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The Pulse of Chile in English

Edition 10: Summer 2011 Price $1.000

Reconstruction: One year On On Shaky Ground Chile a Top Ten Ethical Travel Destination for 2011 Vi単a del Mar in 36 Hours on a Budget Wind of Change for La Roja

Isabel

Allende

Survival of the Feminine


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I LOVE CHILE RADIO / March-April 2011

A Virtual Meeting Place for the Global Wanderer

Radio

ILC Radio has been streaming 24 hour, live webcasts in ENGLISH out of Chile since [insert year]. Globally loved as a breeding ground for expat communications and their unique wandering perspectives on Chile, ILC Radio - based in Santiago, orients local and international listeners with eclectic, open format programming on Chilean politics, news, food, music, nightlife, opinions and yes, Sports. Tune in anytime for the local scoop at: www.ilovechile.cl/radio

By Libbi Gordon

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atteo´s Master Mix: Mondays 2-4 p.m. and Wednesdays 4-6 p.m. -Where are you from? -I was born in Vancouver, Canada and then moved around western Canada during my childhood. -What brought you to Chile? -I once had a very compelling dream about living in Chile, and I came here to realize it. I arrived in September of 2008 and plan to live here for another few years at least. -How would you describe your radio show? -My radio show is all about music. I’m a music nut, and my show is geared toward other music nuts. When I listen to other radio stations, I crave lots of music with minimal breaks between songs, and my show is a reflection of that. I also like to mix together a wide variety of music, trying to mix more mainstream things with weirder stuff, like Sri Lankan pop for example. My goal with the show is to provide educational entertainment; I hope to be able to introduce new music to my listeners. -How would you describe your musical taste? -Very schizophrenic. As a disgruntled teenager, I stuck mostly with rock and metal, but since then my tastes have matured to include hip hop, reggae, blues, jazz, electronica and beyond. Nowadays, I find it pretty hard to dislike something. -Who are your favorite artists or bands? -That’s a difficult question. Jimi Hendrix and Tom Morello are huge. John Bonham and Led Zeppelin. Bob Marley, Augustus Pablo, and Miles Davis is perfect sometimes. The Police, The Who. Satriani, Vai, Paul Gilbert and friends. The Sex Pistols, Portishead, Thievery Corporation,

Advertise With Us I Love Chile News is the ONLY information and print news source about Chile in English. Advertising with I Love Chile News gives you access to our large and rapidly expanding group of Englishspeaking business professionals, internationalists, academics, politicians, and frequent travelers. It will put your message in an environment where it will be respected and read. We offer customized packages, sponsorships and more for all your advertising needs. Contact me if you would like to find out how advertising with I Love Chile New can assist you in achieving your marketing objectives and reaching a whole ne audience. Steve Halsey Director, Sales and Marketing Steve.halsey@ilovechile.cl

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DJ Profile

Matthew Campbell Yard Mr. Oizo, Wycleff Jean, The Beatles. I hate this question… -Who or what is your least favorite artist, band or genre? -Country music is still tough for me to appreciate. As are boy bands. But I’m working on it. -For those new to Latin American music, what are some essential songs or artists you would recommend? -I would suggest starting with more Anglo-sounding groups before jumping right into the fire. Start off with Los Prisioneros from Chile, Soda Stereo from Argentina, La Vela Puerca from Uruguay, Las Orichas from Cuba, Tom Jobim from Brazil. These are all rock, ska, salsa rap and bossa nova groups that will ease you into latin music. After you’ve acclimatized yourself, then you can go for the rumbas, cumbias, salsas, sambas, etc. -What is your inspiration for your radio show and music selection? -I listen to a lot of Chilean radio for music. Radio Futuro especially continues to wow me; the DJs are always digging out lesser-known rock masterpieces, and I always hear new stuff. I constantly try and keep my ears open for new sounds. Sharing music with others is a great basis for friendship (and radio shows).

Advertiser Profile

Take a trip with Nutricenter to Canyon Ranch

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utricenter, located near La Mondea in the center of Santiago, provides a variety of natural goods including dietary supplements, grains, whole wheat breads, soy products, nutritional books and a multitude of other immuneboosting products. In addition, Nutricenter offers a selection of freshly prepared foods and drinks to enjoy at the juice bar or to go. The menu includes natural fruit juices with vitamins, 100% whole-wheat empanadas stuffed with vegetables or tofu, freshly prepared salads and more. Claudio Gomez Ortega, who founded Nutricenter in 1991, strives to offer his customers the latest nutritional knowledge and products to support healthy living. Claudio has nearly 30 years of experience in the natural health market. As former president of the Association of Natural Health A.G., Claudio worked with the Ministry of Health and former Chilean President Michelle Bachelet to expand the distribution of natural foods in Chile. “The market in Chile is not easy,” Claudio explains. “We are the smallest market in South America, and maybe one-fifth of the Argentinian market.” Claudio, however, is not discouraged. He dreams that Chile will develop an international standard of natural health, and that one day, Chileans will be given the same level of natural foods and nutritional resources as other nations. “Hopefully by next year we can organize a more professional group of people to spread knowledge of natural foods and health throughout Chile,” Claudio says. With his strong passion for promoting natural foods and helping Chileans adopt more organic diets, Claudio is planning a group trip to Canyon Ranch Preventive Health Hotel and Spa Resort in Lenox, Massachusetts. This September,

Claudio and at least 12 of his Chilean customers will travel to the United States for an educationally enriching and relaxing experience. Canyon Ranch offers a variety of programs for guests ranging from health and wellness to nutrition and fitness. Participants can pick from a variety of workshops such as aquatic therapy, yoga, healing foods, eating for energy and many more. For more information about the luxurious Canyon Ranch, visit www.canyonranch.com and click on the Lenox Resort tab. If you are interested in traveling to Canyon Ranch to participate in this program, Claudio gladly invites you to join him. To learn more about the trip, contact Claudio as soon as possible at 633-9326 or 633-8615. Nutricenter / Huerfanos 714, L10


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STAFF

March-April 2011 / TABLE OF CONTENTS

Publisher Daniel Brewington Editor Julie Gibson Special Edition Assistants Chris Wright-Badiian

Letter From

Chief Strategy Officer Pamela Lagos Director, Sales & Marketing Steve Halsey

Online Editor Jayne Scarman Human Resources Kate Crisp Contributors Libby Gordon Julie Gibson Jayne Scarman Ben Angel Andrea Ernst Barbara Hermosilla Elias Alcantara Pablo Retamal Pepe Rawlinson Pascal Mathieu Katherine Carroll Kelly Miner Ian Gilbert Meghan Vooris Marcelle Dubruel Michele Harvey Milena Cid Alexis Psarras Al Ramirez Jimmy Langman David Mauro Susan Kite Sean Black Margaret Snook Daniel Greeve Alicia Granse Mónica Gilbert Sáez Chris Wright Badiian Harper Bridgers Photographers Gardner Hamilton Daniel Brewington Amanda Saviñón Richard Cawsey Design Alfonso Gálvez Translations Camila Casanova

Erratum

In Issue 9 of I Love Chile News in article ‘Ascensor Concepcion’ on Page 17 we wrongly accredited the photograph of the Ascensor to Gardner Hamilton. This photograph should have been attributed to Richard Cawsey www.chilephotographer.com. I Love Chile apoligies for this error and any distress it may have caused.

Subscribe today!! I Love Chile was born to help promote English in Chile and Chile in English. It gives the Chilean community a real well written tool to practice the language as well as providing positive Chilean news to expats and other foreigners in Chile and abroad. I Love Chile news is currently being delivered to embassies, airlines, schools, universities and tour related enterprises. I Love Chile can also be found in all newsstands around Santiago. Subscribe today!! subscription@ilovechile.cl

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ast month my husband and I traveled to San Pedro de Atacama. It was amazing! I never imagined a barren desert could hold such an array of beauty. We did the standard tourist sightseeing: Valle de la Luna, geyser Taito, and Valle de la Muerte, among others. However, we did one thing that most visitors don’t, we climbed Volcano Toco (5600 meters or 18,604 feet)! It’s a perfect accent for those mountaineers who want to challenge themselves and accustom their bodies to high altitude. It’s was a fairly short hike as the van took us up to 4800 meter and we climbed the remaining 800 meters in just under 2 hours. Although the hike was only a half a mile, because of the altitude it was an arduous climb. I had to stop every few hundred feet because my head felt like it was going to explode! I had to call on every bit of strength I had, especially mental strength, to make it to the summit. Although my head, lungs, and body screamed to turn around, I knew I was in no serious danger and extremely close to the goal – I was not going to give up. Facing this physical challenge, I realized I was stronger then I ever knew! When I reached the top of the volcano, I had such a profound sense of accomplishment. Life presents an array of physical and mental challenges, from small everyday hurdles to big life changing events. Challenges, generally speaking, are difficult because they make us stretch. They force us to go beyond what we thought we were capable of or. I had to test how much physical and mental strength I had to reach the summit of the volcano. I knew that just beyond the pain was the glory. That is the way it is with life’s challenges. We must choose to look past the present moment’s struggle with the knowledge that in the end we will reach our goal or learn a invaluable lesson. One challenge I will never forget was the earthquake on February 27, 2010. Sometimes noises will take me back to that night and on rare occasions I actually get vertigo where I feel like the ground is moving. I suppose an 8.8

CONTENTS

Subscription Manager Patricia Cortez

the Editor

Life presents an array of physical and mental challenges, from small everyday hurdles to big life changing events. Challenges, generally speaking, are difficult because they make us stretch. They force us to go beyond what we thought we were capable of or. earthquake is an event that leaves an impression on ones life and is something that will stay with me forever. It was a challenge in itself to get though the three horrifying minutes and then stay sane over the following weeks. I remember all the range feelings from anger, to sadness, to joy and then the numbness of too much to deal with all at once. But I knew deep in my heart that my terrifying experience had a lesson in it. I just had to look for it. I’m still not sure if I fully understand emotionally what I went though, as sometimes it takes years before you gain the necessary perspective. But what I see right now is that people do survive traumatic events and to put it bluntly, worrying about them does no good. Some events in life pop up so unexpectedly that even if you are prepared, it still catches you off guard. So, be as prepared as you can then go with the flow of life. If someone had told me that I was going to be in the 5th largest earthquake in recorded history before I moved to Chile, I would have never come. But I’m glad I did. Now I can say that I reached the summit of volcan Toco and I survived a massive earthquake, on the 8th floor of an apartment building, I might add! Challenges shape you, mold you, and change you into a stronger more confident person, if you allow it. As Joshua J. Marine says, “Challenges are what makes life interesting; overcoming them is what makes life meaningful.” Don’t worry about what challenges may come, dig deep inside your heart and find the strength you know is already there and shout, “Bring it on!”

02 DJ Spotlight: Matt Sponsor profile: Nutricenter 03 Letter from the Editor 04 Viña Round Up 05 Museum of Memory and Human Rights Celebrates its First Anniversary 06 Reconstruction: One year On 07 President Obama’s first official visit to Chile 08 Where the Road Takes Us 09 Clowning Around 10 Early Mover Advantage 11 Predicting earthquakes: true science or fallacy 12 Earthquakes: The Strength of Chile 72 Hour Emergency Kit 13 Architecture: Revisiting the 8.8 14 The Human Factor 15 Your Child’s Most Important Teacher - You! 16 - 17 On Shaky Ground 18 March in Santiago = ROAD RAGE! Recognizing and dealing with trauma 19 How Green is your Cell phone 20 - 21 Isabel Allende 22 Sernatur Travel 23 Chile a Top Ten Ethical Travel Destination for 2011 24 Viña del Mar in 36 Hours on a Budget 25 Wind of Change for La Roja 26 Low Rent: Only the Fome 27 The (Grace-less) Guajardo Phenomena: Stop! In the Name of Love 28 The Creative Palate with Daniel Greeve 29 Lalapalooza comes to Chile 30-31 Little Thinkers

www.ilovechile.cl


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NEWS / March-April 2011 Photos: Gardner Hamilton / Mauricio Cancino

Viña del Mar

festival By Jayne Scarman Reporting by Ben Angel

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ome wooed, some were booed and others caused a riot. Demonstrative as ever, ‘El Monstruo’ or ‘The Monster’ -the moniker by which the audience at the Quinta Vergara amphitheater is known and feared- were quick to pass judgement at the 52nd edition of the Viña del Mar International Music Festival. Largely benign for most of the week, the crowd drew little blood until the penultimate night, when comedian Ricardo Meruane was booed off stage after only 17 minutes. Forced to follow Sting, with the audience still baying for more encores, his jokes fell flat and he sounded his own death knell with the fatal comment “Sting is coming back... but in three years.” Also feeling the fickle hand of fortune, compatriot Oscar Gangas saw his career resurrected after being torn to shreds by El Monstruo back in 1998. Like many of the comedians on the bill, Gangas frequently relied on homophobia -dubbed by fellow Chilean comic Maurico Flores as “national humor”- and was awarded a standing ovation. On to music, and the seaside garden city of Viña was treated to performances from high profile international acts such as veteran Brazilian crooner Roberto Carlos, Dominican Bachata bad boys Aventura, Puerto Rican soap star and singer Chayanne and Venezuelan balladeer Carlos Baute. In the contests, where up and coming artists from around the world are given the opportunity to showcase their talents, prizes went to a fiddler from Canada and a Chilean protest singer. Sierra Noble beat off stiff competition to scoop the International award with her song “Try Anything”. While Chile’s entry, “De Pascua Lama”, inspired by the resistance to the unpopular Barrick mining project and performed by Valentina Sepulveda, won the Folklore Competition. Not the only ones with an agenda, rap act Calle 13 blistered onto the stage with ‘fuerza mapuche’ emblazoned on frontman Residente’s shirtless back. Using their space in the spotlight to speak out against everything from the lack of Chilean artists in the line-up (bringing on their own guest stars to address this) to US anti-Hispanic immigration policy, the band caused a mini riot in the amphitheater which led to live transmission for that night being cut. Probably the surprise of the week was Sting, who swept away ‘El Monstruo’ with orchestral arrangements of some of his greatest hits. Backed by the magnificent Orchestra Sinfonica de Chile -who the British guest star met for the first time a few hours before curtain call- his crowd pleasing show earned him the highest prize of the festival, the golden seagull. On Twitter, Sting became the number one trending topic worldwide during his performance, seeming to suggest that all eyes were once again on Chile. The set included a poignant version of They Dance Alone, the artist’s “tribute to history”, referring to women dancing cueca with photographs of their loved ones who disappeared during the dictatorship. Quinta Vergara sang along and cheered when Sting uttered the memorable lyrics: “Hey Snr. Pinochet, you sowed a bitter crop”. And so, with a moment’s silence to remember the earthquake, which brought last year’s event to an abrupt halt, the Viña del Mar festival drew to a close, leaving some artists scathed and some victorious, and ‘El Monstruo’ asleep in its lair for another year.

www.ilovechile.cl


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March-April 2011 / NEWS

Museum of Memory

and Human Rights Celebrates its First Anniversary By Alexis Psarras

“W

e cannot change our past, we can only learn from what we have lived. This is our opportunity and our challenge.” With these words, then-President Michelle Bachelet inaugurated the Museum of Memory and Human Rights in Santiago’s Barrio Yungay on Monday, 11th January 2010. The Museum of Memory, which has received national and international praise, provides the visitor with the most complete insight yet into the human rights abuses committed by the Chilean State during the Augusto Pinochet regime of 1973-1990.

Whatever one’s views of the 1973-1990 period, and one issue on which the Museum cannot be faulted, is of its tackling of the most sensitive Chilean issue of all head-on.

Photos: Courtesy Museo de la Memoria

‘Never again’ The Museum’s primary goal is to commemorate, to educate, and to reinforce the sentiment of ‘never again.’ In addition it hopes to stimulate debate around respect and tolerance, and helping to combat ongoing human rights abuses in Chile. It has been commended, for example by the International Center for Transitional Justice (a US-based human rights organization) as an example to other countries, particularly across Latin America, seeking redress and closure for past human rights violations. Modernity throughout The museum is the brainchild of a number of national human rights organizations seeking to preserve the memory of the 1973-1990 abuses. Designed by a group of Brazilian architects, the interior is geared to capture natural light, while the large and plain exterior, appropriately named Memory Plaza, has been designed to facilitate concerts and shows. The permanent and temporary exhibition spaces in the 5,500 square meter construction portray multiple facets of the 17 year dictatorship: the September 1973 coup d’état; the 1,200 detention centers that existed throughout the country; vivid testimonies of torture, suffering and uncertainty caused by enforced disappearances; plus revolving themes including international solidarity and artistic representations. Throughout, the Museum utilises a range of audio-visual resources including interactive archives, videos, radio broadcasts and press clippings. Alongside these are spaces for the visitor to reflect upon the past events depicted within. State of the art touch screen technology abounds. Of particular note is the huge amount of information relating to the National Truth Commission and state-funded reparations to victims of abuse. Using the touch screen displays visitors can read about how 153,561 Chileans have thus far benefited from reparations since September 2009, sharing a total of approximately US$23 million. The Museum also includes spaces designed for educational and research activities, for both adults and children, including a research center where users can search through a host of documents, archives, photographs, and audiovisual resources of the 1973-90 period. Around 90,000 digital archives can also be accessed from its website – the only platform of its kind in Latin America according to Executive Director Romy Schmidt. The first year Following the opening to the general public on January 12th 2010, the Museum was closed due to serious damage caused by the February 27th earthquake, not opening its main exhibition spaces again to the general public again until August 14th. For the six months of the year for which it was actually open the Museum averaged approximately 4,000 visitors per week. Once reopened, the Museum staged numerous artistic and cultural activities, research and debates, and commemorations, including a variety of theater productions, the International Festival of Documentary Cinema, and Bicentenary celebrations. It also displayed certain exhibitions in Valparaíso, as part of the Museum authorities’ desire to share the knowledge beyond the capital.

First Anniversary Celebrations in la Plaza de la Memoria, outside the Museum (source: Museo de la Memoria y Derechos Humanos)

classical music. During the proceedings Romy Schmidt told the crowd that 2010 had been a “difficult year” for Chile but argued that the Museum could be held up as a symbol of how Chile is now “working well together”. Calling for a renewed fight against contemporary human rights abuses in the country, particularly intra-family violence, the situation of refugees and indigenous populations, and all forms of discrimination. Schmidt argued that this, “is the only way to reinforce democracy” in Chile.

Donations in its first year came in a variety of shapes and sizes – from financial assistance, to declassified files from the US Government, to the entire Chilean archive from the National Audiovisual Institute of France. Thanks to generosity such as this, in its first year the Museum managed to increase its collection by 30%. First anniversary celebrations Its first year was rounded off with an anniversary event held in Memory Plaza, attended by an estimated 500 people. Joining the crowds was a host of Chilean and international dignitaries including ex-President Patricio Aylwin, Interior Minister Rodrigo Hinzpeter, UNESCO Assistant DirectorGeneral for Strategic Planning Hans d’Orville, and the President of Argentina’s National Archive of Memory Ramón Torres. Celebrations consisted of speeches, testimonies and a video produced by the Museum highlighting the milestones of its first year, before Santiago’s Youth Orchestra closed affairs with a rousing performance of a range of popular and

Lack of non-Spanish While the Museum has been widely and deservedly praised, one criticism, from an international tourism perspective, is its lack of information in other languages. While a handful of video resources include English subtitles, the majority of the exhibits lack translations, thereby prohibiting non-Spanish speaking visitors from making the most of the otherwise informative and engaging collection. If the Museum wishes to truly engage with the global community, this is one area on which it could perhaps concentrate its second year. Confronting a delicate issue head-on The inauguration of the museum came amidst widespread debate in the local press about what the museum should present. Those supporting the dictatorship argued it was necessary to present the political context that led to the coup, highlighting the social unrest that characterised the preceding years. Others contended that it would be difficult to establish such a context without also including the history of exclusion and exploitation of poorer populations that has prevailed in the country since the colonial era. Speaking of this in her inauguration speech, Bachelet declared that, “the tragedy can have several explanations, but no justification.” Whatever one’s views of the 1973-1990 period, and one issue on which the Museum cannot be faulted, is of its tackling of the most sensitive Chilean issue of all head-on. By doing so it provides a space for the continuation of such debates, as well as for tackling the ongoing human rights challenges that Chile faces today.

www.ilovechile.cl


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NEWS / March-April 2011

Breakfast with the President:

Reconstruction one year on Photo: Courtesy Presidencia de la República

By Daniel Brewington / Bárbara Hermosilla

O

n the morning of February 27th, 2010, groups of young people were milling about on the streets of Santiago after a night out at discotheques. Many others were in bed and glad to be able to sleep late on Saturday morning. At 3:34am a massive 8.8 earthquake changed Chile’s normal weekend routine, changing many lives forever. The earthquake’s epicenter was located in the 7th region in Maule & Bio Bio and registered as the fifth strongest earthquake in recorded history. The quake which lasted for more than 90 seconds woke people up and sent them running from apartment buildings and houses fearing that this was the end, that this was ‘The Big One’, the earthquake that everyone fears in the back of their mind. The earthquake was followed by several Tsunamis which destroyed entire towns, lives, businesses and dreams. In a country with a population of 16 million people, there were more than 12.8 million victims, which is the equivalent to 75% of Chile’s population. And when the waters finally receded and buildings were searched the death toll climbed to a heart breaking 524 men, women and children dead and more than 31 missing. This catastrophe caused serious problems to Chile’s infrastructure. Many buildings across the country were seriously damaged, which created an obstacle for people to return to their homes and start rebuilding their lives. Municipalities, medical facilities, the emergency services were so damaged by the quake that in the initial hours after the disaster it was almost impossible to make any contact with any of the cities and towns affected. The Ministry of Treasury estimated losses of US $30 billion, which is the equivalent to 18% of Chile’s GDP. Rebuilding Chile’s infrastructure which includes health, education, housing, emergency services, the military and Cultural Patrimony, will include a high price tag. President Sebastian Piñera said during a recent breakfast with I Love Chile News publisher Daniel Brewington, “The year didn’t start as we expected and Chile will never forget it. But events that came after, such as the Bicentennial celebration, a new Government administration, the World cup, the miner’s accident and the unfortunate fire at the San Miguel prison cannot be ignored. We can’t hold back the next 3 years.” 2011 is a year that will bring better news. Re-construction has started and President Piñera points out since the moment of the earthquake, his administration started working to help Chile recover from this catastrophe. “Actually, that same day (February 27, 2010) after it was announced that we faced a major natural disaster, an immediate government board meeting was scheduled. We met at dawn and started a development plan in order to raise Chile up, taking into account the economy and the real damages.” At that moment I was the president-elect, and I supported Michelle Bachelet 100%. I stepped back in order to let her direct the situation, and then we started the preparations for the country’s future re-construction during my administration. During the breakfast, President Piñera spoke openly about the steps he and his administration took after the disaster. He said his administration developed their short-term goals for reconstruction which was divided in three stages: First, we tackled the “immediate emergency”, which was from March 11th to March 31st, 2010, with the main objectives to be close to the families and offering support during the burial of their relatives and friends, helping the victims and working to find people who were missing. Most importantly we restored public order and basic infrastructure such as water, electricity, food and the communication systems.

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Gradually, we began to help Chile back on its feet and started to develop the second stage – preparation for the winter season, which is considerably colder in the south. This measure was linked with the 1,250,000 students that were coming back to classes and didn’t have a place to learn on March 11th, the first day of classes. Through our determination we were able to have the majority of students back in class 45 days later. In addition, the access to health care was also a top priority, and this was achieved 60 days later through the implementation of emergency hospitals and other provisional emergency measures. On the other hand, it was very important to provide a place to live and give protection to all of those people that were affected by the Earthquake. In only 120 days, we provided more than 80 thousand emergency houses. There are 106 “villages” for 4,000 families, plus other resources provided in order to improve the homes of 50 families. Up to now, the first two reconstruction stages were successfully achieved and despite the strong winter, there were no additional victims and it was overcome without any major problems – only the normal ones we see in Chile regarding health and respiratory diseases. The third reconstruction stage is projected as a longterm process - it also started on March 11th, 2010 and the completion date is the same day in 2014. This plan is currently being developed with the main objective to have everything reconstructed by the end of my administration. This is in accordance with the correct and effective distribution of public resources and a healthy treasury policy. “According to the risk management assessment, relating to the coastal area, 25 master plans were given to mayors of the most affected areas.” It has already been a year since the Earthquake and this objective has been gradually accomplished in different reconstruction issues and clearly there are many other things to do. Now let’s see this year’s accomplishments. Among the emergency and reconstruction plans carried out, a legislative agenda was produced. Many new statutes were enacted, creating new financing laws and others for the direct help of the victims. The total property losses equaled about US $30 billion of which approximately US $20 billion correspond to public infrastructure. The plan developed by the Ministry of Treasury took into account the following sources in order to avoid going into the red.

First, we came to the conclusion that we had to recover the economic growth. A donation law was created, the national and international debt was studied and the Economic and Social Establishing Found (FES) and the Copper Law Found were implemented. Category taxes were increased to companies as a transitory measure. In relation to Royalty, the real estate contributions increased over 0, 25% rate for two years and 5% of houses with a higher treasury evaluation – not affected by the Earthquake. Moreover, tobacco taxes were also increased and the tributary system was enhanced. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, donations made by countries as a result of the Earthquake equals US $22 million – equivalent to 0,1% of total damage. According to Sebastian Piñera, “It’s not only a matter of reconstruction, but also a matter of improving the construction design and strength.” For this reason a New Alert System and Efficient Support was implemented, which also improved the communication system in regional offices. The National Satellite Network was activated in order to improve communication and alert when running out of energy and radial signal. Finally, 12 months after the Earthquake, 99% of public infrastructure was recovered, 60% of subsides for the victims were handled, 70% of schools were fixed or reconstructed, and all the hospital beds have been recovered, and also new health care facilities are being built in the most affected areas. We have to be proud of the work done and the new projects related to the Earthquake. These are not the usual governmental topics, but plans to start working with other technologies and to choose investments that can avoid serious future problems for the country. Pablo Arrate, Coordinator of construction of Housing Ministry pointed out that Dichato was affected by 7 waves and it has no emergency measures in case of a catastrophe. For this reason projects to diminish the altitude and speed of waves were developed in case of another tsunami. “The impact of the wave will be diminished in terms of speed and altitude with woods and parks that stop kinetic energy and when facing with the breakwater goes down avoiding serious damage, like the previous ones.” Arrate pointed out that the project is based on a future development, where every cent we invest, will remain for the next 50 years. This is something that without a doubt will take big problems away, although we can’t assure that this kind of natural disaster won’t happen again.


Celebrating New Year’s

27

07

at the sea

President Obama’s first official visit to Chile O T

Photo: Official White House Photo by Pete Souza

ver 20 tons of explosives are currently being shipped from Barcelona, Spain, to the San Antonio port in Chile. They were ordered by Mario Igual, the man By: Elias Alcantarain charge of one of the most extensive fireworks in the world. “New Years at the his seamonth 2011” United will illuminate 21 kilometres States President Barackof Chile’s coast for a will 25 minute spectacle light. Obama fulfill a long promise he madeofduring the State of the Union address to stand The fireworks areglobe a tradition 1952 and are “with those” around the “who takesince responsibilaccompanied by a party that shuts ity.” This will be the US President’s first officialdown visit streets and draws over 1 million visitors to the ports and to South America. On February 18th The White beaches each December 31st. While the House Press Secretary Jay Carney announced that show is similarObama every and year,First some novelties President Lady Michellestraight Obama from the labs of Igual Pyrotechnics will surprise spectators will be traveling to Brazil, Chile, and El Salvador in the first minutes of 2011. Initiated from March 19-23. Carney noted that the President will 17 ships lying at anchor in the bays of Valparaiso, Viña del meet with the leaders and speak to the people to Mar and Concón, 30.000 explosions will light up the discuss a broad range of issues including economic sky. The best views are rumoured to be from the prosperity and job creation through increased trade promenades of Gervasoni, Yugoslavo, Barón or 21 andde partnerships, Mayo. energy and security cooperation, as well as shared values and other issues of regional and global Theconcerns. city of Valparaiso alone spent USD $200.000 on For a major step in their quest theme. to last Chile year’sthis red,is white and blue fireworks On become leader South America. The bars first topic this alast dayinof 2010, the city’s and on nightclubs President Sebastian Obama’s will open early,Piñera while and the President main square will be filled agenda nuclear At the current withislive musicenergy. until sunrise. Expect moment to be covered in onlyconfetti two South counterparts are engaged andAmerican embraces when the clock hits 00:01, but in nuclear energy production, Argentina the celebrations really start three and daysBrazil. in advance of Obama and Piñera are due a memorandum the big moment, withtoasign street carnival and parade of understanding on nuclear cooperation between made up of actors, dancers, painters, musicians and of Chileans all over the the of twocourse nations.thousands Chile has been exploringfrom the idea country. of nuclear energy since 2007 when former President Michelle Bachelet appointed a commission to exIf Chile’s you want to go by car,energy. make sure to get there plore potential in nuclear before noon. After that, traffic likely to spoil President Obama is also due to jams make are a major the fun. A better idea is to take the bus, but reserve policy announcement on Latin America during his your seat well in advance. The same goes visit to Santiago. Details on the announcement havefor hotels and apartments, which mightto already yet to be released. The speech is slated take placebe at booked out despite of the elevated prices. Either the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin way, the Valparaiso the sea are an experience America and thefireworks Caribbean’sat(ECLAC) Headquarnot to be missed. Happy New Year!

on

By Carolina Sipos

ters in Vitacura. In February, El Mercurio, Chile’s national newspaper, announced that President Obama would also be traveling with his daughters Malia and Sasha. A team of 1,500, which include 700 secret service officers will also accompany him. Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs Arthuro Valenzuela is due to join the President during his visit. It has also been confirmed that President Obama and his family will be staying at the Hyatt Hotel in Las Condes. Some other issues that have been floating around in the media but are not explicitly on either President’s official visit agenda are human rights issues. The two daughters of former Chilean Presidents, Salvador Allende and Eduardo Frei Montalva, Sen. Isabel Allende and Carmen Frei, have requested that President Piñera hand an official petition to President Obama for the declassification of CIA files which would help in the ongoing investigation of the causes of the two President’s deaths. Both President Obama and Pinera have made human rights a priority in their administrations. U.S. Ambassador to Chile Alejandro Wolff noted that “There is every disposition to be helpful” while President Piñera ordered his Minister of the Interior to officially join the judicial investigation on the deaths of both Presidents. Although President Obama will be visiting two other Latin American countries, his visit to Chile should be studied closely. It is very probable that, with his scheduled major Latin American policy announcement and discussions with President Piñera on hot topics like nuclear energy and possibly human rights, his visit to Chile will be paramount to his Latin American tour.

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08

PEOPLE / March-April 2011

“We go where the road takes us” A motorbike tour from New Mexico to Santiago de Chile

By Andrea Ernst

J

ust prior to the decision, Heather was not showing that much interest in bikes. Having a pretty good, but not too exciting, life in Chicago the point came when she needed a change and she made the decision to learn how to ride a bike. Soon after, she called her dad and informed him about her plans. The next day, he called her back and told her that they should go together to South America on their bikes, as he was already planning to do so. In July 2009 Heather took the first class and received her license one month after. Soon after they began the preparations for their trip; obtaining international drivers licenses, getting immunizations and malaria pills for the worst case scenario and of course preparing the bikes and rigging them with bags for their luggage, a GPS and a video camera. Then when Heather and Mike had the map of South America in front of them it was kind of hard to say where to go and which route to take. The only thing they were sure of was the point of origin - Santa Fe New Mexico. There, after months of preparation, they took off the 23rd January, 2010 facing 14 countries and a trip of 12,000 miles. The first goal of their trip was to be able read enough Spanish to understand road signs and secondly to be as free as they could to stop at different places, countries and experience new cultures. They only had a few hard dates to comply with as some family and friends would visit them along the way. Always upon crossing boarders they would collect a sticker from the country and put it on their bike. The experience of seeing a country though it’s roads was thrilling to Heather and Mike. Mexico and Columbia were so green. Peru was absolutely incredible and showed its fascinating nature and rustic landscape. Crossing the Atacama Desert in Chile was impressive but at the same time brutal, realizing just how desolate some parts of the world can be. The quality of the roads also varied a lot and was different from country to country. While Chile for example had great roads, the ones in Peru were quite mixed having a lot of sand and wind that made it a real electrifying

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Heather and her dad Mike are from Chicago, United States and now are both living and working in Santiago de Chile. But how they came here is probably not the ordinary way of doing so. They decided to go on a 12,000-mile motorbike tour crossing up to 14 countries of North, Central and South America. experience. Road signs were not always trustworthy and sometimes were highly comical– the closer you came to a city, the higher the kilometers of distance showing on the sign. The two main highlights of the 12,000 mile tour across South America were definitely the people and the views. Heather and Mike got a lot of help during

their trip. From the people sharing a beer with them to those they met at the gas station from all over the world. And the feeling arose that they are not the only “idiots” trying to conquer the world on a bike. Riding a bike and seeing incredible sunsets and fascinating moonrises is an amazing adventure because of the ability to live actively the miles and the joys of such a journey. It is a way to understand the transition of landscapes and cultures and it is completely astonishing seeing a boarder of a little line in the sand that changes everything. During the months of traveling both father and daughter had to face hard times and problems. They never had trouble with the people they met. Although some people were worried about the next country they drove through seeming more dangerous than the former one. At boarders there was some corruption and in Nicaragua, Mexico and Argentina and they have been asked for money; they only paid once. And well, being on the bikes for sometimes up to 13 hours and suffering hard weather and rain may test their fingers and toes and the desire of survival but in the end there had always been the possibility to be innovative and make one’s own rain suits. Heather first came to Santiago for a week in April 2010. Soon after her dad got a job offer in an engineering company and because she liked the city so much, she came back in November of the same year. She is enjoying her time, the nice weather and the nice people. Would Heather like to do it again? Yes, absolutely –although after the trip she needed a vacation to recover from her vacation. She does not know how long she will be staying in Santiago; she is not that good at making plans. But what she does know is there are always adventures of be had. Maybe next she’s going to China, Australia or Europe - or just do it all. Take the bike and start riding. After the trip Heather and her dad’s bike had to be shipped back to the United States where they were sold to Mike’s friend and his daughter who intend to embark on the same adventure. Heather would not be surprised if one day soon she receives a call that they are ready to take-off…


09

March-April 2011 / PEOPLE

Clowning Around

Just as every culture celebrates its popular music, so too does every culture find humor in its clowns. In Chile, the nationally acclaimed clown, or “payaso”, is known as Tony Caluga. By Ben Angel

dren’s television program “Dingolondango.” After his father passed away, the clown would lead the 10-member family troupe, called the “Clan Caluga”. In 1994, Andres del Bosque released his biography of Tony Caluga, entitled “La siete vidas del Tony Caluga” (The seven lives of Tony Caluga). The work, a rewrite of “The nine lives of Tony Caluga” by Oscar Zimmerman, helped to define Caluga’s immense influence on Chilean clowning traditions. The book won the 1995 APES and Critics’ Prize, sold over 150,000 copies in its first two years, and inspired a wave of cir-

“I’m a billionaire in applause,” said the clown to La Tercera, “and this cute monument is a tremendous recognition of my more than 70 years as a circus performer. Photo: Courtesy Clubdefansloscalugas.

T

ony was born Abraham Lillo Machuca on Jan. 6, 1917, to a father who was a carpenter and a mother who washed clothes in the Sierra Gorda district of Region II Antofagasta. Having run away to Santiago at age 9, Abraham grew up on the streets, mimicking opera singers or performing street theater for passersby in order to sell newspapers in the early days of the Chilean Presidential Republic. “I saw many things!” recalled Caluga in a 1994 interview with the Santiago newspaper ‘El Mercurio’. “Zarzuela at the Coliseo, opera showed in the Teatro Municipal. I listened to the singing of tenors, and learned the ‘hidden harmonies’ of ‘Tosca’, and they paid me to sing them. I was good… and this experience also helped make me a good improvisational actor.” After discovering he had a talent with the unicycle, he learned to “recite prose and sing parodies. I had qualities of an ‘actor bufonico,’ of a clown. I just didn’t have a wig, nor makeup, nor was I introduced to clown shoes…” At age 15, he joined the circus “Las Aquilas Humanas” (The Human Eagles) during a period of national turmoil (the short-lived Socialist Republic under Carlos Davila in 1932). As the newest clown in a show, he took on first the stage name of “Machuquita,” and then later changed it to “Tony Caluga,” a name that would stick with him for the rest of his life. He proved to be a popular performer in the Aguilas Humanas, and when the circus settled in the Teatro Caupolican in 1941, Tony Caluga was already teaching up-and-coming Chilean clowns his interpretation of the artform. Together with his wife, Teresa San Martin, he would set his sights on creating a circus of their own, and they set up a tent behind the Hospital San Francisco de Borja (near the present Santa Lucia Metro station) in Santiago. Caluga, as a member of a performer’s union, not only helped to develop the modern Chilean payaso artform, but also promoted the laws that provide for clowns in retirement. It was through his efforts in the 1940s and the early 1950s that the Artists’ Pension Act was passed in 1952 during the second Carlos Ibañez del Campo administration. While the clown leader was fighting for the Pension Act, on Nov. 6, 1949, his wife Teresa San Martin gave birth in Valparaiso to their first son, Abraham Lillo San Martin, who eventually took the stage name of Caluga, Jr. At age 5, he debuted at the Stevanovich Circus in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and soon after appeared with his father at the circus “Las Aguilas Humanas” still playing at the Teatro Caupolican. In 1978, Caluga, Jr., was selected to host the chil-

Tony Caluga Junior.

cus theaters that redefined what clowning is about in Chile today. According to interviews from this same time period, Chile’s legendary clown continued to believe in live-performance circuses to the very end. “Despite great advances in television and media, the circus has prevailed because it has great capital,” said Caluga in an El Mercurio interview that year. “Do you know what that capital is? Children. As long as there are children, there will be a circus. They go for the fun and for the great memories. You see, (in Chile) there are no national holidays that are without kites and the circus… well, and chicha and empanadas too. A bit of ‘la dolce vita’ never hurt anyone.” On July 17, 1997, Tony Caluga passed away at age 81. He was buried in his characteristic clown makeup. Though the dream to convert the family mansion into a museum in the artist’s memory was postponed when last May a candle toppled over and set fire to the building, a memorial was erected to the clown shortly after his death at the corner of Avenida Alameda and Avenida General Velasquez (near Metro station San Albert Hurtado), where every September the circus raised its tents. “(Abraham Lillo Machuca) taught us that clowns should be able to embrace the acting profession,” said Bosque in an El Mercurio interview five years after Tony Caluga’s death. “He was a great actor who educated himself outside of school.” Last June, the last of Tony Caluga’s original clown colleagues was given a memorial plaque at the Estacion Central. Presiding over the ceremony was the Comuna Alcalde Rodrigo Delgado Mocarquier, who admitted to having always been a fan of clowns. “These men have given joy to thousands of children in Chile,” the Alcalde said to La Tercera during the event. “His work must be recognized by all citizens. Zapatin is the last survivor of the classic clowns, and it is an honor to thank him (personally) for his part in circus history.” Born as Alejandro Lopez Salazar, Zapatin became a clown in 1939, about seven years after Tony Caluga joined “Las Aguilas Humanas.” “I’m a billionaire in applause,” said the clown to La Tercera, “and this cute monument is a tremendous recognition of my more than 70 years as a circus performer.”Zapatin, in the same interview, said that his dream is that when he passes away, that it is while he is performing.

www.ilovechile.cl


10 By Pablo Retamal

F

irms and areas that move quickly to develop low carbon goods and services may benefit from taking early market share and development of low carbon ‘clusters’. The low carbon transition is already creating rapidly growing markets worth billions! Those companies able to assert an advantage in these markets are likely to witness sizeable returns and opportunities for expansion. Don’t believe me? Then have a look at what US President Barack Obama said: “The nation that leads the world in creating new energy sources will be the nation that leads the 21st-century global economy.” The concept of Early Mover Advantage builds on the theory of ‘1st Mover Advantage’ debated largely in industrial organisation literature. Early mover advantage refers to the ability to establish an advantage, usually measured by market share or enhanced profitability, through acting early in relation to your competitors. This might be an advantage held by a firm, an industry as a whole, or a range of industries. The advantage might be at the level of a particular technology, component, good or market. So can this argument be applied to a country as whole? Unlikely. It can however be used to encourage regional ‘hubs’ or individual firms. For example, the low carbon-economy can be seen as a race whereby countries in South America that make the first move can benefit from added sustainability and added economic resilience. UN Secretary General, Ban Ki Moon feeds into my argument by saying, “Understand that the shift to a lowcarbon economy opens new revenue streams, creates new markets, and makes good business and moral sense.” Ok, so where does this all come from? An ‘early mover advantage’ can emerge from a number of factors: 1. CLUSTER EFFECTS A particular geographical area may experience positive cluster effects. Industrial clusters make sense if being in close proximity has advantages, for example if components suppliers are close to assembly plants. Similarly, the concentration of a skilled workforce in a particular location would encourage further firms to locate there (the agglomeration effect). The classic examples of the cluster effect are Silicon Valley and Hollywood. However, it can also be seen on ordinary high streets with the location choice of clothes or shoe shops. Cluster effects are not necessarily the result of government policy, but are more likely to emerge in places where government policy ensures that a market for low carbon technologies will exist and be sizeable (i.e. In places where government targets require low carbon investment). The UK Government is promoting two ‘low carbon zones’ in the North-East (for electric car production) and the South-West (a marine energy generation centre) based on these arguments. National and regional government are supporting research in these areas. 2. INDUSTRY STANDARDS The establishment of industry standards allows a firm to establish a first mover advantage, as their products set the norm and the benchmark. This might be of particular relevance to lithium batteries and electric car components, where fundamentally new products and technologies are being produced. For example, the EU’s “Euro” standards on vehicle emissions have been taken up by China and India and even in Chile! 3. LEARNING EFFECTS Learning effects occur when the process of making a product means that knowledge is acquired, helping to increase the productivity or efficiency of the firm. It includes both training and learning-while-doing. This knowledge is often tacit knowledge and is not easily transferred between firms so can prove a lasting source of early mover advantage. Examples include the improvement of management practices and working methods, technology modification and use, and network-building. Success in acquiring a patent also comes under this category to some extent as

www.ilovechile.cl

Social Responsibility / March-April 2011

Early Mover Advantage learning is rewarded by being protected from copying. 4. REPUTATIONAL BENEFITS There are reputational benefits for firms. The firm that gets its brand name or product known first can establish a market share. Transaction costs in shifting supply, or the perception of consumers about reliability help to maintain this market share. Low-carbon leading companies often stress the reputational or brand benefits from taking a progressive stance. Being “green” can be a way for a company to differentiate itself from its competitors. REASONS TO DOUBT EARLY MOVER ADVANTAGE? So what if I follow the trend - take the leap of faith and end up moving first into the wrong technology? It’s true that moving first does not automatically lead to market domination. But the difference about this industrial revolution is that we know where we’re going: an almost zero-carbon economy. For this a range of technologies will be required. It is inevitable that not all technologies will ‘win’, but the payoffs for those that do could be huge. Hold on, what about China – they’ll end up dominating the market for production anyway!? It is also true that China will likely have a large comparative advantage in the production of many of the new technologies. However, the high value end is ownership of the intellectual property (IP). In the case of electric cars, while many are produced in China, the IP is often in the hands of foreign partners. Spill-overs for growth and high value jobs are recognised results of innovation. Developed countries can compete on quality or on logistical/supply chain aspects. For example, while the UK may not have a comparative advantage in manufacturing wind turbines, the UK has expertise in how to set them up and maintain them. Consultancy and logistics are likely to have a higher ‘value added’ than

manufacturing. How long can an ‘early mover advantage’ last? The maintenance of such an advantage depends on the continuation of these effects, as well as the extent to which a more general competitive advantage can be established. For example, early mover advantages allow a firm to expand and capture a significant market share, and so economies of scale may kick in. Take Danish wind turbine company Vestas; while they may be fast losing its overall market share to China, it retains a sizeable chunk of a fast growing market. It continues to compete on quality and dominates European markets. Job cuts and shrinking profits witnessed last year are probably as much an effect of the recession in Europe as a contradiction to the Early Mover Advantage. The opportunity is for emerging economies to make a direct leap to low carbon, avoiding the “high carbon lock-in”, developed economies are so desperately trying to get rid of today. In Chile, a series of coal and diesel fired power plant projects and coal mines (ie. Castilla, Isla Riesco) are threatening the possibility for first mover advantage in the energy sector. Chile has been dubbed the Saudi Arabia of renewable energy, so why not move in that direction? Won’t coal fired powered plants always be susceptible to raw material prices? Aren’t they around for at least the next 40 years? Don’t renewable energy technologies get cheaper by the year? Don’t renewable energies provide half of Chile’s energy matrix in Germany already (7,000 MW)? Don’t renewable energies allow development to get off the oil hook? Guarantee returns for investments? Yes, yes, yes and yes. Britain’s Foreign Secretary, William Hague puts it best when he talks about the new sustainable pathway to prosperity and security, “Countries that adapt quickly to a carbon constrained world will be better able to deliver lasting prosperity for their citizens.”


11

March-April 2011 / FEATURE

Predicting earthquakes: true science or fallacy

Another 8.8 around the corner? By Jayne Scarman

A

ripple of panic spread through Chile earlier this year when a group of scientists announced that another major earthquake, on the scale of last February’s 8.8 disaster was to be expected imminently. Located on of the most seismically active zones in the world, it is not hard to imagine that last summer’s scenes are, unfortunately, likely to be repeated in Chile. Earthquakes are so second nature here, we don’t get out of bed for anything less than a 7.0. But are we really on the verge of facing something so destructive again so soon? Can earthquakes be predicted? The short answer is no. As the University of Chile’s Seismological Service is keen to reiterate: “until this moment, there is no accepted methodology for the global scientific community to enable earthquake prediction”. By prediction, seismologists mean accurately forecasting the date, time, location and strength of an earthquake, which is simply not possible right now. But what they can do, is predict the likelihood of an earthquake occurring. Research teams all over the world are studying data from past earthquakes in an attempt to establish probabilities - by looking at the conditions before a quake and its impact afterwards. In fact, the quake of February 27th 2010, is likely to be one of the most studied of all time. But while one team of seismologists says that another major earthquake could happen any day now in Concepcion, other scientists warn against spreading such “alarmist announcements” when there lacks sufficient data to make concrete assertions. The argument for On January 30th, Nature Geoscience published a now controversial paper that claimed central Chile was still at risk of an earthquake of similar magnitude to the 2010 quake. The study, by a team at Italy’s National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, investigated ‘seismic stress’ - the amount of pressure or tension in the earth - and whether the earthquake in 2010 had provided a release. Dr Stefano Lorito and his team monitored a fault line off the coast of Chile known as the PeruChile Trench or Atacama Trench. At the fault, the Nazca plate, a section of the earth’s surface which is moving eastwards at a rate of around 10 centimeters a year, is being forced underneath the South America plate, upon which the majority of Chile sits. This

phenomenon in the earth’s crust is the reason we are blessed with the beautiful Andes. But it is also makes for a pretty lively time when it comes to shaking the ground we walk on. Where the two plates meet and push against each other, tension builds up; from time to time, the stress is dispersed resulting in a powerful earthquake (measuring 8.0 or more on the Richter scale.) Along this fault line, offshore from Concepcion, is a section known as the ‘Darwin Gap’, where it is thought that no major earthquake has occurred since 1835, when Darwin witnessed a massive quake from HMS Beagle. Seismic stress in that area has been accumulating consistently for 165 years. Therefore, it came as no surprise to seismologists that a strong quake centered around Concepcion occurred last February. Such an event had been long overdue. As such, scientists fully expected that the quake would have discharged the energy stored in the Darwin gap, leaving the region free from significant earthquake risk for a number of years. Using a mixture of sea level recordings, tsunami data, satellite radar and GPS, the team at the Italian

institute measured where the earth moved the most during the quake and subsequently, where the stress was released. Surprisingly, the researchers found movement to both the north and south, but very little movement around the Darwin gap itself, with profound implications for Concepcion: “rather than relaxing accumulated stress in the Darwin gap, reducing near-future seismic hazard there, this strong stress interaction might have increased the probability of another major to great earthquake in the Darwin gap in the near future,” claimed the report in Nature Geoscience. The argument against As anxiety fluttered through Chile’s populace in response to headlines portending an imminent repeat of last February’s catastrophe, other scientists were quick to step in to negate the claims. Sergio Barrientos, head of the Seismological Service at the University of Chile, reported in SciDev. Net that although another earthquake measuring 7.0 or more on the Richter Scale was possible in Bio Bio region, there was not enough data about the situation before last February’s quake to estimate what will happen next. In particular, Barrientos pointed to a lack of information about ‘pre-stress’, or the conditions before the earthquake, to draw any accurate conclusions about its trigger and subsequently replicate this theory to the prediction of future events. Barrientos also referred to the fact that only six earthquakes of such a high magnitude have occurred worldwide since scientists began gathering accurate data in the 1960s, hence: “drawing statistics [about the behaviour of earthquakes] from such a small sample is not very sound.” It would be convenient for scientists to conclude that areas with the most stress are most likely to have an earthquake next. But Ross Stein of the U.S. Geological Survey, speaking to Discovery News, said, “It’s a very logical approach, but I don’t think it holds up”. Large parts of the seismological community appear to agree that earthquakes don’t follow a logical pattern, as much as it may be human nature to look for one. As reported by the U.S. Geological Survey: “A temporal increase in earthquake activity does not mean that a large earthquake is about to happen. Similarly, quiescence, or the lack of seismicity, does not mean a large earthquake is going to happen. A temporary increase or decrease in the seismicity rate is usually just part of the natural variation in the seismicity. There is no way for us to know whether or not this time it will lead to a larger earthquake.”

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12

feature / March-April 2011

Earthquakes: The Strength of Chile

What makes Chile so wonderful? It’s the beautiful landscapes and the warm and friendly people, among many others. Both of these have been heavily influenced and formed by the earthquakes throughout Chile’s history. By Pepe Rawlinson

A

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s I look back on a year since the massive 2010 earthquake in Chile, I realize that earthquakes are a part of daily life for all Chileans. They define the country, its people, and landscapes. So much of what characterizes Chile, to both Chileans and those that visit, is born of the ever-moving earth on which it sits. The ground is almost constantly moving in Chile. Shaking is so common that Chileans even have different words for the type and magnitude of earthquakes. Where in English we might call any movement an “earthquake”, Chileans reserve the word “terremoto” for only the largest and most damaging of quakes. The daily, subtle movements of the earth are simply called “temblores” or tremors. Every “terremoto” that happens in Chile strengthens its people. The natural forces of these disasters tend to destroy and break up everything in the area. However, the people that survive these earthquakes always come together in a powerful, unifying force that rivals the destructive forces that preceded them. Because Chileans bear the burdens of earthquakes, they are more helpful, charitable, caring, and service-minded. Each quake rekindles the national pride of country and love of fellow humankind that is the bedrock of Chilean culture. Chileans love their country and are extremely proud of it. No matter the challenge, disaster, or situation, Chileans know they can overcome it. Each earthquake marks a milestone in an individual’s life against which everything else is measured. Chileans are more resilient in the face of life’s challenges because if they can survive a quake, surely all other problems pale in comparison. Problems at home with family, at work, or in the community are just no big deal. The natural beauties that span this country from its northern deserts to the frigid southern tip complement the beauty of the Chilean people. Almost every natural attraction that Chile has to offer is born of the same tectonic activity that causes devastating earthquakes. The images of great destruction following an earthquake quickly make the rounds in the news throughout the world. Yet in contrast, pictures of amazingly beautiful places likewise are viewed across the globe and beckon people to come to Chile. Imagine the snow-capped volcanoes of the Lake District towering over lush green hills and dark blue waters. Feel the soothing warmth of the countless hot springs found near these very volcanoes. In Santiago, look up at the towering Andes mountains with their majestic peaks and ski resorts. Earthquakes are both a curse and a blessing to Chile. Chile and its people are what they are because the earth has been moving here for thousands of years.

Be Prepared

> You should have an extensive

list of supplies on hand in case you need to survive several days after an earthquake without basic utilities. The list below is for a bag that you can easily grab on the way out the door after an earthquake. Be sure to keep it in a spot that would be easy to access after an earthquake.

MINI EARTHQUAKE SURVIVAL KIT

• Passports of alternatie form of ID • Drinking water • Water purification tablets or iodine tincture • Flashlight with extra batteries • Candles • Matches • Battery operated radio • Ready-to-eat food, such as cereal bars • Cash • Toilet paper • Feminine hygiene Products • Diaper, if you have a small child • Pencil and paper • Soap • Disinfectant • First aid kit • Jacket • Blanket • Heavy Gloves • Critical medication, extra eyeglasses • Tool; screwdriver, pliers, wire, knife • Printed list of important phone numbers • Inventory of valuable household goods • Pre-moistened towelettes

In Spanish

En el caso de un terremoto, uno debería estar preparado y tener en su casa un stock de provisiones para poder sobrevivir por varios días sin servicios básicos, como lo son el agua y la elecricidad. La lista a continuación es para un bolso de emergencia que se puede recoger fácilmente al salir de la casa/departamento luego del terremoto. Es esencial que mantenga este bolso en un lugar donde pueda acceder a él fácilmente duspués del terremoto.

KIT DE SOBREVIVENCIA DE TERREMOTO

• Pasaporte u otro tipo de identificación • Agua potable • Tabletas de purificación de agua o iodo (povidona) • Linterna con pilas • Velas • Fósforos • Radio a Pilas • Comida preparada, ej. barras de cereal • Dinero en efectivo • Papel higiénico • Productos femeninos • Pañales, si tiene guagua • Paper y Lápiz • Jabón • Desinfectante • Botinquín de primeros auxilios • Chaqueta • Frazada • Guantes resistentes • Medicamentos necesarios, anteojos extra • Herramientas: destornillador, alicate, alambre, cuchillo • Lista impresa de números de teléfono importantes • Un registro de sus artículos de valor • Pañuelos húmedos


13

March-April 2011 / feature

Architecture: Revisiting the 8.8 By Kelly Miner

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hile’s earthquakes are well documented in the history books. The massive 1960 quake near the town of Valdivia registered 9.5 on the Richter Scale, the largest ever to be recorded. Memories like the 1960 quake have not escaped the minds of Chileans; rather they have played a significant part in shaping this country we live in. Having some of the best seismic design codes in the world, Chile has particularly focused energies on creating construction practices unique to each of its 15 region and have played a crucial role in the recent 2010 earthquake. Reinforced concrete in Chile, and for that matter in Latin America is quite normal. The required reinforced concrete was successful at dissipating some of the quake’s energy within the horizontal beams keeping the vertical columns standing tall, in respect to multistory buildings. However, as we can all remember not all of our built environment held strong. These isolated building issues predominately lie in older construction that was built of varying materials, typically un-reinforced adobe, and also in residential home construction which may have not have been designed by an architect or constructed according to these seismic building codes. A very small number of newer multistory buildings failed, most likely due to contractors cutting corners and developers concerned about the bottom line. The codes were not met, however the buildings were still ‘signed off ’ allowing construction to proceed and an unsafe building to be built. What is key to remember is the architectural design and code process here in Chile is very thorough and this understanding of the upmost importance of quality construction design is reflected in the fact that we can look out at an unaltered Santiago skyline. Whether a small home edition or the construction of the Costanera skyscraper (which will be the tallest building in Latin America) it is essential that licensed professional architects are an active part of the process. Building codes, quality design, and construction takes a team of architects and engineers, followed by implementation from the general contractors. The Chilean government continues to develop seismic design codes for all new buildings, providing significant advances over previous versions. Architect Alejandro Concha Aquirre is a Concepcion native, and was living at the epicenter with his family during the 8.8 earthquake. Reflecting on the results of the earthquake, Concha Aguirre shared his opinion of architecture, the successes and failures: “It [results of the earthquake] showed us that Chile has a high quality of architecture. The 8.8, it was a huge earthquake and most of the buildings didn’t have structural problems (proportionally). New buildings, the tallest in the country, didn’t suffer structural problems. This revealed to us that the serious architects are doing things well, therefore we can still trust in the profession.” Concha Aguirre continued, “Of course if the laws change, structural or in other areas, we will do a better job, and there will be even better architecture, which means progress.” Concha Aguirre answered the call from the Chilean government and the Ministerio de Obras Publicas (MOP) and Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo (MINVU) asking professional architects

and engineers to assist in the inspection of buildings’ safety. Teams of professionals were formed and they were assigned specific neighborhoods or buildings to provide an initial analysis of the structural integrity of a building. Their findings, initial analysis of a property, photographs, and documentation were then reported back to the municipalidad. If a building’s structural walls had suffered any damage, a follow up of the building was required and a specific team of structural engineers would further analyze the damage. This process would continue, priority given depending on the severity of damage to structural walls. “I have always thought about our architecture profession as a career that could help people. The industry, its not only to work and design, but to recognize that we can change lives through our work, and that’s exactly what happened after the 8.8. Many architects united together focused on making a better country, many of them working for free, volunteering their time designing emergency shelters and homes, recovering national landmarks and buildings, recovering cities by the sea after the devastating tsunami, and even developing public spaces where people could unite and plazas where children could play.” This unified spirit following the earthquake was also reflected in university students, who spent their time focused on utilizing their design skills to help fellow Chileans who were displaced. A group of design students from Universidad Catolica developed low cost day-to-day objects that could be used for people living in emergency housing. These objects specifically related to those living in Mediaguas, emergency housing typically 3m x 6m. Some of the objects they designed included a vertical garden, water transporter, dishwashing area, and a wardrobe for clothes.

Chilean architects active involvement in the rebuilding process was also directly apparent in the XVII Architecture Biennale. Every two years the Biennale highlights the best of the best of Chilean Architecture and offers numerous international speakers. This week long event is an exceptionally special time in Chile and the Biennale reflected its commitment to rebuilding the country, refocusing its previously planned itinerary and theme. The XVII Architecture Biennale 8.8 Re-Construction, immediately focused the weeks events around the reconstruction, and one of the highlights was keynote speaker Cameron Sinclair, co-founder and ‘chief eternal optimist’ (CEO) of AFH. Designing for the fault zone is a very difficult task, evident throughout the world, as we struggle to find the best technology and materials to construct the sturdiest buildings. This is especially difficult in the smaller communities. Marcel Blondet of Catholic University in Peru has been researching how to provide safe housing that is affordable and uses local materials such as straw, adobe, and old tires. What seem like simple ideas could make a significant difference if implemented. This type of research is crucial as many reconstruct and do not have the resources or materials beyond the environment that surrounds them. As the ruble settles and we revisit the idea of the 8.8 earthquake, there has been much progress made. I hope this article shares a little more detail about the architects here in Chile who strive for excellence, and have succeeded. There is still much to be done, people without homes, and potential to develop the best architectural structural seismic building codes, but Chile has built an excellent foundation.

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14

feature / March-April 2011

The Human Factor By Katherine Carroll Judy Peterson The anxiety of another earthquake is a shared fear, but the intensity varies among individuals. Judy Peterson, from the US, wouldn’t say she worries about another earthquake, but admitted such thoughts are “always there.” “It’s always in the back of your mind,” she said. “Odds are very slim that another one’s going to hit. I figure we made it through that one….” Chile’s 8.8-magnitude earthquake was not the first Peterson had experienced. When living in northern Chile in the mid-nineties there was one in the Antofagasta area, and she was near San Francisco in 1988 when the city was hit by a large earthquake. “But this one was different,” she said. “It was longer and it kept moving more and more. We wondered, is it gonna stop?” Judy and her husband Terry were living in a tenth floor apartment in Vitacura. As the earthquake shook their building, Judy said the view her husband saw through an open awning window, which tilted out at from the bottom, was of sky and then ground, sky and then ground. “We heard screaming, sirens, and church bells,” she said. “Kids and older people were screaming.” “It was scary, but not wasn’t horrifying,” she said. After the earthquake, she said, “I just didn’t want to live in it [the apartment] anymore.” Within three months they moved to a house in Colina. Matt Sullivan In addition to anxiety about a future earthquake and being prepared for it, many people are still putting their lives back together one year later. Matt Sullivan, executive director of MERCY Worldwide for Chile and a church leader, said he has seen varied responses in people he has been helping over the past year. “Some people have positive attitudes and some are completely devastated,” he said. “The biggest thing I’ve seen is that they’ve received a lot of promises. The government and different agencies have said they could build houses here but not there. Some people were promised houses but got media aguas. More than one million people lost their homes. The government is stretched to the limit. Many are disillusioned.” MERCY Worldwide has been helping families since the earthquake hit. Immediately after the quake, MERCY helped get basic supplies such as food, clean water, and clothing to people in need, and for the long-term it is building houses (not media aguas). Last year four houses were built, and this year the goal is to build 20, Sullivan said. Sullivan has even noticed varied responses from people who lost their homes. “Some people feel completely hopeless,” he said. “They feel like ‘this is my life. I lost my job, I

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People’s feelings about the earthquake one year later are as varied as the individuals themselves. For certain, no one has forgotten about the earthquake, regardless of how much or how little it impacted their lives. Follow these two unique and harrowing stories to catch a glimpse of what it’s like to live through one of the largest earthquake in recorded history. lost everything.’” “But the first family we helped in Talca were the opposite. They lost everything, but they were positive and they wanted to rebuild,” he explained. “They started rebuilding immediately. They pulled out wood from the rubble and built two little shacks. They were extraordinary.” This multi-generational family of ten lived in a 110-year-old giant, beautiful adobe house that had been in the family for generations. This family, like many in Chile, inherited their home. To rebuild is impossible because they did not have insurance and do not have savings. They cannot get loans because they earn minimum wage, live paycheck to paycheck, and have lost their jobs as a result of the earthquake. Unless a person is given aid or there is a big change in their lives it is very difficult for families to move forward, he explained. Sullivan and others from MERCY Worldwide first went to Talca and Concepcion two days after the earthquake. The first family they came across in Concepcion were four sisters sitting along the side of a road washing clothes in muddy water. They had lost everything, including family members. Their homes as well as the fishing

boats of their husbands and male cousins were all destroyed, he said. In the village where these women lived was a small hill. After the earthquake everyone ran up the hill to escape the tsunami. Four waves hit their village. From the hill “they saw their houses wash out to sea,” Sullivan said. Their immediate needs were clothing, clean water, and food. Many people had only the clothes they were wearing when they fled their homes and some had no clothes at all, having been roused from sleep without a second to spare. In another fishing community in Constitucion, fishermen lost their boats, their houses, and their nets. For the first three months they had nothing. An attorney Sullivan was in contact with made a generous donation of fishing supplies. “With a boat,” Sullivan said, “a fisherman can rebuild his life. But many of these people will be in a very tenuous situation for the rest of their lives.” Even when the basic needs of food, water, clothing, and some kind of shelter are met there is little relief. The fear of another earthquake won’t go away. “It’s not a little fear, it’s terror,” said Sullivan. “It’s a terror in their hearts. The older women seem to live in terror. And they have no hope of moving away from the area.” For a period of time following the earthquake there were aftershocks every twenty minutes in the Talca area. “At night, the people were shaken by nonstop aftershocks of 5- and 6-magnitude,” Sullivan said. “It’s drilled into their heads that it’s going to happen again.” Sullivan predicted that rebuilding from this earthquake would be a 20-year process for Chile. “It depends on individuals,” he said. “It depends on their stamina and their emotional well-being.” “There are two types of people,” he said, “the re-builders and the mourners.” For the mourners, recovery may not come until the next generation. But for the re-builders, “those who put together shacks, and are moving around, looking for work,” he estimated their recovery time to be within five years. Certainly recovery can be as much mental as it is physical. No experience will ever be the same because you have to weigh in the human factor. There are of course commonalities running though each of these stories - fear, anxiety, grief, and hope. Whether the road to recovery is long or short, the thread that connects each story is one of survival.


March-April 2011 / EDUCATION

15

Your Child’s

Most Important Teacher - You! Have you ever felt disconcerted or outright frustration in regards to your child’s education? If you are like me, listening to the all the talk of SIMCE, PISA and the latest PSU results, I bet that a tremendous sense of helplessness grabs you. This is made all the worse in Chile by the fact that, educationally, we are not even average. I know... I know! There are “those” who are doing something about it, but what can we do as parents in the meantime? The short answer is: LOADS!! By Mónica Gilbert Sáez

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ever underestimate the influence and importance of a caring, interested parent in a child’s life. You love them like no one else and being involved in your child’s education will make their learning experience profound and unique. A characteristic of countries with consistently high performing educational systems is the tremendous support young people receive at home. So what can you do? Let me give few examples, some you may already do, other may be new, so go on and give them a try. Let them enjoy physical challenges. For young children, movement is generally a key part of learning – movement gets the brain working better. If a physical challenge includes a certain amount of what we could call ‘safe risk’ then even better; risk-taking is an essential learning skill and challenge breed’s self-confidence. Share your memories. Children love to hear about their parents’ childhoods – your home life, your school, the games you used to play – especially your funny stories. Talking with – not at – your children is shown to be an important prerequisite for success at school Don’t ride the bike for them! It’s tempting to want to solve all our children’s issues for them, but successful, resilient learners need to feel able to cope with frustrations, setbacks and subsequent jubilations of solving problem for themselves. Share books and other reading together. According to the PISA Executive Report (not the carefully selected highlights governments use to justify their own policies), “it is students who read a wide variety of materials who perform particularly well in reading” (2010, p. 11). The key here, as elsewhere when it comes to learning, is ‘variety.’ Books yes, but also e-mails, chatting online, reading news online, using online dictionaries and participating in online group discussions and searching for information. However, three hours of Facebook does not count as ‘variety’. Give your child a good listening to! Give them a chance to tell you what they think and how they feel about a wide cross-section of things. Don’t worry about feeling you should ‘assess’ their learning. That’s a teachers’ job. Just try to get to know them and grow with them as individuals. As a parent, I am sure you want your child to grow into a well-rounded individual, capable of much more than passing exams. Well, now is your chance. While politicians and academics argue about the nature of education, get on with enjoying some quality learning time with your child. Check out the Little Thinkers page at the back for the paper for thinking exercises you can do with your child right now. Little Thinkers is designed by Ian Gilbert, independent thinking expert, education innovator, entrepreneur and award-winning author. Email or Facebook your best answer to the Thunks question for a chance to win a singed copy of Ian Gilbert’s award winning Book of Thunks. Good Luck and start thinking!

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16 By Ben Angel

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espite this, Concepcion remains Chile’s second largest city, after Santiago. Of course, recovery from the Feb. 27 earthquake is still ongoing. Last year’s 8.8-Richter disaster hit very early in the morning and left thousands homeless, temporarily tarnished the country’s reputation as a tourism destination, and disrupted efforts to improve the nation’s infrastructure. In order to review Chile’s recoveries from historical earthquakes, I will compare 3 aspects, housing, tourism and infrastructure, of six major Chilean earthquakes.

The 2010 Concepcion Earthquake

Housing: The number of homes that were lost in this earthquake numbered 370,000, according to Wikipedia. Many people still live in temporary “mediaguas” or emergency huts erected for protection of the population against last winter’s rains. In a well-orchestrated campaign, 20,000 of these structures were built for those least capable of rebuilding on their own. Each mediagua is designed to have an effective “life” of three years, they have no running water, and the electrical fuseboxes on many can withstand operation of a television or an interior lamp, but reportedly not both. Further, there is no money in most of the affected communities to replace these temporary structures with more permanent replacement homes, and no plans as yet to raise the funds for those living in these “temporary” shelters. Tourism: Most stories about tourists focused on the hardships encountered in higher end hotels, but hostels likewise suffered during the disaster. On the night of the earthquake, guests at the hostel “La Casa Roja” (whose earthquake security footage was featured in a YouTube video that can still be easily found) spent the night outdoors near a large bonfire, mostly as a precaution in case of structural damage. Nearby “Happy House” hostel had an entire wall collapse, and as a result, their guests were invited to join those on the grounds of the more secure “La Casa Roja.” Once all these tourists were able to make arrangements to leave Chile, the number of people staying dropped dramatically. Through to near the end of the year, the hostel operated at roughly 60 percent capacity, drawing in post-quake visitors with numerous offers. Owners used the slow period to carry out repairs (mostly cosmetic, as the building suffered no significant structural damage). Infrastructure: Most roads have long since recovered, though the Tren del Sur, the line that used to run down to Chillan, remains closed south of Talca, and the Biotren that ran from Chillan to Concepcion has remained out of service. Plans for expansion of the Chilean railroad to Puerto Montt are more or less permanently postponed. Overall: For most of Chile, life has returned to normal. Many people still panic when even moderate shakers hit, as was the case on Feb. 11 when a 6.8-Richter quake knocked out power to an area south of Concepcion, but most of the cracks in building exteriors have long since been filled in.

HISTORY / March-April 2011

the homes lost). Two months after the earthquake, more than 11,000 people were reported still living in emergency shelters (schools, etc.) and prefabricated homes and tents were being used to house earthquake victims. According to the U.S. Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, those families that also suffered “disappearances” of their members under the military regime were given lower priority in recovering their homes. Tourism: Among the tourist attractions damaged in the 1985 earthquake was the Museo de Arte Popular Americano in Santiago. A majority of pieces of Chilean folklore ceramics were damaged, and the remainder collection had to be moved to another museum until the facility could be replaced. As a result of this experience, museums in Chile began to plan for disaster preparedness, particularly where major collections of culturally important items were concerned. Infrastructure: Many roads, including the Pan-American Highway (Route 5), were rendered impassible by broken bridges and severe breaks in pavement. Nonetheless, recovery time seemed to be about the same as in the 2011 earthquake. Rail service, which operated between Valparaiso and Santiago at the time of the earthquake, seemed to not be affected. Indeed, regular passenger rail service continued between the two cities until the Queronque rail crash forced the Pinochet government to suspend passenger service along the line until improvements in track and signaling could be made (and then service from Valparaiso was restored only to Limache station, the line’s present terminus).

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Grou

It seems like Concepcion never gets a b earthquakes (in 1570, 1657, 1687, 173 with corresponding tsunamis, have wr relocate from its original site. Its shaky sweepstakes of becoming Chile’s capita

The 1928 Talca Earthquake

Just after midnight on the morning of Dec. 1, 1928, the ground shook throughout central Chile as an 8.3 Richter quake struck. When the light of day shown again upon the region, the towns of Talca, Curico, and San Fernando were mostly destroyed. Housing: According to Spanish Wikipedia, 127,000 homes were destroyed as a result of the earthquake. In response to the disaster, President Carlos Ibáñez del Campo ordered three engineers to create a set of building

The 1960 Valdivia or Great Chil

The 1985 Santiago Earthquake

By all rights, this quake, which hit on the evening of Mar. 3 and measured 7.5 on the Richter scale, should have been called a Valparaiso earthquake, but much of the international reports generated by the quake came from the national capital, and thus the quake was named. This event took place during the military government of Gen. Augusto Pinochet during a period that the economy was suffering from economic crisis. Eventually, this crisis led to the 1988 Referendum that removed Pinochet from power. Housing: The number of homes that were lost in this earthquake numbered more than 142,000, according to Wikipedia. Many old buildings in Santiago, and Region V Valparaiso were completely destroyed (accounting for half

On Sha

regulations to be implemented throughout Chile to avoid such disaster from happening again. Among the recommendations were the use reinforced concrete columns and beams to hold in place brick masonry. In the 1939 Chillan earthquake, buildings using this construction method withstood collapse better than older buildings that didn’t follow such regulations. Tourism: The region was mostly an agricultural zone, much as it is today, and so the damage to tourism in Chile was not as significant as in the previous examples. Nonetheless, shaking was felt from as far away as Antofagasta and Puerto Montt. Infrastructure: The town of Talca had just

By May 1960, Valdivia had become more or less a backwater, albeit one with a fairly proud tradition, much like the other traditional ports of central “mainland” Chile, Concepcion and Valparaiso. Then on May 22, disaster struck when the world’s “most energetic” earthquake – 9.5 on the Richter scale – followed a foreshock that had cut off communications in the region the day before. The quake was followed by 10-meter tsunamis that struck 18 and 28 minutes afterward. Despite the widespread damage, only 6,000 were killed because of the sparse population. The “El Mercurio de Valparaiso” reported at the time the eruption of at least five volcanoes following the earthquake, suggesting that the eruptions were related to the seismic event. Housing: Valdivia suffered the most, with 40 percent of homes being wiped out. Time magazine put the number

of homes destroyed a three that existed be region. A good numb region occupied mos did not suffer much d they were not swept they were made of wo traditional designs. A tion did not fare as w tures were erected These structures, fore diaguas, consisted of were without flooring to be set up quickly, a tral winter rains was Tourism: Ma fortifications and oth city were wiped out or tsunami. As a res years later, the milita Pinochet removed


17

March-April 2011 / HISTORY

aky

und

break. A total of eight catastrophic 30, 1751, 1835, 1960, and 2010), most reaked havoc on the city, which had to y neighborhood disqualified it from the al city after the 1835 disaster.

lean Earthquake

at 130,000, or one in efore the quake in the ber of buildings in the stly by the Mapuche, damage (provided that away by tsunamis) as ood using pre-Spanish Adobe brick construcwell. Emergency strucin makeshift camps. erunner of today’s meA-frame houses that g. These structures had as the onset of the auswell underway. any of the traditional her tourist sites in the by either earthquake sult of the quake, 14 ary dictatorship under

Valdivia as the regional capital, and shifted this honor to Puerto Montt, a move resented by Valdivia residents to this day. Infrastructure: With port facilities and roads wiped out, emergency supplies had to be shipped in by air. Venezuela, Peru, Argentina, Uruguay, and the United States contributed aircraft to a relief air-bridge that shipped in supplies to the survivors. A large number of survivors were left isolated from civilization, leading to an apparent human sacrifice that took place when a Mapuche shaman (“machi”) demanded that a 5-year-old boy be killed and given over to the sea. A subsequent trial convicted two men of killing the boy, but these men were eventually freed, the judge in the case saying that the men “acted without free will, driven by an irresistible natural force of ancestral tradition,” according to “El Austral de los Rios”.

begun to experiment with electric trolleys when the earthquake struck. The system remained down for about three weeks as track and electrical system were restored. More dire was the collapse of the Barahona Dam, built of copper ore tailings – 55 died as a result of flooding.

1906 Valparaiso Earthquake

Captain Arturo Middleton, Chief of the Chilean Army Meteorological Office, predicted based on the position of the sun, moon, and Neptune, that on August 9, 1906, that a major earthquake would strike Valparaiso. During dinner time on Aug. 16, the earth proved Capt. Middleton right as first a foreshock, then an 8.2-Richter earthquake devastated Valparaiso, transforming the booming port a mere half-decade before the Panama Canal would take away its golden age. His prediction, although accurate more from luck than actual science, nonetheless inspired the Chilean government to create a scientific governmental body called the Seismological Service of Chile, which monitored earthquakes more closely afterwards. Housing: The earthquake greatly damaged structures in the city, but the subsequent fire, as with the San Francisco earthquake in the United States that same year,

left the city in greater ruins than the shaking. Thousands were killed in the inferno in the Almendral district. A resulting tsunami struck the waterfront levy but failed to clear it, preventing flooding that might have wiped out more structures. According to La Tercera, the city was reconstructed, albeit in not as fine a form as before the quake, in three years. Tourism: The city lost a number of major tourist attractions, including the Victoria Theater. Government troops also carried out a campaign to restore order that left 15 looters dead, their bodies kept on public display as an example to other potential rioters. Such images did little to restore immediate confidence in the city as a tourist destination. Infrastructure: Valparaiso’s waterfront had been slowly extended out into the city’s historical bay, creating new land upon which a railroad soon was constructed. At the end of the line was the multistory Bellavista railroad station that at the time was one of the grander buildings of Valparaiso. Following the earthquake, damage to the building, built on fill dirt, was such that the building stood condemned for a number of months, and then eventually was demolished. Remnants of the old platforms can be seen today to the east of today’s Metro Station Bellavista.

The 1835 Valdivia/Concepcion Earthquake

Sometimes nicknamed the “Charles Darwin Earthquake,” the event is perhaps best introduced in the words of its most famous recorder: “This day has been remarkable in the annals of Valdivia for the most severe earthquake which the oldest inhabitants remember. Some who were at Valparaiso during the dreadful one of 1822, say this was as powerful. I can hardly credit this, and must think that in earthquakes as in gales of wind, the last is always the worst. I was on shore and lying down in the wood to rest myself. It came on suddenly and lasted two minutes (but appeared much longer). The rocking was most sensible; the undulation appeared both to me and my servant to travel due east. There was no difficulty in standing upright; but the motion made me giddy. I

can compare it to skating on very thin ice or to the motion of a ship in a little cross ripple.” Housing: In Concepcion, according to Wikipedia, a survey after the earthquake found that 33 percent of kilndried brick buildings, 71 percent of mud-brick buildings, and 95 percent of stone-built buildings were destroyed. The earthquake was unusual in that it started softly, built in intensity, and lasted two minutes. The build in intensity gave people enough time to escape their buildings before the shaking became hard enough to cause a collapse. At Talcahuano, a tsunami killed more people, wiping out the upper parts of buildings there, and sending a schooner through town. Valdivia was left in ruins, as Darwin recorded. Tourism: A number of historical buildings were destroyed, including the cathedral in Concepcion. Despite this, the earthquake seemed to have almost no negative effects on the passage of ships into the region. Indeed, Darwin’s later works resulting from his explorations during this period would increase attention on Chile as a traveler’s destination. Infrastructure: Port facilities were destroyed, but quickly recovered. This earthquake, despite the damage it had left behind, is nonetheless credited with having restored confidence in the expedition of the HMS Beagle, whose captain had been considering returning to England. Indeed, it was Robert Fitzroy that observed at Concepcion that a bed of mussels had risen 2.7 meters so that they were above high water, which seemed to confirm to him the theories of Charles Lyell about gradual changes to the land taking place over long periods of time. Darwin, in crossing the Paso Los Libertadores from Valparaiso to Mendoza, would find further confirmation in the discovery of fossil seashells in the rocks near the top of the 4,000-meter elevation mountain pass. Darwin would describe the discovery as like “hearing in the full Orchestra a Chorus of the Messiah.” This gave new reason to continue the exploration that would eventually lead Darwin to write his master work, “On the Origin of the Species.” Even in the midst of such evil as a catastrophic earthquake, good can occasionally result.

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18

Health / March-April 2011

By Chris Wright Badiian

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ut what is it? Simply, road rage is considered to be a deliberate action of anger or aggression toward other drivers or vehicles. I find that actions that can be attributed to road rage are not exclusive to drivers of motor vehicles but also include bicyclists and pedestrians. An act of road rage can range from something as mild as “flipping the bird” at someone whose driving has irritated you to a worst case scenario of someone getting out of his car at a stop light and shooting the other driver dead! Yes, that has really happened! Road rage is not limited to race, gender, nationality, age or any other way of categorizing human beings. Statistics suggest that every driver is susceptible to this phenomena at some time. Road rage reminds me of the story of “Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde”, one minute a person is a considerate model citizen but when he or she gets behind the steering wheel they turn into a monster. What triggers episodes of road rage? There are many triggers but stress is probably the most common. Imagine you are stuck in bumper to bumper rush hour traffic, it’s hot and your AC doesn’t work. You and the hundreds of cars around you are moving slower than a snail. Then you look in your rear view mirror to see another driver approaching, flashing his lights at everyone and rudely cutting in and out of traffic – definitely a good example of road rage. What should you do at this point? A. Do you block his way, honk and make rude gestures? Or, B. Take a deep breath and let the guy go past you so hopefully you won’t be involved in the accident he is likely to cause. If you chose “A” you yourself are exhibiting road rage. I’m sure we have all experienced many different irritants while driving on the streets of Santiago and have many examples we can share. One that comes to my mind is excessive honking while vehicles are waiting for a break in the stream of pedestrians crossing correctly with the traffic light in the crosswalk. I ask you, what good does that do? It won’t make the pedestrians move

February is my favorite time year in Santiago. Why? Because half of Santiago’s drivers are on vacation making the traffic lighter all day. But what happens when March begins - Road Rage! We’ve all heard this term and most people have experienced it to some degree either as the victim or the perpetrator. any faster, sometimes I even think they enjoy taking their time just to irritate drivers, but frankly, the noise just irritates other drivers even more. Of course there is the guy flashing his headlights at you to get out of his way when you are just as stuck as he is. So, how can we prevent road rage? Personally, I think that respecting the traffic laws and being a courteous driver would go a long way to helping prevent this. Obey the speed limits, drive in the right hand or slow lane of multi-lane roads, use your turn signals to make a lane change and let someone in when they use theirs. Be patient as pedestrians are crossing at traffic

lights and pedestrians need to be aware of cars. The bottom line is that cars and pedestrians have to respectfully share the same space for only a few seconds. Give yourself more time to get places when you know traffic is going to be heavy or even try to find alternate routes. Play some soothing music while your stuck in traffic. And when someone displays acts of road rage, take a deep breath and try not react in the same manner. So remember, as you venture out onto the extra busy streets of Santiago in March, remain cool, calm and collected so you can avoid potentially explosive situations and get home safe and sound.

Recognizing and dealing with trauma in children • the child has symptoms of PTSD that go on for longer than a month • one month following the event, the child is continuing to have signs of distress • such as: Not concentrating in school, fighting and bullying others, acting out, trouble sleeping, normal routines such as eating changed, quiet or withdrawn, marked changed in behavior

By Meghan L. Vooris, LMSW 2010 has been a year unlike any other in Chilean history. Between the earthquake and the heroic rescue of the miners, mentally it’s been a confusing year. These experiences, whether watched or dealt with first hand, affect us all in different ways, physically, mentally, and emotionally. They can make adults as well as children feel angry, enraged, confused, sad, or even guilty. Most behavior immediately preceeding a traumatic event is normal behavior and should fade in time. If, however, your child is not going back to his or her normal self, when should professional help be sought? Children react differently to traumatic events and their reaction is in relation to their age. Children depend on daily routines, when disasters interrupt a normal routine, they may often become anxious. Many adults who experienced the same trauma react naturally with fear, when children view fear in adults, they interpret this as proof the danger is real. Your words and actions can provide reassurance or cause more fear. When talking with your child, be sure to present a realistic picture that is both honest and manageable, but most importantly – comforting. Signs your child may be experiencing traumatic stress: • become fearful, clingy and anxious about being separated from their caretakers • start bed wetting or thumb-sucking again; • become preoccupied with thoughts and memories of the event; • be irritable and disobedient;

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• Complains of physical symptoms such as headaches and stomachaches. All these are normal reactions to an extremely frightening event, children begin to get over the shock in a few days, and recover after a few weeks. However, some of these symptoms may not be seen until weeks of months after the event. When has the situation become serious? • the child’s upset feelings and behavior seem to be getting worse • the signs of extreme stress last for longer than about one month • worries prevent you or the child to get on with normal, everyday life

Basic steps to help you feel better if experiencing emotional distress: • Try to return to as many of your personal routines as possible • Get rest and drink plenty of water • Limit your exposure to the sights and sounds of disaster (television, newspapers) • Focus on the positive • Reach out and accept help from others • Realize that recovery can take time. What do you do now? If your child or someone you know is having obvious signs of distress, it is best to contact a professional to speak with the person and assess the situation. Many times, parents can speak with their school psychologist or social worker regarding the child’s behavior. If you believe that your child needs immediate attention, contact your local red cross, police station, or in Santiago, UNICEF, for a list of professionals or where to seek help in your area. Remember, when it comes to children, it is often better to over react than to under react. The same can be said for yourself in terms of traumatic experiences.


19

March-April 2011 / OPINION

d Lows d Lows of Chile’s Tourism Industry

9 9

By Al Ramirez By Al Ramirez

nn ee ww s s

How Green is your Cell Phone

of Chile’s Tourism Industry COURTESY PHOTO COURTESY PHOTO

ve the events, which have try not to exclude any information that to exclude any information that ve the events, which can not benefit our country and its regions.” throughout this year, affected The world is have nearingtry overbenefit 4 billion cell phone users. our country and its regions.”of throughout this year, affected can - Rodrigo Gonzalez, General Manager mpany? However, cell technology has only been forManager of -“ChileXclusive Rodrigo Gonzalez, General mpany? Travelaround & Incoming” “ChileXclusive Travel & Incoming” arthquake: twenty short years and therefore the long-term health arthquake: What area do you think needs from services cell phone What usage not fully area dounderstood. youin toursim think needs more isimprovement (tour n our agendarisks to provide more improvement in toursim (tour n our agenda to provide services Recent studies have raised serious health concerns companies, restaurants, hotels, shops, ernational construction congress, companies, restaurants, shops, ernational musums, etc.)? s going toconstruction take placeexposure incongress, Santiago about to wireless emissions and givenhotels, the s going to take being place inthe Santiago September, MOP musums, etc.)? number of who use cell specifically, phones, evenI think September, being the MOP “Allpeople of them. But, orks Ministry)tremendous our main sponsor. “All of them. But, be specifically, think orks Ministry) main sponsor. commissions regulated Ibecause us reasons, the money they had aour small increase in the incidence ofshould negative health should be regulated because ous the money they had commissions sometimes it gets out of hand. I am not for reasons, the congress had to be used effects impact of people. sometimes it gets out for of hand. am not for hadcould to be used millions against commissions those Iwho take ely the aftercongress the earthquake in order those shops, who take tely after theregions earthquake in order people commissions to restaurants,forhotels, etc., e affected in the south against to restaurants, hotels, shops, etc., in theGeneral south people this is how it’s done pretty much all around ”e -affected Cristianregions Martinez, how it’s done pretty much around ” of- Pacifico Cristian Andino Martinez, General this By JulieExpeditions, Gibson the isworld, but I think 10% is all more than the world, but I think 10% is more than of Pacifico Andino Expeditions, enough. This can only be regulated through Adventure Tours Chile enough. This have can only becell regulated through Adventure Tours Scientists Chile an the extensive market study and some serious from around world linked lower overall energy per phoan extensive market study and some serious effort from the government.” Jose Luis S dollar exchange rate: phone radiation to serious health concerns when uston than UV light, and X-rays, S dollar exchange rate: effort from theManager government.” - JosePacific Luis Rojas, General of Serviline ing cell phones for 10 Rojas, years orGeneral longer. Manager Some health which are known as ionizing radiaServiline Pacific Viña del Mar, gland Radio tumors, Taxi of Service. d of important event in Chile issues include brain cancer, salivary tion. Although, non-ionizing radiation Viña del Mar, Radio Taxi Service. dt my of important event in Chile business directly. Lately it problems, is typically safe and may not immediately t the my instability businessbehavioral directly. Lately it migraines and vertigo. Two inin the American dependent research groups independently identified cause damage to tissue, scientists are pointing the instability in the American (I charge in US dollars), which (I charge in US dollars), which a 50 to 90 percent increase in risk for two types of to prolonged exposure to cell-phone radiation as a at we have to charge more. We at wecompetitive have tobrain charge more. We and acoustic neuroma. An Istumors, glioma substantial public health risk. less in the South less competitive in the South raeli study found an Unfortunately, most government regulations market when it comes toincreased risk of 50 to 60 percent n marketChile when it ofcomes to for salivary gland tumors among people with highest fail to fully protect our health and the health of our because is one the most because Chile for is one of the most e countries tourists. cell phone use. That A Study of 13,159 Danish children children. The United States FCC allows cell phones e countries for tourists. That y means that showed they tend to stay 80 percent elevated risk for emotional and hyto emit 20 times more radiation to the head than y means that they tend to stay here.” - Hectorperactivity Medina, owner of among young children who use problems the average amount allowed for the whole body, here.” - Hector Medina, owner of As the also years go by,phones the people who work Private & Flexible Tour Service” cell phones and whose mothers used As the years go cell by, the peopleeven whothough work the brain may well be one of the most Private & Flexible Tour Service” in tourism expect to receive a wider during pregnancy. A study 420,095expect Danish to adults sensitive part of the body! Consumers deserve (and in of tourism receive a wider ust a company do in order to scale of visitors, but it seems clear that scale of visitors, it 20 seemsshould clear demand) that ust a company do in order to cell showed that long-term phone users werebut 10 to easy access to cell phone radiation the earthquake, the unstable currency, such a seasonal line of work? thehospitalized earthquake, the unstableinformation currency, so that they can make informed pursuch a seasonal line more of work? percent likely to be for migraines the decrease decrease inin cruises cruises and and the the rescue rescue andservice vertigo than people the who just recently started talk- have chasing decisions and protect themselves and their of the thirty-three miners changed ll, giving quality in every changed all, giving quality service in every of the thirty-three miners have ing on cell phone. children from potential health concerns. the impression foreingers have of Chile. which includes working honestly thebeen impression foreingers of Chile. which includes working honestly Far fewer studies have conducted onof thetourism im- have To be onbethe safe side when using your cell phone Having a ministry seems to ectfully towards our passengers. ectfully towards our passengers. Having a ministry of tourism seems to be pact of cell phone emissions on children. The youth follow the simple guide lines provided by the Envian essential issue, and little by little we will d, the concept of seasonal work d, the concept of seasonal work an essential issue, and little by little we will likely see changes that will allow for Chile to ething that affects all of Chile; market is one the fastest growing market and children ronmental Working Group’s user-friendly interacething that affects all of Chile; likely see changes that will allow for Chile to advance onan an international level, which can many places here here that are are visitedto cell are being exposed radiation at international younger and level, tive online guide to cell phone emissions, covering advance on which can many places that visited onlybe be6of oforhelp help tothose those whorely rely ontourism tourism ound, the answer answer is to to mention younger ages, some as early as earlier. Research over 1,000 phones currently on the market at http:// only to who on ound, so so the is mention for their livelihood. aces within your programs and fromprograms Frances’ Telecom that twice as for their showed livelihood. aces within your and scientists www.ewg.org/cellphone-radiation. Look for availmuch cell phone radiation penetrates a child’s thinable low-radiation options on cell phone available in ner, softer skull than an adult’s. One Danish study on your area. As a final step, please help by telling your 13,159 children showed that young children who use government to update standards, as current stancell phones and whose mothers also used cell phones dards in the US allow for 40 times less protection during pregnancy are 80 percent more likely to sufthan typical government health limits for environfer emotional and hyperactivity problems. Researchers mental exposures. in Sweden say the risk of brain tumors is the highest among people who started using cell phones during adolescence. Many and governments are responding to Industrial Heating Heating and Steam SteamSystems Systems this serious health concern with radiation standards Heating Residential Heating and public education campaigns in six nations – Switefficiency Pellet and SolidWood Wood Stoves High efficiency and Solid zerland, German,Pellet Israel, France, UnitedStoves Kingdom, Solar Systems Systems and Finland. Vicuña Mackenna Avenueto #801, LosAngeles, Angeles,Chile Chile cell phones work Avenue #801, Los It Mackenna is important understand how (56-43) 318246 • Cell Phone Sales: (59-9) 99996547 Phone: (56-43) 318246 • Cell Phone Sales: (59-9) 99996547 in order to comprehend how they are such a potential Temuco City: Av. Pedro de Valdivia 0135, Phone (56-45)646009 646009 using in Temuco City: Av. Pedro de Valdivia 0135, Phone (56-45) danger to our health. Cell phones communicate Showroom Palazzetti: Av. Las Condes 8283, Santiago, Phone (56-2) 2204189 Showroom Palazzetti: Av. Las Condes 8283, Santiago, Phone (56-2) 2204189 electromagnetic waves. During signal transmission, radiation travels outward towards the base station, and inward toward the head of user. Cell phones, radios and TV transmissions emit non-ionizing radiation that has a longer wavelength, lower frequency and

Follow these simple tips to reduce your radiation exposure: > BUY A LOW-RADIATION PHONE

Look up your phone on EWG’s buyer’s guide and consider replacing your phone with one that emits the lowest radiation possible.

> USE A HEADSET OR SPEAKER

Hold the phone away from your body by using a headset or speakerphone.

> LISTEN MORE, TALK LESS

Your phone emits radiation when you talk or text, but not when you’re receiving messages.

> TEXT, DON’T TALK

Phones use less radiation to send a text than voice.

> POOR SIGNAL? STAY OFF THE PHONE Fewer signal bars on your phone means that it emits more radiation to get the signal to the tower.

> LIMIT CHILDREN’S PHONE USE

Young children’s brains absorb twice the cell phone radiation as an adult’s. Limit for children’s phone use for emergency situations only.

English English AA AA in in Chile Chile

contact@englishaainchile.cl contact@englishaainchile.cl

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20

I

Photo: Lori Barra © 2009

n a time when a patriarchal fist gripped her world, Isabel Allende harnessed a repressed latina whisper and erupted onto the literary scene in 1982. A mother of two and exiled from her mother country Chile, she stood tall against oppression and firm for woman-kind; dislocated from her patria yet perhaps not disconnected from her history. A journalist, playwright and novelist, Allende never lacked a story to tell, but it wasn’t until she was 40 years old that she commanded attention as a fresh voice for Latin American women’s social justice. Her 18 books, which have sold over 57 million copies and translated into 35 languages, were all written within 28 years. Allende’s first and most famous novel swept Latin America and penetrated the European markets as did Gabriela Mistral’s poetry decades before. She started late in the game, but her work has proved to be unavoidably influential. It speaks mainly (if not mostly) to women, but would not fall under traditional chick lit, as its true appeal would be undermined. Humorous at times yet disturbingly dark at others, she blurs categorical lines just as she does with magic and reality, her reality, to be more specific. “My stories have often been compared with folk tales, and maybe that is the voice of my mother, my grandmother, the maids at home, those women tellings stories – the oral tradition of storytelling that I was brought up in. So maybe that’s the voice,” Allende says in a 1991 interview conducted by Elyse Crystall, Jill Kuhnheim and Mary Layoun from the University of Wisconsin. Allende’s familial surroundings transpose themselves onto the page through first- and second-hand stories and memories. Motifs throughout her work, storytelling and writing are ever-present in her first and most famous novel Casa de los espíritus (The House of Spirits). Women learning to write and share stories, representing a break from patriarchal control of history, begin to build their own history so as to lay rightful claim on their place in Latin American society and also their version of truth. Moreover, it is therapeutic. Clara del Valle (a manifestation of her real grandmother) and her mother Nívea share long sessions in which Nívea delivers monologues about their family’s past, punctuated by Clara’s deliberate muteness yet keen awareness. “In Allende’s first novel, The House of Spirits, the feminist Eros is clearly represented in the life-protecting mothering instinct passed on through four generations of mothers and daughters whose names all represent clarity and luminosity of spirit; Nívea, Clara, Blanca, Alba,” says Maureen E. Shea, associate professor of Latin American Women’s Literature at Tulane University. “Each mother establishes an intimate connection with the life she is creating that begins in the womb and is prolonged after death and whose central purpose is to provide protection from patriarchal violation and destruction.” Says Shea. Allende never lacked female support in her household, raised by her mother in her grandparents’ home, and con-

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Interview / March-April 2011

Isabel

Allende

Survival of the Feminine

se “In general, it’s not I who choo In the story; the story chooses me. or a way, it isn’t just the characters d the plot; it’s there in the air. An it’s knocking at my door. And I d just can’t refuse it any longer an have to sit down and write.” sidering the surrounding political and social environment combined with her grandmother’s enthusiasm for astrology, her repertoire shouldn’t surprise anyone. For 15 years she practiced journalism, a decade of which she wrote for a progressive women’s magazine Paula in Santiago. “Los impertinentes” titled her advice column that incorporated humor into various topics. She loved talking to people, listening to their stories. “The practice gave me the feeling that I was part of a collective, that my house was my country, that everything that was happening in the street was related to me, that whatever was happening to others was my story,” she says in an interview on her website. But she lacked objectivism, a self-diagnosed problem. “I have strong opinions, which ends up being very hard to dismantle,” she says. “When I was interviewing someone, I would put interesting things in their mouth. When I didn’t have an important piece of news, or when the interviewee wasn’t a big talker, I threw in my imagination.” Her work attracted the attention of famed Chilean poet Pablo Neruda. Over lunch one day, he told her that he would never let her interview him, and that she was the

worst journalist in the country, according to Allende. “You lie all the time, and you are incapable of being objective. You put yourself in the middle of all your stories. And on top of that, I’m sure that if you don’t have a story, you invent one... Why don’t you dedicate yourself to literature, where all of these shortcomings are virtues?” She didn’t take his advice seriously until some years later, after 1973 and the coup d’etat. She had been having lunch with him and the Allende family only nine days prior. It was just another family gathering. Conversation turned to El Mercurio’s campaign against him, meant to evoke his resignation as Presidente. The mood swung to somber. According to the interview with Isabel, he said as if carved in stone, “I won’t leave La Moneda unless I am dead or when I finish my term in office. I’m not going to betray el pueblo.” She left for work early on the morning of September 11, 1973. The streets were empty, only with military units roaming. She thought it must be un golpe militar, a coup d’etat. Her magazine’s editorial department was locked. Near Palacio de la Moneda she went to see a friend, a high school teacher named don Osvaldo Arenas, who was alone listening to the radio. He was crying that they were going to bomb La Moneda, they were going to kill the president. To her, it was unthinkable, implausible. No way that could happen. In that moment the planes started pass overhead. They climbed to the terrace and heard Salvador Allende giving his last salute to his country and el pueblo with his famous speech. Isabel Allende’s life changed forever. No longer could she express herself on the page freely in a military dictatorship hell-bent on censorship. No longer was it safe in Chile for an Allende. Two years later she left. Her family moved to Venezuela where they stayed for 13 years, which Allende ended up appreciating in the end. Upon clearing her social and political conscience, the experience made her more human and compassionate. She gained perspective by seeing everything that was happening from the outside. Those times were so hard that deep inside her she exhibited forces that until then she had not needed. Today she thinks that there are very few things that might be able to break her completely. She sees a creative power and a necessity to explore herself, and from this came literature. “From confusion, loss, pain, and from solitude, comes my books. The first, La casa de los espíritus, saved my life; it made me a person. Up until then I was an eternal adolescent that passed over things with indecision.” Allende fled to fiction after an attempt at a journalism career in Caracas proved mercurial. Not a stranger to the world of the unreal, she chose to write based on an “overwhelming passion to tell a story,” she says in an interview. “Usually a novel is a very long process. You have to be sitting there in front of your typewriter or your computer for months in a row, sometimes years... Without the passion, the love, you just can’t do it. I can’t. I’m a hard worker and I have discipline, but I need the passion. I know that all of my books have come out of a very strong emotion that has been with me for a very long time... My first


21

Photo: Lori Barra © 2009

March-April 2011 / Interview

“All her life she would remember the afternoons spent in the company of her mother in the sewing room, where Nívea sewed clothing for the poor on her machine and told stories and anecdotes about the family... Clara would smile without saying a word and Nívea would go on talking because she had grown used to her daughter’s silence. In addition, she nourished the hope that if she kept putting ideas into Clara’s head, sooner or later she would ask a question and regain her speech.”

book... was born, was triggered I’d say, by nostalgia, by the desire to recover the world that I had lost after I had to leave my country and live in exile.” Along with incorporating lost elements of her life, like the landscape and the city, Allende weaves these familiar aspects around mainly feminist characters destined to stand against chauvinism and the “Man” that leads. Her first several novels alluded to the terroristic side of the Pinochet dictatorship along with all patriarchal principles. Male characters, personifying life’s destructive forces, continuously dehumanize and objectify women into submissive, second-class beings. In her follow-up novel De amor y de sombra (1984) (Of Love and Shadows), she again contrasts the destructive life force with women’s solidarity through the protagonist, a woman journalist with her photographer friend-turned-lover, and the military dictatorship. They investigate incidents of government corruption that eventually takes them to a mass grave of military execution victims. To overcome the horrific death force beside them, they have sex, meters away from the bodies. The symbolism is inescapable. The story had real context, but Allende’s four autobiographical works dug deep into her actual life, including Paula, which delves into the tragic and untimely death of her daughter of the same name. Currently, she has been living in the United States for about 15 years after marrying an American, a lawyer from L.A. She travels frequently, to keep her creative mind limber. She returned to Chile to accept her Premio Nacional de Literatura de Chile in 2010 and to research her upcoming novel El Cuaderno de Maya, about a young American girl that ends up in trouble in Chiloé. Her books have grown to survey a variety of environments and characters, an ever-changing scene along with her own surroundings, however, women continue to keep each other up, typifying Allende’s everlasting message and life experience. In Casa de los espíritus, every mother’s daughter meets a horrific challenge, to which writing and storytelling alleviates, yet it isn’t always eradicated. After being perpetually raped, tortured and mutilated, Clara’s granddaughter Alba decides to ease the pain through death. But Clara’s spirit visits her to recommend a better way: survival.

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22

Sernatur

of Hay Fever

gnises rategic bodies. out of ch sets ounter ne and intake

When the earthquake hit over a year ago, it was not only houses and buildings that were left in ruins, but also the hopes and dreams of thousands who saw tourism as their lifetime source of income. The Interestingly, some foods contain natural antihistamines. By making a few dietary changes you may be able to reduce the tsunami took away their restaurants, holiday resorts and hostels. The dosage of the antihistamine medication you would otherwise water was unforgiving with all those who made the shore their home. By Marcelle Dubruel

need. Here are some suggestions:

e c o l o g y

ns hay ptoms: throat, ce hay of the nd are

Travel / March-April 2011

17

The key ingredient of the reconstruction process

• Root ginger is a natural antihistamine and can be eaten raw or cooked. Start your day with a one-inch piece of peeled root ginger steeped in hot water with a slice of lemon or lime.

Photo: Sernatur Bío Bío

By Pamela Lagos • Vitamin C is another natural antihistamine. Eat more vitamin ut C those rich were foods likeonly black kiwi fruit, berries, not the thingscurrents, the sea took cherries away; and rosehips. For breakfast try a bowl it also devastated the sense of trust and of mixed berries with natural yoghurt a few Snack on confidence of theand tourists, a lowcrushed blow for almonds. the cherries reconstruction and red grapes. process. The effects of the earthquake showed almost immediately. Half of the reservations in March 2010 were can• Quercitin is a flavanoid that inhibits the release of celed, and byand Holy of tourists followed histamine is Week, found30% in plant foods. Highersuit, amounts are found foretelling what the future had in store for the Chilean in green tea, capers, red onion, red grapes, kale, broccoli and tourism. leafy green vegetables. Swap your Starbucks coffee for green nobody surprised when by February tea,That’s and why make surewas your lunchtime salad includes something 2011, tourist locations in the areas theleast have a side greentheand leafy like spinach and affected kale, orby at earthquake and tsunami had vegetables. 30% less visitors than last order of steamed green year. Although many hotel and hostel owners had predicted worse, a 30% drop in tourist numbers has still had Fish oils have anti-inflammatory properties. For dinner a• major impact. serve a piece ofNational baked salmon, perhaps in a has teriyaki and orange That’s why the Tourist Service, Sernatur, marinade, steamed broccoli. been workingwith constantly to regain the confidence of visitors and bring back tourists to those places where the tsunami hit. After this, the work has intensified. One of the anIn less than 2 months after the earthquake, the Bío- nouncements made by Sernatur was the creation of new Wishing you a sniffle free spring. Bío region was already working on tourist promotion, tourist attractions, such as the “Ruta del Mar”. Sernatur mainly working with businessmen who were struggling to is also working on the implementation of certificated get back on their feet after the disaster. Back then, Ser- quality regulations for tourist services. Marcelle natur’s commitment was to work with public and private The campaign “Vive la playa” was also launched in Nutritional Therapist companies to unify the efforts and speed up the recon- several beaches affected by the earthquake. The main struction process of tourism in the region. goal of this initiative is to encourage visitors to go to

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the beaches and enjoy different activities, like movies at the beach, soccer championships, surfing classes and music and theater next to the ocean. The idea is to have activities meant for families, so they can enjoy the tourist offer that has been prepared for them. Following the spirit of reconstruction and to support tourism, Sernatur provided extra money for entrepreneurs in six beaches of the Bío-Bío region to confront the busiest months of the years. The places chosen were: Coliumo, Cobquecura, Cocholgue, Dichato, Llico and Perales. But not everything is about attracting more visitors to the affected areas, as Sernatur is also aware of the importance of the safety of all tourists who are planning to visit the shores of the Bio-Bio region, and other places in Chile. That’s why Sernatur, along with Onemi (the National Emergency Office), decided to launch a campaign to teach tourists what to do and guide them in case of an emergency. 70,000 information sheets in English and Spanish were distributed, along with 75 display stands, across the country. The campaign included beaches, toll roads, hotels and other strategic locations such as airports and bus stations, where videos were played to inform tourists - nationals and international alike - of what to do in the event of earthquakes, tsunamis, fire, flooding, land slides and volcanic eruptions. Additionally, a team visited several beaches, including La Serena, Coquimbo, El Quisco, Viña del Mar, Pichilemu, Dichato and Villarica, to take the message directly to tourists already enjoying the coast. This summer has proved to be a difficult one for the tourism industry. In December 2010, losses of 4% were announced, and there was little in the way of improvement in January when it was revealed that the amount of foreign tourists spending their holidays in Chile decreased in comparison with 2009. For example, the number of visitors from Europe reduced by 3.5%, whereas those from the United States underwent a loss of 13.6%. A worrisome situation, particularly as it is tourists from the latter group that have spent the most money when visiting Chile. Meanwhile, the amount of people who left the country during the 2011 holidays increased by 7%, the earthquake being cited as one of the main reasons. However, in spite of these negative numbers, tourism has found its way towards recovery and Sernatur has played a great role in the reconstruction process. So, what does the future holds for tourism and those who make living out of the industry? Things are looking up, with confidence restoring with each passing day. Sernatur will be present in this process every step of the way and the perfect way to do it is by providing, along with Sercotec, a budget to the entrepreneurs and small business owners who are trying to rebuild the devastated areas and keep bringing tourists to places like Dichato. From March 1th onwards, applications to the budget will open and a total of 300 million Chilean pesos will be awarded as means of giving back to the tourism industry what the earthquake took away.

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23

March-April 2011 / Travel

Chile a Top Ten Ethical Travel Destination for 2011 C

Photo: Sernatur Bío Bío

By Alexis Psarras

hile is among the ten best ethical travel destinations for 2011 according to the not-forprofit organization Ethical Traveler. More usually famed as a tourist destination for its volcanoes, lakes and deserts, Chile has made the annual list for the second consecutive year. Due to its human rights record and environmental practices it has been deemed worthy enough to constitute one of the most morally certain as well. Combining the enormous economic clout of tourism with the advancement of human and environmental development, the US-based Ethical Traveler seeks to empower tourists with knowledge, while demonstrating how travel can be a potent form of diplomacy and foreign exchange. To compile the list it conducted a study of developing nations from around the world, ranking each one using categories such as environmental and social protection. The report argues that by visiting the countries on the list we, as travellers, “vote with our wings,” and can show that we are willing to support nations “that care about the environment, human rights, and the global community.”

How the list is devised? To begin with, all nations included are “rich in natural wonders, and alive with fascinating culture.” But more saliently they must be committed to environmental conservation, while building economies that sustain and empower local communities. Research is grouped into three wide-ranging categories: environmental protection, social welfare, and human rights. Generally speaking, significance is placed on an adherence to international norms and regulations, universal indicators of health and welfare, and the enhancement and preservation of basic human rights for all, especially the rights of minority indigenous populations. However, Ethical Traveler points out that there is far more to making the list than excelling in the three categories. The general development of a country is taken into account, but of higher importance is selecting nations “actively improving the state of their people, government, and environment.” Information and benchmarks are drawn from a variety of international and inter-governmental sources including Freedom House, the World Bank, the United Nations and Amnesty International, as well as a number of university research institutes. Ethical Traveler also conducts its own, independent research. Why does Chile merit a place in the top ten? For 2010’s list Chile was praised for its outstanding air quality, conservation practices, sustainable land management, and the upholding of political rights. This year efforts made towards strengthening and enforcing human rights and sustainability proved, once more, key to its inclusion in the top ten. The bringing to justice of perpetrators of Pinochetera human rights violations was deemed important. Between January and October 2010 (the report was published in November) more than 230 former security force agents were charged in connection with the torture and enforced disappearance of political activists during the 1973-90 dictatorship. The national government was commended for establishing a National Human Rights Institute, part of what Ethical Traveler judges to be a wider desire to promote and protect human rights in accordance with international standards, particularly relating to indigenous peoples.

Torres Del Paine, a top tourist destination in the south of Chile © Andre Viegas/Dreamstime.

Chile has been commended for its human rights practices, but urged to continue to improve the rights of it indigenous peoples (Source: google.com)

Likewise, moves to reform the Pinochet-era antiterrorist law in 2010, including military courts’ jurisdiction over civilians, was deemed as a positive step, as too was the State’s announcement to return 33,000 hectares of land to indigenous communities in the southern IX Region. However, the report does encourage Chile to “continue to pursue and enhance the constitutional rights for its indigenous populations.” Chile’s ratification of a number of international treaties, including the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court were commended, as was the government’s announcement to reopen both National Commissions on Political Imprisonment and Torture, and Truth and Reconciliation. The inauguration of the Museum of Memory and Human Rights in January 2010 is another large factor

The Developing World’s Top Ten Ethical Destinations, 2011 (in alphabetical order)

Argentina * Barbados Chile * Costa Rica Dominican Republic Latvia Lithuania * Palau Poland * Uruguay * countries on list for second consecutive year.

in Chile making the list. By offering a permanent commemoration of the human rights violations committed during the Pinochet dictatorship, the museum is praised as a valuable and rare example, from a Latin American perspective, of the struggle to promote and defend human rights. Human trafficking also plays an important part in any country making the top ten. Using data drawn from the US State Department, Chile is praised for a variety of increased law enforcement efforts against sex trafficking, including expanding counselling and witness protection programs for victims of abuse. Despite the fact Chilean law fails to fully comply with the minimum international standards for the elimination of trafficking, it was earmarked as making significant efforts to do so. One area in which Chile was not deemed satisfactory was that of sexual and reproductive rights. Chile’s inclusion on the list comes in spite of abortion remaining criminalised. In terms of environmental sustainability, a number of renewable energy initiatives including a US$100 million wind farm investment off the coast of Chiloé capable of producing 36 megawatts of clean energy for the central energy grid, is seen as a sign that the country is beginning to move beyond its dependency on fossil fuel-based energy. Latin America countries in general continued to constitute the top scorers in environmental protection, with Chile scoring particularly highly in sustainable fishery and forestry. No African or Asian nations are included on the 2011 list due to human rights concerns of Ethical Traveler. Prospects for a 3rd year in a row? While admitting that none of the countries on its list is perfect, Ethical Traveler hopes to assist travellers in planning where to go in 2011. All countries on the list, it points out, have both strengths and weaknesses. The report states that the countries selected boast “wonderful opportunities” for the traveller, including the chance “to experience nature at its most pristine, and to interact with local people and cultures in a meaningful, mutually enlightening way.” These opportunities are readily available throughout Chile, and as long as it is judged to continue to strengthen human rights for all, while sustaining its natural environment in a practical manner, it may well make the list for the third time running in 2012. For more information visit ethicaltraveler.org

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EYE ON VIÑA / March-April 2011 Photos: Richard Cawsey www.chilephotographer.com

Viña del Mar in 36 Hours on a Budget There’s no doubt Viña del Mar is a fun place to visit, but if you aren’t careful, the costs can roll up quickly. There is, however, a way to enjoy the city and all it has to offer while not breaking the bank.

By Eye on Vina Staff

Day One

12pm: Before you get settled in Viña, head north to discover what Concón has to offer. Often overlooked by its more tourist-driven and ritzier neighbors, Concón is known as the Gastronomical Capital of Chile for a reason. Walk to Avenida Libertad in where you will soon find a bus that says “Concón” (amongst other intermediary destinations). The price is typically CLP $550 (USD $1.10). Get off when you have reached the sand dunes. The directions may sound too simple, but the dunes are so massive (visible from Valparaiso) they are hard to miss. There is no admission to walk among the dunes, although on some days, typically during the summer, people rent sand boards for CLP $2.000 to $4.000 (USD $4 to $8) for a few hours. A sand board, however, is not compulsory to enjoy the dunes. 2pm: After you’ve taken in the panoramic views and tired your calf muscles on the dunes, it will be time to eat. Luckily, Las Delicias is a short micro ride (or a long walk) away. Located near the center of the town on Avenida Borgona, Las Delicias is famous throughout the country for its fried seafood empanadas. It is hard to go wrong here, but favorites include crab, razor clams with onions, and shrimp with cheese. The prices are right, too, although not particularly cheap for empanadas (CLP $800 to CLP $2.400; USD $1.60 to $4.80). Las Delicias, Av Borgona 25370, Open Daily 11am to 5pm 5pm: The city has no shortage of expensive hotels, but good deals still are aplenty, especially out of the high summer season. Small hotel and hostel operators will not be offended if you try to make a deal; indeed, that is how things typically work. Hotel Santino is a relatively new hotel on Avenida Valparaiso. Double occupancy rooms start at CLP $20.000 (USD $40) and the interiors are nice and wellmantained. Each room has a television and showers with consistent hot water. The noise at night is a drawback, so if you are interested in sleep ask for a room away from the street. Hotel Santino, Av Valparaiso 78 If Hotel Santino is out of your price range, Che Lagarto is a good choice. Geared mostly towards younger travelers, Che Lagarto, part of a chain of hostels located all over South America, offers shared rooms with bunk beds. If that doesn’t sound inviting, the price may change your mind. Depending on the month, a bed at Che Lagarto can be had for as little at CLP $5.000 (USD $10). If other guests want to party, however, don’t expect to get too much sleep. Che Lagarto, Diego Portales 131 7pm: After you’ve settled into your room, its time to get the night started. Head to Glasgow for a great selection of beers and wood-fired pizzas, two things not often found in the city. Glasgow, 3 Poniente 660 12am: No self-respecting Chilean would show up a nightclub (or discoteque) until at least midnight, so don’t blow your cover. For those between 18 and 22, Scratch is the place to be. The cover charge can vary (usually no more than CLP $3.000, USD $6) but if you know any young local they can likely get you in free. Stingray is another good option. From outside it

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may look like a house, but the basement of the structure is rocking regularly until 5am. Scratch, Calle Quillota 898; Stingray, 2 Norte con 6 Poniente

Day Two

9am: Save money on breakfast by stopping by a local supermarket (Santa Isabel, Unimarc, whichever) for some bread and fresh fruit. Then, weather permitting, hit the beach. Different beaches are in no short supply, either. The beach at 8 Norte can be nice, is centrally located and is easily accessible by public transportation. Some will urge you to go to Reñaca for the beach. If a 10 to 20 minute bus ride north is nothing to you, head to Reñaca. If you want to swim, however, your best bet is to stay closer to the city. Swimming at Re-

ñaca’s principal beach is often not allowed due to the size of the waves and the strength of the current. 1pm: After a morning at the beach, you’ll be hungry. That’s good, because if you’re not, don’t bother going to Sibaritico. The legendary completo (Chilean version of a hot dog) shop does big business well into the night, and leaving the city without trying it just doesn’t seem right. The crowds have swelled even more since Anthony Bourdain visited, but you won’t be waiting in line long. The menu is simple as is the food, but that doesn’t take away from how satisfying it can be. The prices are low, too (CLP $1.200 to $2.500; USD $2.40 to $5). There are also locations in Valparaiso, Renaca, and Concon, but this has to be the sentimental favorite. Sibaritico, 5 Norte 167 4pm: To get an extra dose of culture during your trip, head to the Museo Bellas Artes. Admission is very cheap (CLP $300 for kids, $600 for adults; USD 50 cents, $1.20) and the museum has great Chilean paintings along with European art from as far back as the 17th century. Museo Bellas Artes, inside the Parque Quinta Vergara, Errázuriz 563 7pm: Chorrillana is a restaurant on Avenida Valparaiso known for one thing — you guessed it, chorrillana. The Chilean dish is french fries topped with a combination of meats (typically beef, sausage, and hot dog) along with onions and usually a fried egg on top. Suffice to say, it’s not very healthy. But it is delicious and there aren’t many better places to try it locally (CLP $2.000 to $3.500; USD $4 to $7). Chorrillana, Valparaiso 176 12am: Located in the basement of the historic Casino Municipal, Ovo Discoteque should not be missed. If you are not accustomed to reggaeton beats, you may be annoyed at first, but eventually you will find it difficult to avoid the dance floor (depending on your Pisco intake levels, of course). Cover can be high during the summer season, but at least it includes a free drink. Ovo Discoteque, inside the Casino Municipal on Av San Martin.


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March-April 2011 / SPORTS

Photo: Gardner Hamilton

By Pascal Mathieu

I

No experience on the international level Claudio Borghi is known as a great league team coach and the numbers speak for themselves. He has had great success due to his ability to develop a close relationship with his players throughout a full season, creating some sort of a family bond. His warmth, respect and understanding for the players make him the perfect father figure that young players are looking for just as in the case of Colo Colo in 2006. But coaching a National team is a different kettle of fish; you don’t spend that much time with the players and when they do show up, you end up with a bunch of players with inflated egos believing they are the pedigree of football, whatever that means. Does Claudio Borghi have the toughness of character to deal with theses egocentrics (not all of them are like this obviously) or will he be able to maintain discipline and make sure the players are focusing on team results instead of their own personal performances? The questions are legitimate, you might say, but to understand the decision of making Borghi the head coach of La Roja lies in the fact that all of the above don’t apply to him. It is a fact that he doesn’t have experience in coach-

Wind of Change for

La Roja

Photo: Courtesy ANFP

remember the McDonald’s commercial from the late 90’s where this kid is munching on these new, juicier, more tender Chicken McNuggets tagged with a killer slogan: “Change is good”. The use of this motto would probably be quite appropriate for the Chilean National Soccer team when their head coach Marcelo Bielsa announced that he was leaving his position due to a difference of opinion with the newly elected president of the Chilean National Soccer Association (ANFP), Sergio Jadue, on the new management style adopted for the upcoming 4 years. With the Copa America to be held in Argentina in June, La Roja was quickly in need of a coach that would easily fit, not only with the style of soccer that the team has been used to playing with El Loco Bielsa, but also someone that will gain the trust of the players in a short period of time. Given the necessity of the team, Claudio Borghi was by far the best alternative at this moment for Sergio Jadue and his associates. Fortunately the Argentinean was without contract and was sitting by the phone waiting for the call. Claudio Borghi, former Audaz Italiano and Colo Colo coach, was presented to the press on the 24th of February as the successor of Marcelo “El Loco” Bielsa as the 41st coach in the history of La Roja and the 5th Argentinean to fill the position. Claudio Borghi made his mark as a head coach in Chile winning 4 consecutive league titles with Colo Colo between 2006 and 2008. He led the team to the final of Copa Sudamerica in 2006 and was elected the best coach in South America that same year. In 2010 he also led the Argentina Junior to their first league title in 25 years.

ing a National team but he has an advantage that no other coaches have had; he has already coached half of the Chilean National team players at some point in their career and everyone is unanimous - they love him!!! The core of Bichi’s Chilean team is exactly the same as the one that made Colo one of the best teams in South America in 2006; Jorge Valdivia, Matías Fernandes, Arturo Vidal, Alexis Sanchez, Chupete Suazo and Goal keeper Claudio Bravo were all at the early stage of the soccer career. He has also coached Gonzalo Jara and El Chino Millar in Colo Colo, Gary Medel in Boca Junior and Fabian Orellana in Audax Italiano. Only this should greatly facilitate his integration with the team and create the climate of confidence between the players and coach right off the bat. A wind of change blows on the Chilean National Soccer team, now we can only wait and hope that the results remain the same or just as good as during the Bielsa era.

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Low Rent / March-April 2011

“…the heart of man, his body and his brain, are forged in a white-hot furnace for the purpose of conflict (the struggle of creation) and that with the conflict removed, the man is a sword cutting daisies” By Sean Black The Catastrophe of Success Tennessee Williams

T

his running thing - it is really important to me. I came to this realization while sprawled out with my back on the cool morning asphalt last February 9th, on the corner of calle Holanda and Lautero Ferrer in Nuñoa, after being slammed from the side off my bicycle by a white Porsche Cayenne - the driver focused on a pretty young woman in a simple yellow dress. Ahh… The summertime! I was listening to Maynard Keenan’s sing Weak and Powerless off A Perfect Circle’s Thirteenth Step album, chosen for my morning ride to the office, when the great white death machine lunged into my peripheral vision and sent me sailing though the air “so desperate and ravenous” went the lyric “I’m so weak and powerless over you”. Power-less. Airborne, there was nothing left to do. I couldn’t call a taxi or send my complaints to human resources. I let it happen. I flew. I braced, as the pros say, for impact. I smoked for 24 years. I was real nicotine Junky. I smoked at least 3 cigarettes before my morning shower. I smoked when I woke up in the middle of the night from nightmares or worse – Cumbias. I smoked before, after and (in most cases) during everything. Coffee – smoke. Lunch – smoke. Shower – smoke. Sex – smoke. Newspaper – smoke. Writing – smoke. Speaking – smoke. Thinking – smoke. Smoking influenced the way I saw myself as a man and was an integral part of my self image. How could I possibly read a book without smoking? How could I be around women? How could I have existentialist conversations? How could I scratch my goatee without holding that smoking little ember stick between two fingers pointing towards the sky? Where will all my cool go? Cool: When I didn’t have money for smokes I bought rolling papers and rolled the butts from my ashtrays. If my ashtray resources were depleted I sought out exterior sources. I haunted the dark, pre dawn entranceways to the Santa Isabel Metro Station before the cleaners could sweep up all those nice long butts tossed aside by hurried commuters the night before. Of course there were problematic when the streets were wet that sent me revising my garbage bags for butts made from rolled butts. I knew I was not alone in this practice – for I often saw others on early morning butt searching walks, heads down, pretending to tie their shoelaces while scooping up a stampedout Marlboroughs by the curb, then scampering silently away with their lonely, dignity-killing addiction. I opened my eyes and saw a white haired man, late 50s, standing over me. His mouth moved and formed words, his eyes squinted concern behind gold rimmed glasses. I raised my head and looked to my legs. They were there. I wiggled them – no pain. Surprisingly, I heard myself say – Thank God the f-ng marathon in April! The morning of September 1st 2008 I woke up at 5 am and I did not smoke. I decided I was going to do something that I despised deeply both as a smoker and a cool guy. I put on a pair of beaten; no-name runners once scavenged from a church donation pile, then slowly and awkwardly ran two blocks up to Santa Isabel 2.5 minutes. I ran this every day for a few weeks until I could run the distance back home – running for a total of 5 minutes (I lied to my friends that it was 15 minutes). I ran early and where I thought nobody in the barrio would see me. They would laugh at me – I thought. The legs loosened up. I found other dark streets to run. I expanded my run to a full 10 minutes (telling my friends it was 15). I ran past Bar de Rene. I ran past the liquor stores and funeral homes and past the garages and brothels on calle Semanarium. I did not smoke. I stopped feeling cold at night and during the day.

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Only the Fome In November 2004, a University of Utah biologist named Dennis Bramble and anthropologist Daniel Lieberman concluded in a study in the Nov. 18 issue of Nature Magazine that endurance running led to the evolution of our current anatomy from that of our ape-like ancestors. They argued that several of homo sapiens’ anatomical features which emerged simultaneously, such as: large vertebrae and discs in proportion to body mass, long legs and Achilles tendons which act as springs, enlarged heel bone for shock absorption and several other points, can only be attributable to long distance running. As my running distance increased through 2009 and 2010 my body began to accept that it was going to run on a regular basis. Perhaps “accept” is the wrong word to use; it was more like my body began to remember. The awkwardness and the fire in the lungs disappeared. I dashed off the streets through Balmaceda Park - my mind blank and my legs feeling natural, fresh and springy. It was a type of corporal enlightenment. I stopped being aware that I was running. Street dogs began to bounce playfully alongside me. Rain sometimes fell. I continued on – further. It became a meditation. I hit my 10 kilometer milestone then 15, 20 and 25 early this year. The elderly driver in the Cayenne happened to be a doctor – an oncologist, who spoke fluent English. He got me on my feet, put my mangled bike in the back of his vehicle, and brought me to a Clinica. He just wanted to make sure I was ok. I wanted to see the results of the radiographic exams.

My head was unhurt, there was no blood, but I could not use my shoulder properly. We both came to our respective conclusions that if we were to reach our goals we would need to learn to be conscious of our surroundings. My injuries proved to be not serious. We got my bike fixed I went to work. On Sunday April 3 2011, the 5th annual Adidas Marathon will kick off at 8:00 am in front of La Moneda. There is a 10k, 21k and full 42k run. Upwards of 20,000 runners are registered to participate. I will be one of the 42k runners. I do not need to be part of a team to run. Morons will not smash windows in Plaza Italia for the results. There are no uniforms, stupid bloody mascots, nor cheerleaders. Somewhere in the my mind there is still a smoker – he is telling me that running, especially this 42k madness, is absolute idiocy; medically proven to be destructive to the body and generally proven to be bad for my social life. He points out what the local Chilean girls sometimes say to me – that I am “fome” (boring – uninteresting) because I no longer drink and dance like a moronic gringo until 6 am, preferring to go to bed by 10 at night; that my neighbors think I am “fome” because I call the concierge when the music is too loud. He says I have lost my cool, moody and irritable - obsessed with this mid life crisisinspired health kick. On April 3rd I will kill that voice for good. I will bury him deep into my past. I will run further away from what was and run to what is – this new home where I am happy and finally my self.


27

March-April 2011 / Cachando Chile

The (Grace-less) Guajardo Phenomena:

Stop! In the Name of Love Chile’s in the news again this week, but not for reasons any one around here wants to own up to. Two words: Grace Guajardo. Name ring a bell? I’m sure it does if you’re in Chile, if you’re a traveler, and certainly if you had any thoughts about flying from Chile to Spain on a certain Iberia flight on Sunday, February 6, 2011. husband heard an interview with a lawyer who said she would probably get probation and have to report in on a weekly basis. I argued that it couldn’t be true, eah. That’s the one… the loca who called in a it was impossible, that this case would set a precbomb threat so her partner wouldn’t leave. edent and therefore have to be taken seriously. That It’s not at all strange to see people crying in this kind of action had its consequences and a very the Santiago airport. Families and lovers gather at the clear message must be sent that
THIS. IS. NOT. narrow doorway that separates the leaving from the ACCEPTABLE. staying, the limbo phase between those left behind “Mark my words,” he says. “No pasará náa.” and the International police, between still-in-Chile Nothing’s going to become of this. I’m very sad that and officially checked out. Pass through that door and he may be right. Grrr. Chile deserves better… and you’re on your way. Turn back just before passing to Ms. Grace deserves to be held accountable for her the little booth where the powers that be (the dreaded actions. scrutinizing passport stampers) decide your fate. I started googling around to see what kinds of Rodrigo Gómez made it beyond that point. Made repercussions arise from bomb threats. It ought to it to the plane in fact. He was on his way back to work be pretty straight-forward, right? If someone even as a waiter on a cruise ship in Spain, just like he’d done jokes about some such thing with a TSA or member many times during all of the eight years they’d been of an airline crew, they get thrown off the plane. A together. He’d be gone 8 months, earn a heck of a lot WHAT??? Are you kidding school kid calling in a bomb threat to avoid a test more money than he ever could in Chile, and then me? (ok, rant alert!) Isn’t this incredibly illegal? It can’t be true! My gets a $5000 fine (in NY state). But oddly, I recome back. ally couldn’t find anything 30-year-old Grace that specifies penalties had been through this for threatening to blow scene many times before; In what she calls a “panic attack” she pulled out her cell phone, reported up a plane because you Rodrigo (39) had been a bomb on the plane, and then flushed the phone down the toilet. don’t want to be alone… doing this kind of work Hmmm… as long as she’s known him, but she decided it was the last. And she said so–as Facebook be our witness. When he wrote that the count-down to departure day had begun, she wrote “we’ll see about that.” Rodrigo said his goodbyes and zigzagged his way through the line and disappeared into the terminal. She wasn’t done. She called and said his father had suddenly taken ill, very ill. Rodrigo wasn’t biting. The plane taxied down the runway, but Grace wasn’t ready to quit. She wanted him back. In what she calls a “panic attack” she pulled out her cell phone, reported a bomb on the plane, and then flushed the phone down the toilet. A bomb threat? Seriously Grace? Are you out of your mind? Apparently so. And set a planeful of people into a fit of locura with worry that later gave way to locura with desperation and then to anger. And rightly so. They not only got the scare of their lives, but an extra 24 hours in Santiago they hadn’t counted on. Yeah, talk about leaving a country with a bad taste in your mouth! By Margaret Snook

Y

So somehow the police traced the call back to her, she said she cried she couldn’t live without him, and repentant Rodrigo bailed her out and swore he wouldn’t leave (mission accomplished Grace!). Initial reports alluded to up to a year in jail plus hefty fines and even law suits (I’ve heard that Iberia lost $30 million pesos with this stunt). My immediate reaction to this news was a cross between disbelief and anger that someone could be so selfish, so completely oblivious to the effect that this beyond-inconsiderate act would have on so many lives, so many families. The next day the news was they she may get away with a slap on the wrist. “She was desperate, she wasn’t thinking, she has children and no money; there’s not much of anything we can do.”

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28 4

DJ Spotlight: Adrien Lopez

Gourmet / March-April 2011

radio

The Creative Palate After 7 years in Chile and 1 year of moderating The A-LO Show, Adrien Lopez is now moving back to the United States to pursue her career as governmental advisor for Corporate Social Responsibility and the development of its international standards. We asked her for one last interview, in which she was the interviewee.

with Daniel Greeve

By Carolina Sipos

4. Chilean Pedro Peirano, creator of the children’s television series “31 Minutos,” screenwriter for the award-winning Chilean movie The Maid, comic strip illustrator, journalist, writer

ch i l e

5. American Meredith Segal, founder and creator of the Facebook Group What was the original idea for the A-LO Show and how did "Students for Barack Obama,” which eventually grew to include more than the concept evolve? supporters and transformed into the official student section of Racconto250,000 in Toro the campaign. The bull is back. Did heObama go away? Did somebody kill him after attacking? The bull is still the Bull. If we “The goal for the A-LO Show was to interview the movers and Daniel Greve is a journalist; walk around we will notice nothing in particular: the same stripes in the wall, the kraft paper and wax shakers in Chile, whether they were Chileans making an impact What advice would you give to other people who want to become a a gastronomy wines or foreigners who were visitingover tables, a similar menu and even the same waiters. So what’s the difference? The Racconto. in theirand country, andthe carrying DJ, but are unsure if they can do it? The nostalgic columnist. has worked out He projects with a for social, political or environmental objective.look. I The macerated bitter olives (as courtesy), which disappeared for a while, the came back the tables. The“Brave” Potatoesmyself (CLP $5,200 each)rather are spicier thanhost ever.who In theexposed menu highlights wanted showcase these amazing human beings to thetoworld as “I didn’t consider a DJ, but a show my El Mercurio, Elto Mostrador, dishes such as fried shrimps (in Panko) Causa (CLP $4,800), well as show the great number of people working on important listeners to people making an impact in our world. Less music and more Vinos & Más and Planetavino. which arebe quite tasty and copious. Classic, and issues in this country.” talk! The best advice is to not scared to put yourself out exquisite there – you com. Moreover, he is juicyso fish (Reineta) cooked in butter with cappers (CLPup have nothing to lose and much to gain. I hope someone else steps member of the How diddirectors you choose who you wanted to interview? to do a talk-show of a $6,300.) similar nature.” There are to sorts of curry chicken (CLP $5,200). The fillet (CLP $6,600) with the classic “brava” potatoes

Will you continue doing radio that you are leaving prepared in shows a classicnow format is delicious. The Bull ILC? changed, although it changed back to it original slender.

“If an opportunity presents I would love to continue to do the A-LO Loretoitself 33, Recoleta. F: 7375937 Show in another country (go global!), however, my interviews will always be accessible as podcasts on the ILC website. That’s the beauty of the internet - to be able to continue to listen to these incredible guests.”

i

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board of Círculo de Cronistas “In the beginning I tapped into my networks, but as the show grew Gastronómicos de Chile and and gained a decent reputation in Chile people would start to to Federation Internationale recommend and send me guests. The embassies, primarily the American and British, would also ask that some of their visitors be des Journalistes et Ecrivans on my des Vinsinterviewed (FIJEV.) Greve is show. Finally, I would read local magazines and newspapers and when I came across articles on interesting people currently in charge of the I would search the web for their email address or Facebook and Gourmet section of Pasa write to themQue directly.” magazine and director of Who were the five most interesting persons you interviewed Mostro® editorial. A creative on the show? emporium that develops de Mostro “1. program of Play FM Jeremy Browne and the British Ambassador UK Minister of State to Chile, Jon Benjamin radio, conducts www.mostro.cl and many 2. Chilean Carlos Larrain, President of the “Renovación Nacional” other editorial political projects party specialized in food, wines 3. American Ron Powers, Pulitzer prize-winning journalist, novelist, and travels. and non-fiction writer on Mark Twain, co-writer of the 2000 #1 New York Times Bestseller Flags of Our Fathers

Olives Overdose

A place that only speaks about one product could sound a little bit boring. Although, Purolive, is a paradise for those who love Michele Harvey olives, andPublisher also demonstrates Pascal Mathieu Dan Brewington that one single tree can be responsible for such a wide variety of products. In spite Sean Black of having almost several international -, Purolive has Editor every national olive oil – andSernatur a wide variety different sorts of olives in different formats; Carolina Sipos green olives filled with Julie of Gibson Penny Ortega salmon, skinless almonds, cheese, ham and the best palmetto and blue cheese; Gustavo Ponce Special Edition Assistants different sorts of olive mousse, purple Azapa olives –big and tasty; and small Marcelle Dubruel Penelope Ortega Pendolino olives, marinated in olive oil and oregano. There are also olives with Lucia Bird truffle essence other flavors (Tapenade), Sarah like chestnut Thorntonand peppers and even Traveland Editor Jimmy Jonathan FranklinGo for a taste, you won’t sesame seeds in wasabi. beLangman disappointed! Susan KiteColón). F: 9526143. Av. Américo Vespucio Sur 4455, local B. (Strip Center Ellen Jones Business Manager www.purolivo.com Jayne Scarman Pamela Lagos Distribution Manager Renate Gonzalez

Colonial Alfajor Online Editor Jayne Scarman Contributors Al Ramirez Chris Emmott David Ergas Gemma Dunn Hanna Claeson Jared Romey Julie Gibson Margaret Snook

Photographers Gardner Hamilton Daniel Brewington Claudia Meyer Annie Leibovitz Adventure Expeditions Sernatur Bárbara Hermosilla Lorenzo Moscia Design Andrés Nigro

Cover Photo: Eugene Jang * Daniel Brewington * Elizabeth Brewington * Emma Gibson * Audrey Gibson * Brandon Brewington * Stephany Díaz Sponsors and advertising: Contact pamela.lagos@ilovechile.cl

Alfajor? The idea is to leave everybody speechless, because it really seems like a I Love Chile News piece of cake. The conventional shapes don’t play a role here, because everyone delivered to your door: subscriptions@ilovechile.cl agrees that this Santiago’s best leaf dough. Santa Clara, a small and hidden Contact contributors: info@ilovechile.cl pastry store Avenida Vitacura and has many attractive options. The “Alfajor” costs Keep up with us on facebook: “I Love Chile” CLP $750 and is made of leaf dough, moisture meringue, manjar (similar to toffee) plus another leafofdough layerLtda.© and icing. eating Alfajor you can I Love Chile News is a division I Love Chile 2010 IWhen Love Chile Ltda.the All rights reserved. Allfeel materials contained in I and Love harmonic Chile News are the copyrighted property ofaI visit Love to Chile Ltda or a soft, exquisite texture. It’s worth to pay Santa Clara. its licensers. The Pulse and I Love Chile News are trademarks of I Love Chile Ltda and all titles, Av. Vitacura 3396, casa 4. Fono: 2072808. www.pasteleriasantaclara.cl.

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29

March-April 2011 / What’s On

April 2-3, 2011. Parque O’Higgins, Santiago

Lollapalooza Comes to Chile:

The first international of the music festival created by Jane’s Addiction to singer Perry Farrell By Alicia Granse The other day I ran into a British friend of mine who told me she was on the way to buy tickets for a concert. She wasn’t sure what the name was exactly, something like “Lapoza’” or “Paloova”. I looked at her incredulously. “Do you mean Lollapalooza?” I asked, trying not to let the disdain and or disbelief creep into my tone. I don’t think I was successful. For Americans of my generation, the word “lollapalooza” is not a word that conjures up spelling bee fears. It’s part of our lexicon. It’s a pilgrim’s destination. It’s a lifestyle. It was a really huge, 13-scoop ice cream dish at the local soda fountain. So we know how to spell it, we know how to say it, and we know how to get really freaking excited that this “something extraordinary” is coming to Chile. And extraordinary it should be, according to the lineup. While the number of bands down here in the Southern Hemisphere is a bit smaller than that of the behemoth festival held in Chicago every year, I say “quality, not quantity”. Chicago got Gaga and Soundgarden for headliners; we get Kanye and The Killers. Saturday and Sunday both begin with mostly Spanish language bands. Saturday kicks off with Francisca Valenzuela on the Claro stage, Devil Presley on the Tech stage, and Ital on the LG stage. My first stop will be Francisca Valenzuela, who reminds me a bit of Fiona Apple and Natalie Imbruglia. Then I’m off to Astro, whose song “Maestro Distorsion” is a recent favorite in my iPod.

As the day progresses, we move back into bands that may be more familiar to the expat community. Cypress Hill is old hat with Lollapalooza—they performed at the festival for the first time in 1992. Let’s hope they’re still insane in the brain. The National was a favorite with fans in Chicago, and I’m particularly excited to see Edward Sharpe and the Magnetic Zeros, who made their debut at SXSW last year and then made waves at the Newport Folk Festival. Ben Harper and the Yeah Yeah Yeahs are also on my list of mustsees. Then the Killers and Fatboy Slim will be “duking” it out to close out the day from 9:00-11:00 and 9:1510:45 respectively. Sunday’s lineup includes the Latin Grammy-winner Mala Rodriguez, whose rapid-fire lyrics and no-

B

ridge English, Language Center, defines itself as a “leader in language instruction and teacher training”. With 25 years experience and headquarters in five continents, BridgeEnglish has refined its aim to deliver the best method of language teaching in the world. Bridge not only focus’s on individual learning but has maintained many corporate clients who continue to choose Bridge for their English learning needs. Bridge works with the Human Resources Department and the rest of the Company, before the program start date in order to foster realistic expectations and generate adequate language acquisition metrics. Bridge is aware of the common downfall that results from not establishing clear foundations and understanding of the company and individual needs. Bridge understands their corporate clients. Christopher MacGuire Director at Bridge is ever more frequently seeing companies using English language training as a reward to for staff. “Many companies are offering immersion programs to go to Denver, Colorado or High Impact Programs with us here in Chile.” MacGuire goes on to explain that Executive Retention Plans have become an important aspect of Human Resource Departments. Some companies incorporate the language training into their normal professional development plan and some even link it to their performance appraisals. With it’s corporate understanding Bridge has made measurable progress with the mining and manufacturing markets, pharmaceutical companies and the financial sector, which are areas where Bridge are extremely consistent in providing phenomenal results” MacGuire notes that there are also companies in need of support in marketing, finances, or operations and logistics. Bridge there-

Bridging

the English gap fore “must first understand the unique challenges that are presented to us by a new Client and prepare a custom made program to meet and exceed their expectations”. Bridge offers a range or services to meet all needs. Private classes allow students to learn according to their own rhythm and pace and favors participation and active communication in the classroom. In addition, it is possible to be completely flexible, fitting the timetable and syllabus around the requirements of the student. Closed private groups are provided for students from the same company who have a similar level of English. This kind of group learning enables a faster and more efficient way of learning, which will bring a selection of a

holds-barred approach are sure to draw a big crowd at Stage 1 from 12:30-1:30. She’s followed on that stage at 2:30 by 311, a great band to see live. For some reason, Sunday’s bands seem to have a rather morbid feel. We have Como Asesinar a Felipes (How to assassinate Felipes), Todos Tus Muertos (All of your dead), Matanza (Murder), and Ghostland Observatory. While all these bands should be great to watch, I wonder if the folks on the planning committee should have been a bit more careful. Not adding to the death motif are The Flaming Lips, Cat Power, Thirty Seconds to Mars, and, of course, Jane’s Addiction. Chico Trujillo, one of Chile’s most famous live acts, will be on the Claro stage from 3:30-4:30, so put your dancing shoes on. The night is rounded out by Kanye West on Stage 1 from 9:00-11:00 and Armin van Buuren on the LG stage from 8:30-10:30. The festival is going green this year, with a recycling rewards program and a farmer’s market. There will also be activities ranging from juggling workshops to tattoo and body art booths, so during a break in the schedule of your preferred bands, there will be plenty to do. There will also be an area for kids to learn how to be rockers, too. Parents beware: temporary body paint and punk hair-dos are coming your way. Don’t forget to bring a refillable water bottle to save on plastic and 50 SPF to save your skin. For a complete list of bands and activities, or to buy tickets, you can visit the website (English and Spanish) at: www.lollapalooza.cl

company’s workforce up to a particular level rapidly and simultaneously. ‘High impact’ programs are ideal if a client is looking for a really fast, effective and intense English class. A group of teachers works exclusively with students eight hours a day in a private class that also includes lunch. This can be combined with distance-based Blending Elearning, involving live video conferences which can be accessed from home or the office.. The team of teachers collaborate with one another and the curriculum department to provide a holistic training approach. Throughout its learning environments, BridgeEnglish uses an “English Only Policy”- a concept that permits the teacher as well as the student to only communicate in the English language during classes. Hence, English is absorbed in a fast, easy and natural way. And because all teachers normally have their own specific accents, vocabulary and pronunciation, BridgeEnglish offers a rotation of teachers to guarantee that all students are able to understand English in a variety of situations and to avoid getting used to one specific instructor. The ethos of excellence at BridgeEnglish means that a client’s English experience, aims, needs and personal interests are always taken into consideration when tailoring a language course and progress is consistently measured to clearly show results. The broad spectrum of learning models offered by BridgeEnglish in Chile, along with the opportunity to take advantage of intensive language courses at its center in Denver, USA, makes BridgeEnglish an ideal choice bridging the English gap. For more information about BridgeEnglish in Providencia, Santiago de Chile, see www.BridgeEnglish.cl or call (56-2) 233-4356.

www.ilovechile.cl


30

Kids / March-April 2011

Ian Gilbert and Independent Thinking

The man behind Little Thinkers and Independent Thinking is Ian Gilbert, an educational innovator, entrepreneur and award-winning author who has worked for two decades helping schools bring the best out of young people through improved thinking, learning, motivation, creativity. He has recently moved to Chile to introduce his work across South America. For more information please visit www.independentthinking. com or e-mail us on learn@independenentthinking.co.uk

Overview paragrapthenough these days. Knowledge has been democratised anhidng

t just teac t to think is no e next great step is no Th it. t Teaching children wha an w ly al re ey th l about, it all of the time if Thinkers pages are al e ttl Li e everyone has access to es th t ha w is t what they but how to think. This out what they know bu d fin to t no children what to think n re ild ch ur rtunity to work with yo allowing you the oppo very different things. think. And the two are

Guide to Parents (and Teachers)

How to Use the Little Thinkers Pages Unlike traditional testing, the following exercises are not designed to test children’s knowledge. Instead they have been especially put together to get children thinking – and enjoy the process. Some of the questions are designed to encourage what is called ‘convergent thinking’. This is where there is one right answer eg ‘Twisted Wikis’ and ‘Word of the Month’. However, most of them are designed to encourage ‘divergent thinking’. This is where there are no right answers! If your child can come up with a response and tell you why they think that is a good answer, then that’s fine. Their answer may be different from yours. It doesn’t matter. Their ‘right answer’ may be better than your ‘right answer’. Excellent! Children see the world differently from the way adults do and it does us good to see things through a child’s eyes from time to time. As you go through the exercises with your child notice how comfortable they feel with both sorts of question. In our experience, children who do really well at school academically, who are not only accurate when it comes to knowing the right answer but also quick, these are the ones who feel most uncomfortable with the ‘no right answer’ questions. But being comfortable with feeling uncomfortable is a key life skill in today’s fast-changing world. After all, in the words of the seminal Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget, ‘Intelligence is what you use when you don’t know what to do’. By the way, how will you know if these exercises are working. It’s easy – just wait for your child to say, ‘My brain hurts!’ and you know you are on the right track. Best wishes

www.ilovechile.cl

Get Your Brain Hurting!

Thunks™

ply you talking, arguing and thinking dee ‘Yes/No’ questions designed to get s and events: about everyday things, experience 1. Is black a colour? 2. Should you bully a bully? g? without paying for it is that stealin 3. If you read a comic in a shop

to any of these Thunks to ???** for Stop Press: E-mail your best answer urite y of The Book of Thunks. Our favo your chance to win a free, signed cop the next edition ‘right answer’ will be published in n?) (Thumbnail of book – from Amazo

t’ The Very Odd ‘Odd Onen Ou (remember, there are no r opinio

Which one is the odd one out, in you rights or wrongs!)? 1. Avocado 2. Eagle 3. Kitten

Twisted Wikis

ed ple taken from Wikipedia but all mix The biographies of three famous peo earch skills to untwist them: up. Use your critical thinking and res s d with his uncle and aunt but wa He was born in New York and live y use of peaceful resistance as a wa bitten by a spider which led to his eland. Before his assassination he of forcing the British out of his hom war es for his country and was in the scored 77 goals in 92 appearanc film Escape to Victory 3,Pele) (Answers – 1, Spiderman; 2,Ganhdi;


31

March-April 2011 / Kids

Connexions One thing that highly creative people do is see links between things that no one else does. Give it a go here and identify what connects the following:

1. Pablo Neruda 2. An orange 3. Niagara Falls

If This is the Answer, What’s the Question? Rather than finding the answer, work out what the question could be:

A: Every Tuesday but only if he says so! Q: ?

Which Would Win? In ‘a fight’ between two people, ideas, items etc.. which would win and why?

1. A churrasco and a mountain 2. Colo-Colo and Australia 3. Barbie and a giraffe

Commonality What do the following random objects or ideas have in common?

What Comes Next?

Word of the Month

Identify the missing fourth item in this random list and explain why you think so:

What word is defined below? This is an example of a ‘convergent’ question where you need to come up with ‘the’ right answer. That said, if you can come up with more than one then you get bonus points for being smarter than the Internet!

1. A wedding dress 2. A taxi 3. A jar of mayonnaise (low calorie) 4. ?

One-Minute Story Using the same list come up with a very short story that links all four together.

What’s Missing?

In the following paragraph there are a number of words missing. Choose a word to go in the gap and remember, again, there are no right answers as long as you can justify what you think:

Noun: a usually rectangular piece of luggage especially for carrying clothes while traveling.

Never Ending Story All we will do is give you the first line to a story. You do the rest! It can be as long or as short as you like. You can even work with your parents or friends and come up with a line each as your story unfolds:

Once upon a time there was a beautiful orange bird named Cornelius…

The day after __________________________ there was a ______________________ in the car park. I _________________________ it but it didn’t ______________. So I had to ring for a _____________________

1. A credit card and a sheep 2. A helicopter and the Eiffel Tower 3. A vampire and an alien

Answers - Jonny Depp - Justin Bieber - Ricky Martin

Twisted Wikis www.ilovechile.cl


I Love Chile News: Edition 10 March/April  

Chile's only English language print newspaper

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