S T U D I O . ILHYEON (MICHAEL) YEO 583928 Semester 1, 2014
A I R
CONTENTS Part A
A.1 - LAGI PROJECT DESIGN FUTURING
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH
- Precedent of previous LAGI project
- Solar energy
A.2 - COMPUTATION Crystal Island, Russia
- Building Precedent
- Building Precedent
A.3 - COMPUTATION + ALGORITHMIC Computation to generating
Toyo Ito: Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, 2002
National aquatics Center, Beijing
Conclusion & Learning outcome
- Building Precedent
- Building Precedent
DESIGN FUTURING PRECEDENT OF PREVIOUS LAGI PROJECT
This architecture is done by team “GEMBONG REKSA KAWULA” named as wind fountain. The main and final idea for this project is being aesthetically beautiful while making use of renewable energy. It adapts “piezoelectric effect”, which is a term to describe an energy production through movement, as the structure goes under stress and strain electricity is produced. The each “tree” like shape architecture are named as wind fountain as shown in figure 1. Each units of thread are flexible and is covered with corresponding piezoelectric transducer, to deal and receive the maximum amount of wind.
The transducer, emits electrons when stresses (kinetic energy), is absorbed and converted to electrical power (emitting electrons), that is transmitted to a electrical regulation circuits, thus electricity is generated. The fountains are arranged in a way to produce “fantasy” like atmosphere that they are located along the riverside. This produces, according to the designers, welcoming sense where individuals can enjoy the scenery and wildlife. Also the for each thread contains LED light that will be used during night time to enhance and reinforce the mysterious and majesty sense for individuals to experience.
Furthermore, at the lowest part of the architecture, a computer controlled fibre optic is embedded, where it reacts to movement, touch for individuals to engage with the design and experience the actual procedure of creating electricity.
Fig. 1 Top left, Wind Fountain Fig. 2 Top right, Windo Fountain Fig. 3 Left, section
In my opinion, it is very inspiring to observe how they make use of their design concept for individuals to be involved and engaged with the design. However, in terms of sustainability, as wind is not very reliable source to produce all required energy this will be quite hard for realisation of the actual building and to be sustained after period.
DESIGN FUTURING PRECEDENT OF PREVIOUS LAGI PROJECT
The Maple Leaf by Phil Choo, Chulho Yang, Seung Ra, Sung- Yeoul Lee, maybe not be the most polished and refined project but it had some intriguing ideas that in my opinion, would be helpful to my project for air studio. This design is carefully approached with consideration of its existing structure, the gas extraction wells and its surrounding nature, which forms a interaction between man made and nature, where in my opinion, it is like an “organic architecture” which brings harmony and unity to the building and the nature as one.
The general concept of this design is to consider whole function as like a “plant”, such that plant undergoes photosynthetic process from solar energy which is in benefit of reducing carbon dioxide and increasing oxygen. Similarly, for this design, a renewable source of solar energy were chosen to produce electricity and distribute to electrical grid. It uses “uni solar PVL” which allow flexibility, light weighted which provides possible realisation of the design and is energy efficient where it produces about 130 kWh per year.
Fig. 4 Left, MAPLE TOP VIEW Fig. 5 Left- bottom, MAPLE INTERIOR 1 Fig. 6 Lett - bottom, MAPLE INTERIOR 2 Fig. 7 Right, MAPLE TOP VIEW
Furthermore, it also employs methane gas that is produced on site where the efficiency is nearly twice as much as the solar panel. This connects back to its original idea of “plant” where this is process of using “unnecessary” to utilise it as a positive aspect and producing electricity, enriching sustainability.
In my opinion the real success for this design is going beyond what is given, where this design does not stop on the “aesthetic” view, but takes step forward and making the place interactive where users are able to access the highest point of the design and be entertained and really enjoy the panorama view.
Furthermore, it considers in regards to “future design” as Fry Tony (2008) conveys on human destruction of environment, but design could be a possible solution for sustainability. That this think about the duration or life time of technology or its resource and being prepared for future possibilities.
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH SOLAR ENERGY
RENEWABLE ENERGY As to accelerate on “defuturing” condition of unsustainability in this finite world, the focuses on renewable energy has significantly increased. Renewable energy is a essential aspect of design for its sustainability reasons and as wells as interesting design ideas, concept that can be worked around with the renewable energy source.
SOLAR ENERGY One of the common renewable energy would be solar energy, which utilises radiation from sun and is most clean and abundant renewable source. The most common solar energy is photovoltaics and solar thermal energy. Photovoltaics is a direct conversion of solar radiation to electricity through certain materials is able to absorb photons of light and emits electron, which is than captured as electricity. On the other hand solar thermal energy uses concentrates radiation which heats the “thermal receiver”, usually a fluid, that is used for heating purposes. For both photovoltaics and solar thermal energy is fairly old generation of technology, meaning that it is bulky, takes away large spaces, not so flexible, thus extremely limiting overall design and its ideas or concept that can come through with.
Fig. 9 Thermal Receiver
Fig. 8 HOW SOLAR WORKS
Fig. 10 Photovolatics
NEW TECHNOLOGY New technologies are opening up opportunities for various design to form and interesting ideas to flow. UNI SOLAR PVL Uni solar pvl contains thin panels, which works similar to photovoltaics but this allows flexibility and light weight construction, thus enabling complex and different type of geometrical designs can be formed. Though installation of this should be carefully considered as it has to be installed where it can receive most of sunlight, such as roof, throughout day. SOLAR WINDOW While panel type, such as uni solar pvl, has to be installed top of roof, this type has more flexibility on where to install while providing some natural day light which is sort of double effect as it saves costs for lighting while producing some electricity. This really broaden the options for design. On short coming it is less efficient in producing electricity compare to other type of solar technology.
Fig. 11 Uni solar PVL
In conclusion, with development of technology, in terms of its size, volume, flexibility, efficiency and so on, it was possible to open up opportunities for different variations of design and it will be very interesting to implement this solar energy into LAGI competition, to be sustainable by producing electricity for surrounding areas as well as reducing CO2 emission.
Fig. 12 How solar window works
Building Precedent Crystal Island, Russia
The design and construction industries are in the storm of ongoing and incoming change that can be both positively and negatively effect the architecture. Ongoing changes would be the computation of design, where nowadays, most of works are done by computer instead of hand drawing. Incoming changes would be some of challenges and consequences of utilising the computing to be dealt, where individuals like “terzidis, kostas (2009)” argues that computing should be able to assist in “free” and “innovative” imagination of design, but it works as a cage where limits the infinite possibility and creativity to the designers.1
In this architecture it demonstrates how some of consequences, such what “terzids kostas” portrayed, is possible to overcome and is overcame through going beyond just using the tool, but being able to combine as a part of design. The precedent 1, Crystal Island, Russia, designed by Norman Foster, has interested me through its elegance of dynamic features of spiral lines drawing down to up, as wells as utilisation of use of renewable energy. The esthetical part of the building is accomplished through the computation of outer layer of the building, where each lines are seemed to be curling up to top.
This creates dynamic sense of movement which directs human eyes to follow and thus provides a quick overall view of the building while having the distinct flavour of the aesthetic. On the other hand however, the top view of this building makes difference sense and opposite outcome, that each layer is no longer curling up, but is spreading out towards ground to water. This two contrasting views creates really interesting aesthetics, having it to curl up and down, with different view angles. One negative fact however, would be individuals are not actually able to experience this different perception of the architecture.
<1>. Terzidis, Kostas (2009). Algorithms for Visual Design Using the Processing Language (Indianapolis, IN: Wiley), p. xx
Fig 13. Left, Crystal Island 3D model Fig 14. Right below, Crystal Island top view Fig 15. Right, Crystal Island side view
If this were to be in LAGI project, i would have to consider to develop this kind of idea to accommodation various experiences by just having different angles, actions and so on. Nevertheless, The computation of the design allowed fast visualisation of the final product of the building resulting many different types of geometry to be tested out, shaping the ideal form while conceptualising within. Therefore, forming can be very innovated and creative shape, breaking out of â€œcageâ€? and overcame it.One last thing for this building is that this uses wind as wells as solar energy as a sustainable provider for its need.
It is very inspiring as it makes use of its "visual" and "aesthetic" idea to incoporate the renewable energy meaning, the high rised aspect of the building enables higher amount of wind as higher altitude means less pressure, allowing more wind. Furthermore, solar panels are installed in the facade reinforcing the aesthetic while generating some electricity for the building. And as such, the aesthetic was the main idea for this architecture, it may lack a little creativeness or involovement with individual, but utilising different views or two types of renewable energy is very inspiring when to consider the LAGI project.
Building Precedent Spire Edge
The second precedent is the Spire Edge, by Ken Yeang which features the unique use of vegetation throughout the building. It also incorporates various technology, such as solar and use of natural light, for its sustainability. I really liked the building how it is utilising the vegetation within the building as part of the design while the design tries to be as dynamic as possible.
The architecture would used computation for the positioning and angle of each side of layers of the building to precisely calculate sun, wind direction to suit vegetation while alteringfor some dynamic shape. This building may not be very innovative, in terms of argorithmic sense, but still demonstrates how ongoing and incoming architectural changes are effecting architecture. Ongoing changes for this kind of building could be formed identifying and adjusting the best conditions or angles of wall for its vegetation.
Also having aesthetic part, although the vegetation itself maybe part of aesthetic, but it restricts oppotunities and possibilities of possible outcome of design. In terms of LAGI project brief, limiting design possibility to utilise the renewable source woulde have very critical impact as renewable source should be a tool to improve or assist how the final shape will be, thus this building has failed in creating a design that engages wit individuals, but rather its engaging with vegetation.
Fig 16. Right, Spiral Egde side view Fig 17 Left, Spire Edge Whole site view Fig 18 right bottom, Spire Edge partial close
On the hand incoming changes would be providing flexibility on design appearance by utilising higher technology as to have limitation of design on this type of building. This maybe have failed to engage individuals, but this architecture has great idea on making use of renewable source as it is built for vegetation, and as such being sustainable. The architecture uses 2 renewable source just like first precedent. Main focuses are obviously on the usage of vegetaion in cooling and providing fresh air, which could result in reducing energy use. This also produce some natural aesthetics, which inspires myself in a way to use this kind of design concept into LAGI project, but only purely on "utilisation of renewable source" Furthermore, myself may develop and use to interact with individuals, not renewable source, for better outcome and flexibility of design. Moreover, its use of solar energy, as another source to accommodate part of energy use of the building, whilst interacting as aesthetics. As such this building has inspired me on "how" i should incorporate the renewable source, that is to improve overall design, not to be centre of the design.
Computation to generation
â€œWhen architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.â€?2
Nowdays designing some building has became a task where anyone can or have ability to create a new and interesting architecture through introduction of computation. Computation could just be to simply digitalise any of procedures to visually conceive the design, and yet it could be a process of dealing with highly complex cases as Achim Menges defines as a process of information that interacts between elements, providing framework for negotiating and influencing the dataset, having capacity to generate complex order.3 Therefore, it is a process of using information through an understood model, expressing algorithm, thus for various new ideas. If we find a way to take advantage of computers where we lack and use our abilities on where computers lack of, will produce very powerful symbiotic design3. This is the fundamental idea of how the computation allow us to create very innovative and new ideas, that as algorithm is a particular set of instruction, and by applying computation, it is possible to solve design problems, generating unexpected results, allowing for design concept to go beyond the intellect of the designer.
Furthermore, as to generate the design, utilising computation allows designers to quickly change the on going progress very fast and easily as they just need to alter and change the problems they encounter or sets of rules they would like to apply, in the computer, therefore digitally, instead of physical models that would consume much more time. Also it allows to test out materiality of the design, for a quick test if they building would be stable or in terms of textures or many other facts in consideration to real life built form, reducing huge amount of time that should be taken, if it were to built to test out. Therefore, provides more time on idealisation of the design, giving for time to critically think about and engage wih the design, thus creative and unique designs can be produced
<2>. Yehuda E. Kalay Architectureâ€™s New Media: Principles, Theories, and methods of Computer - aided Design (Cambridge : MIT Press, 2004) p.3.
Building Precedent Toyo Ito: Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, 2002
Fig. 19 Serpentine Gallery Pavilion
This pavilion is done by a japanese architecture, Toyo Ito, which incorporates computation of argorithms that forms this unique outer layer of the pavilion. The pattern that has been used for this pavilion is done through collaboration with a team called "ARUP" whom came up with a geometrical algorithmic pattern which is shown in fig. 15. The basis of the pattern starts with rectangle or squared plane and drawing lines in between of each lines wit certain ratio, for instance, line joining from half point from one side to other side. Continuing with this, will creates a rectagle or square in the original plane, but just rotated. By repeating this for number of time a certain pattern will form and different ratio of lines drawn, will make whole different pattern allowing countless patterns to be formed. Then, Ito extented each side of those "boxes" which allows lines to cross, producing a "network" of lines. These connections are then folded over the box, which enfolds the box. The lines are extended over the plane and other side, where it is described as "going nowhere but going everything". Therefore, emphasising the limitless idea prodcued, denying to be a hard skin of the volume, but be dynamic and have the movement or change within them. The idea of having a simple, very simple geometry to form a endless and countless algorithmic form is very inspiring in this design. Such that a rectangle, or square, has turned into a unique mathematical related algorithm with very simple rules applied to it. 4
Fig. 20 Algorithmic sketch
Fig. 21 Modeling structure`
Being able to achieve a unique and limitless pattern is very admiring, but on the other hand, this type of way will produce very random shape that cannot be predicted, which can act positively and negatively. On positive part, it is true that this "unpredictable" shape is why algorithmic is used for, but this way of approach, results in some of "weak points" as seen in fig. 16. For it to be built in real life, forces has to be considered, as seen in the figure, it is obvious that some part of side has literally like a point of joining where it is unable to carry load thus unable to support the structure. This algorithmic approach was very inspiring as an "idea", but not as "realistic" construction, which may have to force building to change its pattern, ie breaking the rules, or forcing it to be in particular way, ie limiting design outcomes. Ito has motified the pattern as he was to solve the local force problems. In order to make a lighter, and yet stronger in the centre, they have changed the ratio from 1/3-1/2 to 2/3-1/22 . Then they removed some of panels to produce larger opening and entrances. Also, they have altered the secondary struction on roof to main facade structural for better durability and resistance of load. Lastly an extra support was added at the glazing area in the centre of the pattern. Although, in my opinion, too abstract or too random system would be hard or limiting the design to be constructed in reallife, but as Ito accomplished his idea of "endless void", by altering, adding, fixing, it indeed resulted as not a mere random building but a architecture that conveys its algorithmic as well as the aesthetic, which inspired me alot and changed my opinion to utilised these kind of algorithm and incorporate renewable source for the project
<4>. Ton, Deuling (2011). Serpentine Pavilion // Case study, CollectiveArchitects, Viewed 24 March 2014 <http://www. collectivearchitects.eu/blog/77/serpentine-pavilion-case-study>
Building Precedent National aquatics Center, Beijing This aquatics center is a winner for international architectural competition, which is designed and also built by PTW architects, ARUP international engineering group, China State Construction Engineering Corporation and China Construction Design International. The pattern for this algorithmic building is based on natural trainsformation of "bubbles". It goes down to historical period and developed that, at first, the concept of an optimum bubble which consist 14 sides, was form. Then this principle of "optimum bubble" considered in terms of 3 dimensional object with minimum surface and no intermediate spaces. Two different shapes were then used either, two different pentagonal or combination of pentagon and hexagon, which results in creation of the "Weaire-Phelan" structure, the natural pattern in forming of crystals. With this concept ARUP developed the constructional system for the watercube by utilising computation, through a process of rotation, cutting and combining as demonstrated in figure ?. The natural algorithm of bubble creation is quite stable in consideration of constructing as well as in comparison to Ito's pattern. It is interesting to identify, how the designer has placed this endless natural algorithm into a "box" which can be a boring structure and could turn out very simple and something that hides or removes the concept of the design. However, in those sketches and 3D model the boxes are actally amplifies the sense of expension, growth and the flow between each bubbles which gives a sense where this box going to expload any minute.
Fig. 22 National Aquatic Centre
Fig. 23 Algorithmic Sketch
Fig. 24 3D model
On the side fact though, the actual constructed model does not contain this sense, but is perceiving very flat and static form, rather than dynamic growth of the pattern.Therefore, a limitation of these kind of approach can be identified such that focusing on just one thing, in this case the growth, but not thinking through as real life, may critically effect on its idea or the aesthetic that can provide. In my opinion, through this precedent, it can be concluded that utilising a natural algorithmic can be very innovative and distinct, but directly using what nature provides, and not creatively using it may produce quite plain design, in fact a design where all the concepts are shown, but only in sketch not in real life construction. Furthermore cultural aspect of the building can be considered as part of "why" they have used some types form. The chinese culture have great relationship with boxed type of shape which they have used in this, although in my opinion, this can be developed more whilst having the "box" sense, by for example, creating second layer of algorithm with box while having the bubble algorithm within it. Lastly, this incorporates solar power, which is very effective way to utilise the buildng property, "bubble like", meaning transparent, suitable for solar panels to be placed. Thinking and make use of renewable source as a form of taking advantage of the design would actually be able to broaden possibility to create unique form rather than held in with renewable source, as demonstrated in this building.
Fig. 25 Algorithmic sketch
Conclusion & Learning Outcome
In conclusion, computation is a design approach that can lead to great possibilities of nothing to innovative and really inspiring design. Some people may argue that this computation is such a negative way to approach design that limits possibilities and opportunities, such as kasta (2009) has portrayed. However, through observation of precedents it was clear that computation was not limiting the design, but it produced new and interesting shape that almost as an artistical sculpture. It also allows for very complex designs, such as incorporation of algorithm within and as concept of design. The dedicated 3D model of certain algorithm, such as bubbles in national aqutic centre, can be seen and produced in short amount of time, allowing experimentation of the concept, therefore gives better oppotunities to design critically and to be refined, resulting distinct aesthetic and engagement of the architecture. Also, not only aesthetics part of the architectures, but utilising renewable sources. The renewable sources should be used as an improvement or assistance of a building and should always be considered as fry (2009) explores the defuturing of our humanity and we are desperate to keep it sustainable. As result, architectures are able to have its artistic aesthetic whilst incorporating renewable source to have sustainability.
In these past weeks, looking back through the precedents and i was able to obtain a lot about algorithmic design and how renewable source be used within the building. The precedent has inspired me in many ways, including how computation is truely essential part of creating new design, whilst algorithmic incorporated and is really useful to produce very innovative and dynamic art-like architecture. Also i've understood that, its not about focusing on renewable source, but it should come along with the design, not a design that suits for making use of renewable source without any other engagement (aesthetic, individuals). Also the grasshopper was a fairly interesting tool to use, as it was first time, some of tutorial was bit hard as lacked informations for first time users to understand, Nevertheless, grashhopper seems to have lots of oppotunities to apply the algorithmic and i could visualise myself, being able to model using grasshopper as to undertake the fundamental part of tutorial.
References Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 Terzidis, Kostas (2009). Algorithms for Visual Design Using the Processing Language (Indianapolis, IN: Wiley), p. xx Ton, Deuling (2011). Serpentine Pavilion // Case study, CollectiveArchitects, Viewed 24 March 2014 <http://www. collectivearchitects.eu/blog/77/serpentine-pavilion-case-study> Yehuda E. Kalay Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and methods of Computer - aided Design (Cambridge : MIT Press, 2004) p.3.
Fig. 1, 2, 3. Gembong Reksa Kawula, 2012 , Wind fountain, Land Art Generator Initiative, Viewed 25 March 2014 <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/WF252RKA/> Fig. 4, 5, 6, 7. C. Phill, Y. Chulho, R. Seung, L. Sung-Yeoul, 2012 MAPLE LEAFT, Land art generator initiative, Viewed 15 March 2014<http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/40574453/> Fig. 8. Home Solar Info 2012 How does solar power work, Home Solar Info, Viewed 15 March 2014<http://www. homesolarinfo.com/how-does-solar-power-work.html> Fig. 9. D. Jack, 2010, how solar thermal power works. Howstuffworks, Viewed 15 March 2014<http://science. howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-tech/energy-production/solar-thermal-power.htm> Fig. 10. G. Jannes, 2011, Thermal imaging cameras for solar panel inspection, photovoltaic production, Viewed 15 March 2014<http://www.photovoltaic-protduction.com/450/thermal-imaging-cameras-for-solar-panel-inspection/> Fig. 11. N. Paul, 2007, uni-solar: portable, he 12 Volt Shop, Viewed 15 March 2014<http://www.12volt.com.au/ redirect.html?a=/General Htmls/webcat2003/solarpage.html> Fig. 12. L. Joyce, 2011, Solar PV out of the box, Focus, Viewed 15 March 2014<http://www.renewableenergyfocus. com/view/18888/solar-pv-out-of-the-box/> Fig. 13. NFO MMO, 2014, Le Crystal Island Viewed 15 March 2014, <http://www.infoimmo.fr/le-crystal-island/> Fig. 14. NFO MMO, 2014, Le Crystal Island Viewed 16 March 2014, <http://www.infoimmo.fr/le-crystal-island/> Fig. 15. Karim Yergaliyev, 2007, Moscow: cstal island viewed 15 March 2014, inhabitat, <http://inhabitat.com/tallestskyscraper-in-the-world-coming-to-moscow/> Fig. 16. SPIRE EDGE 2008, Spire Edge – India’s first Mainstream Green office complex Viewed 16 March 2014, <http://spireedge.wordpress.com/> Fig. 17. NAR SPIRE WORLD 2008, THINK GREEN, THINK AHEAD Viewed 16 March 2014, <www.wtcmanesar.org/ green-advantage-brochure.php> Fig. 18. SPIRE EDGE, Spire Edge Manesar Gurgaon-Office Space Spire Edge, Viewed 16 March 2014 <http://www. spireedgemanesar.com/Spire_Edge_Office.php> Fig. 19 S. D. Taschen, 2002, Serpentine Gallery Pavilions, Serpentine Galleries, Viewed 25 March 2014 <http:// www.serpentinegalleries.org/about/press/2014/02/exhibitions/serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2002-designed-toyo-itoand-cecil-balmond> Fig. 20, 23, 25 Dr. Toni Kotnik, 2007, Algorithmic Architecture - Introduction to the MAS colloquia 2006/07, caad Darch, Viewed 25 March 2014 <http://wiki.arch.ethz.ch/asterix/pub/MAS0607/MasColloquia/Lecture01.pdf> Fig. 22 F. Charlie, 2009. The night view of Beijing National Aquatics Center, F Charlie, Viewed 25 March 2014 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%E5%9B%BD%E5%AE%B6%E6%B8%B8%E6%B3%B3%E4%B8%AD%E5%BF %83%E5%A4%9C%E6%99%AF.jpg> Fig. 24 Mapolis architecture + BIM, 2009 A Static and esthetic Masterpiece, viewed 24 March 2014 <http:// architecture.mapolismagazin.com/node/1068>