INTERVIEW “Metrology opts for machine tools”
PROJECT Angular metrology for very accurate on-site calibrations
SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE
Advanced and smart measuring processes
PROJECT Measuring capabilities built into machine tools
JANUARY 2017 | No. 105
INTRODUCTION Manufacturing high accuracy measuring equipment, measuring very large or very small equipment and components on-site by means of nanometrology… these are but a few of the challenges IK4-TEKNIKER is currently addressing. Discover the new capabilities of IK4-TEKNIKER in the field of inspection and measurement!
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THE EXPERTâ€™S VIEW
C04 From the laboratory to the production line
C06 Metrology opts for machine tools
C08 An agreement to boost metrology C10 Measuring small objects
C12 IK4-TEKNIKER is developing C14 Measuring capabilities a novel device to calibrate built into machine tools angular measuring systems
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THE EXPERT’S VIEW
From the laboratory to the
production line The expert’s view: by Gorka Kortaberria and Unai Mutilba. Responsible for Inspection and Measurement at IK4-TEKNIKER
Although Industry 4.0 is all about the industry, it is more specifically focused on digitising production processes, products and services resulting from these processes. Digitisation wants “laboratory metrology” to become “metrology at the production plant” as this happens to be the scenario where opportunities can be found as regards metrology in the near future should it intend to become a facilitator for Industry 4.0.
Sectors such as aeronautics, shipbuilding or wind power that require increasingly larger and more sophisticated components as well as requirements arising from the “Industry 4.0” trend with regard to having to digitise production processes and products, are quickly removing metrology from the lab metrology in order to be taken to the production plant. The time is now ripe for metrology to progress even further to become a facilitator for “Industry 4.0”. The “Metrology 4.0” concept defines new metrology trends in terms of meeting the needs of production environments to upgrade efficiency by using advanced and smart manufacturing and measuring processes. To this end, it is essential to have smart sensors monitoring production units to optimise the response of manufacturing processes on the line itself, to ensure product quality, shorten production cycles and reduce other associated costs. The main requirements to be met for this interaction to happen between sensors and the process are linked to rapid data acquisition (contactless technologies), automatic processing of measurements (parametric programing), interpretation of results (decision-making models) and converting the results obtained (adaptation of the communication language) to communicate with the process monitoring system and eventually intervene. To meet these demands, metrology systems together with hardware and software, are being adapted to this environment by incorporating new features that, until now, were unnecessary in a laboratory. A clear example of this tendency is related to the fact that leading suppliers of metrology equipment are increasingly leaning more towards selling solutions that are built into manufacturing processes. Information of this kind allows for real-time decision-making whenever these critical parameters are modified and influence the end result of a process. This approach requires flexible measuring systems to automate and programme them in order to engage the monitoring methods applied until that point in time. It is also necessary to develop a system that compiles and processes data and eventually takes a decision based on monitoring the most relevant features of the process. In other words, control systems must incorporate the
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Sectors such as aeronautics, shipbuilding or wind power are quickly removing metrology from the lab metrology in order to be taken to the production plant.
GORKA KORTABERRIA AND UNAI MUTILBA
process with a degree of accuracy and speed similar or event greater than what external verification and calibration methods have provided until now. One of the biggest challenges we have to deal has to do with transferring the traceability of measuring procedures “from the laboratory to the production environment”, where many of the factors that are monitored in a laboratory (environmental conditions, machine geometry, sensor calibration, etc.), are not controlled and are even unknown due to the fact that it has not yet been necessary to characterise them. Thermal variation, in fact, is the source of uncertainty that most significantly affects production and measuring systems as well as the part itself. The greater the thermal gradient and the larger the part, greater will be the geometric bias systems and components. Therefore, uncertainty in terms of manufacturing processes and on-site measuring processes is greater.
Metrology for predictive monitoring of production processes In the automotive and aeronautical business there is clear tendency focused on mass dot acquisition based on using contactless digitising systems that make it possible to scan large volumes of information in short periods of time to deliver 100% of production monitoring capabilities. It is in this new scenario where two needs have been noted that metrology will have to address in the near future. On the one hand, the management of large volumes of information (Big Data) mean that new hardware and software tools will have to be developed. It is the field in which quantum computers based on qubits and new logical ports are going to deliver mass
date storage and management capabilities, a near future must for metrology. On the other, “data is not equal to information”. It is therefore indispensable to develop action platforms and algorithms. These are the algorithms that will make it possible to define control indicators for data evaluation and decision-making. This will give rise to a data base allowing production processes to predict any biases and act preventively.
As happens with health in our lives, “metrology does not cover everything, although manufacturing does not make sense without it”. Work is currently in progress with regard to the “manufacturing-measuring” binomial. By measuring components manufactured on a machine tool by means of built-in acquisition systems, such as pointto-point sensors or digitising sensors, it becomes possible to get to know a production process better, avoid faulty parts, perform predictive maintenance for production units and monitor any process biases. In conclusion, industry 4.0 is all about digitising industry, particularly productive processes and the products and services resulting from them. Digitisation is also demanding that metrology be taken outside laboratories to production processes. It is a scenario in which there are a number of opportunities that metrology will have to address in the near future should it aspire to become a facilitator for Industry 4.0. In any case, metrology performed in laboratories under controlled environmental conditions and exhaustive measuring procedures will be irreplaceable in the near future as regards ensuring the traceability of measuring operations. It will also guarantee quality in the industry. JANUARY 2017
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Metrology opts for machine tools
Quality Control Manager at Zayer
Javier Orive is the Quality Control Manager at Zayer, a company that has been developing milling machines and machining centres since the 1940s. During this interview, Orive shares his views on a number of landmarks connected to how relevant metrology has become nowadays in the machine tool sector.
A growing demand for greater accuracy in manufacturing processes has meant that innovative alternatives had to be found in the field of metrology. This reaches out to several sectors, including machine tools, their verification and commissioning. How is Zayer addressing these new needs? We are developing automatic running “utilities” at Zayer to check header geometry and adjustments. Zayer has iCAL, an in-house smart calibration application that delivers full information on the current condition of a machine and performs self-adjustments for the kinematics and geometries of our automatic rotation header by running a sensoring programme.
JAVIER ORIVE / ©ZAYER
Zayer was one of the main stakeholders in the INTEFIX consortium featuring 30 companies and technology centres whose goal was focused on upgrading the performance of machining processes by using smart systems. What role does metrology actually play in these processes? Metrology is indispensable for current manufacturing processes, especially so for those in which it is difficult to control the outcome of the measurement process itself due to the variability of critical parameters or because of a lack of control of the real scene (geometry, toolings, thermal status, drift, etc.).
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Integrated dimensional metrology provides manufacturing with the necessary means to get to know and control production processes better. During the INTEFIX project, this integration has been solved via an interaction between a smart mechanism and the machine tool itself. This mechanism enables us to measure the true geometry of a work piece to accommodate machining programmes to its real shape and dimensions. This is how high accuracy machining can be guaranteed. Within the framework of the HIPERION project, Zayer’s machines have played the role of test benches to develop a volumetric verification and compensation procedures carried out in cooperation with IK4-TEKNIKER. Could you explain some of the details of this cooperation? Our view is that the HIPERION project has been a landmark in the cooperation involving both organisations as it has allowed Zayer to acquire theoretical knowledge on the volumetric verification of machines and IK4-TEKNIKER has been able to transfer its developments to a real scenario. Thanks to the project we were able to look into the origin of a number of deviations that occur at the tip of the machine tool when a machine shifts its entire work volume.
How significant is it for Zayer to be able to cooperate with other stakeholders in this sector? By cooperating, knowledge can be exchanged. In Zayer’s case, it has allowed us to become involved in the design of structural components. It means we can improve volumetric accuracy without having to make any corrections. The innovative character of Zayer linked to its eagerness with regard to achieving continuous improvements means that the company is permanently in touch with R&D&I processes. How much weight is attached to metrology in the machine tool sector? What sort of challenges will there be in the future? Metrology has acquired a significant dimension in terms of heavy duty machines such as those manufactured by Zayer. Our main aim is to guarantee the accuracy of large pieces when working in non-climatised workshop environments. To that end, we build machines featuring mathematical algorithms that allow you to take into consideration variations that are inevitable in terms of environmental conditions.
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An agreement to boost
K4-TEKNIKER and TRIMEK have agreed to set up a collaborative environment in the field of metrology that will give rise to the Innovalia Metrology and IK4-TEKNIKER Precision Centre.
IK4-TEKNIKER and TRIMEK, a manufacturer of coordinate measuring machines, are to jointly boost the creation of a collaborative environment in which the needs of both organisations will be able to converge in the field of metrology. The agreement signed by both organisations will materialise subsequent to adapting the space to be provided at the metrology centre of the Basque technology centre to accommodate the Innovalia Metrology and IK4-TEKNIKER Innovation Centre. It will allow the technology centre to strengthen its ties with the Innovalia metrology unit formed by the companies Trimek, Datapixel and Unimetrik. The provision of this space by IK4-TEKNIKER to locate the precision centre means that TRIMEK will install a contactless OptiScan portable M3 system fitted with a 3D laser. It also implies that an MC software licence will have to be awarded. The agreement, with a five-year duration, will allow IK4-TEKNIKER to gain further knowledge in terms of measuring and inspection. 8 | NEWTEK JANUARY 2017
NEWS Â© INNOVALIA-METROLOGY
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Measuring small objects A unique piece of ultra-precision 3D measuring equipment in Spain featuring capabilities designed to measure micro-components with a high degree of accuracy.
“Meeting micro and nano-manufacturing metrology requirements and offering metrology services to the micro-component sector”. According to Antonio Gutiérrez, Director of Metrology at IK4-TEKNIKER, this is the goal sought by IK4-TEKNIKER with regard to the 3D ZEISS F25 ultra-precision machine designed to accurately measure small components featuring complex surfaces, small radius, tiny drilling diameters, parts undergoing deformation caused by minimal sensoring stresses, etc. It is, in fact, the only machine of its kind in Spain and one of the very few in Europe which the technology centre will be using in an attempt to provide companies with a more extensive range of measuring solutions.
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IK4-TEKNIKER is developing a novel device to
calibrate angular measuring systems Angular metrology for very accurate on-site calibrations
IK4-TEKNIKER is developing an angle generator that will allow manufacturers to significantly improve equipment performance. Metrology is a basic aspect for scientific and industrial activities. Our industrial fabric nowadays requires rigorous measuring instruments to make further progress in terms of developing innovative technologies. Specifically, it is indispensable to attempt to develop equipment and procedures suitable for high precision angular calibration of equipment. In order to deliver solutions to address this challenge, IK4-TEKNIKER has developed a novel device to generate small high precision angles that will give rise to major advances for a number of sectors such as industry, machine tools, automotion, precision engineering or science. The new device has been developed within the framework of a European project called â€œEMRP SIB58 Anglesâ€? that kicked off in 2013 for the purpose of setting up a joint space allowing several metrology firms to share their knowledge and produce innovative solutions for the sector. On the one hand, the angle generator developed by the Basque technology centre allows you to know the angular position with a high degree of accuracy thanks to featuring several optical measuring systems. On the other, the system has flexible mechanisms that replace the arms used by other units for the same purpose, thus significantly reducing their size and facilitating their portability to execute very accurate on-site calibrations. Due to its highly demanding features, the unit is currently undergoing a characterisation process carried out by the Spanish Metrology Centre (CEM). 12 | NEWTEK JANUARY 2017
This development This development comes under the comes the heading ofunder the “EMRP heading of the SIB58 Angles” project SIB58 and“EMRP has brought Angles” project and together several leading has brought together firms from the field of several leading firms metrology. from the field of metrology.
IK4-TEKNIKER, a key actor in the European project “EMRP SIB58 Angles” The development of a small angle generator by IK4-TEKNIKER forms part of the European project “EMRP SIB58 Angles” whose aim is to guarantee the traceability and dissemination of the flat angle IS (International System) unit at various levels (ranging from high-level work carried out on particle accelerators and free electron laser facilities to industrial applications). In addition to the Basque technology centre, a number of other international organisations have been involved in this European project. Some examples are: the Spanish Metrology Centre (CEM), the PhysikalischTechnische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Fagor, Ume-Tubitak, the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI), the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), Möller-Wedel Optical International (MWO), Mikes/VTT, the Instituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) or the French organisation LNE.
The angle generator will allow manufacturers to significantly improve the performance levels of their equipment.
Besides developing the aforementioned high precision angular generator, the project has been focused on looking for new procedures and equipment to calibrate selfcollimators and angular encoders with very low levels of uncertainty (under 0.5 arc-sec).
This joint work has also served to carry out research in other areas such as shape measurement or measuring involving large scale components or industrial applications. As measuring instruments equipped with angle measuring systems are becoming increasingly common, this clearly demonstrates the need to innovate to a greater extent in the field of angular metrology and equipment calibration. It is therefore expected that these new capabilities will allow manufacturers to substantially improve the performance levels of their equipment in order to offer more accurate equipment. JANUARY 2017
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Measuring capabilities built into machine tools
More accuracy and measuring capabilities built into machines
Market trends are leaning more towards the design and production of machines that are more accurate in their entire working volumen.
Solutions that deliver quicker, more reliable, flexible and productive manufacturing processes and improve the quality of the end product. Demands in terms of production resources are becoming increasingly stringent in the field of advanced manufacturing. In sectors such as wind power, aeronautics and the naval business, the current trend is to manufacture larger parts although preserving the accuracy of their predecessors. In the case of the automotive sector, the main focus is to maintain size, although increasing the degree of accuracy of the end product. In order to address this new scenario properly, IK4-TEKNIKER has initiated the MH2020 project that, on the one hand, intends to increase the accuracy of machine tools throughout their entire work volume and, on the other, wants machine tools to incorporate capabilities so that measuring can take place with dimensional traceability. There are parameters such as the size of a part and of the machine tool itself, variations in environmental conditions or the measuring technology that must be analysed and receive special attention. To this end, it is
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necessary to develop rapid and automatic verification procedures, run simulations of measuring procedures or to create hardware and software allowing machine tools to perform measurements. Market trends are leaning more towards the design and production of machines that are more accurate in their entire working volume and are equipped with measuring capabilities to perform traceable operations on the machine. To achieve this goal, geometric and environmental monitoring tools are installed in addition to sensoring probes to ensure data collection on the machine itself.
Create hardware and software allowing machine tools to perform measurements.
In this regard, both the knowledge that IK4-TEKNIKER possesses together with it highly recognised degree of specialisation in top range metrology have allowed the centre to become an outstanding stakeholder in terms of the goals achieved. Other companies are also involved in the project such as Juaristi, Goratu, Soraluce, Fagor Automation, Gometegui, Unimetrik Metrology and Ekide together with stakeholders from the Basque Network of Science, Technology and Innovation such as Innovalia Metrology, Aotek, Vicomtech-IK4 or IK4-IDEKO. JANUARY 2017
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