the editorâ€™s note
The feminine is the earth. The earth from where we
were born, which makes us human. The feminine is the mother, as the fecundated earth, gestating and giving birth. The feminine transforms. From the earthâ€™s womb the new arises and every life is possible. The feminine has multiple arms which hold everything, does not distinguish, accepting and loving, because it is a mother, is mater. The feminine does not denied the mistake, on the contrary, welcomes and transforms it into life, knowing that we are made of humanity, defects and problems. But the mother loves her child, regardless of his mistakes and faults. The feminine accepts all kinds of shapes, feelings, fragrances. As a circular labyrinth that runs the entire surface before reaching the center. It is the longest way, takes more time, however, what leaves in its wake is life, no matter the form.
FE MI NI NE By Elise Marcal
and the creativity
T h e feminine is the night, is the moonlight. The moonlit night belongs to the lovers, the dreamers, the creators. In the dark of the night, even under the moonlight, everything becomes mysterious. The shapes are not entirely revealed, and get a faint simplicity. The moonlight is sweet, unlike the incisive sunlight, the masculine, it is indirect. The moon transforms the sunlight and sends us the bright of the soul’s path. It is during the night that the soul goes out to wander, where the eyes are useless, other senses should acquire greater sensitivity. In order to walk through the paths of the night, it is necessary more than reason, we must have eyes that see and feel everything. They are the feminine eyes, the sixth sense called intuition. In principle it may seem terrifying, but once in its paths, strong and staunches, we are in sacred territory. We are in the territory of the creativity, inspiration and new ideas. We access its magic, filling ourselves with the new. We are ready to create. With the feminine, the artist gestates and gives birth to his work, modeling the clay, weaving, painting. And how to give shape to all this material accessed through the night, and show it to the day’s eyes? The answer is with the technique, the reason and the language of the masculine. It is during the day’s light that the artist materializes the fragrance of the feminine into beautiful works of art.
To the lovers of the night, the moonlight and its mysteries, the art and the creativity, that we dedicate this issue of IMAGINER. 7
the poetry of art
photo: Mystic Rose under the stars.
VICTOR M. GIBELLO BRAVO (Caceres, Spain, 1970), has a degree in Geography and History in Archeology and Medieval History areas, and has a degree in History of Art. He is author of many books and writes for scientific and cultural magazines. Photography is one of his means of artistic expression.
mystic rose UNDER THE STARS
During the night, I travel to an ancient forest devoted to the goddess Ataecina. There lived a deity revered by tribes, which inhabited my land, Extremadura, Spain, centuries before the Roman legions invade and destroy their ancestral cultures. Before the goddess’ nemeton¹, I kowtow to with humbly, in search of the necessary inspiration in order to create this article. I hope the mother goddess to wisely guide my steps through the labyrinth of discovering feminine traces in art. Ataecina, adored by Vettones, Lusitanians, Tursulis and other tribes from the Iberian Peninsula, is an archetypal mother goddess linked to the nature caring, fertility, spring and the life’s rebirth. The Romans associated her with their goddess Proserpina and Feronia, and continued the previous cult before their arrival. I walk under the moonlight throughout centenary trees.
By Víctor M. Gibello ¹ Nemeton was a sacred space of ancient Celtic religion.
In a enlighten forest’s part rises the monastery’s church built in the 8th century, following the Visigoths constructive criteria. Centuries later, in the 14th century, the church was rebuilt and devoted to Saint Lucia. The place’s energy vibrates in a special way under the stars. The presence of ancient goddess permeates every branch, every leaf, and every flower. Everything here is life, the sublimation of the feminine that creates, gives birth, regenerates, enrich, transcends.
Night image of Santa Lucía del Trampal
I turn toward the source, which flows from the base of the mountain. There, next to some very tall orange trees, I sit. I hear the water sound and its singing deposits in me classic feminine images, which have been endlessly repeated in the western art during, at least, the last two millennia. Carl G. Jung settled in one of his early works, Symbols of Transformation, the four basic views of the feminine. Jung used for it the archetypical images bequeathed by classic and medieval texts, where they have already described four levels or stadiums, defined by the names of Eve, Helen, Mary and Sophia. 9
Eve represents the biological, sexual and attractive woman, who must be fertilized, becoming the mother that perpetuates life. She is bodily, physical. Helen is the poetry and romantic love, spiritual and sexual partner, a calm song to life. Mary symbolizes the highest form of spirituality; she is not earthly or biological, but mother in the mystic level. Sophia embodies the complete sublimation of the feminine, is wisely in knowledge, inSophia, Lilies on black background
Helena, camellias on black background
tellectual and spiritual, but also close and carnal. Sophia is the eternal feminine. The source keeps showing me, through its song, metaphoric images of femininity, this unfathomable, attractive, full of life and hope mystery; the sacred secret to which men dedicated their existence, unsuccessfully, even knowing that behind the veils a knowledge will exist, forbidden to our poor masculine nature. The source whispers me that floral photographs must illustrate this article. 10
The flowers hoard a symbolic language deposited in them for centuries, a language linked to some cultural traditions, expressed in classic works, but also in the contemporary art, legacy of our culture. A red rose represents Eve. The red roses are the flowers of the Great Mother and her daughters, an echo of the fertility and feminine sexuality. Seven red camellias on black background come to embody the image of Helen. The red camellias are a flame in the heart, burning love, peaceful, romantic, spiritual and carnal at the same time. Amaryllis are the flowers that primp Mary. They represent the maximum that humankind could ever achieve. The Amaryllis, with its
Eve, the red rose
long stems and fragrant flowers, were identified since the 12th century with the virginal purity of Mary. Its flower, a bell, a chalice, a uterus, is the symbol of renovation, incorruptibility and eternal life. The Minoan Culture already linked this symbology to Amaryllis three millennia before our time. Three lilies rest in a 14th century pitcher. They evoke Sophia. Its name comes from the Greek word Kalos, which means Beautiful. 11
In Sophia everything is beauty, also harmony, simplicity, joy and peace. She is the sum of all the previous images. Thanks to the spiritual alchemy, the red rose, Venus and Eveâ€™s emblem, has become the Mystic Rose, the White Rose, symbol of the celestial and absolute realization. A blanket of stars covers it and enhances its metamorphosis in the silence of the night. Eve, Helen, Mary and Sophia have been merged into a unique metaphoric image, which transcends all the others.
Mary, Amaryllis bouquet
ROBINSON SAMULAK is Jornalism Student, cinephile, nerd and writer in spare time. Loves beer, coffee and science/ficcion and crime literature. In his spotify, 80% of the musics are folk, blues and rock with at least 40 years old.
of art By Robinson Samulak
There is in art a touch that is purely feminine: in the subtlety of a sentence; in the outline of a trace; in the focus of a scene. The feminine expresses itself in art continuous and deliberately. In the same way, the sensation felt through art relates with women in a different way than with men. A woman that go back to home late in the night, alone, and in every encounter with the figure approaching feels the fear of being another one in the violence statistic, will react more intensively when facing the same scene in a movie. Art can express our deepest anxieties, sometimes with banal elements that appear only to complement the whole work. In Sandman, Neil Gaiman tell us: â€œThat is the tale the women tell each other, in their private language that the men-children are not taught, and that the old men are too wise to learnâ€?. This is a truth that feeds not only the cinema, but music, theater, photography, literature, etc. and is daily supplied by real life.
Motherhood also expresses itself this way: it is too complex for a man to understand the relation between mothers and their child. The experienced anguish caused by motherhood are so unique that, men need to accept that a father’s relationship with his child, no matter how intense it is, will never be equated with the tie that binds the mother to her kid. This feature is felt in books as Bird Box (Josh Malerman, 2014). Anyone who reads the book will feel the claustrophobic environment passed throughout the pages, as much as the tension. A mother’s hassle, which needs to train her children not to open their eyes and cannot create emotional bond with them. This kind of perception is much more related to the woman who has already had the experience of being mother.
Babadook, Jennifer Kent, 2014. The desperation of a mother who does not know how to protect her child.
In cinema this experience is constant: Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore (Martin Scorcese, 1974), Schock (Mario Bava, 1977), Cujo (Lewis Teague, 1983) and Babadook (Jennifer Kent, 2014) for instance. In all these movies what can be seen is the mother’s fight to save her child. In many cases a self-sacrifice is need to ensure the child’s survival. If we compare the reverse, as the case of the film Pet Sematary (Mary Lambert, 1989), the attempting adopted by the father to save his child, even assuming the emotional side, does not requires the same kind of sacrifice. This is what Gaiman means with “the old men are too wise to learn”. An example that deserves a highlight is the film À L’intérieur (Alexandre Bustillo, Julien Maury, 2007). A pregnant woman, alone, almost giving birth in a Christmas’s eve. Her only visit before going to the hospital is her authoritarian mother (three generations with completely different interpersonal relationships) and a strange women (which makes reference to the title) who has sadistic intentions. 14
It is a heavy movie, with an ending very close to the gore cinema, but makes sense in the context of feeling represented, even in an extreme way. Similarly, the breakdown of this relationship generates nuisance. The separation of the mother from the child (something like À L’intérieur, in a certain way) is one of the mottos of Ich seh, Ich seh (Severin Fiala, Veronika Franz, 2014). The psychological conflict between mother and son is the truth horror of the movie, is what rises the tension and carries the audience to the grand finale. The comprehen-
À L’intérieur, Alexandre Bustillo, Julien Maury, 2007. The drama of a woman that to save her child, must save herself in a self-sacrifice act.
sion of this feeling has the weight of each one’s development. It is the woman who has already seen herself rushing step on a street to escape from a potential aggressor that will feel this more intensively when expressed in art. As argued by the writer and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir: “One is not born, but becomes a woman. (…) it is civilization as a whole that produces this creature”. We are what we have been instructed to be, based on our experiences added to the biological and psychological factor of each person. The audience’s emphatic relation towards art is felt through different ways, and artist’s world perception has a huge weight. Bird Box was written by a man. Pet Sematary was directed by a woman (despite being an adaptation from a book written by a man). In each one
Cujo, Lewis Teague, 1983. A mother that needs to face her fears in order to save her child.
of this works, the understanding of how the relationships influence on audience was essential to make them feel in the skin of the characters, each one in its own way. 15
trace of niemeyer
By Elise Marcal
Oscar Niemeyer was one of the most iconic architects of the 20th century; his trace carries the essence of what is sublime, uncertain, sinuous, and unpredictable. During his 105 years of life, transmuted with genius the feminine beauty into the plasticity of architectural shapes. He was, undoubtedly, the architect of the curves, of the free traces with no certain way, except that of the creative pleasure, the scape of the existing conventions, in special the modernism that was emerging in all parts of the planet. Niemeyer has ripped off the rules and left his unmistakable stamp in different countries, cultures and languages, inspiring generaSão Francisco Church (1940), tions of architects. Pampulha ComWould be impossible not plex, Belo Horizonte - MG, Brazil to bring his work to this isPhoto by: Tuca Vieira | 2009 sue of Imaginer, dedicated to the feminine in art, because architecture, different Supremo Trifrom what people may argue, bunal Federal (1958), Brasília is art, and through certain DF, Brazil. Photo By: Tuca minds can acquire its maxiVieira | 2009 mum expression. Architecture has a unique feature that other forms of art do not have, which is shelter the viewer inside itself. The viewer becomes a user, being part of the building’s existence. The architecture is lived, breathed, heard, felt, touched; be it daily inside the own home, be it in public buildings of common use, or even that one which stands imposing in the middle of many others in the skyline. Few architects knew how to take advantage of this architecture’s virtue, and one of them was the Brazilian Oscar Niemeyer.
Niemeyer was wise enough to target all social classes through his trace, attracting looks and creating sensations of pure ecstasy in everyone who enters inside his works. He went further and turned many of its works into truth icons, city and countries symA Casa do Baile (1940), Pampulha Complex, Belo Horizonbols, as Brasília, transte – MG, Brazil Photo By: Tuca Vieira | 2009 formed in modern architecture reference to the rest of the world over the 50’s. Niemeyer has gone to Cuba, France, United States, Italy, Spain, and many others. From the Brazilian interior to Niterói Contemporary the Rio de Janeiro’s Art Museum (1996), Niterói – RJ, Brazil. shore or the center of São Paulo city, his buildings made their presence in the landscape as if they had always existed. But what still stands out in all his work is the use of the asymmetrical and sinuous curve in almost his whole projects. The São Francisco Church inside the Pampulha Complex in Belo Horizonte City is a perfect example of how the curve can be the ceiling and the walls simultaneously. The simplicity and purity comes up naturally. In his curves, as himself used to say it is the Brazilian woman curve, we lost ourselves. As much as the woman curve, it is spontaneous, there is no effort in trying to be more than really is. Even in the palaces of the capital Brasília, where the parallelepiped is adopted as main shape, the volumes freak out on the horizon line, typical of the region plains.
Bienal Pavillion (1954), São Paulo – SP, Brazil Photo By: Tuca Vieira
Edifício COPAN (1954), São Paulo – SP, Brazil. Photo By: Tuca Vieira
But the Niemeyer’s stamp appears in the columns, slim, graceful and timeless. The way they are insert in the building, suggests they are the one which carry the weight of the buildings, however, they real function is decorative, is the beauty, is the excess. Nevertheless, is this same excess which seems to have born with the structure, is the excess that if removed, cripples the entire work. The Copan Building in São Paulo or the Niemeyer Building in Belo Horizonte transforms the dwelling into contemplation. They soon have become in marks, in the landscapes where the straight line, orthogonal and rational prevails, the Oscar’s curves give life, feeling and beauty to the inhabitants and passers-by of the neighborhood. When looking around his works, it seems that all there is artificial, except the sinuosity of his work. As Rio de Janeiro native, perhaps he had been inspired by the city’s mountains, which make it one of the most naturally beautiPalácio do Planalto (1960), Brasília – DF, Brazil Photo By: Ueslei Marcelino ful cities in the world, to compose his designs, and transmute the sensuality of this city into his reinforced concrete traces. It makes us think that such as the Pão de Açucar Mountain, his work has always existed, quiet, waiting for our recognition and wonder.
ESTRELLA SÁNCHEZ is graduated in Philosophy and in History and Sciences of Music. Works as music teacher in Secondary Education and is the secretary of the Asociación Mujeres en la Música (Women in Music Association) that works for gender equality in the music world.
history with soul of the woman
By Estrella Sánchez
To talk about injustice, Hildegarda von Bingen in her Liber Vitae Meritorum says in the chapter XLVI of the book IV: “Sed et anima hominis symphoniam in se habet et symphonizans est” (“But a man’s soul also has harmony in itself and is like a harmony”). The word “homo”, from which comes out our male “man”, also means our “generic man”, our “human being” to which the abbess referred to in her text. Everyone, men and women, carries harmony and are harmony; a faculty that was given to us by the abbess. However, our quest to break the world in pairs, discarding the unity and the multiplicity, as only the antagonism between opposing pairs would allow us to understand what surrounds us, has led us to assume that if two things are different, in some way, should also be antithetical.
And so, the capacity of being harmony (important to highlight here the success woman image as perfidious, calculating and Machiavellian, nothing harmonious) and generates harmony with sounds (means, the faculty of making art through sounds combination), which Hildegarda has given to all human being and that herself so much has lavished, now it is not supposed to be applied to women, because by opposition, it is implied that it is only for men. Justify yourself permanently for using a capacity that you also have and dominates but is not attributed to you: this is the Sisypheanยน punishment of the feminine part. Therefore, to women left nothing more than embrace the captatio benevolentiae as an authorization strategy. Thus, if women arrive, in something must be noticeable. That is when the binomial machinery generates the idiosyncrasies of each member of the pair. In music, to the masculine is associated the
rhythmic, strong, vigorous, conclusive; to the feminine the melodic, sweet, delicate, the unfinished. Susan McClary has made it clear in her book Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality, talking about the usual cadences classification, which divide them in feminine, and masculine, attributing to the feminine gender the cadence in which the conclusive chord falls on the weak part of the beat, while the masculine is when this last chord is a strong one. Passing to the historic ground, what has in common the history of music with the musical living of each period is a very thorny issue. The history that we read in the books is only about the successes happen throughout past ages. Each written account is elected to the detriment of others that fall in silence; each
music play we heard is chosen over others that remain in silence. Every election act involves prioritizing and for each choice made a new creation act is made, which the meaning is objectify by time, or simply accepted as truth. However, with the instantaneity that the anecdotes are produced and the reliable account of events that are not ordered by cause and effect ties, we are blinded in front of the historical development processes. The event prevents a panoptic vision that allows the highlight of a genealogic tree in which every woman can be inserted when decides to start a composition. They always feel as pioneers in a world taken over by men. 21
And if one meets the success, either in life or because the historic account makes her worthy of such a honor, is because something special she must have: if she has talent, so is deserved and also brings the touch of woman which makes her unique, different. And so, they put on a silver platter the justification for women have not been part of history, because would not have the necessary for being there, as if the historic account would have the quality of justice. But the one who arrives becomes a “woman-event”, detached from any other woman, whose exceptional qualities has made her worthy of being part of the historic canon of musical works. If someone asks me if there is something like “the feminine” in music, I would flatly say that yes, if we resignify “the feminine”, understanding it as women creating as much as human beings, as much as “homo”. Since the 12th century with Hildegarda, the “Eva” of our erudite western music’s history, until our days,
history is full of women, which has shown, in music, how full of harmony is her soul and how capable are of making it. But in order to achieve them, we must detach the binominal that position us apart, because even for “the feminine” we will keep assuming the opposite, what actually was given by nature. If there are particular features that
really express a possible feminine style in music compositions is something that generates far less controversy. However, perhaps this is not the issue to be solved, because in order to discuss this theme with the deserved thoroughness, a precondition is necessary: the contexts equality. Let’s talk only if there is a feminine style in music when the context where the development of woman creation is the same. Then, and only then we can observe if the biological difference is significant enough to give woman a substantial difference in her way of making music.
¹ In reference to the eternal sacrifice imposed by Zeus to the King Sisyphus of Ephyra (known as Corinth).
PABLO CORREA, 27, Architect and Visual Artist has always sought a way to express what he sees, feels and desires through art. His relation with drawings started in childhood, but it was during the architecture course that he discovered artists and ways to improve techniques, which keep him inspired. instagram.com/pablo.bcorrea/
Art has been part of my life since my childhood. I am an architect and since 2011 people have been encouraging me to expose my drawing, saying they feel impressed and thrilled with the shapes, colors and feelings. I was chosen to a special exhibition in 2012 called â€˜Movimento Hotspotâ€™, organized to show the new talents in Brazil.
expressions By Pablo Correa
I am inspired by artists involved with architecture like Burle Marx and Le Corbusier. I would say that my art is an exploration of visual, sensory and emotional things that touch me.
Most of my drawings show women in different aspects and feelings. At first I decided to explore womenâ€™s shapes in order to improve my skills in composition, because for me, one of the most beautiful things in the nature are women. Sometimes the exploration goes further. Sometimes I try to understand feelings and mix it with the drawings: happiness, depression, love, fear. If you observe deeply, body language can expose it and the challenge is how lines, colors and shapes can express all of it.
The more you draw, the more you feel. I started teaching architectural observation drawings during the architecture course in 2008 and besides all the technique about perspective, proportion between all the elements in the scene, etc, I tried to provoke people to see beyond the obvious, to understand the atmosphere and represent it. During this process I started to observe the way I was drawing. When you know the technique, all your focus is
to express what you are seeing and feeling: I noticed that I was drawing without lifting the pencil from the paper; it was flowing in only one line. This gestural way of drawing represented what I think about lot of things in life: for me everything is connected; that all people, nature, things we think, build and develop are universal particles that are connected by affinity, expression or feelings. If you
live in a positive way of thinking, the tendency is to attract things and moments to make it bigger and stronger. But the thing is that is not every time people feel happy or lively, sometimes we have bad feelings, losses, moments that we need to keep us deeply into ourselves. 25
The Untitled drawing from 2010 is one of the first experiments with one line, and represents a person thinking deeply about his/her way of living. In 2011, I started an exploration about how to go further by mixing lines and shapes. I included digital process and the first results were an experimentation “exploding” the line, making it free to create irregular shapes (Images untitled from 2011). It was
Movimento Hotspot in Salvador, 2012. Source: http://movimentohotspot.com/festivais/salvador/
like the static line asking to be vibrant and independent, to be without control. Some of these drawings were chosen to participate in a collective exhibition called ‘Movimento Hotspot which
passed through nine cities in Brazil. This exhibition was special for me. I remembered a woman during the exhibition in Porto Alegre that had told me: “I identify myself in this drawing, thanks for this”. It was more than motivated; I realized that the drawings were saying something. After 2013 I started to experiment shapes and colors. The drawings start always the same way, on paper, thinking in a history or feeling, but now creating something that does not need necessarily to show all the line in the process but the result: an intriguing composition. Dora, 2016.
The final art is digital and the size varies according to the exhibition or special requests. Dora is a black woman, hard-working and dreamer. After working all day, she goes home and remember the time she
was a singer. She stopped to sing to work and help her family. Sometimes she wants to
scream and discharge all the pressure in her life, sometimes she feels imprisioned. But even if her life is hard, she believes that her future will be brilliant and she will sing again. Lina is a fashion woman. When I finished her drawing I felt the composition vibrant, looking like a modernist statue or a rare jewel. John and Gina, 2016.
Cora is a brazilian woman that carries in her body some colours from his country, not for being vainglorious, but her colors and her eyes express the power of the woman’s work. She never gives up of her dreams and desires. Nowadays I have been exploring the compositions more than only one object or person, I am trying to describe and create even more histories and their
Series “A Normal Day”, 8 a.m
contexts. John and Gina are a couple, they feel confortable hugging each other. I think like every hug has to be, even if they feel sad, it could be the cure.
Series “A Normal Day”, 3 p.m
Series â€œA Normal Dayâ€? 11 p.m
Lines and colors, feelings and moments, everything pass through us like the wind, that sometimes is a breeze, sometimes is a hurricane. Like particles, we are flowing in this amazing ocean called life. Drawing is one of the ways I have found to express what I see in this world.
history of art
the feminine universe of
By Elise Marcal
A Girl Reading a Letter By an Open Window, 1657 – 1659, Oil on Canvas, 83cm x 64,5cm, Gemaldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Masters Picture Gallery) – Dresden.
The history of art, more than give us an overview of the technical and artistic evolution, also provides us something even more precious: reveals history’s facets, often unknown and that can easily change our way of thinking the past. And that was exactly what he did, masterfully, the Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer, with our vision about the women daily lives of his time, the mid-seventeenth century. Vermeer is not as well known or popular as his countryman Rembrandt, or other renascence painters, for instance. However, once his work is known, the appreciation is immediate. And one of the factors that contribute more for this is the simplicity with which he presents
us, through an impeccable color, light and perspective technique, scenes of a simple everyday life, quiet, but full of feminine grace and freshness. The frameworks of common daily scenes purchase a nothing common elegance when passing
The Music Lesson, 1662 – 1664, Oil on Canvas, 73,3cm x 64,5cm, The Royal Collection, The Windsor Castle.
The Milkmaid, 1658 – 1661, Oil on Canvas, 45,5cm x 41cm, Rijksmuseum – Amsterdam.
through his hands, brushes and paintings. It is like we were allowed to catch an everyday moment of a typical Dutch Protestant house. In a first moment we feel like a slit was opened and we could spy that moment, not with our eyes, but through Vermeer’s eyes. Women, who had their lives, basically dedicated to home, children and typically feminine activities such as playing musical instruments, crafts or reading, have their universe portrayed with an almost devotional respect.
The feminine fragrance exudes for all canvas’ pores. It is impossible to remain indifferent. From Vermeer, little we know. He was forgotten for almost two centuries and today we have only 30 paintings, no sketch, no drawings or letters. In addition to his works we know that he was born in the city of Delft – Netherlands in 1632, married to a catholic girl named Catharina Bolenes in 1653 and died in 1675 leaving his family mired in debts. Along his 43 years of life, he painted a lot and tirelessly, proved by the matchless
quality of his work. Despite being catholic, almost his whole known work is not about religious themes, most likely due to the market in which he was inserted, the majority Prot-
Woman Holding a Balance, 1662 – 1665, Oil on Canvas, 46,5 x 39cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
Young Woman with a Water Pitcher, 1662 – 1665, Oil on Canvas, 45,7cm x 40,6cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Woman in Blue Reading a Letter, 1662 – 1665, Oil on Canvas, 46,5cm x 39cm, Rijksmuseum – Amsterdam.
estant. Unlike his contemporaries and others great painters, Vermeer expressed his sensibility and talent through home settings and the almost divine use of light. The majority of his work is in front of a typical Dutch house’s window of
that time, from which the light gushes, creating shadows in a realistic game that no one of his contemporaries or friends achieved. And in front of this window simple scenes used to happen: a girl cleaning the glasses or pouring the milk, having music classes, reading a letter or weighing gold. 32
Woman with a Pearl Nechlace, 1662 – 1665, Oil on Canvas, 55cm x 45cm, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.
Besides the obvious, his canvas are usually composed with symbolisms, nothing was explicit, but was probably done in order to create discussions and comments among those who admired his works, trying to find out what was the hidden meaning of that specific painting.
In other moments, Vermeer takes us with him to peek behind curtains: a girl receiving a letter, which seems to be from the beloved one.
The Guitar Player, 1670 – 1672, Oil on Canvas, 53cm x 46,3cm, Kenwood House English Heritage, London.
We think not to make noise, inside that silence; however, it is a silence that talks. Talks about a recluse universe, shared among women, without glamour or extravagance. Women that live, dream, cry, smile and work, and at a first sight may seem unattractive, but beautiful the way they are: beautiful, fragrant, silent and mysterious, as only the feminine can be. And for being so unassuming, simple and quiet, it is necessary to have sensitive eyes to see them; it is necessary Vermeer’s eyes. The Love Letter, 1667 – 1670, Oil on Canvas, 44cm x 38,5cm, Rijksmuseum – Amsterdam.
Mário Rita is a matchless artist, which tells us about truths that we do not even know their existence. He takes us to worlds of intuition, sensibility and emotion. His work is timeless, passes something strange, distant and deep at the same time. We know that we are not appreciating a work made to please the eyes or the art
By Elise Marcal
From Silves, in the Algarve region of South Portugal, Mário Rita has completed the Course of Graphic Arts in the School of Decorative Arts Antônio Arroio and has a degree in Arts – Painting from the College of Fine Arts of Lisbon. Mário Rita has exposing regularly since 1983, achieving lots of awards and conquering national and international reputation.
market, is much more than this. Mário Rita, despite his academic knowledge, flees from the conventionalisms and gifts us with a rare flash of what art is really about and how much we, viewers, are part of his creation. It is not hard to spend hours listening, in his beautiful Portuguese, what led him to be an artist; to start a work as well as finish it, how works his creative process, what is his inspiration. Mário Rita has the power of making us leave the reason behind and dive into his work and creative world. It was very difficult to condense in a few pages the immensity of such a work, as immense as the own human being, but we have tried. Enjoy the next pages, visualizing Mário Rita’s work through the sound of his own voice.
E.M.: Mário, I wish to start our conversation with a very complex question, but which I believe to be essential. What is art, from your point of view? M.R.: It is something from the unspeakable, a mere penumbra of what is allow us to access, to glimpse. It is an alche-
O TEMPO DOS SONHOS, 2007 (The Time of Dreams) – EXPOSITION
ALICES PANEL, 374cm X 324cm, China Ink on Paper - O TEMPO DOS SONHOS, 2007 (The Time of Dreams) – EXPOSITION
ALICE 09, 175 cm x 150 cm, Mixed Technique on Paper – O TEMPO DOS SONHOS, 2007 (The Time of Dreams) – EXPOSITION
my that happens when information is brought from other sources to the concreteness, to the matter. Art is an extension of man, a record of himself on Earth, so to speak. It is a cultural, sociological, and psychological document of the human’s path over time, having always as goal the extension of man. It is a legacy of man to posterity.
O MITO DA CRIAÇÃO, 2013 (The Creation Myth - Series) – EXPOSITION
E.M.: When and how did you discover this connection with painting? Was there a moment when you decided “I am going to be an artist” or happened naturally. M.R.: I have never felt that I have decided. I have always felt that this was the path. I know, by reports of my family. My mother used to say that as soon as I started walking I used to look for pencil and paper and there I stood for hours. So, when this happens, I believe
From the O MITO DA CRIAÇÃO, 2013 (The Creation Myth) – EXPOSITION– 175cm x 150cm, Charcoal on Paper.
we are in the beginning of a path. We can have no consciousness of it, but if happens this way, certainly deviate myself would not make
“I hope my work is not a mere individual feeling, but the reflection of a collective feeling”.
LE VOYEURS EXPOSITION, 2015
sense. My family has always supported me, there was never any barrier. It was a very natural path. E.M.: What do you fell while you are painting, creating a work of art? M.R.: From my perspective and experience, this process is always like a child-birth, which is never easy. The difficult is always about giving shape to what is immaterial. This achievement, the transformation into an object, must have an understandable logic, right? For more abstract or conceptual this object is, it must have logic. It is like a written text, which needs punctuation, a language correction. VOYEUR 01 – LE VOYEURS EXPOSITION, 2015– 140 cm x 110 cm, Mixed Technique on Paper.
Painting is a language and has an understanding code in order to provide a clear reading. This part, for me, is the most difficult: turn the immaterial into material. It is an eternal making and unmaking, scratching, cutting and pasting. It is always about constructing, destroying, constructing….always accompanied by great reflections. These moments can take hours or days. Moments when I let myself in front of the painting, using no brushes, nothing. Reflecting about the language,
VOYEUR 14 – LE VOYEURS EXPOSITION, 2015 – 140 cm X 110 cm, Mixed Technique on Paper.
if the idea is clear and if is being passed the best way possible. It is always this trip, between here and there. E.M.: What makes you start a new work and what is the sign that it is finished? 37
VOYEUR 12 AND 06 – LE VOYEURS EXPOSITION, 2015 – 140 cm X 110 cm, Mixed Technique on Paper.
same happens with the children, I do not want the work to exist only for me. The artist gives himself a purpose: to reach the horizon, even knowing that it is impossible to get there. What remains for us is only look back and see the taken path. And it is in this path that I realize what my painting has been. However, there is always the necessity of reaching the horizon line. There is dissatisfaction in man himself, but the most important is not to reach the line, but the several experiences that the route and the construction of the own work gives us. It is important and enriching to realize how our own work communicates with the others and how the oth-
M.R.: A work can be completed in several ways. Today I can finish it in a way and in a month in another, because I will not be the same person that I am today. It is always different, never repeats itself. The reason that leads me to say it is ready, is when ceases the necessity of that reflection, that dialogue with what I am painting, it is like the painting has become independent of me. The work creates own life, freed itself, and now has its own path. The
“Everyone of us has already been Pietàs, has already been crucified and risen”
CRUCIFIXION – LE VOYEURS EXPOSITION, 2015 – 230 cm X 190 cm, Mixed Technique on Silk Quilt.
GOLGHOTA – LE VOYEURS EXPOSITION, 2015 – 230 cm X 190 cm, Mixed Technique on Silk Quilt.
ers converse with it. E.M.: How the themes and figures come up in your works?
M.R.: Looking at my career, I realize that figuration is a pretext of painting. A friend of mine uses to say that what makes my painting unique is the way I “write”. It is a so direct relation between the body and the paintings support that both are fused, the body, the arms, the support and the painting itself. It is emotion and gesture. It is the written over the theme. E.M.: The figure, then, is a no planned result? M.R.: My painting has no project. Happens on the several supporters and it is along the works that a coherence is verified (pictorial or thematic), which the result can be a coherent series. An example is the exposition O Tempo dos Sonhos (The Time of Dreams). During the development of this sequence of works with the same expression unity, came up naturally a subsequence of drawings with great formal and thematic unity, which I designated as “Alices”. This is a second series that was integrated in the exposition but could also be presented independently. E.M.: The same happens with religious themes that appear in your works? An example is your last exposition, right? M.R.: Yes, it is called Les Voyeurs, and is composed by eight acrylic boxes of great dimensions, which contain silk quilts as support for drawings and paintings. They are eight gospel themes: Annunciation, Temple Entry, Golgotha, Pietà, Crucifixion, Resurrection, Cross Descent (1 and PIETÀ – LE VOYEURS EXPOSITION, 2015 – 250 cm X 200 cm, Mixed Technique on Silk Quilt. 2). The titles come up when I am painting, they are never thought. Come up as the traces and brushstrokes. I thought... there are on Earth many Pietás, many Golgothas, many annunciations are made, as much as Crucifixions and Resurrections. That is way I gave them this names. It is clear a Judeo-Christian iconography, which is my cultural formation. In the exposition there were more 30 voyeurs, 30 faces that look the scenes.
and consecrates many things”.
We are represented in these figures, those who watch, as much as in the gospel themes, because everyone of us had already perform both roles. I had some silk quilts, however they had never been revealed, until the day I looked at them and they said: we can be
RESSURECTION – LE VOYEURS EXPOSITION, 2015 – 260 cm X 200 cm, Mixed Technique on Silk Quilt.
shrouds. It seemed to be interesting. The shroud, like it or not, is sacred. Immediately I started to prepare the quilts in order to make them good supporters for painting and drawing. The perspiration has direct relation to the body and came to make justice to my physical/body approach with the painting support. And
a Pietá came up, was the first one. The traces itself denote what it is, mistakes are integrated to the painting, records of the memory and life. E.M.: Last one, but not less important. What is beauty for you? M.R.: Beauty is an attraction… we discover the beauty of things. Beauty depends on the looking, on the hearing, on the touching of each one. The beauty is discovered, many times is what we do not like. This, which we do not like, usually becomes an aesthetic reference and a motto for the construction of a new series of paintings. That is the enchantment, the way to the horizon line, the discovering of a new beauty… sharing with others. After all, nothing that I do is mine. “My painting does not live of concessions. I cannot make it thinking in what others want to see. My painting cannot exist in function of fashions. I do what I have to do, outside the institutional constraints. I do what I want to do. Time will judge, one day will put the right in the right place and the wrong will be forgotten. Be of the time and be out of time, this is the Work of Art with capital letter”. 40
the pursuit of beauty
The Universe has its own aesthetics, with logic and reasons which we are still learning. Nothing is by chance, but has an order that still escapes our full comprehension. What we grasp from this greater aesthetics, we try to apply in our creations. However, our creations, as well as our third dimension reality, is characterized by opposition.
the aesthetics of
opposites By Elise Marcal
We live in a world of dichotomies, with clearly distinguished poles in all areas, including our artistic creations. What rules this polarity, which is also complementary, has acquired several names over time: yin and yang to the eastern people or feminine and masculine to western one, just for instance. And the goal of this article is basically to create eyes to see how this two polarities express themselves through the forms that surround us all the time.
A simple and quick look to the Universe, in macro or micro level, we realize that emotion, intuition and the feminine sinuosity are abundantly found wherever we look. The curve, a feminine feature, is in everywhere: the planets are round, their orbits are elliptical as well as the shape of the galaxies, trees, animals, leaves, flowers, rivers, mountainsâ€Ś The shapes in nature are generally irregular or gently rounded. We observe that the square and its ninety-degree angle was not a tool used in the Universe design. The straight line does not exist in nature, except in the sunlight rays, that by stepping in our planet take the certainty and focus of the straight line, orthogonal.
Not without reason that the masculine, since immemorial time and in various religions and cultures has been always related to the Sun. Its light is direct and glaring, reaches its target with precision, does not band at nothing, trespassing or burning with its heat all kinds of barriers. The sunlight is incisive and allow us to organize, to see accurately, to ensure the realization of any activity without deviating from the path. And most likely was the sunbeam that inspired us to manipulate the matter and create our built world. The straight line gives us the security of knowing the exact path to follow, with no danger of getting lost. Architecture reveals as no one the predilection for this trace.
The straight line allows us to create more in less time, the structural calculations are simple and the construction faster. We are able to produce in large scale, the multiplication occurs. But life does not happen in straight line, it is sinuous, is winding, and is curve. However, both features, feminine and masculine, cause us pleasure and delight to the eyes. Each one for one reason: a modern building of pure volume or the sinuosity of a river, both please us. There is something that escapes the curve or the straight line that attracts,
there is something more, both in the feminine or masculine aesthetics. There are other reasons. And these reasons vary, we can call them proportion, harmony, coherence. Knowledge that we, humans, have discovered from nature and applied in our orthogonal creations masterfully. And since this is philosophical article we cannot but end it with more questions: would our human creation, masculine, a complement to the nature creation, to the feminine? What I feel is that the earth is mother, with her curves that hold and feed us; fertilized by the sunlight is our primary home.
the Prana Company
A Dama e o Vôo (The Lady and the Flight) Musée Cluny. Paris, France, October 2015. Photo: © Fabiana Valente
By Vanessa Valente and Marcel de Oliveira
In the year of 1999, the actress and theater director Vanessa Valente and the violinist Marcel de Oliveira were students at the Arts Institute of the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, in São Paulo), cursing theater and music respectively. Both did not want to follow predictable career paths, as audition for theater productions or playing in an orchestra. They wanted new possibilities. The meeting was during a students’ occupation in a period of strikes in the universities, when both presented on a candlelight soiree. The tune was immediate, one for the each other’s work. Still young, they were in search of subtlety, poetry and sweetness that would arise from the meeting of the two artistic languages: theater and music. It would be the perfect marriage, and so it happened not only in arts, but also becoming husband and wife few years later.
O Anagrama de Leonardo (Leonardo’s Anagram), Château Du Clos Lucé. Amboise, France, September 2015. Photo: © Fabiana Valente
The Audience, Charleville-Mézières, France, 2013. Photo: © Fabiana Valente
Graduated and with a defended Master, they started to work together in narratives of stories, linking music with theatrical language, the artistic expression in which they have been specializing: the Puppet Theater that includes dolls, objects, paper figures, masks and shadows. 45
Thus, in 2005, they founded the Prana Company – Puppet Theater. It has been eleven years since the company’s creation, having a wide repertoire. In its aesthetics research, they search for small places, originals, and that interfere in the daily life of the audience. The closeness to people is crucial: the view touch – most of times through the doll’s look.
Pequenas Cenas Mudas (Little Mute Scenes) episode O Homem dos Girassóis (The Sunflowers’ Man). TV Series, 2016. Photo: © Fabiana Valente
The live music is another personal mark, be it on the violin, piano or on the orgue de barbarie, a mechanical instrument from the 18th century, commonly used by street artists in some European’s cities. The couple faced the nostalgic and poetic instrument’s sound for the first time in Paris, in the streets of the Montmartre neighborhood, when listened excited the singer Arlette Dnis turning its crank. Less than a year later, they re-
Música à Manivela, (Crank Music) Puppet Theater International Festival, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, May 2015. Photo: © Fabiana Valente
turned to France to pursue their own orgue de barbarie, custom-made by the luthier Emmanuel Odin, in the city of Saint-Just-Saint-Rambert. The orgue’s sound in partnership with the violin was stitched with doll scenes, created and handmade by the couple in the company’s atelier. Since 2012, the play Música à Manivela (Crank Music) is a success in several places and with all ages.
“A nostalgia of something that I cannot describe”. - This is how, with a word less or a word more, that the audience expresses the sensation when watching Crank Music.
Música à Manivela (Crank Music) SESC Itaquera, SP, Brazil, 2014. Photo: © Fabiana Valente
France is a very strong reference in the couple’s work, which is inspired by artists as Georges Méliès, Marcel Marceau, Claude Debussy, Erik Satie, Jean-Pierre Jeunet, Yann Tiersen, the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painting and the Art Nouveau Style. The Prana Company participated of the world greatest dolls festival, the Festival Mondial des Théâtres de Marionnettes, in Charleville-Mézières, France, for two years (2013 and 2015). The Company lead the plays Joca da Tapioca and Doces Poemas de Cora – free translation Cora’s Sweet Poems (with the poet’s work use released by her daughter, Vicência Tahan), presenting Doces Poemas da Cora (Cora’s Sweet Poems), Festival Mondial des Théâtres de Marionnettes, Charleville-Mézières, France, 2015. Photo: © Fabiana Valente
to the European audience a little bit of the Brazilian feminine poetry translated into French. The participation in the festival’s first edition yielded a few minutes interview in the Charleville-Mézières, ville revée documentary on the France 3 channel. The Prana Company was invited to present O Anagrama de Leonardo (free translation: The Leonardo’s O Maestro (The Maestro), Festival Mondial des Théâtres de Marionnettes, Charleville-Mézières, France, 2013. Photo: © Fabiana Valente
Anagram) in the Château de Clos-Lucé, in Amboise, and launched A Dama e o Voo (free translation: The Lady and the Flight, inspired on the medieval tapestries The Lady and the Unicorn) in the Cluny Museum, Paris. In 2015 they participated with a beautiful presentation in Paris’ streets during the first Journée sans voitures (car-free day). In Brazil, the Prana Company operates primarily in partnership with organizations as SESC (Virada Cultural,
SESC Arts Circuit, SESC show of Puppet Theater), in theaters as the MASP’s (São Paulo’s Art Museum), Carlos Gomes Theater (Vitória – ES) and in festivals. 47
Marcel and Vanessa has also created the Teatro de Brincar (Playing Theater) brand, which sells miniatures of shadows theaters, paper theaters and thaumatropes. For the future, the couple has been finalizing a series with dolls for TV in partnership with TJ Produções and have plans to open a shop inside their atelier, in São Paulo city. Música à Manivela (Crank music), Virada Cultural, SP, Brazil, May 2014. Photo: © Fabiana Valente
On the palms of your hands I read the lines of my life. Crusades, sinuous lines, Interfering in my destiny. (Extracted from Meu Livro de Cordel) Sur les paumes de tes mains je lis les lignes de ma vie. Lignes croisées, sinueuses, qui interfèrent dans ton destin. (extrait de “Meu Livro de Cordel”)
Pequenas Cenas Mudas (Little Mute Scenes), episode A Bailarina (The Bailarine), TV Series, 2012. Photo: © Fabiana Valente website www.pranateatro.com YouTube https://www.youtube.com/user/CanalPranaTeatro Facebook https://www.facebook.com/pranateatro Instagram http://www.instagram.com/prana_teatro
LUCAS COSBOR in graduated in Language from UFPR (Federal University of Paraná | Brazil) and attended Film course in Centro Europeu where he had produced his first short film Ausência (Absence). Participated in short films productions in the city of Curitiba, and today is a member of the quintet PINHÃO FILMES. youtube.com/watch?v=ZbvIM4pw9eA
women cameras behind the
By Lucas CorBor
After all, what a film director really does? This is a very common question, but most of us when observe events as the Oscars or the Cannes Festival, have no idea about the work involved and the nominated and award-winning artists’ efforts in representing their work. Festivals are pretty beautiful, however do not show, with the exception of the making offs (that gives us a little idea of the whole process), all the work of these movie artists. The film director is, in brief, responsible for the final product, which comes to us, viewers, be it a fifteen minutes or a three hours movie.
Even existing thousands of functions inside a filmic project, and some of them very important as photography and production, is in the director’s position who falls the blame for the disaster or the glory for the success of a work. The film director is like a conductor of an orchestra: the only one who has the duty of knowing each instrument and manage them competently in order to achieve the aesthetic set created in his mind. It is important for a film director to know not only the instruments, but who manipulates it, and then take care of the relations between these instrumentalists, technical and artistic team, as the egos involved in a film set are varied and them all must be in harmony. He has to deal, therefore, with the intra filmic aspects (recording, editing and effects) and extra filmic (unions, contracts, media), and still offer a quality product.
tude of great competence expressions. If we take Tim Burton and Woody Allen, we will see two completely different forms of events succession, the using of colors and music. Tarantino does not kill his characters the same way as Kim Ki-duk does. The Lars von Tier’s drama is revealed very different from Clint Eastwood’s, but both in a unique way. The number of women in this complex function of great responsibility has gradually increased. Probably few are those who knows that women has being involved with the seventh art since its very beginning, trying to show their matchless view. Today, women represent 11% in the film market, which is still negligible, but they keep fighting for their space. Nevertheless, the truth is that they are excellent fighters, being the owner of so significant works, carried of such a peculiar views that it is inevitable that in the near future, women come to dominate this market too.
Anna Muylaert (Getty Images)
Within all this there is a competency in which the film director focuses: the aesthetics. Thinking in each scene, each frame, each camera movement and the actors before it, how the dialogues will happen, how it will be spoken, in what place, what is going to happen in these places, if there will be a soundtrack, which soundtrack, how the effects will arise, whether audible or visual… This selection, carefully planned arrangements, make the director an artist. The way this work is done, it means, the director’s choice, can define styles. When using the word style I am talking about how the artist choose to tell a story, how some fact develops, which problems are produced and how the artist decides to solve them. This can happen in so much ways, and the cinema history shows us a multi-
Agnieszka Holland (Photo Stepan Rudik, 2013)
May look like optimism, but when we face movies directed by women we see something different, a high aesthetic care and a unique sensibility. We can appoint some names around the world which has been highlighted, or at some point offered a unparalleled work: Anna Muylaert (Brazil- “The Second Mother”, 2015), Jennifer Lee (USA”Frozen”, 2013), Maiween (France- “Polissia”, 2011) Sarah Polley (Canada -“Away From Her”,2006) Lucrecia Martel (Argentina-“The Headless Woman”, 2008), Nadine Labaki (Lebanon -“Where Do We Go Now”, 2011), Lone Scherfig (Denmark – “Italian for Beginners”, Shirley Frimpong-Manso
2000) Agnieszka Holland (Poland – “In Darkness”, 2011), Leni Riefenstahl (Germany – “Triumph Of The Will”, 1935), Samira Makhmalbaf ( Iran –“Blackboards”, 2000), Kathryn Bigelow (USA –“The Hurt Locker”, 2008), Mira Nair (India - “Monsoon Wedding”, 2001), Jane Campion (New Zealand -“In the Cut”, 2003), Shirley Frimpong-Manso (Ghana- “6 Hours to Christmas”, 2010) Kei Fujiwara (Japan - “Organ” 1996). This list is much longer. They conquered this space through their own competence, revealing excellent scripts, humanizing the feminine figure, removing it from the coadvisory’s limbo, from accessories characters, from the good, partner and loyal wife, or from the prostituted figure to be feminine protagonists, commanding military actions, murdering, loving, suffering, missing and also seeking to solve problems
arisen from their own actions. More than only characters that live stories, are women that live stories, and nothing better than women showing us how women would face such stories. This character’s world is not where women will save the life on Earth from an alien invasion, but where the woman has problems with her body, children, work, that is strong in various moments and fragile in others. Cinema is and will always be a reflection of reality. As any other artistic expression, the artist chose how to show us the world as he sees and feels, portraying it, criticizing it or modifying it. Each view, if made out of honesty and truth will be valid and should be contemplated. And women filmmakers are and will keep being contemplated.
the inner art
CLARA ROSSANA FERRARO DE SÁ is Jungian Analyst by the BRAZILIAN JUNGIAN ASSOCIATION, affiliated with the International Association for Analythical Psychology in Zurich - Switzerland. Artist by the Arts Faculty of Paraná. Sculptor retrained in Carrara/ Italy, produces sculptures in marble, bronze and resin.
huntress Artemis, the
By Clara Rossana Ferraro de Sá Thinking the human existence is first imagine it. The western model of creation is immersed in the Greek imaginary, as the Greek cosmogony seeks to explain the Creation and the Human Being in likeness to the gods.
Artemis, by Clara Rossana Ferraro de Sá | Bronze sculpture – dimensions 40cm x 0,10cm x 0,06cm
We observe, in this dynamics, the poles One and Poly, the movement of psychic energy that compounds the totality and its cosmic order. A Cosmos is an organized whole, and its deployment reveals the reality’s facets, the multiple points of view. It contains the cyclic movement that teaches the art of living here on Earth, the purification and preparation for the new life and the conquest of immortality, passing through several rebirths. In his book The Power of The Myth, Joseph Campbell says: “The images of Myth are reflections of Spiritual and Depth potentialities of every one of us. Through contemplating those, we evoke those powers in our own lives to operate through ourselves.” In the imagery optics, the Olympus is everywhere and is available to human being any time, once inside his imaginary. The gods are metaphors of the impulses that guide humans. Where do we find the mystery? The myth serves to human needs of relationship with these four mysteries orders: the cosmos, nature, the other one, the being itself. Knowing yourself, with the mythic patterns help, makes easy the passage through this life in search of meaning. The polytheistic aspect of the Greek pantheon unfolds in the Olympus gods. In order to understand the cosmic path of the soul is necessary to observe the twelve transcendence stages and the 13º element, the carrier of the new. Apollo, Athena, Ares, Hestia,
Demeter, Persephone, Hades, Dionysus, Poseidon, Hephaestus, Aphrodite and Artemis, guided by Hermes, seek connection with Zeus and Hera, in search of their own light and taking it to the Universe. Each god has its own fullness. The manifestation of its nature and essence is unique and is interconnected. The twins Apollo and Artemis personify the sunlight and the moonlight, respectively. The evolving soul knows the way to the Aphrodite’s temple, supported by the columns of the Beauty, the Good and the Noble and then turn to nature itself of Artemis and transcend. Apollo and Artemis are Zeus’ children with his lover Leto. Hera, the legitimate wife avenges by forcing Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, to close the birth canal and prohibits the land to receive Leto. All goddess stand up for Leto but nothing is done until the decision to send Iris with an irresistible gift offering it to Hera: a necklace made out of gold threads and amber with more than three meters long. Irrefutably, Hera offers the sterile and floating island of Ortygia, as it is not fixed anywhere, to house Zeus’s lover.
For nine days and nine nights, writhing in pain, Leto waited for her twins’ birth. Kneeling, next to a palm tree she gave birth first to Artemis, and then, with the help of her, to Apollo, who gratefully, set there the center of the Greek world and changed its name to Delos Island – the bright, brilliant. There, the daylight – Apollo, the sun – and the nightlight – Artemis, the moon – were born. Apollo and Artemis preside over the beginning and the ending; they are the connoisseurs twins of the creation work, in the spiritual and nature poles, unifying both to give way to the new and protecting it. They preserve the interior light. One of their attributes is the bow and arrow, a communication instrument between heaven and Earth. Artemis – the huntress, the protective – represents the nature’s cycle of life and death. She celebrates nature and the woman in labor, protects the born children. Artemis in Greek means “bear-goddess”. The Artemis’ fullness goes through the nature cycles, preserving them. She is the agile life, stunning, lovingly care and at the same time relentless. The primitive strength of the relentless Great Mother demands blood sacrifice; does not accepts the man’s domain. Nature itself needs to be re-
spected, and as hunting Goddess, pierces and kills with her arrows. This is the wild nature. Having born before her brother and helping the mother in the childbirth work, Artemis was so horrified with her mother’s suffering, that asked to her father, Zeus, the privilege to remains forever virgin. The tameless virgin, as rebellious as Hestia and Athena, to the laws of Aphrodite. Artemis in her intuitive core is the very perception of the light moment that integrates the nature of all beings and ensures the light and love unity that is being born. Artemis knows the cycles. Every beginning, development and death must be dignified through the preservation of nature, present in each part of the whole. Her return brings the energy and vitality from nature itself. She imposes respect, wants to be respected in her intimacy. In the basic need of freedom that she preserves life, source of the being’s will. Artemis is also accuracy, objectivity on the preservation of nature balance. She ensures the transition to the new cycle. Her presence can be notice in the forest retreat, in the surrounding chiaroscuro of the “participation mystique” with nature, where everything is connected. Being in Artemis is to recognize inside yourself the cycles of nature. 54
The feminine world is mysterious and dense, poorly understood by women and almost nothing by men. A tangle of feelings and emotions creates a real battlefield in our hearts and we usually get lost inside them. However, there is a beautiful day, when silently we came across characters and storylines that speak our language, without knowing exactly why or how we identify ourselves with them. It is like if instantly everything we think and feel were brushed on a screen with
JANE By Elise Marcal
perfection, in details, in poetry, in the simplest possible way. For some women, this meeting, this ray of sunshine on a cold morning, appears as Elinor or Marianne Dashwood, as Elizabeth Bennet, Anne Elliot or Emma Woodhouse, or still as other heroines created in the mind of an English young girl belonging to the agrarian nobility from at least two centuries ago. Jane Austen makes her voice be heard through her charming characters, that far from being perfect, exude in their words, looks, sufferings and passions what everyone of us, somehow, feel or have already felt. 55
The fact that these stories have been told long time ago, does not differ from what still goes deep in the feminine hearts today. In a first contact, we tend to find Jane a median writer, with themes and contexts very specific and stuck to the time and places of her experiences. But if we risk taking a step further, go ahead and get closer to Jane Austen, by reading the book after watching a movie, or facing a second story, we start to understand Janeâ€™s beauty, the feminine sweetness in its most sublime way. We find out that behind the common goal of all the protagonists to find a husband and finally get married, it is the search of the truth love. And the searching of this love is never so simple or easy. They pass through embarrassing situations, fears, anger, and almost breathless joy. They discover themselves throughout the story, and we follow. We wear sense with Eli-
nor Dashwood, while we let ourselves be carried away by the passions of the younger sister, Marianne. Two sisters that live within us every day and pull us each one to her side. How wise was Jane to put Sense and Sensibility side by side and make them equilibrate with elegance. How not to be inspired by Elizabeth Bennet, the second of five daughters, which is continuously compared to the older
one: Elizabeth for being not so beautiful, and Jane for her stunning beauty. However, Liz attract us, she is shrewd, intelligent, an unlikely resourcefulness that ultimately conquer the critical and sulky Mr. Darcy. What conquer the honored Mr. Darcy is what conquer us: her freedom and authenticity. It is what we want, what we dream. Which woman would not like to be loved by what truly is and not only for her beauty or social conventions? Elizabeth overcomes Pride and Prejudice and finds happiness.
Jane has published four of her six novels during her lifetime. The other two were published posthumously: Northanger Abbey and Persuasion. For those who know all the stories, a chronological line can be easily traced, and the development of their characters reaches the apex with Anne Elliot of Persuasion. Anne is no long so young; at the age of 27, she faces the sad reality of her time: would live forever an unmarried life. Besides this forecast of the future, she carries a bitter sadness from the past. Eight years before the period, which the story happens, she renounced her great love persuaded by her mother’s old friend that after Anne’s mother death, believes as her duty to instruct and care for Anne. However, life puts Capitan Wentworth again in her way and both, together, elders and matures, have the opportunity to forgive themselves, rediscover each other and give another chance to their old love. It is impossible not to be moved by this Jane’s last work, love and forgiveness and love again. Start one more time, regret. Love for Jane is much more than the marriage institution, is the meeting of two souls, the purest feminine manifestation, suffering and overcoming every day. Her character’s happy endings was not the same for Jane, who died at the age of 41 without ever getting married. For some it may be a contradiction, her novels are not bitter, on the contrary, are sweet as only the feminine can be. For others like me, she is the proof that love is carried in the heart, not in an alliance ring.
The Feminine Side of Art