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4.5 Effects of LPG Shortages Shortages of LPG affect both consumers and LPGMCs in many ways. According LPGMCs, shortages of LPG brings business to a halt and thus making payment of salaries very difficult since salaries are tied to profits made from selling the product. According to the responses from LPGMCs, shortage of LPG also creates bad image as consumers get disappointed for not getting LPG supply after travelling from far places for LPG. Consumers were of the opinion that, LPG shortages create inconveniences in many forms. To consumers, LPG shortage creates considerable anxiety as they have to resort to alternatives like wood fuel which is not very efficient as compared to LPG. Some also complained of the health implication of using wood fuel. In case of LPG shortage, most people use alternative energy sources. In Tarkwa, most people mainly use fire wood, charcoal, electricity, kerosene or petrol as a substitute for LPG shortages. About 65% of the respondents use charcoal whilst 7% use firewood as an alternative fuel when there are sporadic shortages of LPG. In all, 72% of the respondents switch back to wood fuel. This would lead to worsening deforestation and global warming, the very problem LPG was promoted to solve. Other responses are presented in Figure 8. Kerosene 3%

Petrol 2%

ISSN 2277-8616

6 RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the conclusions, the following are recommended:  Key players in the supply chain should be made fully aware of their responsibilities in order to take the needed initiatives that will result in positive impacts on the supply chain. 

Government should secure private sector participation to augment the mid-stream refining segment.

LPG pipeline system from the oil jetty to TOR should be expanded to increase the flowrate of the product.

TOR should increase the storage capacity of LPG to deal with the increasing demand of LPG yearly.

REFERENCES [1]. Akabzaa, T. and Darimani, A. (2001), ―Impact of Mining Sector Investment in Ghana: A Case Study of the Tarkwa Mining Region‖, Accessed: January 25, 2013. [2]. Anon (2004), ―Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Substitution for Wood Fuel in Ghana - Opportunities and Challenges‖, INFOLINK, United Nation Development Programme in Ghana, pp. 1 – 8.

Fire Wood 7%

Electricity 23%

[3]. Anon (2011), ―LPG in Ghana: From Crisis to 50% Access: Issues and Options‖, Presentation to the Stakeholder Committee, Energy Commission, pp. 1 26. Charcoal 65%

[4]. Anon (2012), ―2010 Population and Housing Census‖, Summary Report of Final Results, Ghana Statistical Service, Ghana, p. 90.

Figure 8 Alternative Fuels for LPG Shortage

5 CONCLUSIONS From the research it could be concluded that:  The major users of LPG are domestic consumers followed by commercial and industrial. 

The causes of sporadic shortages of LPG are mainly due to higher demand and technical disruption.

TOR which is the major producer and supplier LPG contributes comprehensively to shortages in the market due to infrastructural constraints.

In an event of LPG shortages, majority of the consumers resort to the use of wood fuel.

The common interventions put in place by consumers and retailers or LPGMCs to avoid LPG shortages are the use of two or more storage containers and the earlier request for LPG respectively.

[5]. Anon (2013), ―Liquefied Petroleum Gas‖, Liquefied_petroleum_gas. Accessed: January 15, 2013. [6]. Ghauri, P. and Grønhaug, K. (2005), Research Methods in Business Studies: A Practical Guide, Prentice Hall, London, 280 pp. [7]. Quaye-Foli, E. A. (2002), ―Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Promotion: The Ghana Experience, Presentation at UNDP/World Bank-Energy and Poverty Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 1 - 34. [8]. Yin, R. K. (2008), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, 240 pp. [9]. Wilson, N. and McLean, S. (1994), Questionnaire Design: A Practical Introduction, University of Ulster Press, Newtown Abbey, Co. Antrim, pp. 211 - 220.

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Assessment of liquefied petroleum gas lpg utilisation in ghana a study at tarkwa