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Dear Student, So far you have been seeing the academic side of science but is it what science is really all about? Well friends, at Iken Scientifica science is “a way of life”. In our daily walk of life, we learn most of the things by observing and trying. Since childhood, we have been observing our parents eat, speak, do things and that is how we learn these things, same is the case with all living beings. We do what we observe in our surroundings. Same principle applies to science as well. Science is not about knowing facts rather it is about exploring, questioning, practicing and creating. It is about being inquisitive and asking questions such as “HOW? WHY? WHAT?” This preparatory booklet is not just limited to this competition but it equips you with what we call a scientific attitude of approaching things. The focus of this preparatory booklet is Ÿ To Stimulate young minds Ÿ Getting you to explore

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Ÿ Exposing you to observation and experimenting Ÿ Letting students have their own piece of mind (ideation) Ÿ Making you experience the power of innovation Ÿ Inculcating the habit of practicing and questioning science rather

than learning and believing it. Ÿ Emphasizing that one problem can have multiple solutions. Ÿ To master the scientific way of doing things In coming pages you will learn the Scientifica approach to address problems and device workable solutions. Above all you will be exposed to the real world of science!





How, Why, What? The Scientific Way The Round One of iKen Scientifica examines how well you can utilize your scientific aptitude. You will be posed with some scenario based questions which require the basic scientific concepts you have learnt till now and a little common sense to address them. You do not need any special preparation for the first round. The examination does not require you to have factual knowledge of any particular concept. It needs the knowledge that you have gathered over the years. Nevertheless, you can equip yourself, to handle the examination questions. This booklet will introduce you to an approach to improve your scientific aptitude along with scenarios and sample questions to practice. Obser


Observe Observing phenomena, actions or events and reason out the knowledge gathered from abstract thoughts and everyday experiences.

Question The scientific method starts when you ask a question about something that you observe: How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where?


Extrapolate An educated guess about how things work: “If [I do this] , then [this] will happen."


o n


Prac t

Apply Applying scientific procedures, concept and knowledge in understanding situations and problems that occur in every day life.



te ola

ze Appl


Analyze Understanding, interpreting, relating and concluding.

Practise Generate interest and increase efficiency *Needs Parental Help And Guidance





Case Study 1

See-saw with the elephant How do machine reduce work?

The King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon wanted to construct a garden for his wife Amyitis dearly. But the state doesn't receive much rainfalls and the king need to irrigate the garden drawing the water from the nearby river.

King- Minister, I want to construct a garden for Queen Amytis. She is feeling homesick lately, a huge garden with multiple levels in our castle will surely cheer her up. Our country hardly receives any rainfalls and irrigation will be a challenge. I want you to come up with a good solution. Minister- Yes, that is really a challenge, but we can think of getting water from nearby Euphrates River. King- You must be joking? Our castle is on a higher level and moreover the river is at a far off place for us to carry water from there. Minister- Yes, I know it's not the right way to carry water manually. But we can solve this problem in a scientific way. King- What do you mean by that? Are you planning to do some kind of black magic? Minister- No, in a scientific way we can solve complex problem of this kind in a methodical way. We can break down the problem and tackle individually to address the larger problem. And more over we don't have to utilize a lot of wisdom and magic. Instead common sense and observation will be helpful. King- Ok sounds good to me, but how can we solve this problem with the help of science. Minister- We are 100 meters away from the river and at 10 meters height from the river level. If we are building garden with plants at each level, then it means we are lifting water to 35 meters from a 100 meters distance.

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King- That makes a difficult task if we were to employ servant to carry water every day to different levels.

Minister- So let's break down our problem in a scientific way. 타 We need to Move water from the river to the garden 타 We will then have to transport the water to different levels 타 We need to protect the brick to get washed away from the flow of water. King- So we need to first think of drawing water from the river. What do you think of that? Minister- First we need to think of the options and problem with the options. King- Yes like I said with the servants it's difficult to irrigate, and also one can't use the horses. They will have difficulty in drawing water at different levels. Minister- Yes Sir, that's right. Instead of having each and every servant bring water from the river, we might have a chain of people standing at their position and pass on the buckets of water. King- So you are talking about a human chain. But this will huge workforce. Minister- Yes, so we might need to replace human with rope and pulley system. Thus we can automate the system. King- Please explain in details.

Minister- We can design a chain pump with two large wheels, one above the other, connected by a chain. On the chain are hung buckets. Below the bottom wheel is a pool with the water source. As the wheel is turned, the buckets dip into the pool and pick up water. The chain then lifts them to the upper wheel, where the buckets are tipped and dumped into an upper pool. The chain then carries the empty buckets back down to be refilled.


6 Case Study 2

Designing a wheel How wheels made navigation easier

King - That is brilliant. You are really intelligent. This scientific way of problem solving is really amazing, but how can you get water to each level? Minister -The pool at the top of the gardens could then be released by gates into channels which acted as artificial streams to water the gardens. King- That's great. Check with our architect and get necessary material to build that. Minister- Yes Sir, I will. Now we need to think of protecting the bricks. King- Yes, what we can do about it. Minister- We a covering with sheets of lead, that the wet which drenched through the earth might not rot the foundation. King- Amazing! So we got our problem solved. Now we can start with the garden. Thanks you so much for the brilliant idea and problem solving skills. I salute your intelligence.

Teacher- So student, how was your day in computer lab yesterday?

Imran- Yeah it was great. We enjoyed the class. Teacher- Very good! Radha, You, tell me what you observed. Radha- Sir, I felt the keyboard on which we were typing was a faulty one. The keys were not in order. I had hard time finding keys I want 'A' was not near 'B'. And they were completely randomly arranged. It was so difficult Teacher- Excellent Radha, you had very nice observation. But that was not a faulty one. I will explain. But I am impressed with all your observation. In the world of science everything is for a reason. So if you keep observing and questioning you will find science exciting and apply it to your everyday life. Sreeja- Sir, what could be the reason behind this kind of random arrangement of the keyboard? Teacher- The keyboards earlier were not like what you are using now. The keyboards are derived from the typewriters used earlier for typing and long ago in the early models had keys were in an alphabetical order. And the current one you are using is called QWERTY keyboard. Radha- Sir, why is it called QWERTY keyboard?

Amyitis likes it :)

Teacher- Check the first 6 letters. They will be 'Q', 'W', 'E', 'R', 'T', 'Y'. Imran- What was the problem with the alphabetical order that led to this unusual order? Teacher- Christopher Latham Sholes was a U.S. mechanical engineer who invented the first practical modern typewriter in 1868. Unlike our keyboard which is electronic typewriter was mechanical.

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Sreeja- Sir, What is a mechanical typewriter? Teacher- The first typewriter had its letters on the end of rods called "typebars." The typebars hung in a circle. The roller which held the paper sat over this circle, and when a key was pressed, a typebar would swing up to hit the paper from underneath. If two typebars were near each other in the circle, they would tend to clash into each other when typed in succession. Radha- But how would the typebars clash? Teacher- Here is the problem. The typebars were attached to the circumference of a metal ring, forming a "basket". When a key was pressed, the corresponding typebar would swing upwards, causing the print head to strike at the center of the ring. Gravity would then return the typebar to its initial position. Radha- It is a great mechanism. If the bars are separate from each other then why would they collide? Teacher- Now look at the above diagram of type bars. And draw the movement of the type bars when you type the letter “FEED”. Now when the type bar for F is coming back to its position E is going to hit the paper. And when E is returning D would be moving. Considering that they are mechanical rods of average precision they will hit each other easily. Imran- How did Sholes solve this problem? Teacher- Sholes was very intelligent and great at problem solving. He understood the problem is occurring due to following reasons.

Ÿ The precision of the typebars are not too good Ÿ Arrangement of keys make adjacent bars hit each other too often

Ÿ The arrangement is too simple and typist can type faster

Radha- What did Sholes do then? Teacher- Let's try and solve this problem like Sholes did. Imran- Ok, the first one is to deal with precision. But can he increase the precision? Teacher- No, at that time there was no way to improve the precision. Sreeja- So the next option is with the arrangement. He can do something about the arrangement. Teacher- Exactly, Sholes made a list of all frequently appearing combination of letters in the English language and after studying them, came up with a new layout. The objective of this layout was to place these letters far apart on the keyboard thus preventing the type bars from getting entangled. Radha- But didn't initially the users get confused with this new arrangement? Teacher- Yes they did, like you were in the computer lab. But QWERTY keypad was disturbed the alphabetical sequence of letters so that the typists took a longer time to look for each letter, slowing down the speed of typing, in the process. Sreeja- A lesser speed meant fewer chances of the adjacent type bars getting jammed and his third problem is solved! Teacher- Brilliant Sreeja! You got it. Irfan- But why the keyboards are still in a QWERTY format if we are not using the mechanical technique anymore? Teacher- The electric typewriters were then replaced by electronic typewriters which were ultimately evolved into type ball introduced by IBM in 1964. And they gradually evolved in to computer based word processor. And now a day the keyboard doesn't have the type bars which will hit each other during typing. But we are still using the QWERTY model. The journey of typewriter evolution is one of the most interesting evolutions as it ultimately helped into the evolution of one of the most ingenious inventions “The Computer”.

making the bars move to fast and jam.





Sample Qustions for Scientifica Q1. Gears are parts of machines used in transferring motion. One such arrangement of gears is shown. In the given arrangement how will the gears B and C (see figure) move if gear A is rotated in clockwise direction?

Q3. Three mirrors are placed inside a corridor. We need to check out whether the bulb at the other extreme end is lit or not. Which of the following arrangements of mirrors will allow me to see whether the bulb is lit or not?



A. Gear B will rotate in clockwise direction and gear C will rotate in anti-clockwise direction. B. Gear C will rotate in clockwise direction and gear B will rotate in anti-clockwise direction. C. Both the gears B and C will rotate in anticlockwise direction D. The entire arrangement of gears will not rotate.


If two gears have interlocked teeth they will move in the opposite sense. If A tries to move clockwise it will force B to move in the anticlockwise manner and also C will be forced to move in the anticlockwise manner. But, we realize that Gears B & C have themselves got interlocking teeth. While Gear A will force both B & C to move in the anticlockwise manner, the interlocking between them will not allow them to do so. So the entire system will not function and thus concluding D as the correct option

Q2. A large and heavy stone is supported by wooden logs. Three different kinds of supports are





This is a pretty straight forward question. You just have to see whether and where the incident ray is being reflected or not. A, C and D can be easily ruled out as the wrong options which gives us B as the correct answer. You can also test B for the incident ray from the bulb reaching the eye using the laws of reflection

Q4 A billiards room is to be made inside a floating hotel. Which would be the best location to put a billiards table inside this hemispherical hotel? The available rooms are marked by English alphabets A , B, C, D.

made using the same type of wood. Which one of the following would be the correct order of their stability?

A. Stability of I>II>III B. Stability of I>III>II


C. Stability of III>I>II D. All would be equally stable. I.



Two things are important when we talk about symmetry of a structure. One is symmetry. Here in this question all the three supports seem symmetrical, so we need not worry about symmetry. Second is the load bearing points (or in this case the area). More the area at which the stone is supported higher is the stability. We can easily observe that (I) has the largest area followed by (III) and then by (II). So the correct option would be B.

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A. Room A B. Room B C. Room C D. Room D


The main criteria to find a suitable place for a billiards table would be minimum tilting when the hotel floats. When the a structure floats, the point that moves the least is the centre of mass. Point B being the closest to the hotel's centre of mass (assuming equal distribution of weight) will move the least which makes it the most suitable place to put a billiards table. The correct option is B.



EI report

Web references for self study & research Practice

The Internet is full of limitless knowledge. And it is undoubtedly the best place to gather material for preparation of Iken Scientifica round 1 test. To give you a head start, we will give a few recommendations: -

Extrapolate Has a varied amount of learning content broaden the child's horizon of knowledge. Well categorized fields make the surfing easier. Science explained in a more readable format.











Apply It has thousands of topics, from a simply key to advance security system explained through videos and illustrations. You can learn how everything works. This site consists of vast and varied range of learning models. All the models can be prepared by simple use of cardboard cut out to make learning resource. This gives a practical knowledge of mechanisms.

Analyze Observe

This interactive site has numerous information accmpained with animated demonstartions and exercise to enhance the study and understanding of Design and Technology we come across in day-to-day life. Your performance will be indicated by an Enterprise index graph. This graph represents your performance in the five parameters which constitute the enterprise index. The percentage score in each category is plotted to make a pentagon (a polygon with five sides). The shape of the pentagon can be useful to understand your relative performances in different categories. You should work towards increasing the area of this pentagon as much as you can. The outside borders of graph represent, the highest possible enterprise index and extra ordinary scientific aptitude. “The detailed Enterprise Index report would have much more analysis based on these parameters to help you discover your true scientific potential and tips to improve on the same.�



Large collection of How To and Do it yourself and provides good hands-on experience. Along with exploring the projects, you can also share your project. Great way to learn science! This website helps you to learn and understand the basic concepts of physics through real-life scenarios perform small activites and solve the quizzes. This is the one-stop to get your physics concepts clear. Get the answers to the how, what and why about all the mechanical gadgets in this site. It covers a variety of information on home improvement, automotive needs, electronics, computers, telecommunications and everything dealing with machines. Learn the very basics to how to make a robot right from the simple to advanced concepts and provides a good resource of robotic projects. You can also stay in touch with the latest roboticss news.




Mexus Education Pvt. Ltd. 612, Midas, sahar Plaza, J.B. Nagar, Andheri ( East) Mumbai - 400 059. India Call: 09223224044/SMS: “IKEN” to 567...

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