x 12 Hanging leg raises 4 x 20- 30 Wednesday Leg extensions Lying leg curls Leg extensions Lying leg curls Flat-bench dumbbell presses Bent-over rows Flat-bench dumbbell presses Bent-over rows Dumbbell curls Skull crushers Dumbbell curls Skull crushers Dumbbell curls Skull crushers Seated dumbbell overhead presses Incline situps

4 x 20 4 x 20 4 x 20 4 x 20 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 16 4 x 20-30

PowerVolume Training Training Power-Volume Power-Volume training is a system that I came up with a few years ago, and I wrote about it in the No-

vember ’04 IRON MAN. Although mainly geared toward building strength, it’s also a great means of building muscle, especially when you’ve been performing workouts with higher reps. (For instance, it would be a great program to use after a couple of months on staggered-volume training.) Power-Volume training works by incorporating four distinct methods of training into one week of workouts: 1) Dynamic lifting 2) Very heavy training—max singles, doubles and triples, never more than five reps 3) Partial reps 4) Frequent training As with a lot of good strengthbuilding methods, the parameters of this program aren’t set in stone. There are, however, a few ground rules: 1) Train each lift up to three times a week on a heavy/light/medium system. (Highly advanced lifters can train up to four times a week, but we’ll save that for another article.) 2) Keep a training log and keep track of your workload on each lift and calculate your total poundage lifted. When you don’t keep records, it’s too easy to slip into overtraining. You need to make sure you’re not doing too much work on your light and medium days. 3) The first day of the week is your heavy day, when you work up to a max set of low reps (between one and five) on two exercises—one for your upper body and one for your lower body. You regularly rotate the exercises to keep your body from adapting and to keep the strength gains coming. The more advanced you are, the more exercises you need in your arsenal and the more frequently you need to rotate them. 4) The second workout of the week is your light day, when you use 50 percent of your maximum weight on two core exercises (one for upper body; one for lower body) for eight sets of two to three reps. 5) The third workout of the week is your medium day, when you use 70 percent of your one-rep max on your core exercises for eight to 10 sets of two to three reps. 6) Each session incorporates various assistance exercises, which keep

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your lifts moving up and build mass in parts of your body that need a little extra work. Heavy and medium days involve assistance exercises of the more compound variety. Light days will see you using exercises that limit you to less weight.

Beginning PowerVolume Training VolumeTraining Here’s a sample week’s worth of programs. Remember that you’ll rotate from your core exercises every week or two, but the list below will give you a good indication of how things work. Note that 135 x 5 means 135 pounds for five reps. Monday: Heavy Day Incline presses (core upper-body exercise) 135 x 5, 175 x 3, 225 x 3, 245 x 3, 270 x 3, 290 x 3, 290 x 3, 300 x 3 (barely able to get the last rep), 305 x 2 (missed the 3rd rep) Total workload for lift: 5,800 Lying triceps extensions 135 x 2 x 8 Close-grip chins bodyweight x 2 x 8 Bottom-position squats (core lower-body exercise) 135 x 5, 225 x 3, 275 x 3, 315 x 3, 365 x 3, 405 x 3 (hard lift, barely got the last rep), 425 x 1 (failed on the second rep) Total workload for lift: 5,855 Hanging leg raises 3 x 20 Wednesday: Light Day Flat-bench presses 150 x 8 x 2 Total workload for lift: 2,400 Bench dips bodyweight x 2 x 15 Sumo deadlifts 225 x 8 x 2 Total workload for lift: 3,600 Friday: Medium Day Flat-bench presses 225 x 8 x 2 Total workload for lift: 3,600 Parallel-bar dips bodyweight+45 x 2 x 10 Wide-grip chins bodyweight x 3 x 10 Olympic-style squats 275 x 8 x 2 Total workload for lift: 4,448 Here are a few tips to help you get the most out of this program: 1) If this is your first time training on such a heavy-weight and high-volume system, stick with

Pullups the same core exercises for three weeks. If you’re a more advanced lifter, rotate exercises at least every two weeks. 2) Don’t worry too much about calculating workload on your assistance exercises unless the assistance lifts you’re doing are compound movements and more damaging to your nervous system. 3) After a couple of months of training, take a down week, during which you do reps instead of max lifts on your heavy days and cut out your light day altogether.

FinalThoughts Thoughts Final There you have it: three different but highly effective programs for saying good-bye to your training plateaus. If you really want to bust through those training ruts, try training for the next six months using nothing but these three programs. Use the German Volume Training for two months, the staggered-volume training for two months and then finish the whole thing off with the ultimate strengthand-mass kicker—two months of Power-Volume training. Training plateaus should be a thing of the past! IM \ FEBRUARY 2009 281

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The Super Men at the Olympics Matthias Steiner

Delivers a Miracle Yes, there’s a TV show called “The World’s Strongest Man,” and it’s filled with big, strong guys who lift, pull and carry very big and heavy objects. Throughout modern history, of course, the title “World’s Strongest Man” has been bestowed on the man who wins the superheavyweight class in weightlifting at the Olympics—just as the winner of the men’s 100-meter dash is considered the “World’s Fastest Man.” After all, it’s the Olympic sport that tests just how much weight you can lift from the ground to arm’s length overhead. There’s no comical support gear, no multiple federations, no legions of spotters—just one man at a time battling gravity on lifts that have been around for well more than a century. The lift is done on a precision barbell, and the competition is accompanied by the strictest drug testing in the world. There’s not a lot of room to hide when it comes to weightlifting—the strongest prevail. Whoosh! That’s more than 200 kilograms (440 pounds) getting ripped upward, with the barbell maybe reaching chest height before the massive weightlifter instantly reverses his direction at the top of his pull, racing the bar down—all done in an effort to then catch the bar overhead on outstretched arms while in a deep squat before standing up. The lift is called the snatch, and unless you’re at least moderately athletic, you’ll have a hard time doing one with a broomstick, let alone the kind of weights that the big boys handle; yet a top lifter will execute the lift in the blink of an eye. The snatch is the first of two lifts

in the sport of weightlifting; the second is called the clean and jerk. Each lifter gets three attempts on each lift. His top lift in the snatch and his top lift in the clean and jerk are added together, and the man with the biggest total wins. In Beijing the favorites had to be Evgeny Chigishev of Russia, the world’s best snatcher, and Viktors Scerbatihs of Latvia, a veteran lifter who was competing in his fourth Olympic Games. In addition, Matthias Steiner of Germany had caught the eye of a few cognoscenti, but most oddsmakers would have considered him a dark horse. Steiner was the first lifter to start in the snatch, making a very strong 198 kilograms (about 436 pounds) opener, a great beginning for the German with the made-for-Hollywood story. Matthias Steiner was an Austrian who had showed promise as a lifter. Feeling that he needed better support and having fallen in love with a German woman, however, he married her and applied for German citizenship in 2004. Steiner’s wife tragically died in a car accident in 2007, and in January 2008, shortly after receiving his German citizenship, Steiner lifted in Beijing at the Olympic test event. That was his first international meet in three years, and his performance there caught my eye. I shared my enthusiasm with German national coach Frank Mantek and let him use my laptop to e-mail the good news of Steiner’s noteworthy debut to Germany. A few months later Steiner’s lifting had improved, and he impressed me

so much at the European Weightlifting Championships in Italy that I told him and Mantek at the closing banquet that the big surprise in Beijing wasn’t going to be the storied Chinese superheavyweight but rather Matthias Steiner. Several weeks before the Olympics I invited California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger to watch Steiner lift, explaining that the young man, like the governor a native of Austria, just might win the gold medal. When I told the German weightlifting team about that, they were electrified. Mantek said that the possibility of having Matthias Steiner’s hero on hand in Beijing would further motivate him as he went into his final preparation for the Olympics. Viktors Scerbatihs also opened with 198 kilograms, and his lift was done in his characteristically flawless style: He is as smooth as the proverbial well-oiled machine. Evgeny Chigishev smoked 200 kilograms (about 440 pounds) on his first attempt, although he had to make an adjustment while in the bottom position in order to fully control the lift. Steiner made 203 kilograms (about 447 pounds) on his second attempt in what was a huge lift—I’m not sure how many people who saw it live understood that when Steiner had snatched 200 kilograms at the recent European Weightlifting Championships, even the most enthusiastic members of the German team were amazed. This was a big, big three kilos (about seven pounds) more. Scerbatihs made another one of his absolutely perfect lifts with the same weight for his second lift. It’s said that when

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IRONMIND® Photo © Randall J. Strossen

by Randall J. Strossen, Ph.D.

When Russia’s Evgeny Chigishev made this 210-kilogram (462pound) snatch, Russian fans could practically see the gold medal around his neck and hear their national anthem being played. \ FEBRUARY 2009 285

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Super Men lograms (about 319 pounds) or Steiner’s 146 kilograms (about 321 pounds), ripped up 205 kilograms (about 451 pounds) on his second attempt and was justifiably happy about his success. On the final attempts in the

snatch, Scerbatihs was conservative, perhaps, and he made another silky smooth lift, this time with 206 kilograms (about 453 pounds). Steiner was aggressive, calling for 207 kilograms (about 455 pounds), but when he couldn’t get the bar fully fixed overhead, it crashed down and clocked him pretty hard on the back of his head and neck. Some wondered whether that would affect his performance that evening. Showing once again that he was the man to beat in the snatch, Chigishev blistered 210 kilograms (about 462 pounds) on his third attempt—it was a very nice lift that 258 kilograms (568 did more than put Chipounds) proved to gishev in the lead: It put be worth its weight him in precisely the posiin gold for Matthias tion that would make it Steiner of Germany. extremely hard for anyone He made the lift and to overtake him for the won the Olympic gold medal if he could do gold medal in one of well in the next part of the the most memorable competition. moments of the 2008 The clean and jerk isn’t Olympic Games. called the king of lifts for no reason: It’s a two-stage lift that gets the bar to the shoulders—the clean— from where it’s rammed overhead—the jerk—and the weights involved are heavy. Chigishev is very strong on the first stage of the clean and jerk, but he’s run into problems on the overhead portion in the past, so when he got on the board with 240 kilograms (about 528 pounds) on his opener, it had to be a big relief. After that lift the Russian camp had to be feeling pretty good about their chances of bringing a top medal home because it put their man in the lead overall. Scerbatihs opened with 242 kilograms (about 532 pounds), which would put him in second-place position, and he made a good lift. Then, in a move that surprised many, he let the IRONMIND® Photo © Randall J. Strossen

you snatch well, no matter how heavy the weight is, it will look light, and Scerbatihs is the embodiment of that observation. Chigishev, who weighed a mere 124 kilograms (about 273 pounds) compared to Scerbatihs’s 145 ki-

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IRONMIND® Photo © Randall J. Strossen

Latvia’s Viktors Scerbatihs at the top of his pull on his third attempt in the snatch, 206 kilograms (453 pounds).

time run out on his second attempt, so he was left with but one more shot in the battle for Olympic glory. Steiner called for what sounded like an aggressive opener, 246 kilograms (about 541 pounds), which would enable him to leapfrog over Scerbatihs, but he walked off the platform trying to control the jerk. Considering that Steiner’s previous attempt had been the missed snatch that clipped him in the head, members of his camp were either moving to the edge of their seats in high expectation or sinking back in somewhat beaten nervousness. Chigishev cleaned and jerked 247 kilograms (543 pounds) on his second attempt, not just widening his lead but also making a much stronger-looking lift than his opener. The Russian fans were probably starting to think about vodka at that point,

sensing that their man was having his day. Then Steiner held things in check as he roared back with a very good 248-kilogram (about 546pound) clean and jerk on his second attempt—he took a gamble by moving up to a heavier weight after his missed opener, a rare move in such a high-stakes situation, and by making the good lift, he made that decision look smart. Each of the lifters had just one attempt left, and the tension was mounting. Chigishev made an excellent lift with 250 kilograms (about 550 pounds), further widening his lead. Coming into the contest, my feeling was that if Chigishev made 210 kilograms in the snatch, he would be hard to catch, and if he coupled that with a 250-kilogram clean and jerk, he would probably win the gold

medal. Regardless of what anyone might have said at that point, things were certainly looking pretty golden for the Russian lifter, who looked as if he could be quite at home on a Southern California beach. Scerbatihs is a journeyman lifter who’s always in the hunt for a top place, but he’s not known for having a strong jerk. In his last attempt he called for 257 kilograms, the weight that would move him from bronzeto gold-medal position. He cleaned the weight easily, and when he rammed it overhead, for an instant it appeared that he had fixed it. Then it crashed down—along with his dreams of being the ’08 Olympic champion. Now there was but one attempt left, not just in the class but in the entire competition. Here’s what was riding on its outcome: A success would turn Matthias Steiner’s silver medal into gold, a feat of athletic alchemy that means a world more than merely moving up one place in the rankings. To do that, he would have to clean and jerk 258 kilograms (about 568 pounds). That’s not just a lot of weight—it’s 10 kilograms (about 22 pounds) more than his second attempt, 12 kilograms (about 26 pounds) more than he had done at the European Championships and 28 kilograms (about 62 pounds) more than he had done in Beijing earlier in the year. Despite the odds, and the long and winding road he’d traveled, this young man who’d moved from Austria to Germany out of love for his wife and his sport made the lift, which, once launched, never appeared to be in doubt. Also not in doubt was the fact that on this night in Beijing, Matthias Steiner created another Al Michaels moment: “Do you believe in miracles? YES!” Editor’s note: Randall J. Strossen, president of IronMind Enterprises, is a leading weightlifting journalist and photographer. In 2008 Strossen received the Certificate of Merit from the European Weightlifting Federation, making him the first non-European ever to receive the honor. Please visit IronMind on the web at www.IronMind .com. IM \ FEBRUARY 2009 287

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by Jerry Brainum

Testosterone and Rapid Weight Loss In 1997 three collegiate wrestlers made national headlines by dying. The story was considered newsworthy not only because the three young men had no history of illness but also because of accusations that their use of creatine supplements had led to their untimely deaths. Subsequent investigation revealed that creatine had nothing to do with it. There was no evidence that they’d taken supplements in the days before they died. What really killed them was

dehydration, leading to kidney shutdown in two of the wrestlers. Making weight is common in many sports, and bodybuilders often try to reduce bodyfat before a competition in order to highlight muscularity. The sensible method of losing weight is a longer, slower process. Most professional bodybuilders begin their contest preparations anywhere from three to six months out from a contest; losing weight slowly preserves muscle and strength. Still, it’s not uncommon for athletes to resort to sudden-death techniques of dropping weight that, sadly, can result in just that. Few athletes pay the ultimate price for injudicious dieting and training, but they do pay in more subtle ways. The cost of dropping weight too rapidly was highlighted in a recent study of 18 elite wrestlers who competed nationally and internationally.1 Rapid-weight-loss programs are common in wrestling. Scientists monitored changes in the wrestlers’ body composition, body chemistry, minerals and hormones over the course of a two-to-three-week weight-reduction regimen. The wrestlers—average age 21 with an age range of 17 to 31—were told to restrict their intake of carbohydrates and fat but keep their protein intake high, at two kilograms per pound of bodyweight, to prevent loss of lean mass. Their daily calorie intake was 800 to 2,000, and they stimulated dehydration during the last two days through heavy training and hot saunas, as well as restricting fluid intake and lowering their daily calories to a maximum of 1,000. The wrestlers also took various minerals: • 500 milligrams of potassium five times daily • 247.5 milligrams of magnesium five times daily • 300 milligrams of calcium twice daily

Using drastic measures to make weight for competition can have dangerous consequences.

Although the authors didn’t discuss it, the wrestlers were taking low-quality minerals. They used potassium chloride, which can have caustic effects in the gastrointestinal tract; magnesium hydroxide, which rapidly brings on diarrhea; and calcium carbonate, which is chalk and harder to absorb than other forms of supplemental calcium. Even so, getting some minerals is better than getting none. Odds are that their restricted diet was low on those minerals and that side effects would have been much more in evidence without them. Remember, the wrestlers were actively seeking dehydration to foster weight loss, and dehydration causes mineral loss. The weight-reduction program proved successful. The greatest overall weight loss was 11 percent, along with an average 6.9 percent drop in bodyfat—not bad for only two weeks. The wrestler also lost 2.9 percent lean mass, which could be a combination of water and muscle. Most alarming was the program’s effect on testosterone. The average drop was 33 percent, along with a 47 percent drop in luteinizing hormone, or LH, a pituitary hormone that controls

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testosterone synthesis. Even worse, the wrestlers’ sex hormone-binding globulin went up by 21 percent. SHBG binds active testosterone in the blood, and the more SHBG your body has, the less testosterone you have in your blood. The fact that LH dropped by 47 percent reflects insufficient food intake, coupled with high stress conditions. Note that the wrestlers didn’t do any aerobics during their weightloss program, only anaerobic exercise, such as weight training and wrestling practice. Increased aerobic exercise, especially when accompanied by an ultralow-calorie diet, is associated with low testosterone and higher cortisol counts. The wrestlers reported increased fatigue, tension and anger and reduced vigor. They also had trouble sleeping, and stress from that further depleted their testosterone. Insulinlike growth-factor 1 did not take a hit. IGF-1 is vital for muscle repair. The authors think that the tapering exercise program the wrestlers used may have maintained their IGF-1, or perhaps the program didn’t last long enough to reflect any changes in that hormone. I would suggest two other possible mechanisms. IGF-1 is related to both calorie and protein intake. The wrestlers’ higher protein intake may have preserved their IGF-1, along with their continued training. In addition, the carbohydrate and fat may have spurred an increased release of growth hormone, which would be reflected by a higher amount of IGF-1. The information in this study applies to bodybuilders who don’t use anabolic drugs. Natural bodybuilders who drop weight too fast by extreme dieting and training will likely experience rapid drops in testosterone and growth hormone, as well as a rise in cortisol. Result: significant muscle loss, along with a slowdown in bodyfat loss due to lack of anabolic hormone support and a drop in active thyroid hormone. So if you avoid pharmaceutical hormones, you should also avoid crash dieting, unless you also want to crash your muscle gains.

A World Without Estrogen Bodybuilders hear a lot of bad things about estrogen these days. Its evil reputation is almost on par with cortisol, although the two hormones have little in common other

Clearly, estrogens are of no benefit whatsoever to men of any age. Why they appear to protect women from cardiovascular disease is still a biological mystery.

Losing weight too fast can cause drops in testosterone and muscle, resulting in depression.

than both being steroids. Steroids, in case you’re confused, refers to the molecular structure of the hormones and the fact that they’re produced from cholesterol. Estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone and activated vitamin D are all steroids. Judging by the number of supplements that claim to lower estrogen, it appears to be a definite liability for bodybuilders. In males having an abundance of estrogen is linked to water retention—caused by increased aldosterone and the resulting sodium retention—subcutaneous bodyfat and gynecomastia. The higher-than-usual estrogen seen in some bodybuilders is caused when aromatase, a ubiquitous enzyme found throughout the body but particularly concentrated in fat tissue, converts anabolic steroids to estrogen. Bodybuilders who use large doses of anabolic steroids may have more estrogen than young women do. Normally, men have about 10 times as much testosterone as women, only 0.8 percent of which is converted into estrogen. That scenario changes in the presence of huge doses of anabolic steroids, which is why bodybuilders who juice also take drugs that either block estrogen cell receptors (Nolvadex), or inhibit the aromatase enzyme directly (Arimidex). What’s frequently overlooked is that estrogen may have benefits. It appears to interact with androgen cell receptors, amplifying the impact of anabolic steroids. Estrogen also maintains IGF-1, which has anabolic functions in muscle besides helping muscle repair after exercise. Some emerging evidence shows that estrogen may play a role in preventing excessive muscle damage during exercise. From a cardiovascular protection viewpoint, estrogen is a paradox. In women it appears to protect against cardiovascular disease by fostering higher levels of high-density lipoprotein, the good kind of cholesterol, and maintaining the elasticity of arteries. Having supple arteries helps protect against atherosclerosis and high blood pressure. Purveyors of anti-estrogen supplements frequently advise getting off them because “estrogen offers cardiovascular protection in men,” but that idea doesn’t jibe with the latest research. In a recent study that involved 933 young men, average age 19, researchers looked at the connection between the sex hormones estradiol, estrone, testosterone and androstenedione and such major \ FEBRUARY 2009 299

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Jerry Brainum’s Bodybuilding Pharmacology ease risk factors as high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure and excess weight.2 Positive links emerged between higher estradiol and total cholesterol, along with lower HDL. Having more estrone, a weaker estrogen, was linked with increased total cholesterol and heightened LDL, which is also linked to cardiovascular disease. Testosterone, which is often accused of promoting cardiovascular disease in men, had no effect on any risk factors. When estrogens are given to older men in hopes of preventing cardiovascular disease, they usually increase they incidence of it. Clearly, estroVisceral fat is most unhealthful, since unlike gens are of no benefit whatsoever to men of subcutaneous fat, which remains in one place, it any age. Why they appear to protect women is constantly released into the blood, where it’s from cardiovascular disease is still a biologitransported to the liver. cal mystery. Some scientists suggest that increased estrogen, coupled with lower testosterone, is responsible for many of the ills linked to the aging process in men. Older men tend to have more bodyfat, and more bodyfat knock out estrogen. A study3 of young men given one milligram daily of Arimidex, which is far more potent than any means more aromatase activity and more estrogen. While over-the-counter estrogen blocker, for 10 weeks found a there is only one known androgen cell receptor, estrogen 50 percent reduction in estradiol, the most active form of has two: estrogen receptor alpha (ERA) and estrogen recepestrogen. When you block estrogen in men, you get a retor beta (ERB). Androgens reduce the production of ERB, ciprocal increase in testosterone. Taking Arimidex caused which in turn blunts the activity of GLUT4, a vital glucose a slight rise in testosterone in the young men, but in older transporter protein, in muscle. A loss of GLUT4 activity can men who were low in testosterone, taking the same drug increase insulin resistance and obesity, and when testosin the same dose normalized testosterone. So the effect on terone recedes, ERB activity increases. In addition, having testosterone depends on how much your body is making in lower testosterone leads to having more visceral, or deepthe first place. As we’ve seen, because estrogen also inlying, abdominal fat, which is most unhealthful. Unlike creases SHBG and ties up testosterone in the blood, lowersubcutaneous fat, which remains in one place, visceral fat ing estrogen boosts free, or active, testosterone by blunting is constantly released into the blood, where it’s transported SHBG production in the liver. to the liver. There it makes mischief as a prime cause of the

Labels on over-the-counter versions of aromatase inhibitors always warn users not to take them all the time. That’s good advice. metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. Visceral fat is also rich in aromatase. Some researchers suggest that because of the metabolic problem discussed above, routine use of aromatase-inhibiting drugs should be considered a sensible treatment for men who have higher estrogen and lower testosterone. Other researchers, however, point to the effects of a total lack of aromatase in animals bred to lack genes that produce it or humans born without the same genes. Aromatase-knockout mice, as they’re called, have twice as much bodyfat as their normal littermates. They also accumulate excess fat in their livers, a condition that is corrected if they receive estrogen. They have resting insulin three times greater than other mice. Human beings who lack aromatase have similar conditions, including higher glucose, insulin and total and low-density lipoprotein, which places them at risk for cardiovascular disease. The abnormalities are all reversed in men who are given estrogen. How that relates to those who use drugs that interfere with estrogen activity becomes clear when you consider that labels on over-the-counter versions of aromatase inhibitors always warn users not to take them all the time. That’s good advice. None of the supplements completely

A higher count of free testosterone, however, comes with a price. Estrogen-blocking supplements don’t affect another enzyme, 5-alpha reductase, which converts free testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, the hormone linked to male-pattern baldness, acne and prostate disease. So in effect, you are trading one set of problems (high estrogen) for another (high DHT). The effect isn’t significant enough to cause problems with short-term use, but not getting off such supplements periodically could present some real problems.

References 1 Karila, T.A.M.,

et al. (2008). Rapid weight loss decreases serum testosterone. Int J Sports Med. 29(11):872-7. 2 Tomaszewski, M., et al. (2008). Association between lipid profile and circulating concentrations of estrogens in young men. Atheroscl. In press. 3 Mauras, N., et al. (2000). Estrogen suppression in males: metabolic effects. J Clin Endocrin Metabol. 85:23702377. IM

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Arnold Classic Retrospective:

TWO DECADES OF PRO-MUSCLE EXCELLENCE Photography by John Balik, Michael Neveux, Mervin Petralba and Mitsuru Okabe

It’s the 20th year of the Arnold Schwarzenegger Classic. My, how time flies when you’re packing on size. The winners represent a virtual who’s who of pro bodybuilding. From the first champ in 1989, Rich “the Dragon Slayer” Gaspari, to the current title holder, Dexter “the Blade” Jackson—who’s also the ’08 Mr. Olympia—the ASC has fielded a stellar lineup every year. To celebrate the upcoming 20th edition, we present a photographic look back at all of the incredible winners. It’s the perfect appetizer to get you hungry to make your way to Columbus, Ohio, on March 1 to witness another classic battle for one of the most prized titles—and richest purses—in pro bodybuilding. —the Editors

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Dexter JACKSON 2005, ’06, ’08

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Victor MARTINEZ 2007 \ FEBRUARY 2009 305

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JAY CUTLER 2002, ’03, ’04

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Flex WHEELER 1993 ’97 ’98 2000

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Kevin LEVRONE 1994, ’96

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Michael FRANCOIS 1995 \ FEBRUARY 2009 311

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Michael FRANCOIS 1995 \ FEBRUARY 2009 311

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Vince TAYLOR 1992

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Shawn RAY 1991 \ FEBRUARY 2009 313

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Michael ASHLEY 1990

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Rich GASPARI 1989 \ FEBRUARY 2009 315

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2008 Awards

Blade Runner

Dexter Jackson.

L.T.’s Annual Best-of Calls PRO BODYBUILDER OF THE YEAR: Dexter Jackson, who else? The Blade won all five contests he competed in, including the Mr. Olympia and the Arnold Classic, and accrued a record 300K (if not more) during his banner year. Runner-up (distant runner-up, that is): Phil Heath. He won the IRON MAN Pro, was second to Dex at the Arnold and finished a disputed third in his first crack at the Big Dance. Can the Gift wrap up the Sandow next year, Dex? Let’s ask Victor Martinez. COMEBACK OF THE YEAR: Toney Freeman, who else? The X-Man was a candidate for top six at the ’07 Olympia but fell all the way to 14th, earning Isaac Hinds my award for Bonehead Pick of the Year after he told the world that Freeman would land in third. At 42, the 6’2”, 275-pounder from Atlanta started this year slowly but bounced back with wins at the Tampa and Europa shows and finished a strong fifth at the O. Okay, okay, let’s include Hinds as runner-up for the Comeback award. He’ll drink to that. MOST IMPROVED: Moe El Moussawi, who else? Moe Muscles, who got 14th at the ’07 IRON MAN Pro; moved up 11 slots at the ’08 edition, got an invite to the Arnold, placed third in Australia and ended his breakout season by taking ninth at the O. MOST CONSISTENT: Silvio Samuel. Silvio has proven to be one of the game’s best—and most consistent—physique stars over the past couple of years. Can anyone remember when he last showed up in anything but prime condition? And he was the sharpest of them all at the O en route to his seventh-place landing. Runner-up: David Henry, another always-on-the-mark dude. BEST POSER: Melvin Anthony, who else? Get down, Marvelous, get down. ROOKIE OF THE YEAR: James “Flex” Lewis, who else? The 24-year-old proved to be a Wale of a pro bodybuilder (he’s from Wales—get it?) in his inaugural season, which ended with a third-place finish in the Olympia 202-and-Under Showdown. Lewis finished as high as seventh in a couple of open shows as well to prove he can stand among the best, regardless of size. MOST POTENTIAL: Dennis Wolf. Even though I don’t feel Wolf was any better in ’08 than he was in ’07, the guy Hinds says is the most overrated in the sport still has the tools to wear the Olympia crown. Wolf is only 30 but needs to fill out his frame even more if he wants to be knocking on the door. If he doesn’t battle for the

Toney Freeman.

Phil Heath.

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GIANTS He’s gone but could never be forgotten. Pages 323 and 324

HAIR-RAISER What is Rachel looking for? Pages 323 and 324

Moe El Moussawi.

OFFSPRING Labrada’s gridiron glory. Pages 325 and 326

Dennis Wolf.

Silvio Samuel.

Contest photography by Lonnie Teper, Roland Balik and Merv

Flex Lewis.

Ronny Rockel.

Ben Weider.

title next year, I may be agreeing with the Lifter on this in 12 months. NPC BODYBUILDER OF THE YEAR: Mike Liberatore, who started off the season with a victory in the heavyweighs at the Junior Nationals, lost the division by a single digit to eventual overall winner Brandon Curry at the USA and then somehow hung on until late November to take his class at the Nationals. Runnerup: Ed Nunn, who followed up his victory in the supers at the USA by earning class and overall honors at the Nationals. BEST WEAVE JOB: J.M. Manion, who else? Manion is to hair pieces what Tiger Woods is to golf—way a “head” of his time. Manion’s collection of undetectable weaves, coming in all sizes, shapes and colors, depending on the season, is growing by the year. Runner-up: Jamie Hirleman, the owner of the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Hirleman’s Hair Club factory, and the creator of J.M.’s various locks. BONEHEAD PICK OF THE YEAR: Roland Balik, who else? The guy begs me to include him in the prestigious “Experts” Mr. Olympia wrap-up video and blows it by leaving both Jackson and Heath out of the top five in his first ever—and possibly last—Mr. O predictions. (Okay, I felt sorry for the poor guy and gave him his 15 seconds of fame in Vegas.) Ironically, Roland comes from Delaware, same place as new Vice President Joe Biden. Do they have a Gaffe Factory in town, Roland? Runners-up: Yours truly, for making Quincy Taylor my longshot-at-the-Olympia selection, and Yogi Avidan, for picking Will Harris as his longshot choice. Gee, doesn’t anybody have a sense of humor anymore? BONEHEAD QUESTION OF THE YEAR: Yogi, who else? On the verge of suspension many times for his lack of knowledge, he asked me, when Steve I pushed for his picks on the Olympia preStone view, “Who’s in the contest?” On second and Jim thought, Roland may have a future with us Manion. after all. ENERGIZER AWARD: Jim Lorimer successfully defended his crown once again. Where does the 84-year-old get the energy of folks half his age? The Arnold Sports Festival Weekend keeps getting bigger—and better—and on the Monday following the 2008 event the Governator’s co-promoter was right back doing what he does best—working on the 2009 production from his office desk. LOYALTY AWARD: The Governator, \ FEBRUARY 2009 323

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who has kept his promise to Lorimer to be his partner at the Columbus, Ohio, event as long as Jim wants to put on the shindig. As you may know, the Big Fella has a lot on his plate these days in Sacramento, California. VIDEO OF THE YEAR: “The Experts” 2008 Mr. Olympia predictions, which edged the ’08 USA Wrap-up. Both were shot in Las Vegas at the USA; the former gets the nod only because figure pro Jamie Ford got everybody’s attention by strolling past the lounge chairs in a bikini. Contentwise, the latter was the better production, especially since Jay Cutler voluntarily joined the team, as did a couple of medics, gurney in tow, who were looking to wheel Yogi out to the nearest sanatorium after trying to comprehend his analysis. IN MEMORIAM: Ben Weider and Steve Stone. Ben, who cofounded the IFBB in 1946 with brother Joe Weider, passed away in his hometown of Montreal, Canada, on October 17 at 85. Steve died suddenly of a pulmonary embolism at but 52 years The backstage just before the Experts with Jamie conclusion of the women’s Roland Ford. prejudging at the Olympia. Balik. I’ve always gotten along with the Weider brothers; I will never forget Ben’s walking on to the Veterans Memorial Auditorium stage moments after I concluded emceeing my first Arnold Classic in 1993. He approached me with flattering words and asked me to host the Mr. Olympia six months later in Atlanta. After that show, at the post-Olympia banquet, Ben Governor was as usual very kind in his “review” of my perforArnold mance. Thanks for all that you did for the industry, SchwarBen. You will not be forgotten. zenegger. I talked about Steve in last month’s News & Views. (You can catch a video I did with him in 2007 in my blog at Like Ben, Steve will always be in our hearts. I didn’t give a Most Overlooked award this year but, if I had, it might have gone to Ronny Rockel, who seems to be that at most shows he competes in. I just learned that Rockel will be onstage at the ’09 IM Pro and think the guy is good enough to battle for a top-five slot—which will come with an Olympia qualification if he succeeds. See the story below for more on the IM Pro.

J.M. Manion and Rachel Cammon.

Isaac Hinds.

IRON MAN Pro Ready to Go For the first time in its 20-year history the IRON MAN Pro will take place in late January instead of mid-February. And the time between the IM and the Arnold Classic will go from two weeks to six. Thus, according to several authorities in the industry, the John Balik–produced event will just have to end up with a dreadful lineup. I mean, who would possibly compete Jim Lorimer. with such a gap between the two shows? Well, at least according to what they’ve told me as of early November, the second-, third- and fourth-place finishers from the ’08 IRON MAN, Gustavo Badell, Moe El Moussawi and Silvio Samuel, who finished in those slots behind Phil Heath in 2008, have said they’ll be back on the Los Angeles Convention Center stage, January or not. That would also give the show three top-10 finishers from the ’08 Mr. 324 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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Mike Liberatore.

Silvio Samuel, Johnnie Jackson and Phil Heath at the ’08 IRON MAN Pro.

Mark Dugdale.

Johnnie Jackson.

Vince Galanti.

Hidetada Yamagishi.

Olympia. I’ve heard rumors that Johnnie Jackson could be joining the battle as well, and I think local aces Omar Deckard and Will Harris will compete, as well as Quincy Taylor, who needs to give a prime-time performance so I can save face after my Olympia longshot pick. Mark Dugdale and Marcus Haley, both former top-five finishers at the IM, are set to do the show, and a couple of people have told Silvio and John me that Hidetada Yamagishi will Balik. be returning to the contest where he broke out two years ago with a seventh-place finish. Another fella with a terrific physique, Vince Galanti, will make his pro debut in Los Angeles after a much-too-long NPC career, which culminated in the 41-year-old from New Jersey’s copping the main title and a pro card at the Masters Nationals last summer. Of course, we’re still about 12 weeks out from the IM Pro as I type, so assume that a few more solid names will be added to the list of competitors down the line. For updates, log on to www.Iron And, while you’re at it, check out the video interview I did with Balik to hear why the contest, again coupled with the FitExpo, will take place on January 24. One reason, to give you a hint, is that there were no available days at the Convention Center in either February or March ’09. I can also give several reasons why the earlier date may not hurt the quality of the third best all-around contest on the pro circuit (behind the Arnold and the Olympia). Best of all, the Swami is bringing his crown, cape and crystal ball to Michael Neveux’s studio in December and, after a period of deep concentration, will reveal to the fans who will emerge with the $15,000 top prize. That video should be posted at by the time you finish reading this.

Chip Off the Old Block Dept. Marcus Haley.

Will Harris.

Find L.T.’s blog and videos at www.IronMan

Lee Labrada became one of the industry’s greatest bodybuilders in the 1980s and ’90s by besting his opponents on symmetry, conditioning and posing ability. Hunter Labrada is a champion, like his pop, but the 16-year-old gets his props for knocking opponents on their fannies from his cornerback position on Houston’s Northland Christian High School football team. “I love contact,” says Hunter, a 5’8”, 175-pounder. “I like going and hitting somebody knowing that I put in as much work as I can and knowing I’m going to win that collision.” Hunter’s coach, Nate Sanford, says, “Hunter is probably the most intense player we have on our team. He puts a lot of effort into his preparation. He eats right, he takes real good care of his body and works 12 months a year on getting stronger and faster.” Gee, I wonder where he gets those traits? Hunter, the oldest of Labrada’s three sons (Blade is 13, and Pierce is nine), has been lifting consistently every day or every other day since the eighth grade. “My dad got me eating right,” \ FEBRUARY 2009 325

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Lee and Hunter Labrada.

Robin Labrada

Labrada says. “I’m eating six meals a day, he’s got me training right and [is showing me] how to get both my weight and speed up.” Of course, Lee ain’t a bad role model to have. He came to the United States from Cuba when he was two years old with his dad and not much else. Labrada became the second man in his family to go to college, ended up as a world champion physique star and, today, of course, is CEO of the highly successful Labrada Nutrition. Lee, who retired from competition in 1995, when Hunter was three years old (I emceed his final show, the Arnold Classic), admits he learned early on he was much more suited to a posing dais than a football field. “But I love watching the game,” he says. “Football is one of the greatest games of all time, and it’s even better when you’re watching your son in action.” And I bet the Lean Body meal-replacement drinks are among Hunter’s stable of nutritional components. They’ve sure been good to me. After seeing a ghastly belly dominate the screen in my interview with Jack LaLanne on Labor Day 2007, I decided there was no more time to procrastinate. At 5’10”, I tipped the scales at about 205 pounds. Don’t need to tell you it wasn’t all muscle. So, to get on the right track, I started drinking Labrada’s Lean Body shakes for dinner and occasionally threw one down prior to starting my day, in addition to getting back into the gym on a fairly consistent basis. I dropped almost 20 pounds by the time the ’07 Nationals hit in November and was down to 177 as I headed for the airport en route to the ’08 USA at the end of July. Not wanting to be confused with Don Knotts, I backed off a bit at that point, moved the weight back up to around 180 to 183 and have stayed there. To check out all Labrada products, log on to

Kristy Hawkins (second from left) with her parents, Barbara and Terry, and her beau, Branden Ray.

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Megan Oliver, Dan Serota and Donna Williams.


Ronnie Coleman may be retired from competition (or is he?), but the Big Nasty still draws big crowds when he guest poses. A large and in-charge Coleman delighted the huge crowd at the Lakewood Civic Auditorium in October, a week after the Olympia, as part of Todd Pember and Dave Ronnie Liberman’s Natural Northern USA Coleman. Championships. When Liberman asked the eight-time Mr. Olympia if rumors were true that he’d be back onstage in 2009, Ronnie replied, “Well, I said I’d never get married, and I did, so you never know.” That Ronnie, still a funny dude. As always, the competitor numbers were high and the quality exceptional at the event. Congrats to men’s overall winner Dan Serota, who also took the junior men’s division; Donna Williams, the overall women’s bodybuilding winner; and Megan Oliver, who took the overall crown in figure. I’ll be heading to Ohio twice in a few months: first, to emcee the Arnold Classic and the Arnold Amateur in Columbus the first weekend in March and then on to Lakewood to host the Natural Ohio a month later. Jay Cutler, who generated a huge crowd at that event in 2008, will be back for an encore performance as guest poser. Hey, Todd and Dave, the weather hasn’t been too shabby the past couple of years. Let’s make sure it remains that way. You know how my voice cracks in the snow.


Nasty Time in Cleveland

Hawk the Doc

Ed Corney.

Markus Ruhl.

Chris Lockwood.

I always wanted to be part of the classroom environment at the California Institute of Technology, a.k.a. Caltech, one of the most prestigious schools for math and science in the country. And I got my chance on Tuesday, October 28. Okay, I was just a guest watching Kristy Hawkins defend her Ph.D. thesis on a subject we all know well: “Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.” I got tired just typing it and still am not sure if the spelling is correct. Good thing is, none of you will know. The presentation came at the culmination of more than five years of blood, sweat and tears that Kristy put in at the Dan Pasadena, California, university; everything but the paperLurie. work was now done to complete her doctorate. At the end of the week she packed her bags and headed up north to start her new job with Amyris, a research company in Emeryville, California, just outside San Francisco. Boyfriend Branden Ray flew in from Washington, D.C., to support his lady; so did her parents, Barbara and Terry, who made the trip from Longview, Texas, Kristy’s birthplace. Branden had to head back to Atlanta that same night—CNN was calling him to work—but not before he guaranteed me that he’d score a victory at the ’09 USA. Kristy and I trained at the same gym, Gold’s, Pasadena, and I miss her at the place already. The Hawk was the only worthy challenger in a calf posedown. At least I won’t have to unload seven of the 12 plates on the leg press to get in my turn the way I did when we worked wheels together. You’ve come a long way—both on and off the stage— since I announced you as the overall winner at Prince Harrison’s Lone Star Classic back in 2003, kid. Congratulations. Peter McGough.

Teper’s Tales

Kelly Ryan and Craig Titus.



Allan Donnelly.

Former bodybuilding icon Dan Lurie, the founder of Dan Lurie Barbell Company, ex-publisher of Muscle Training Illustrated, promoter and recent inductee into the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame (among other many achievements over an illustrious career), still pumps iron on a regular basis. As you can see by the accompanying photo taken by his son Mark in October, the 85-yearold Lurie still looks as if he could put most folks half his age to shame.… Speaking of bodybuilding legends, Ed Corney celebrated his 75th birthday on November 9. Although you won’t get this mag until the end of December, you can still wish Ed a happy birthday at… Peter McGough resigned as editor in chief and group editorial director at Muscle & Fitness, Flex and Muscle & Fitness Hers magazines in late October. McGough moved from England to work for Flex in 1992. David Pecker, chairman and CEO of American Media Inc., announced that Allan Donnelly was promoted to executive editor at Flex, with Chris Lockwood moving to editor in chief at M&F.… Although he said he’s retired, rumors have it that Markus Ruhl could be back onstage at the ’09 New York Pro in May. At this point it looks like that show could be a repeat of the ’06 NPC Nationals, where Desmond Miller bested Evan Centopani.… In a “48 Hours Mystery” episode that aired on CBS on November 8 about the never-ending case of Craig Titus and Kelly Ryan, a graphic displayed at the end of the show said that Kelly was ending her marriage to Titus. IM

To contact Lonnie Teper about material possibly pertinent to News & Views, write to 1613 Chelsea Road, #266, San Marino, CA 91108; fax to (626) 289-7949; or send e-mail to \ FEBRUARY 2009 327

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Richie Medina Age: 28

Photography by Roland Balik and Merv 328 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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LO NN I E T E P ER’S R isi ng S ta rs

Weight: 165 contest; 180 off-season Height: 5’7” Residence: Los Angeles, California Occupation: Personal trainer, actor Contest highlights: ’08 NPC Team Universe Championships, welterweight, 4th; ’08 Pacific USA, middleweight, 1st Factoid: Originally from Chicago, he has a degree in sportsmedicine and theology from North Park University. He loves to travel to countries like Cambodia and India, teaching kids about fitness. Contact: Fitness@


Amy Lee


L O NN IE T EP E R’S Ri sin g St ars

Age: 32 Weight: 130 Height: 5’5” Residence: Fishers, Indiana Occupation: Data analyst, pro-figure competitor Contest highlights: ’08 NPC USA Championships, overall; ’08 Indiana Championships, class winner; ’08 Kentucky Muscle Classic, 2nd Factoid: She was an English literature major in college. Contact: Amy_Lee_Martin@ \ FEBRUARY 2009 329

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L O N N I E T E P E R ’S R i si n g St ar s

Holly Bacola Age: 33 Weight: 135 contest; 155 off-season Height: 5’5” Residence: Spartanburg, South Carolina Occupation: Physical therapist Contest highlights: ’08 Team Universe, heavyweight, 3rd; ’08 USA, light heavyweight, 5th; ’07 NPC Junior USA Championships, light heavyweight, 2nd Factoid: Originally from Buffalo, New York, she’s married to her high school sweetheart. Contact:


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The 2nd Annual $50,000 Transformation Contest




Todd Madden AFTER

Brought to You by the 10th Anniversary of


n early 2008 Team MuscleTech, makers of the world’s numberone sports supplement brand, teamed up with and BodySpace, the Web’s most visited bodybuilding site. Together these industry icons announced the MuscleTech $50,000 Transformation Contest presented by BodySpace— featuring one of the most lucrative contest prize packages in bodybuilding history. Challenges were made, and the competition began to heat up instantly. Sixteen weeks later 1,147 bodybuilders and hardcore fitness fanatics had developed a lifestyle comparable only to that of some of the world’s top pro bodybuilders, all the while earning celebrity status on the world’s largest bodybuilding Web site. The completed transformations were among the most impressive the Team MuscleTech researchers had ever seen. First-time bodybuilding competi-

tor Todd Madden took home the top prize of $25,000 in cash, thousands in MuscleTech supplements from, a VIP weekend at the ’08 Mr. Olympia and a oneon-one workout with two-time Mr. Olympia Jay Cutler. Team MuscleTech also gave away three runner-up prizes of $1,000 plus $1,000 in supplements to Dave


Dave Bohr AFTER

Bohr, Jerome Dinh and Shawn Barthel. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of, BodySpace and Team MuscleTech are teaming up again to bring amateur bodybuilders and basement gym warriors the Second Annual MuscleTech $50,000 Transformation Contest. The winner walks away with $25,000 plus $1,000 in MuscleTech supplements from and the opportunity to spend a day with Mr. Olympia Dexter Jackson. Team MuscleTech is also giving away more than $20,000 in second- and third-place prizes. With even more cash on the line, this year’s edition promises to be bigger and more competitive. Entering is easy. Log on now to for the complete entry form and the complete official rules with full prize details. The contest begins January 1, 2009. IM


Shawn Barthel AFTER


Jerome Dinh AFTER \ FEBRUARY 2009 331

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The Gaspari Nutrition All-American STRONGMAN CHALLENGE

Pictured here are scenes from the ’08 All-American Strongman Challenge. From the farmer’s carry to the stones of strength, the ’09 edition promises to be even bigger and better. Catch all the action at the Los Angeles Convention Center on January 24 and 25.

Photography and illustration by Larry Eklund 332 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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Profiles in Muscle

Profiles in Muscle IFBB Pro Bodybuilder & MuslceTech Athlete

David Henry Compiled by Ron Harris

Name: David Henry Nickname: D.H. Date of birth: February 24, 1975 Height: 5’5” Off-season weight: 230 Contest weight: 202 Current residence: Tucson, Arizona Years training: 13 (“seriously for eight”) Occupation: Pro bodybuilder, U.S. Air Force Marital status: Married to Nicki Children: Alyssa, 15 Hobbies: “Riding my motorcycle, taking my guns to the shooting range and playing my drums.” How did you get into bodybuilding? “I was a track-and-field athlete in high school and was extremely lean and muscular. At age 16 I competed in my first bodybuilding contest, long before I’d even lifted my first 336 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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hard on myself, very critical. I used to get pretty worked up and stressed because I wasn’t satisfied with my physique and demanded more, but I’ve tried to relax a bit in recent years while still making improvements.” Do you have a philosophy you try to live by? “Treat others the way you would like to be treated. The world would be a much nicer place if everybody simply did that.” How do you stay motivated? “Now that I’m in the public eye, I have people telling me that they have been inspired to achieve goals by what I have done, that they look up to me. I don’t want to let them down by being anything less than what I can be, and I don’t want to let myself down.”

weight, and placed third in the men’s novice lightweight division. That told me that I probably had pretty decent potential.” Who inspired you when you were starting out? “My brother and I had that huge book, Arnold’s Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding. The photos of him in that book were what really made me want to take my own physique to that level one day.” Top titles: ’02 NPC National Middleweight champ; ’05 Mr. Olympia Wildcard Showdown champ; ’07 Mr. Olympia, 10th; ’08 Tampa Pro, 202and-Under champ Favorite bodypart to train: Chest or shoulders Favorite exercises: Hammer Strength incline presses, up-the-rack dumbbell lateral raises Least favorite exercise: “Deadlifts from the floor. Structurally, I’m not suited for that movement. I do rack deadlifts instead, and my back has responded quite well.” Best bodypart: Back Most challenging bodypart: Outer-quad sweep Obstacles overcome: “I’ve always been very

How would you describe your training style? “Since I turned pro, I’ve been following D.C. training, and I’m coached personally by its creator, Dante. The cornerstone of the program is brief workouts using heavy weights and mostly rest/pause sets, striving to increase the resistance over time. A stronger muscle is a bigger muscle, and I’ve used D.C. training to go from 175 to about 205 pounds.” Training split: “Day 1, chest, shoulders, triceps; day 2, back and biceps; day 3, legs. I train four days a week, so whatever bodyparts I train first that week also get hit at the fourth workout. Every grouping of bodyparts is trained once a week for two weeks, then twice a week on the third week on this type of rotation.” Favorite clean meal: Ground turkey and jasmine rice Favorite cheat meal: “Chicken wings, bratwurst, whatever I can throw on the grill. And I may have a Sam Adams or two while I’m grilling.” What’s your favorite supplement, and why? “Without question I would say GAKIC by MuscleTech. I’ve been using GAKIC since it first became available a couple years ago, and the results have been phenomenal. It enhances strength, and that’s priceless to me because the way I train is based on getting stronger.” Goals in the sport: “My main goal used to be to place in the top 10 at the Mr. Olympia, which I did. Now that the IFBB has instituted the 202 class, my goal is to be the best 202-pound bodybuilder in the world. I am glad they have provided this option for those of us who will never be quite as large and heavy as Jay Cutler or Ronnie Coleman.” IM \ FEBRUARY 2009 337

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IRON MAN Hardbody



Michelle Poulin Has an Eye for the Artistic and a Physique for Fitness

Compiled by Jonathan Lawson Photography by Michael Neveux • Hair and makeup by Yvonne Ouellette Height: 5’10” Weight: 147 off-season; 136 contest Hometown: Waterville, Maine Current residence: Simi Valley, California Marital status: Not married Occupation: Gaspari Nutrition sales and product representative Workout schedule: Six days on/one day off. “All muscle groups get hit at least once a week, and I hit biceps and shoulders twice a week. I’m trying to get some better growth in them for an NPC show in May 2009. I also do cardio six days a week for 30 to 40 minutes per session. Lift heavy and hard!” Favorite foods: “Teriyaki chicken and white rice bowls with inappropriate amounts of sweet sauce. On cheat days, of course, I like Sour Patch Kids.” Factoids: “No children, although would like to have them someday. I have a degree in interior design and architectural design as well as two years of kinesiology and health fitness.

I’ve been a personal trainer on and off for the past five years. I acquired my WNSO Pro-Bikini card in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, in 2007 at an Ujena Bikini event. In 2007 I also placed third at an NPC figure event in Culver City, California, which was my first time onstage, so I was very happy with that, and I was the first-place winner at a Hawaiian Tropic Bikini contest in San Diego.” Future plans: “I’d like to step back on the NPC stage again in 2009 with intentions of placing third or better and will continue to compete in the FAME and Fitness America events.” Contact info: www.myspace. com/michellepoulin, or send

e-mail to michellemainegirl@ or aara88@hotmail. com Special thanks: “Thanks to two women, Priscilla Tuft and Kerstin Norman, whom I hold in the highest of respect with regard to my knowledge of dieting and competing. They’re with me every time I’m onstage smiling down at a panel of judges or in the gym pushing through a workout.” IM

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• The Gracie Kids World Championships will make its debut—an opportunity for young people to shine in a world-class jiu-jitsu competition. • The Gladiator Challenge presents Revolution, a full card of 12 MMA cage bouts set for Sunday afternoon. And if that’s not enough, two more exciting events are coming to this year’s Expo:


• The American Street Dance Championships is offering $5,000 in cash and prizes. Competitors will take it to the floor for a full day of hot solo and crew dances. Scheduled for Sunday, the event will feature music delivered courtesy of L.A.’s hottest DJs as well as special guests and judges. • The inaugural FitExpo Sumo Grand Prix, hosted by the United States Sumo Federation, will bring world“The greatest class competitors in one of the lineup of fitness, world’s oldest and most revered sports. physique, The Expo also offers contests that are open to all attendees, including:


shooting for California and American records as well as $3,000 in cash. Mixed martial arts has become the fastest growing part of the Expo in recent years. In 2009 no fewer than three amazing MMA competitions will be held in the exhibit hall:

• The internationally renowned Gracie US Nationals will return for a second year after ’08’s rousing success, in which hundreds of competitors dazzled crowds with their jiu-jitsu expertise.

strength and MMA contests on the West Coast!”

• Champion Nutrition’s MaxReps 4 Cash contests are the most popular of the weekend’s audience-participation events, with a $500 cash prize going to the winners of the bench press, pullup, pushup and biceps curl competitions. • The BNRG Fittest Couple contest offers spouses, friends or even training partners the opportunity to win $1,500 in cash and a photo layout in IRON MAN. • On Sunday the USPF and Powerlifting California will present the Los Angeles FitExpo Benchpress and Deadlift Championships, an amateur contest with medals awarded for first through fifth places. Lifters from any federation are welcome to compete. • ABC-TV’s hit series “Wipeout!” is holding an open casting call for its second season on Saturday and Sunday. Celebrity appearances and seminars are commonplace at the expo, with two-time Mr. Olympia Jay Cutler (courtesy of Weider Publications) headlining this year’s list. Admission to the Expo is only $15 a day or $20 for the full weekend. You can purchase tickets in advance at www.TheFitExpo. com or at the door. Pro Fight Supplements Los Angeles Fitness Expo

Los Angeles Convention Center 1201 South Figueroa Street Los Angeles, CA 90015 South Halls G and H. Saturday, January 24, 9:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m.

Sunday, January 25, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. IM

and Con-Cret. Supporting Sponsors: Muscle Milk, BSN, SAN, Subway, GNC, Muscle & Fitness, Flex, BNRG, X-Arm and \ FEBRUARY 2009 347

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About February: • • • •

Early Birds Bombshells Recent Additions Pro Faces of 2008


MORE REBOUNDS Speaking of up-from-thebasement first pro wins, Brenda Marie Smith, tied for 18th at the O, nailed hers at the Kentucky Muscle Figure Championship on November 8.

POTENT PERFORMER Also prequalifying for 2009 was Jamie Ford, the gal who got an A+ in the A-class last summer at the USA. The Vegas hottie sizzled to the tune of second in her pro debut at the Sac on November 1.

HUONG-IN’ IN THERE Huong Arcinas rebounded from 13th place at the Figure Olympia like a kangaroo on Hydroxycut, snagging her first pro win a month later at the Sacramento Pro. Nice way to ease into the holidays—with her ticket to next year’s Big O safely tucked into her bikini.



Photography by Ruth Silverman, Roland Balik and Jerry Fredrick

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MORE MARSUPIALS. Teresa Anthony’s freshman year in the pros had its ups and downs too. Her runner-up spot in Kentucky counts as a way up.


CAT SUIT FIGHT I finally caught up with the most recent “Iron Sirens,” and I’m telling you, that Jenny Lynn (right) can really kick butt. The plot, in which fitness superdivas fight over who gets to save the world, has definitely thickened. When last seen, Jenny had been abducted by “dark diva” Jenn Gates and.... Wait! Are we sure this is fiction?

BOMBSHELL BRIGADE Meet the first major force out of Florida in a long time that isn’t a hurricane: Shannon Dey’s Team Bombshell won all the figure classes plus the masters at the NPC Coastal USA earlier in ’08 and made a strong showing at the Nationals. “These are businesswomen, entrepreneurs, mothers and even grandmothers and range in age from 20 to 55,” says IFBB fitness pro Dey, who takes a well-rounded approach to coaching. “I want them to build lifelong friendships as well as succeed onstage.” Read all about it at \ FEBRUARY 2009 349

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ULTIMATE BACKSTAGE SHOT Just because Heather Armbrust dropped to 14th at the Ms. Olympia doesn’t mean she’s not a work of art.


EXTRA LEAN The women’s bodybuilding schedule is down a contest for ’09—no Super Show for the female flexers. Guess those stories you read on the Internet sometimes do have a grain of truth in them.


VOCABULARY BUILDER Thanks to my coverage of the Atlantic City Masters Pro Figure show, Merv learned a new word. Now he wants to start a Web site: MervandtheCougar .com.

MORE NOSTALGIA For those who know Brian Moss only as a photographer, be advised of his past life as the impresario of Better Bodies, a New York gym of the ’80s and ’90s that holds a special place in folks’ hearts. “Manhattan’s first serious bodybuilding gym for women as well as men” was home to the legendary Gladys Portugues and was a great place to train. Check out Brian’s new tribute site—and share your memories—at

For more news and comentary on all things women’s bodybuilding, fitness and figure, read Ruth’s blog at www.IronMan

GOOD QUESTION Word is Alexis Ellis is thinking about getting onstage again and wondering whether it should be in figure or bodybuilding. Cast your ballots.

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PRO FACES OF 2008 Eternal conundrum. Aurelia Grozajova may not have the biggest biceps in the bunch onstage, but “for Slovakia,” she says, “I am big.”

Gina Aliotti knows better than to turn her back on the competition—or a reporter with a camera. Sure, Julie Lohre wanted to emulate Adela Garcia’s Olympia wins, but emulating her torn ACL wasn’t in the plan. Good luck with the rehab, Julie!

Kristal Richardson was a one-woman media blitz in 2008—and in the mainstream as well as the muscle press. That’s what I’m talkin’ about. Photography by Ruth Silverman

Below: Speaking of cougars, the first pro masters figure show got Lydia Haskell back into her bikini.

Left: Dark diva Jenn (see page 349)? And you thought the second N meant she was double nice.

Below: Isabelle Turell and Dave Stamper are all end-of-season smiles after her sixth-place pro debut in Atlantic City. Ready for her close-up? Word is Oksana Grishina is moving to L.A. Above right: Tana Clough jumped from 16th place to seventh in a week. Can you say fast learner?

Product placement. In case you can’t read Irina Veselova’s hat, it says, “Apollon Gym.”

When Melvin’s smiling, the whole world smiles with him. Hmmm. Could there be a song lyric in there somewhere? Columbus showgirl. Colette Nelson glams it up before the Ms. International finals.

You can contact Ruth Silverman, fitness, figure and women’s bodybuilding reporter and Pump & Circumstance scribe, in care of IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033; or via e-mail at

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FITNESS OLYMPIA Jen Hendershott, 1st

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FIGURE OLYMPIA Jennifer Gates, 1st \ OCTOBER 2008 355

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RESULTS FITNESS OLYMPIA 1) Jen Hendershott 2) Tracey Greenwood 3) Kim Scheidler 4) Julie Palmer 5) Tanji Johnson 6) Regiane Da Silva 7) Mindi O’Brien 8) Laticia Jackson 9) Trish Warren 10) Erin Riley 11) Nicole Duncan 12) Heidi Fletcher 13) Stacy Simons DNF) Julie Lohre

FIGURE OLYMPIA 1) Jennifer Gates 2) Gina Aliotti 3) Zivile Raudoniene 4) Jenny Lynn 5) Mary Elizabeth Lado 6) Sonia Adcock 7) Kristal Richardson 8) Amy Fry 9) Nicole Wilkins

10) Heather Mae French 11) Lenay Hernandez 12) JulieAnn Kulla 13) Huong Arcinas 14) Jessica Paxson Putnam 15) Jelena Abbou 16) Teresa Anthony 17) Jane Awad 18) Paola Almerico, Darlina Brown, Bernadette Galvan, Hazal Nelson, Felicia Romero, Chastity Sloan, Brenda Marie Smith, Kristi Tauti and Laticia Wilder

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MS. OLYMPIA 1) Iris Kyle 2) Betty Viana-Adkins 3) Yaxeni Oriquen-Garcia 4) Lisa Aukland 5) Dayana Cadeau 6) Cathy LeFrancois 7) Betty Pariso 8) Mah-Ann Mendoza 9) Jeannie Paparone 10) Jennifer Sedia 11) Nicole Ball 12) Brenda Raganot 13) Debbie Bramwell 14) Heather Armbrust 15) Rosemary Jennings 16) Sherry Smith 17) Klaudia Larson

Only the Strong Shall Survive

Enhancing Endurance Weight Train to Win Part I by Bill Starr Photography by Michael Neveux


early every coach and athlete knows the value of strength in sports that involve a great deal of contact: football, lacrosse, basketball, rugby, hockey, soccer and wrestling.

Model: Clark Bartram

They also understand that achieving a higher level of strength helps anyone excel in high-skill sports that do not entail contact, such as tennis, fencing, volleyball, swimming and field events. Few, however, realize just how important the strength variable is in sports that rely primarily on endurance, such as the marathon and other longdistance running events, crew, distance skating, cross-country skiing, triathlons and other sports that require a tremendous amount of mental and physical stamina. Endurance strength is considered by many who engage in such activities to be quite different from the type of strength needed by those who participate in sports that require only short bursts of effort followed by brief periods of rest. Those who take part in endurance sports often shun any form of heavy weight training in favor of using very light poundages, if any at all. They feel that in order to improve their endurance, they must spend more time practicing their chosen sports for longer periods of time. More than a few endurance athletes believe that lifting heavy weights is actually counterproductive because it builds larger muscles and adds unwanted bodyweight. The extra weight will slow them down, not make them faster. That’s a misconception. It’s not necessary to add bodyweight even when heavy poundages, relatively speaking, are used in a strength program. It’s been demonstrated numerous times that a well-designed, properly executed strength routine will have a very positive influence on the performance of endurance athletes, even when they use demanding resistance. Why? I’ll let Professor Gene Logan of Southwestern Missouri State and noted authority in the field of physiology 362 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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answer that question. In his book Adaptations of Muscular Activity, he states, “Strength undergirds all other factors when one considers the total functioning of body movements. Without sufficient strength, factors such as endurance, flexibility and skill cannot be used effectively.” It only makes sense. Before a toddler can walk, he must have enough bodily strength to support himself. After hip or knee surgery, a patient has to spend time regaining lowerbody strength before becoming ambulatory. Wanting to run, swim, row or bike longer is merely an extension of the same idea. Getting strong is the key. Of course I’m well aware that a great many other factors are involved in any athletic endeavor, but creating a rock-solid foundation of strength is critical to improving all those other attributes. No one can deny that the amount of time athletes spend practicing the skills they need in their sport is a huge factor in their success. Stronger athletes are not only going to be able to practice longer than their weaker counterparts, but

they’re also going to be able to use better technique at the end of their session. In contrast, weaker athletes’ form will falter when their strength wanes. When that happens, bad habits are formed. The wellknown adage that practice makes perfect is valid only if the skills being practiced are performed correctly. Practicing sloppy technique is detrimental to progress. For example, rowers who can produce the perfect stroke at the very end of a grueling race are going to emerge victorious over opponents who are struggling with form. A distance runner who can maintain perfect body mechanics coming down the stretch has a very definite advantage. Someone who increases strength by 40 to 50 percent while retaining a high degree of flexibility, balance and technique in any sport is going to be a better athlete. It’s so basic, it’s often ignored. Coaches

Model: SKip Lacour

The well-known adage that practice makes perfect is valid only if the skills being practiced are performed correctly. Practicing sloppy technique is detrimental to progress.

and athletes are constantly seeking a more complicated solution to a simple problem. They insert all sorts of gimmicks to improve strength in an innovative manner, then throw in yet more gimmicks to enhance foot speed, leaping ability, lateral movement and on and on. A great deal of time and energy are spent during those prolonged workouts—way too much, in fact. When energy is spread too thin, little is achieved. They trade an abundance of quantity and variety for a severe lack of quality. My approach to helping any athlete, including the ones engaged in any type of endurance sport, is twofold: Get stronger and practice the

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Strong skills needed in that sport diligently, So instead of having a rowing crew spend hours doing countless drills, I have them strength-train, and then I get them out on the water. What every athlete is seeking is a better performance, and that can be achieved through basic hard work. I would imagine that everyone associated with the sport of Olympic weightlifting is familiar with the achievements of Norbert Schemansky. He won four Olympic medals, more than anyone in that sport, plus three world titles and nine national championships, and he set more than 50 world and Olympic records. His last world record, a 363 split snatch, was set when he was 43 years of age. When a young lifter asked him how to improve his press,

Ski replied, “Do more presses.” “How about my snatch?” the lifter said. “Do more snatches,” was Ski’s answer. Yet that approach is beyond the comprehension of many coaches and athletes. It’s just not complicated enough. There are really two categories of athletes to deal with in regard to endurance: 1) athletes who participate in events that are long in duration and that don’t include rest periods and 2) those who participate in sports that require brief but explosive actions. This time I’ll focus on athletes in the first category, and next time I’ll deal with the second. I realize that triathletes do get short reprieves while transferring from one activity to the other, but cer-

tainly they fit into the first category. All sports have an off-season, even if it’s only for a few months, and that’s when you need to insert a pure strength program into the yearly training schedule. The objective of the strength routine is to make all the major muscle groups stronger, with special emphasis on muscles that play a prominent role in the performance of a particular sport. For example, rowers should give more attention to strengthening their backs and shoulders than distance runners. For the most part, however, all areas of the body should receive equal attention because having balanced strength from top to bottom is beneficial to any athlete, regardless of sport.

Model: Derik Farnsworth

When a young lifter asked him how to improve his press, Ski replied, “Do more presses.” “How about my snatch?” the lifter said. “Do more snatches!”

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The program should be condensed, not long and drawn out—the mistake many endurance athletes make. Because their sport entails constant movement for an extended period of time, they figure their strength-training routine should as well. Just the opposite. The weight work should consist of only three primary and no more than two auxiliary exercises. One core movement for each of the three major muscle groups—shoulder girdle, back and hips and legs—can be followed by two auxiliary exercises for the smaller groups. Three workouts a week are sufficient. That will enable athletes to recover from the new form of stress and give them time to practice the skills of their sport. Because the pure strength program is going to last for only six to eight weeks, the same exercises can be done at every workout. Most, however, prefer some variety in their weekly workouts. In that case, here’s what I recommend: For the shoulder girdle, or upper body, alternate flat-bench presses, inclines and overhead presses. For the back do power cleans, good mornings and either bent-over rows or deadlifts. You can do back squats three times a week using the heavy, light and medium system or do lunges on the light day. You should select the two auxiliary exercises with the intent of improving weaker muscles. If no areas stand out as being considerably weaker, use the auxiliary exercises to enhance groups that are very much involved in the sport, For instance, a rower needs an extra strong middle back and would benefit from doing dumbbell rows while lying on a flat bench, along with lat pulls on a machine and chins. As every endurance sport relies on strong lower legs, it makes sense to do calf raises several times a week. For the primary exercises use the tried-and-true strength formula for sets and reps: five sets of five. Do the auxiliary movements for higher reps, 20s for a couple of sets. The exception is calf raises. In order to stimulate those weight-bearing muscles, you have work them very hard—three sets of 30. If possible, do both seated and standing calf

raises. The standing version hits the larger gastrocnemius, and the seated version the smaller soleus. If the two groups that form the calf are going have any impact on speed, endurance or jumping ability, they must have proportionately equal strength. I mentioned that you can do the same three primary exercises at every workout, and many athletes like that idea. It’s easier for them to learn proper form on three movements rather than eight or nine. The three I recommend are incline presses, power cleans and back squats. I like inclines over flat benches because the inclines emphasizes the deltoids and triceps, while the flat benches involves the pecs much more. All athletes use their deltoids and triceps. They don’t all use their pecs. Some have trouble with technique on the power clean. If that’s the case, try deadlifting instead. If your sport requires a high degree of athleticism, however, stay with power cleans. They will actually enhance such valuable attributes as timing, coordination, balance and quickness. In the beginning the primary task is to learn correct technique on all the chosen exercises, That takes precedence over everything, including numbers. With that in mind, move through the workout with purpose. Don’t lollygag between sets, but don’t rush either. Concentrate on doing every rep as precisely as possible and every set better than the last. Once your form is at least good, perhaps perfect, and the initial soreness has dissipated, pick up the pace. Especially on the lighter warmup sets, move from set to set with little rest in between. On your light days set up a circuit and move through the routine as quickly as possible. A great many critics believe athletes cannot improve their cardiovascular-respiratory fitness in the weight room. I totally disagree, and I’ve watched it happen on many occasions. Doing a fast circuit will run your pulse rate way up, and if you stay in motion, it will remain there throughout the workout. To me it’s an added bonus for any endurance athlete. To be able to gain greater body strength and do a bit of cardio

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distances, not stopping all endurance training, although it would be a good idea for some to do just that. Take a break from running, rowing, skating, skiing, swimming or biking for several weeks to let your mind and body regroup. Whenever I tell coaches or athletes that it’s possible to improve stamina without doing any endurance training, I get a look that tells me they think I’ve been nibbling on some magic mushrooms. Not so. I’ve seen it happen many times while dealing with athletes at all levels—scholastic, collegiate, professionals—plus others who were

raises. He picked up the form right away and started using the heavy, light and medium system. The gains came quickly and steadily because he was in good muscular shape. Only his cardio fitness was lagging. After a month of strength training we once again went to the high school track. He covered two miles at a brisk pace and could have gone much farther, but I had him stop. While it was obvious that his heart and lungs could handle the new stress, his knees and ankles weren’t quite ready. He, of course, was delighted and somewhat surprised. In all honesty, so was I. All the increase

and clean and jerk and more than a hundred to my back squat in six months, while staying within the 181-pound class limit. 2) In the event endurance athletes do put on a few pounds while following a strength program, it’s no big deal because they’re going to shed it rather quickly once they start adding to their distance work. Plus, the extra weight will come off rather easily because their new strength will enable them to sustain activity for a longer period of time. Some athletes find that the new bodyweight is an asset rather than a hindrance if it’s functional muscle.

I began doing a systematic strength program under the tutelage of Sid Henry, adding 50 pounds to my press, snatch and clean and jerk and a hundred to my back squat in six months. mainly interested in staying very fit aerobically. Lani Bal always comes to mind when I think about that aspect of training. We shared a house in Carmel, California, one winter. I went to the gym three times a week and ran on two other days. One Sunday he said he wanted to join me for my run. He’d never run for exercise or lifted weights. He did do a great deal of hiking on his home island of Maui, frequently walking through the Haleakala crater, down through the lava tubes and on into the village of Hana—a full day’s journey. He also swam and surfed, so he was fit and eager to get stronger and improve his endurance. Since it would be his first time, I suggested we run on the track at Carmel High School. That way he would know exactly how far he went. Sunday was my long day, and I planned on doing six miles. I kept a slow pace to give Lani time to get into the rhythm, but after only a half mile he had to stop. He was dismayed to be in such bad running shape. When I told him that strength training could help him, he said he would forgo running again until he got stronger. I thought that was a good idea because it would let me find out if it was possible. He did the following routine three times a week: situps, back squats, power cleans, bench presses and leg

in endurance had been achieved in the weight room. Another important consideration of a strength program often overlooked by endurance athletes is its value in helping stabilize the joints. When you use lower reps, your tendons and ligaments are forced to do more work than when you do higher reps. The attachments help secure the joints—whether knees, ankles, shoulders or elbows—and prevent them from being injured. The added strength certainly helps eliminate many of the smaller, nagging dings such as tennis elbow. I want to reiterate that athletes don’t have to gain bodyweight when doing a strength program. Most athletes desire to do so, but most endurance athletes definitely do not. Two points in that regard: 1) All my programs have their roots in the sport of Olympic weightlifting, where athletes have to adhere to strict bodyweight requirements in order to compete in the various weight divisions. When I first got involved in the sport, there were seven, starting at 123 pounds, moving up to 198, then heavyweight. Now there are eight divisions, with the superheavyweight class beginning at 253 pounds. I began doing a systematic strength program under the tutelage of Sid Henry, adding an average of 50 pounds to my press, snatch

Once you learn proper technique and get over the initial muscle soreness, you must start leaning on the numbers, pushing them higher and higher every week. The first three sets are basically warmup sets and need not be hard, but the fourth and especially the final sets must be demanding. With the exception of the light day, you need to apply the same effort to the weight work as you do in training for your sport. The goal is to get stronger, and that can be accomplished only with determination and hard work. Staying in the comfort zone just doesn’t get the job done. Next month I’ll present the steps for tapering off the lower reps into higher ones in preparation for returning to a full endurance schedule and suggest ways to maintain the strength gained in the pure strength cycle throughout the year. I’ll also discuss improving the endurance factor for athletes in sports that call for brief but explosive actions. Editor’s note: Bill Starr was a strength and conditioning coach at Johns Hopkins University from 1989 to 2000. He’s the author of The Strongest Shall Survive—Strength Training for Football, which is available for $20 plus shipping from Home Gym Warehouse. Call (800) 447-0008, or visit www.Home-Gym .com. IM \ FEBRUARY 2009 369

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Let Go, Lighten Up, Back Off Now or Never here’s the bench, and there are the dumbbells, and that’s a bar and this is a cable machine. That’s me in the mirror (hi), and the sound you hear (Eagles) in the background is rock and roll. Have straps, will lift. Got water? Bombing and blasting is my favorite term for hard, devoted and sensible training, focused on the moment, the movement and the muscle engagement, the set, rep and pace. Smiles and laughter in little packages are good stuff, often energizing and a welcome relief. I suggest you leave politics and sports, sex and the job for another venue. The last thing a real lifter needs is cortisol-producing explosions to wreck his or her bombing and blasting. Authentic muscleheads have a lot in common. None of us are cowards, nor do we capitulate easily, and we firmly trust our ready, willing and able natures. Health, strength and muscle are within our grasp. Though we press toward the goal before us, it’s reassuring to know that we need not train mercilessly, that there are no records to set at every workout and that there is no hurry. This is a good day to savor the workout, live right and let life fall into place like a precise cog in a well-lubricated gearshift. That’s a wise and realistic approach to our training. Though we often replace wise and realistic with driven and intense—life has a way of injecting passion into our veins—taking the slow and steady way is often healthier, more enjoyable and more certain. How often have we looked at the steep mountain of iron before us and decided to take no way but

the high way—or taken the high way and slipped off the slope and landed at the bottom on our bottom? Consequences of either choice are real: guilt, lost workout and training synchronicity, overtraining, injury, displeasure and iron-pounding resentment. Jeez, Lareez. Anticipation alone can be an exhausting burden and often starts the day before a crucial and towering workout. Of course the anticipation is also known as psyching up and is hardly a burden but an important performance asset. When the stress-loaded attribute rests on the back consistently and habitually, though, it can be a training killer. It’s amazing how much work I accomplish on the gym floor and under the iron when I release my grip on the big stick behind my back and the frown on my forehead and allow myself to train willingly, agreeably, sensibly and, eventually, enthusiastically. Relax, Bomber. “Lighten up” isn’t the typical encouragement a weightlifter receives from the gleeful sideline spectators or his robust training partner. Here’s where “bomb it” and “blast it” come in handy; one more rep, you can do this, and push, push, push. How often have we heard those cheering words in the shadows of strain and hoisted that last burning rep or that added plate on the end of the bar? Often enough. Lighten up when appropriate. Be aware. A younger man or woman than I who confronts the jingle-jangle jungle needs to be consistent, persistent and forbearing. Muscles are establishing, chemistry is adapting, disciplines are forming, information is collecting, and understanding is growing. Treasures Lighten up when are mounting. appropriate. Be aware. Pressing on is a more significant part of the narrative, the process, the adventure. The “lighten up” principle is less necessary, less appealing, less recommended. It can smell of laziness and can lead to lost momentum and slowed progress, disappointment and guilt, depression... and drinking, drugs and suicide (just kidding). The last thing a novice or intermediate weightlifter needs is a certified, valid principle to back off and lighten up when he gets the urge. Training intensity and integrity are easily compromised, courage goes untested, and commitment is softened.


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Beware, lest you yield prematurely. Be strong. Mental Mojo I’m a riot. I begin our friendly discourse applauding the love affair that is muscle building and weight training, the attributes we display and acquire as we engage in the activities, and go on to offer a brief respite from our noble struggles that we may enjoy their fragrance oing things and flavor, their texture and grand feeling. Then I dare the unworthy even slightly lifter and warn the barely worthy bomber that such a delightful embrace might lead to disaster. I offer a crumb and quickly remove it differently before the unsure outstretched hand. can have good efTouch the crumb and risk losing the whole loaf of bread...cookie, fects on mental aclayer cake and apple pie. I have the dubious advantage of perching on a century-old treecuity. For example, top and scanning the scenery below. My wings, though shedding if you brush your an occasional feather, are established and familiar with the winds of time. I’m an old buzzard. I can glide and maintain my flight without teeth with your right the fight. I’m sore but can still soar. I bomb and blast and though hand, try doing it not fast, I last. Not strong, I prolong. Not extraordinarily healthy, I’m with your left. That un-ordinarily stealthy. Are you confused yet? Me, too. To lighten up or not to lighten up, small change can that is the question; back off or no. Let me think...lighten up when stimulate the producthe woes of life are such that weightlifting is a question and not an answer; a problem and not a solution. tion of brain-derived By golly, I think I’ve got it. neurotrophic factor, Should hoisting the bar become a dastardly deed and not a jusor BDNF, which enhances the growth of long-termtice, reduce its bulk and don’t sulk. Have fun for a while. Smile. If the gym and its contents present a burdensome task, not a welcome memory neurons. It can also improve mood. When diversion, make light the weights and play for the day. It’s okay. And you’re depressed or under stress, your BDNF plumnever engage in a soul-weary slog when trimming the load makes it a life-saving mission. You have my permission. mets. Anything unexpected can activate BDNF, even Lighten up when you want to see where you are and know who a change in the gym, like a new exercise. you are. To lighten up after having heavied-down is to have earned —Becky Holman a quick look or an extended visit. Take your time with your training when you have the time. Better yet, take time with your training when you don’t have the time. Grab the weights with both hands—and while you’re at it put your arms around them. Lift the cold steel with a strong tug and warm hug. Sit on the bench, lean against the rack, adjust the plates on the bar, and Solutions lift when you lift. Notice the combining force of man and metal, the burn and the groove, the power and pump, the contraction and release, the beginning and the end, the breath in and rilliant people do it all breath out. Congratulations: You’ve the time: They let their lightened up. You’ve dared to notice minds wander into a what you are doing. You backed off, courageously and thoughtfully and day-dreamy state to solve a confidently, to find the joy and purpose problem. Science says a wandering of training, working out, weightlifting, mind can come up with solutions, according to the November pressing on and moving the iron. ’08 Health. “The right hemisphere—the sensory part of the brain that’s activated when That’s enough for now, unless you you daydream—has more wider-reaching branches, so it has the power to make the less can’t stop. Warning. That happens often when you let obvious associations,” says Mark Jung-Beeman, Ph.D., a neuroscientist at Northwestern hold on University. According to him, the best way to daydream is to go where there is very little tight. outside stimulation and think pleasant thoughts. Bombs and —Becky Holman wings, throttles and tail feathers and Godspeed. —Dave Draper

Brain Gains With Change


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Editor’s note: For more from Dave Draper, visit and sign up for his free newsletter. You can also check out his amazing Top Squat training tool, classic photos, workout Q&A and forum. \ FEBRUARY 2009 373

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Gum to Conclusions


here have been studies on how gum chewing both stimulates and suppresses the appetite. It does burn a few more calories and strengthens your jaw muscles. Oh, and it may help your brain. According to research reported in the journal Neuroscience Letters, gum chewing activates areas of the brain that improve memory and concentration. —Becky Holman

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MIND/BODY Book Review


Sandow the Magnificent Eugen Sandow and the Beginnings of Bodybuilding


avid Chapman’s revised and updated paperback edition of Sandow the Magnificent is a thoroughly entertaining biography of the strongmanturned-entertainer, a saga that seems to mirror the proud progress of bodybuilding’s favorite son, the current governor of California. “Becoming a unique presence in his own right... partly due to his ability to make himself the center of attention no matter where he went...was just more grist for…the publicity mill. Anything that kept this man in the public eye was money in the bank.” As you read those sentences, imagine they were written about a young German-speaking strongman who came to America to find wealth and fame, became involved with an energetic promoter who took the young giant under his wing, taught him the business of showmanship and made him a star. It’s the story of Eugen Sandow, “the Strongest Man in the World” (or so he would have had the world believe). Sandow used his good looks,

intelligence, business savvy and knowledge of the legal system to forge an empire based on his claim to the title of the World’s Strongest Man. The nuances that colored Sandow’s life are painstakingly recorded in straightforward prose that’s both enlightening and entertaining. I found it hard to put the book down. I couldn’t get enough about Sandow’s bouts with vaudeville strongman “Samson,” a.k.a. Charles A. Samson—one of the more dubious professional Hercules— or Sandow’s legal dealings with Arthur Saxon, the only man to defeat him in a show of strength. In promoting himself, Sandow started what we know today as bodybuilding competition and laid the groundwork for the Weiders, Schwarzeneggers, Cutlers and Colemans who would come after him. Without Sandow, bodybuilding might still be in the backrooms of athletic centers, and fitness might not have made it into the mainstream. —Larry Eklund


White Has Might Too


ccording to a new study, 35 women got 6.8 ounces of red wine a day for four weeks, no wine for a month, then 6.8 ounces of white wine a day for a month. After both periods of wine intake, high-density lipoprotein—the good cholesterol—rose, and substances associated with chronic inflammation and heart disease receded. Studies in men produced the same result. Apparently, red wine is not the only goodfor-you brew in the wine cellar. —Becky Holman

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MIND/BODY Motivation


Music and Moving Heavy Metal


hat gets you motivated in the gym? Is it the hot, hard bodies walking around, seeing a massive poundage being moved or the thought of your delicious postworkout shake waiting for you? Something you may want to add to your bag of inspiring tricks is music. According to a study published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine, listening to musical beats that are close to your heart rate during exercise significantly improves motivation. You may have to experiment with different tempos to find something that really gets your heart, muscles and mind pumping, but a good place to start is with the hard-driving beat of AC/DC or the more pop-oriented Third Eye Blind. Another major motivator is getting stronger. Music may help in that

respect, but specific power supplements will enhance the effect. For example, the number-one instant strength jack you can throw down your gullet is Gakic by MuscleTech. Everyone I’ve spoken with who’s tried it gets extra reps on big work sets, especially the ones done early in a workout. The power-surging effect tends to wear off the longer the workout lasts. Gakic is an ammonia buffer, so it blocks that specific substance that can stop your sets short. You just keep on repping. To get an even bigger strength pop, also take beta-alanine. It’s a lactic acid buffer that works along the same lines but via a pathway different from Gakic’s. Beta-alanine postpones the acidic burn, so you keep cranking out the growth reps— and cranking up the tunes. —Becky Holman

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SSG Bennie Lee Crawford Jr.

I’m currently deployed in Iraq. I wanted to show the American people that even in wartime conditions soldiers still find time to be physically fit. We just recently had a bodybuilding contest, and I placed second in the men’s middleweight class. Supplements I use are MuscleTech, like Aplodan and CellTech Hardcore. SSG Bennie Lee Crawford Jr. C Co. 40th Expeditionary Signal Battalion

Editor’s note: You’ve built a great physique in less-thanideal conditions. Very motivating. We salute you.

Rising Starlet I don’t write to magazines, but when I saw the photo of Alicia Renee Harris [Lonnie Teper’s Rising Stars, December ’08], I felt compelled. You must do a Hardbody photo layout that features her. What an athletic beauty. She’s got a

fresh all-American look that really plays to the camera. She should be in the movies. Aaron Mason Atlanta, GA

Big Ideas I almost missed Ron Harris’ commentary in the December ’08 issue [“Why Not Look Good All the Time?”] because it was toward the back, but I’m Ron glad I didn’t. His words struck a Harris. chord, and I’m following his lead. No longer will I “bulk up” over the winter. It’s really just an excuse to eat junk and get fat. Then, when I diet down in the spring, I lose any muscle I may have gained, which probably isn’t a lot anyway. The sensible approach is to stay fairly lean over the winter to stay more motivated to train hard. It won’t be so difficult to get lean in the spring, and I should retain more of the muscle I gain over the winter thanks to heavy workouts. My hat is off to Mr. Harris for his sensible words. Barry Richardson Costa Mesa, CA Editor’s note: Ron also has a lot of sensible words in his new book, Real Bodybuilding, available at www.RonHarris

Body-Changing Info I’m 70 years young and have been weight training for health and fitness for 52 years. I’ve been an IM subscriber since the late 1950s. I train at home and have a very complete home gym with many early-generation Nautilus machines as well as more than 1,500 pounds of free weights. I just wanted Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson to know that I’ve changed my training programs based on information in their e-zine and articles, and I’ve made much more progress since doing so, more than in the past 20 years. The weights and reps I use now are as much as or more than I was using at age 50. Plus, my physical appearance and fitness levels are as good as or better than 20 years ago. Thank you. Joe Daly Cincinnati, OH

Alicia Renee Harris.

Editor’s note: To subscribe to the IM e-zine, written by Holman and Lawson and delivered once or twice a week via e-mail free, visit Vol. 68, No. 2: IRON MAN (ISSN #0047-1496) is published monthly by IRON MAN Publishing, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Periodical Mail is paid at Oxnard, CA, and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Please allow six to eight weeks for change to take effect. Subscription rates—U.S. and its possessions: new 12-issue subscription, $29.97. Canada, Mexico and other foreign subscriptions: 12 issues, $49.97 sent Second Class. Foreign orders must be in U.S. dollars. Send subscriptions to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Or call 1-800-570-4766. Copyright © 2009. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine may be reproduced in any manner without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the USA.

384 FEBRUARY 2009 \

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Freedom-Fighter Physique

Isaac Hinds \


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