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FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY ENDING IMPUNITY FOR SEXUAL AND GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN CONFLICT AND POST-CONFLICT SETTINGS REPORT FROM CONFERENCE IN STOCKHOLM, 6/12 2011

WOMEN’S INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM, WILPF SWEDEN


FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY The aim of this report is to discuss critical obstacles for ending impunity for SGBV in conflict and post-conflict settings, and how they can be overcome. The conference was arranged by the Swedish section of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) in cooperation with the Swedish NGO Kvinna till Kvinna and Amnesty International (Sweden). The conference was arranged by the Swedish section of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) in cooperation with Swedish NGO Kvinna till Kvinna and Amnesty International (Sweden). The aim of the conference was to bring together an inter­national group of experts and women’s rights activists to share their experiences from working to combat SGBV impunity. The speakers were:

Veprore Shehu Executive Director, Medica Kosova

Yasmine Sherif Deputy Special Representative of the Administrator Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People, UNDP

Lisa Gormley Legal Advisor International Law and Women’s Rights, Amnesty International

Maria Butler Programme Director, PeaceWomen/WILPF

Pia Hederén Detective Super Intendent, the Swedish Police

Annie Matundu Mbambi President of WILPF DR Congo

The conference also included workshops, during which the speakers discussed the issue of SGBV impunity with representatives from Swedish governmental agencies and NGOs. The workshop participants included, amongst others, representatives from the Swedish Foreign Ministry, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, and Kvinna till Kvinna. The conference was financed by funding from Folke Bernadotte Academy “Fredsmiljonen”.


Combating impunity for sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) is a key issue in the implementation of the UN Women, Peace and Security agenda. Taken together, UNSCR 1325 (2000) and the following resolutions 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), and 1960 (2010) all serve to strengthen the fight against SGBV in conflict and post-conflict settings. The Special Representative of the SecretaryGeneral (SRSG) on Sexual Violence in Conflict, Margot Wallström, has identified “ending impunity” as one of her five priorities, in addition to: protecting and empowering war-affected women and girls, strengthening political commitment and leadership, re-thinking rape as a tactic of war and terror, and harmonizing and amplifying the response of the international community.

Previously published reports While the recommendations in this report draw mainly on the presentations and discussions that took place during the conference in Stockholm, they also encompass advice from a number of previously published reports relating to SGBV impunity. These are: Analytical & Conceptual Framing of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence (summary) - UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict (UN Action), 2011 Team of Experts: Rule of Law/Sexual Violence in Conflict, Progress Report January-May 2011 - the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict, 2011 Justice, Impunity, and Sexual Violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo - International parliamentary-expert mission addressing impunity for sexual crimes in the Democratic Republic of Congo 26 April-3 May 2008 - The Swedish Foundation for Human Rights & The All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on the Great Lakes Region of Africa, 2008 Brief 43 - Towards a Typology of Wartime Rape - Elvan Isikozlu & Ananda S. Millar, Bonn International Center for Conversion, 2010 Why Women? Effective engagement for small arms control - IANSA Women’s Network, 2011 Progress of the World’s Women: In Pursuit of Justice - UN Women, 2011


FRAMEWORK AND DEFINITIONS

quite broad. Drawing on statutes and

women as agents of justice and change.

case law of the International Tribunals

The recognition of women as key agents

for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda,

in conflict resolution and peace work

A number of participants emphasi-

the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the

is further underlined in UNSCR 1889

zed the importance of framing the pro-

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts

building on UNSCR 1325.

blem of SGBV adequately. The concept

of Cambodia, and the ICC Rome Statute,

relates to a broad scope of gendered

sexual violence is understood to include:

ticipants critically pointed to a tendency

violence, whereas the resolutions pas-

“rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution,

to equate the issue of SGBV in conflict

sed by the UNSC are narrower in their

forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization

and post-conflict settings with rape as

scope. The UN Action Steering Commit-

and any other form of sexual violence of

a weapon in war. While rape in conflict

tee has expressed that as gender-based

comparable gravity.” 2

and post-conflict settings threatens the

violence (GBV) includes for example

SCR 1820, 1888 and 1960 imply

security of girls and women in devas-

“the denial of economic resources”, it

strong commitments to combat conflict-

tating ways, actors engaged in fighting

is “an overly-broad category for 1960

related sexual violence and to end the

SGBV impunity must address the broad

reporting purposes.” 1 Women’s econo-

impunity for such violence. UNSCR 1888

spectrum of violations against women. In

mic rights, their rights to move freely

established a Special Representative of

addition to this, if SGBV is approached

and their rights to take part in political

the Secretary-General (SRSG) on Sexual

too narrowly, donor agents run the risk

life are, however, crucial instruments for

Violence in Conflict, and UNSCR 1960

of attacking the symptom while failing

ending impunity for SGBV. In addition

calls for a monitoring and accounta-

to thoroughly address discriminating

to this, sexual violence in conflict and

bility system including mandating the

gender relations as one of the underlying

post conflict settings should, according

Secretary-General to “list in the annexes

problems. The UNSCR 1888 Team of Ex-

to WILPF, be understood as a component

to annual reports parties who are cre-

perts has also acknowledged this, stating

of a broader category of gender based

dibly suspected of committing or being

that: “There has been little discussion

violence. GBV as such does not only

responsible for patterns of sexual vio-

about prevention thus most prevention

occur in conflict and post-conflict set-

lence” and stating that sanctions may be

efforts have been centred on sensitiza-

tings, but in all settings including those

directed towards such parties. It is main-

tion and media activities.” 3

who are defined as peaceful. This being

tained in this report that the fight against

said, the definition of “conflict-related

impunity for SGBV must pay great atten-

by participants at the conference, all

sexual violence”, as endorsed by the

tion not only to the fact that women are

actors including donor and implemen-

UN Action Steering Committee, is still

victims of violence, but equally recognize

ting agents must coordinate their efforts

4 FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY

During the conference, several par-

Equally important, as pointed out


if SGBV is approached too narrowly, donor agents run the risk of attacking the sym­ptom while failing to thoroughly address discrimi­nating gender relations as one of the underlying problems.

more efficiently so that attention is paid

related violence in conflict and post-con-

to those regions that might not be at

flict settings can indeed be political, and

the centre of public debate and media

must be treated as such. The same goes

coverage. On a similar note, previously

for how political agency is understood.

published reports have asked for better

Women’s rights activists are political

coordination in country specific work.

actors, who often face great risks in their

This is acknowledged in “Justice, Im-

home settings. Accordingly, a number

punity, and Sexual Violence in Eastern

of participants promoted that Swedish

Democratic Republic of Congo” where

NGOs should lobby more actively for im-

it is held out that “the UN, the EU and

proved immigration policies for women’s

international donors generally might

rights activists and rape survivors, and

not be as well coordinated as they could

make better use of CEDAW (The Con-

be” and that a “more rational division

vention on the Elimination of All Forms

of labour” is needed amongst individual

of Discrimination against Women) in

organizations working in the field. 4

asylum processes.

It is crucial to address SGBV as a

political issue, and to counteract perceptions of such violence as a “natural” part of society, or inevitable in conflict and post-conflict situations. A number of participants, notably Lisa Gormley from Amnesty International, pointed

REFERENCES 1

UN Action (2011): Analytical & Conceptual Framing of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence

2

UN Action (2011): Analytical & Conceptual Framing of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence

3 The Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (2011): Team of Experts: Rule of Law/Sexual Violence in Conflict, Progress Report JanuaryMay 2011 p.17.

The Swedish Foundation for Human Rights & The All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on the Great Lakes Region of Africa (2008): Justice, Impunity, and Sexual Violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo - International parliamentary-expert mission addressing impunity for sexual crimes in the Democratic Republic of Congo 26 April-3 May 2008 p.32. 4

out that the political nature of SGBV is insufficiently recognized in, for example, national migration policies. Women who have experienced forms of SGBV are often told that their experiences are not sufficient basis for asylum, unless the violence is “linked to a political act”. Such conceptions fail to see that gender

FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY

5


Challenges for the

international community

DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT

promote the inclusion of SGBV.

agenda. It is not enough for Sweden to

talk through the EU; there is a need for

In addition to this, the UN Security

Council must systematically address

more active diplomacy, especially in

its Women, Peace and Security com-

non-conventional forums, in order to

There are a number of areas in which the

mitments in specific resolutions and

fill the vacuum between gender experts

international community (member states

situations, for example in mandates of

and security/IR diplomats. In addition to

and international and regional organisa-

UN Peacekeeping. This was not the case

this, it is strategic for a state like Sweden

tions including UN) can improve its work

with resolutions 1970 and 1973 (2011) on

to choose one issue to champion in this

against SGBV impunity. Violence against

Libya, which has been strongly criti-

regard, said Butler.

women is rarely mentioned in ceasefire

cised by Margot Wallström. The risk

agreements or peace agreements. Even in

of sexual violence in conflict must be

the case of the Liberian Peace Agreement

acknowledged and explicitly mentioned

International courts are naturally

(2003) – in which women most explicitly

in resolutions and mandates, recalling

key agents in the fight against SGBV

played a key role – the issue of rape was

the commitments made by the UN and

impunity. Besides bringing restitution

not addressed. Studies of 300 peace agre-

member states to address such violence.

for victims and survivors, international

ements relating to 45 conflicts situations

Otherwise it might not be addressed at

courts establish and reinforce essential

since the end of the Cold War show that

all, which indisputably increases the risk

norms. They have also shown to affect

sexual violence or gender-based violence

of impunity.

the de facto freedom even for unconvic-

has been addressed in only 10 conflict

ted war criminals. Representatives from

situations and 18 agreements. Sexual

that there is a pervasive silence rela-

the Swedish Red Cross and Amnesty In-

violence has been identified as a cease-

ting to SGBV that needs to be urgently

ternational said that international court

fire violation in only six ceasefire agre-

addressed in order to make it a priority

proceedings and trials have impacts

ements. A study by UN Women shows

issue for all actors in the international

including deterrence and restrictions on

that out of 24 peace processes since the

community. This can be approached in

travel of indicted suspects, as they fear

mid-1990s, an average of 8 percent of

various ways that are both bottom-up

they may be convicted in another state.

the negotiating teams were women. This

and top-down. During the conference,

underpins impunity, as the occurrence

Maria Butler from the WILPF project

pointed to the insufficient protection of

of SGBV is not formally recognized. As

PeaceWomen argued that Sweden can do

both witnesses and victims in internatio-

the international community can affect

much more in making SGBV more visible

nal and national trials relating to SGBV

such treaties and agreements, it should

and actionable on the peace and security

in conflict and post-conflict settings. In

6 FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY

It was noted by several participants

JUDICIAL MATTERS

Significantly, several participants


some incidence, “women do not trust

is broad in scope. As stated in WILPFs

justice” said Veprore Shehu from Medica

position on the ATT, the treaty should be

Kosova. Lisa Gormley from Amnesty

a strong tool with the primary purpose

International talked about the need for

of preventing armed conflict, preventing

“deep law reforms”; to look beyond the

the violation of human rights and inter-

technicalities of laws and pay greater at-

national humanitarian law, and seriously

tention to how women are being treated

reducing the culture and economy of

during trials. Participants challenged the

militarism.

conference to approach “justice and ac-

countability” from the survivors perspec-

situation is recognized in regulations

tive. Trial procedures and examinations

on arms trade. Most countries have no

often re-traumatize women, and court

mention of domestic violence in their

officials show a lack of understanding for

gun laws, and no mention of guns in their

the women’s experiences. Shehu shared

domestic violence laws. Still, a gun in the

the story of a woman who testified in the

home is more likely to be used against a

ICTY tribunal during 2002-2003, after

family member than against an intruder.

having survived a gang rape during the

In militarized societies, weapons are

war in former Yugoslavia. The woman

used to threaten or kill women, often

needed her counsellor with her at all

in cases of domestic violence. Stronger

times during the long process of the trial

trade regulations and fewer weapons

but this could not be arranged for due to

would not only decrease the number of

regulations at the tribunal. This is just

SGBV incidents, it would also serve to

one of many examples, and these issues

empower women as small and light arms

must be given attention in order for wo-

(SALW) function to uphold gendered po-

men to actually approach the courts and

wer relations between women and men.

make use of their legal rights.

Annie Matundu Mbambi, president of

Terminology is also crucial. Institu-

It is absolutely crucial that women’s

WILPF in DRC, emphasized the connec-

tions like the ICTY must attach separate

tion between SALW and SGBV. Mbambi

criminal liability for sexual crimes in

has spoken out on the need for disarma-

prosecution. It is also important that sur-

ment on a number of occasions, and she

vivors can file collective prosecution for

expresses it very succinctly in the report

acts of SGBV in conflict and post-conflict

“Why Women? Effective engagement for

settings, against countries, tribes or other

small arms control”, stating that “A guy

significant groups who are credibly su-

with a machete in a village can rape one

spected of committing or being respon-

woman. Two guys, one with a machine

sible for such acts. This can also serve

gun, can rape the whole village.” 5 In ad-

to strengthen the recognition of conflict

dition to the protective aspect, conferen-

and post-conflict SGBV as systematic and

ce participants also called for the ATT to

organized acts, which they often are.

include language on women’s rights to

A guy with a machete in a village can rape one woman. Two guys, one with a machine gun, can rape the whole village.

REFERENCES 5 IANSA Women’s Network (2011) Why Women? Effective engagement for small arms control, p. 9

participate in arms control processes, in

A STRONG REGULATION OF ARMS TRADE

order to guarantee that their experiences are accounted for in policies and decisions. The necessity of including women has already been recognized in the UN

The conference also included discus-

General Assembly resolution 65/69 ”Wo-

sions on disarmament as a key issue in

men, disarmament, non-proliferation and

the fight against SGBV and the impunity

arms control”.

for it. The coming Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), to be negotiated in 2012, and its relevance was brought up at several times during the workshop discussions. The proliferation of weapons and ammunition, and the lack of rule of law, lead to impunity for crimes and particularly for SGBV, and the final ATT negotiations must result in a strong treaty that

FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY

7


Challenges for

national and local actors

National and local chains of justice (including judicial systems) in conflict and post-conflict settings must have the capacity to try, and sentence, SGBV

PROTECTING WITNESSES, SURVIVORS AND NGO’S

met with threats and stigmatization from the local community. Representatives from, amongst others, Amnesty International, WILPF and Medica Kosova,

perpetrators justly. The following section

Several participants called for impro-

addressed this problem. The implied

lists some of the challenges, held out as

ved physical protection for witnesses,

conceptions in stigmatizing reactions

crucial by the conference participants.

survivors and NGOs. The report “Justice,

can be of the kind that “women should

Impunity, and Sexual Violence in Eastern

have stayed at home instead of going out

LEGAL AND LOGISTIC ASSISTANCE

Democratic Republic of Congo” reflects

during the war” – i.e., the blame is put

the same conclusion, recommending

on the survivor. On the same note, Elvan

that “particular efforts should be made

Isikozlu and Ananda S. Millar establish

Legal assistance for survivors of SGBV

to respond to intimidation or abuses and

in their report “Brief 43 - Towards

is often provided for by women’s rights

to otherwise help protect the ability of

a Typology of Wartime Rape”, that

activists and NGOs. For this to be ef-

NGOs and human rights defenders to do

”Interventions on wartime rape must

fective, these actors must have sufficient

their work safely.” 6 The UNSCR 1888

understand and aim to address social

resources - which many of them do not.

Team of Experts identifies a lack of “clear

stigma surrounding rape.” 8 It is also es-

There is also a need for logistic assis-

policies mechanisms” in regard to the

sential to recognize that in many conflict

tance in many settings, as police stations

protection of survivors, witnesses and

and post-conflict settings, stigmatization

and courts are often situated quite far

justice operators. 7

of SGBV survivors is a matter of women

away from where women who have been exposed to SGBV live. This very practical problem might often be a critical factor when a woman decides whether or not she will file charges.

8 FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY

stigmatizing other women. NGOs and

COMBATTING STIGMATIZATION

programmes aimed at community and women-to-women relations should thus be supported to a greater extent by

The participants at the conference

international and national donors, said

repeatedly highlighted the fact that when

Veprore Shehu from Medica Kosova.

women stand up for themselves, tell their

stories, and file charges, they are often

more frequently and openly in order to

SGBV should be discussed much


fight stigmatization as an obstacle to

Experts lists “ensuring that court deci-

ending impunity, said some participants.

sions are enforced” as a key issue in the

Elvan Isikozlu and Ananda S. Millar also

fight against SGBV impunity. 7

point to the importance of recognizing

the risk for stigmatization in program-

ted to the importance of including civil

mes and funding aimed at ending

society, NGOs and other women’s rights

impunity. In their opinion, such projects

promoters in the fight against SGBV

“should not exclusively target individuals

impunity. In terms of more practical

or families affected by wartime rape” in

and concrete measures, they are needed

conflict and post conflict settings as this

to provide e.g. counselling and logistic

might imply “further victimization of

assistance to survivors and reporting on

individuals by publicizing the suffering

cases of SGBV. But in addition to this, lo-

they have undergone” (an experience

cal actors remain key agents in changing

they draw from field interventions to

social norms about SGBV and women’s

assist e.g. landmine victims). Conse-

rights, through raising awareness and

quently, there is a fine line between

pushing women to demand justice. The

establishing enough openness to make

possibility to accomplish sustainable

victims and survivors tell their stories,

change increases with the engagement of

and imposing such openness in a way

local actors. They know what the specific

that might actually counteract the pur-

problems and needs are in their settings,

pose.

and their long-term presence is essential

9

local actors remain key agents in changing social norms about SGBV and women’s rights

The conference participants all poin-

to achieve lasting change.

JUSTICE SYSTEM

The issue of supporting local actors

is, however, a rather complicated matter

The list of challenges for national and

in Swedish foreign aid policy, as discus-

local agents in the fight against SGBV

sed during the conference workshop.

impunity is, by all means, complex and

The government experiences difficul-

extensive. Amongst the recommenda-

ties with finding organizations through

tions found in previously published

which foreign aid can be canalized. In

reports, is the need for police officers

addition to this, increased demands for

to be educated, especially with regards

accountability and transparency make

to handling investigations and collec-

the issue even more pressing. On this

ting and securing evidence on crimes

note, several participants claimed that

of sexual violence. 10 The protection of

donor agencies tend to downgrade the

evidence is critical to pursue justice and

credibility of women’s organizations -

end impunity.

sometimes because they “can’t formulate

the problem the way we would like them

There is also a need for more female

officers in the justice system, which

to” as one participant put it. Along with

would most likely increase the probabi-

this, smaller NGOs experience great dif-

lity for women approaching the justice

ficulties with formulating and reporting

system with their experiences. Last, but

results back to the donor. It takes a lot of

not least, convictions for SGBV must be

time and energy for women’s organiza-

enforced, and it must also be ensured

tions in conflict and post conflict settings

that perpetrators face their punish-

to constantly keep advocating for their

ment. In “Justice, Impunity, and Sexual

expertise and credibility. With short term

Violence in Eastern Democratic Republic

funding – often on a yearly basis – and

of Congo it is concluded that “The state

insufficient resources, women’s rights

of the prisons in the DRC bears very

activists often get burned out. The con-

directly on the issue of impunity for

ditions for the distribution of Swedish

sexual crimes” which is exemplified with

foreign aid must be discussed further, as

a court case in Equateur Province, DRC.

it involves many of those actors that ex-

Twelve soldiers were convicted of having

perts identify as crucial for ending SGBV

raped about 120 women, but even if they

impunity through local and national field

were sentenced to prison for a long time,

work.

all of the perpetrators were free within one month. 11 The UNSCR 1888 Team of

REFERENCES 6 The Swedish Foundation for Human Rights & The All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on the Great Lakes Region of Africa (2008): Justice, Impunity, and Sexual Violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo - International parliamentary-expert mission addressing impunity for sexual crimes in the Democratic Republic of Congo 26 April-3 May 2008, p. 45.

The Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (2011): Team of Experts: Rule of Law/ Sexual Violence in Conflict, Progress Report January-May 2011 p.17. 7

8 Elvan Isikozlu & Ananda S. Millar, Bonn International Center for Conversion (2010): Brief 43 - Towards a Typology of Wartime Rape, p. 63.

9 Elvan Isikozlu & Ananda S. Millar, Bonn International Center for Conversion (2010): Brief 43 - Towards a Typology of Wartime Rape, p. 64.

The Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (2011): Team of Experts: Rule of Law/ Sexual Violence in Conflict, Progress Report January-May 2011, p. 17. 10

The Swedish Foundation for Human Rights & The All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on the Great Lakes Region of Africa (2008): Justice, Impunity, and Sexual Violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo - International parliamentary-expert mission addressing impunity for sexual crimes in the Democratic Republic of Congo 26 April-3 May 2008, p. 16. 11

The Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict (2011): Team of Experts: Rule of Law/ Sexual Violence in Conflict, Progress Report January-May 2011, p. 17. 12

FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY

9


THE DARFUR EXPERIENCE

their understanding of the act of rape, from looking upon it as adultery to un-

UNDP’s mission in Darfur during the

derstanding it as an unethi-

conflict in Sudan entailed a successful

cal and illegal violation.

contribution to the fight against SGBV

impunity (although SGBV is still a pres-

serves to show the im-

sing issue in the Darfur region). Yasmine

portance of engaging local

Sherif, who served for UNDP in Darfur

professionals. Programmes

2004-2007, spoke at the conference

with great local involvement

about the Darfur experience. According

can work well to change not

to Sherif, it serves as a good example of

only the legal conditions for

how a bottom-up approach can be used

fighting impunity, but also

to combat SGBV impunity through legal

social conditions and norms.

reforms.

Local engagement gives

more sustainable change,

In Darfur, UNDP officials started

The Darfur mission also

“Normally”, Sherif said, “the reaction is that during a conflict there is very little you can do” to change a pattern like organized rapes – this must not be the case.

mapping out and establishing legal aid

and it serves as a strategy for closing the

policy and implementation levels interact

clinics across different camps for inter-

huge gap between international policy le-

and discuss 1) the obstacles they are fa-

nally displaced Darfurians. Simultan-

vel and national and local organizations.

cing in their day-to-day work, and 2) how

eously, officials worked to raise aware-

UNSCR 1325 does not make sense to the

these obstacles may be overcome in the

ness on the rule of law, human rights,

grassroots, said several participants at

short-term and long-term perspective.

and women’s rights. Women in Darfur

the conference, and it is crucial to find

This is what the workshop participants

were encouraged to report rapes, even

mechanisms through which the signifi-

were asked to do, and the questions ser-

during full-scale conflict. Local Darfu-

cance and meaning of the Women, Peace

ved as a good starting point for construc-

rian lawyers were identified and involved

and Security agenda can be framed more

tive discussions and recommendations.

in the process, and the UNDP established

concretely.

cooperation with local grass root actors

rence that the issue of SGBV impunity

and NGOs that served to support women

sion in Darfur showed that impunity for

relates to a very broad scope of policy

for example in their contacts with police

gender related violence can and should

development and practices. Knowing

officials. After 1,5 years of preparatory

be fought during the conflict. “Nor-

this, experts, governmental agencies and

work, change was observed. An increa-

mally”, Sherif said, “the reaction is that

NGOs must apply a broad perspective

sing number of actors within the system,

during a conflict there is very little you

when evaluating strategies and solutions.

such as social workers, started to testify

can do” to change a pattern like organi-

Conferences and workshops that bring

for the raped women. Rape convictions

zed rapes – this must not be the case.

together actors on different levels can

were eventually issued, to a rather

Last, but not least, the UNDP mis-

CONCLUDING REMARKS

significant extent. The Darfur approach

It became clear during the confe-

most definitely play an important role in this regard. The participants of the

has been replicated in over 20 countries

The international community can do a

Stockholm conference brought to the

and according to the same pattern as in

lot more to fight SGBV impunity: it must

table a broad range of experiences and

Sudan, positive change is taking place in

work to strengthen gender awareness

knowledge, and it is crucial to keep pro-

eastern Congo DRC. Several conclusions

norms and ensure that the issue of SGBV

viding for such discussions to take place

can be drawn from the Darfur expe-

is present at all times in discussions and

so that the know-how of different actors

rience.

decisions relating to international peace

is used wisely and efficiently.

and security. However, while acknow-

Social and structural change can

start with reforms aimed at individuals

ledging these challenges, substantial

and individual cases. The work made

progress has been made during the last

by local actors and the UNDP in Darfur

decade. The commitments made by

affected the attitudes of judges, police of-

the UN and its member states through

ficials and other key actors. The process

the Women, Peace and Security agenda

served as an eye opener that actually

provide powerful tools for replacing

changed the way that rape was concep-

impunity with accountability – but it

tualized, said Sherif. At the start of the

presupposes that these commitments

mission, women who had been exposed

are transformed into national and local

to rape were accused of adultery and

efforts and action.

punished with death penalty, according

to local laws. With the work of the UNDP

strategies nationally and locally, it is ab-

and local actors, legal officials changed

solutely essential that actors on different

10 FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY

In order to do develop adequate


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS (INCLUDING SPEAKERS):

STAFF:

Lena Skoglund - Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs

Elin Liss - WILPF Sweden

Marie Nilsson - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

Zarah Östman Pyttaloga - Amnesty

Linnea Ehrnst - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

International

Joel Borgström - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

Rebecca Paulsson -WILPF Sweden

Joel Ahlberg - Folke Bernadotte Academy

Sofia Tuvestad - WILPF Sweden

Anna Broman Lövheim - The Moderate Party

Dennis Dahlqwist – Photography

Barbro Uppling - Swedish Migration Board Ulf Jakobsson - Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs Marielle Sundin - Folke Bernadotte Academy Anna Sundén – Kvinna till Kvinna Katarina Berghed - Amnesty International Anki Meyer - The Swedish Police Malin Greenhill - Red Cross Annie Mbambi Matundu - WILPF DR Congo Veprore Shehu - Medica Kosova Yasmine Sherif – UNDP Lisa Gormley - Amnesty International Maria Butler - WILPF/PeaceWomen Pia Hederén - The Swedish Police Joy Onyesoh - WILPF Nigeria Josefine Karlsson - WILPF Sweden

FROM IMPUNITY TO ACCOUNTABILITY

11


WOMEN’S INTERNATIONAL LEAGUE FOR PEACE AND FREEDOM

The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) is an international Non Governmental Organization (NGO) with national sections, covering all continents with an international secretariat based in Geneva, and a New York office focused on the work of the United Nations. Since its establishment in 1915, WILPF has brought together women from around the world who are united in working for peace by nonviolent means, promoting political, economic and social justice for all. www.ikff.se www.wilpfinternational.org


From impunity to accountability