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International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research Volume 1, Issue 4, May 2012

ISSN 2277-8616

TEMPERATURE SWITCHING ANALYZER Mrs. S. J. KULKARNI, PROF. S. N. PAWAR, Ms. M.S.TADPATRIKAR ABSTRACT: Electrical characterization, such as measurement of the I-V characteristics of electronic devices with respect to change in temperature is necessary for application of such devices. In our project, we report the development of a simple low-cost system for the measurement of I-V characteristics associated with changing surrounding temperature. The temperature switching analyzer developed basically consists of a PIC micro controller based Master/Slave configuration for monitor and control for electronic devices along with high-speed data acquisition system. The design aspects of the system, its interface.' to the high-speed data acquisition system and the personal computer, and the details of the application software developed are described. KEY WORDS: I-V characteristics, PIC micro controller, Temperature switching analyzer

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1. INTRODUCTION

2. FEATURES OF THE PROJECT

The aim is to design and implement a simple low cost Electrical/Electronic temp switching analyzer. The hardware components of the system consists of micro controller based Master/Slave configuration for temp monitor and control and a high-speed data acquisition system for current and voltage ratings. The Master controller is designed for temperature monitoring and is visualized by LCD. LM35 is used as a temp sensing device. As the temperature monitored and when the upper and lower cut off temp is set the heating chamber power is made on until the max temp is reached. As the max temp is obtained the AC power is made off. Relays are used to control these actions. The Master PIC microcontroller controls three relays; one of them is used for controlling the heating chamber operation. Second and Third relay are used to operate the temp sensing electronic devices. The analog values given out by the temp sensing devices are converted to digital signals and passed to computer through serial communication protocol. The Slave PIC microcontroller does the operation of digital conversion of analog inputs coming in from two channels. A switching mechanism is utilized here so that the DAC comes into picture and the Slave generates sine, square, triangular waves. The application software is continuously waiting for the digital data coming from the hardware and is designed to develop the graphical presentations such as 1) Voltage v/s Time 2) Current v/s Time 3) Voltage v/s Current. The application s/w is developed in VB6.0. It is designed to generate the respective characteristic graph as well as it has got facility to store the data in database and resume when ever required.

The protocol developed consists of various electronic monitoring and controlling protocols likea) It can work as computer operated digital thermometer for indication of room temperature as well as storage of the variations with respect to time. b) A PIC16f 877A microcontroller based Master temperature controlling device which controls the heating chamber switching. c) 16x2 LCD display to display the temperature. d) A Sine, Triangular and square wave generation using DAC 0800. e) The application software can also be used as signal storing device as the signal coming in digital binary form is stored and can be re produced as per requirement at times.

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3. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig.1 shows the block diagram of Electrical/ Electronic switching analyzer. The various blocks are explained as follows. The design of each sub-block is also explained.

A. Signal conditioning block Signal conditioning is widely used term in the world of data acquisition. The most common transducers produce an output in the form of voltage, current, charge, capacitance and resistance. However, we need to convert these signals to voltage in order to send input to A-to-D converter. This conversion is commonly called as signal conditioning. The Temperature sensors components used in the protocol are LM-35

1. Mrs. S. J. KULKARNI, 2. PROF. S. N. PAWAR 3. Ms. M.S.TADPATRIKAR

B. Microcontroller-Based Source

1. Sr. Lecturer, E & TC Dept., P.D.V.V.P. Polytechnic, Loni. 2. Asst. Prof., E & TC Dept. , JNEC, Aurangabad. 3. Sr. Lecturer, E & TC Dept., Modern College of Engg, Pune.

The microcontroller-based Wave Form Generation source is designed to function as a programmable voltage Wave Form Generation source depending on the parameter given through hyper terminal. This unit has features to generate different types of waveforms such as triangular, ramp, step. etc. with single or multiple cycles. The instrument receives the commands from the computer through the serial port and outputs the required different types of waveforms such as triangular, ramp, step. etc

1. kulkarni.suchita123@gmail.com 2. mugdha_st@yahoo.com

Wave

Form Generation

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International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research Volume 1, Issue 4, May 2012

C. Microcontroller-Based Temperature controller and Monitoring System It consists of a transformer, rectifier, filter, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC).A in build ADC module, A pair of PIC 16f877 microcontroller boards in master slave configuration for intelligent control, Relay board with relay drivers an RS-232 driver to interface to the computer, and the associated power supplies.

D. PIC micro controller Microcontroller is the heart of this system. It handles all the operations of the system. In this dissertation PIC16F877 is used. It is a 8-bit PIC microcontroller (PIC16F877) having 16kB EPROM, 256-B RAM, three 16-bit timer/counters, and four 8-bit bi-directional ports.

4. HARDWARE DESIGN

ISSN 2277-8616

The Master PIC microcontroller controls three relays; one of them is used for controlling the heating chamber operation. Second and Third relay are used to operate the temp sensing electronic devices. The analog values given out by the temp sensing devices are converted to digital signals and passed to computer through serial communication protocol. The Slave PIC microcontroller does the operation of digital conversion of analog inputs coming in from two channels. A switching mechanism is utilized here so that the DAC comes into picture and the Slave generates sine, square, triangular waves. Thus the project can be viewed as consisting of four modules, namely, Master Temperature Monitoring Unit Master Temperature Controlling Unit Slave ADC and Serial communicating protocol Slave Waveform Generator Unit Following figure shows block diagram for Electrical /Electronic Temperature Switching Analyzer. LCD

Signal Conditioning

LM35

230V AC

MASTER PIC 16F877A Relay Driver

Power Supply

Relay

230/AC Heater Electronic Component

Waveforms

Relay

Power Source

Application Software PIC 16F877A

Relay

Power Source

Max 232 or Transistor

Power Supply

Signal Conditioning for Electronic Component

DAC Waveform Generation

Figure 1: Block Diagram of Electrical /Electronic Temperature Switching Analyzer 14 IJSTRŠ2012 www.ijstr.org


International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research Volume 1, Issue 4, May 2012

ISSN 2277-8616

Microcontroller Interface R7 RESISTOR SIP 9

C

1

VCC

To J15 Pin1(O/P of Temp Sensor 1) J11 CON10

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

VCC

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6

VCC

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

J3 CON6 J9CON12 VCC

R2 RESISTOR VCC U1

RESISTOR SIP 10

VCC

R5 1

C3 CAP NP

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

C4 CAP NP

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21

RB7/PGD RB6/PGC RB5 RB4 RB3/PGM RB2 RB1 RB0/INT VDD VSS RD7/PSP7 RD6/PSP6 RD5/PSP5 RD4/PSP4 RC7/RX/DT RC6/TX/CK RC5/SD0 RC4/SDI/SDA RD3/PSP3 RD2/PSP2

To To To To To To

LCD LCD LCD LCD LCD LCD

Pin Pin Pin Pin Pin Pin

6(E) 4(RS) 14(D7) 13(D6) 12(D5) 11(D4)

VCC

C7 CAP NP To Relay Con J1 Pin2 To Relay Con J1 Pin1

VCC R9 RESISTOR J4

1

C

CRY STAL Y1

MCLR/VPP RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VRef -/CVRef RA3/AN3/VRef + RA4/TOCKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SSBAR/C2OUT RE0/RDBar/AN0 RE1/WRBar/AN6 RE2/CSBar/AN7 VDD VSS OSC1/CLKI OSC2/CLKO RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RC1/T1/OSI/CCP2 RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL RD0/PSP0 RD1/PSP1

1 2 3

AT89S8252 VCC J2

R8 1 2 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 C 10 RESISTOR SIP 9 CON10

C RESISTOR SIP 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

VCC

J10

VCC

2

Q1 BC547

R10 RESISTOR

CON3

VCC R12 RESISTOR

1

C6 CAP NP C5 CAP NP

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3

R4 1

VCC

2

Q2 BC547

R11 RESISTOR

3

D6 DIODE

D7

CON10

DIODE ZENER U2 LM7805C/TO IN

D3 DIODE

OUT

R1 10K

2

D1 DIODE

3

GND

1

C2 C1

J1

470UF/25V

1 2

1000UF/25V D5

CON2 D2 DIODE

LED

D4 DIODE

Figure 2: Master PIC Board circuit Diagram:

R7 RESISTOR SIP 9 C

1

VCC

To J8 Pin1(O/P of Temp Sensor 2) J11 CON10

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

VCC

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

VCC

1 2 3 4 5 6

J9CON12 VCC

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

J3 CON6

To J10 Pin1(O/P of Temp Sensor 3)

R2 RESISTOR VCC

RESISTOR SIP 10 CRY STAL Y1

VCC

R5 1

C3 CAP NP

C4 CAP NP

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

VCC

C7 CAP NP

To Relay Con J1 Pin3

VCC R9 RESISTOR J4 1 2 3

AT89S8252 VCC J2

R8 1 2 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 C 10 RESISTOR SIP 9 CON10

C RESISTOR SIP 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

VCC

J10

1

C

40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21

RB7/PGD RB6/PGC RB5 RB4 RB3/PGM RB2 RB1 RB0/INT VDD VSS RD7/PSP7 RD6/PSP6 RD5/PSP5 RD4/PSP4 RC7/RX/DT RC6/TX/CK RC5/SD0 RC4/SDI/SDA RD3/PSP3 RD2/PSP2

VCC

2

Q1 BC547

R10 RESISTOR

CON3

3

VCC

MCLR/VPP RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VRef -/CVRef RA3/AN3/VRef + RA4/TOCKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SSBAR/C2OUT RE0/RDBar/AN0 RE1/WRBar/AN6 RE2/CSBar/AN7 VDD VSS OSC1/CLKI OSC2/CLKO RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RC1/T1/OSI/CCP2 RC2/CCP1 RC3/SCK/SCL RD0/PSP0 RD1/PSP1

VCC R12 RESISTOR

1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

C6 CAP NP C5 CAP NP

U1

R4 1

2

Q2 BC547

R11 RESISTOR 3

D6 DIODE

D7

CON10

DIODE ZENER U2 LM7805C/TO IN

OUT

3

GND

1

D3 DIODE

R1 10K

2

D1 DIODE

C2 C1

J1

470UF/25V

1 2

1000UF/25V D5

CON2 D2 DIODE

D4 DIODE

LED

Figure 3: Slave PIC Board

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International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research Volume 1, Issue 4, May 2012

ISSN 2277-8616

-12 V RESISTOR R1

0.1uf C1

-12 V U3 5 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

J3

3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 7

U6

2

+ C2 0.1uf

OP-07 6

-

RESISTOR R2

+12 V

+12 V

NC Gnd VEE IOut A1 A2 A3 A4

Comp VRVR+ Vcc A8 A7 A6 A5

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

R3 5K

+10 V

R4 5K

DAC0808

CON8

Figure 4: Wave Form Generation DAC0808 Circuit Diagram

Temp Sensor Signal Conditioning Circuit 1 2

J8 O/P Con

U4-LM358 1 2 3 4

1

+5V

GND

U3-LM35 VOUT

3

VCC 8 7 6 5

1

R10 RESISTOR

3 R9 POT

LM358

2

LM35

Output A VCC Inv I/P A Output B Non Inv I/P A Inv I/P B -VCC Non Inv I/P B

2

1 2

J7 +5V Cons Current

1 2

J10 O/P Con

U6-LM358

1

+5V

GND

U5-LM35 VOUT

3

1 2 3 4

VCC 8 7 6 5

1

3

R12 RESISTOR

R11 POT

LM358

2

LM35

Output A VCC Inv I/P A Output B Non Inv I/P A Inv I/P B -VCC Non Inv I/P B

2

1 2

J9 +5V Cons Voltage

1 2

J15 O/P Con

1 2

U10-LM358

1

+5V

GND

U9-LM35 3

Output A VCC Inv I/P A Output B Non Inv I/P A Inv I/P B -VCC Non Inv I/P B

VCC 8 7 6 5

1

3

R19 RESISTOR

R18 POT

LM358

2

LM35

VOUT

1 2 3 4

2

J14 +5V

Figure 5: Temperature sensor signal conditioning circuit

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International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research Volume 1, Issue 4, May 2012

5. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

ISSN 2277-8616

6. RESULT & OBSERVATIONS

The application software for the total system consists of master slave modules, the code for the PIC-microcontroller master temperature monitor and control and the slave for analog to digital conversation of the received voltage and serial transmission to generate the necessary plots on computer. The slave is also designed to generate various user required waveforms. The software at the PC end providing the user interface, and also the protocol for communication between the PC and the Master and slave microcontroller unit.

ALGORITHM 1. Start. 2. Handshaking initialization (ctrl + A). 3. Input range for temperature controlling via serially. 4. Increase temperature of temperature sensor. 5. Continuously compare temperature ranges. 6. if(adc_val > l value && adc_val < U_value).Then SET temperature, Voltage, current relays ON. 7. Else SET them OFF. 8. Transmit both voltages and current value via serially 9. Plot the respective graphs on VB. 10. Generate the readings table using VB.

Waveforms generated

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International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research Volume 1, Issue 4, May 2012

ISSN 2277-8616

Table 1: Current and Voltages for temperature range between 31ºC to 61°C.

7. CONCLUSION An electrical/ electronic temperature switching analyzer has been developed for obtaining the I-V characteristics of temperature sensing electronic devices. This unit has additional feature to generate different types of excitation waveforms such as triangular ramp, step, etc., with single or multiple cycles and programmable sweep rate. This protocol will be a complete solution for an application development electronic industry for testing the electronic device under various temperature conditions and variable waveform input.

8. REFERENCES 1. Chitters Nagaraja Murti, Sharma Ramgopal, S. Ashokan, “Simple Low Cost Electrical Switching Analyzer for I-V Characterization of Switching Samples And Devices” IEEE transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol, 55, No.1, February 2006, pp-248-256. 2. PIC16F877 Data Sheet by Microchip. 3. National semi-conductors data sheets. 4. Design with PIC microcontrollers by John B. Peatman. 5. Datasheets for PIC16F877 [online Available] on www.maxim-ic.com. 18 IJSTR©2012 www.ijstr.org


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