Page 1

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 8, AUGUST 2013

ISSN 2277-8616

Abortion Incidents, Still Birth And Reproductive Health Risk Of Deori And Mishing Women In The North East India Dr. P. Hazarika, Nilutpal Chutia Abstract: Reproductive health status of married women of any society is the yardstick of quality of life maintained of all people of that society. In terms of abortion and still birth incidence, the reproductive health of married women of two major tribal groups, viz. Deori and Mishing has been examined adopting a comparative analytic and explorative research method. Average conception per women and abortion-conception ratio estimations confirm the worsening of reproductive health condition and loss of re-productivity of tribal women. Findings imply the necessity to boost up the general health awareness and improvement in reproductive health care services. Index Terms: Abortion incidents, Child boom rate, Disease prevalence, Induced abortion, Spontaneous abortion, Reproductive health, Still birth. JEL Classification: A-12, G-28, I-11 & 18, J-11, 38, & 58, M-48, Z-13. ————————————————————

1 Introduction A bortion is a complex issue, which portrays the women‟s reproductive health condition and the prevailing health care system in the society. Repeated abortion incidents to a woman may have multifarious dangerous impacts on her general and reproductive health [ ]. A portrayal of the health status of women section in tribal societies of the region, which is lagging behind due to various socio-economicpolitico factors needs to be explored, discussed at national fora for policy preparation and actions.

________________________________ 

[1].

[2]. [3].

[4]. [5].

Dr. P. Hazarika is currently working as Associate Professor of Economics, Demow College, Dibrugarh University, India, PH- +919954337461, E-mail: hazarika.profulla@rediffmail.com Nilutpal Chutia is currently working as Project Fellow in Department of Economics, Demow College, Dibrugarh University, India, PH-+919859210605. E-mail: nilutpalchutia@gmail.com Phanindra Babu, Dr. N.; Dr. Nidhi; Verma, Dr. Ravi K.: Abortion in India: What Does the National Family Health Survey Tell Us?. The Journal of Family Welfare. 44 (4). December 1998. P. 45-54. V. K. Rao, Population Education. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 2004, p.199 Todaro, Michael P. & Smith, Stephen C., Economic Development, 8th edition, Pearson Education in South Asia, 2006, p.428. Note: Todaro and Smith have considered malnutrition as disease and a major factor of disease to child and children dying of it. For, malnutrition has link with AIDS and TB, which significantly deteriorate the RPH of women. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner of India in Annual Health Survey, 2010-11. Population Reference Bureau, “Who Speaks for Me? Ending Child Marriage,” April 2011.

1.2 Objective: A mapping of reproductive health risk of tribal women in the North East Region of India in terms of abortion and still birth and other reproductive health problems is the main objective, which the academia of the region has not so far attempted. It is a humble attempt in this direction, on the basis of primary data collected through field survey during 2010-12 in the eastern region of Assam of North East India. 1.3 Methodology: A comparative analytic and explorative research method has been applied to delve the root causes of reproductive health deterioration of tribal women in the region. A theoretical and conceptual theme applied in the work is that abortions either induced and/or spontaneous is not only the consequence of worsening reproductive health from its normal status and permanent infirmity in procreating a child in future, but also a major cause. With this concept in view, effort has been made to examine the reproductive health risk and the reproductive health standard of tribal women in the eastern part of Assam state of North East India. Data Source and Sample Design: Data/information collected from four districts of Assam viz., Sivasagar, Dibrugarh, Dhemaji and Lakhimpur having high concentration of Deori and Mishing Population are the primary source of data for study. Under purposive sampling method, identifying three sample remote villages of each tribe in each district, a well-designed questionnaire has been administered in ten purposively selected sample households in each sample village, covering the households having ever married women in 15-49 age group and that aborted and delivered still birth. Total number of households personally surveyed from door to door and total number of women in reproductive age (15-49), thus interviewed to explore out information related to reproductive demography and abortion comes to be (10x2x3x4=) 240 households and 240 numbers of married tribal women, respectively, belonging to Deori and Mishing tribes.

259 IJSTR©2013 www.ijstr.org


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY 2013

Period of Study: The period of inquiry covers three years, 2010, 2011 and 2012 with ending of the survey on dated 28th December, 2012. Research Tools Used: Raw data of the survey have been statistically analysed using ratios, chi-square and demographic formulae. Cross examining the tabular form of data and after proper treatment of their results, the conclusions have been drawn.

1.4 Significance of Study: A portrayal of reproductive behaviour of ever married women in a society is of utmost importance in formulating human resource development and prospective population policy. The same can be done examining how reproductive health risk that arises to married women due to occurrence of abortion and/or still birth incidents with field data of women belonging to 15-49 age group. Based on the findings of the study about the reproductive behaviour and reproductive health risk of Deori and Mishing women, effort has been made to draw some conclusions. The significance of the work is that the state may formulate the necessary and operative policy measures relating to health services to avert annoying happenings in up-coming years, following the recommendations prescribed here in the line of the findings.

2. Findings of the Study: A mother that aborts or delivers still birth experiences worsening of health, loss of vitality of life and capability of reproducing a child in healthy condition in future. Abortion, together with malnutrition arising out of family poverty renders scissors effect in slicing away the reproductive capacity of a woman and it involves health deterioration [ ]. Poverty, in addition to necessary health care services, leading to malnutrition that work as a major factor of abortion either induced (voluntary) or spontaneous (involuntary) and/or still birth is a prime indicator of reproductive health risk of women section of all times and reproductive demographic characteristics [ ]. The tribal society in remote and backward areas of Assam, in the North East India is not exception to it. Average conception per year per 1000 women (ACPP/1000) has been computed for the sample districts using the formula given belowACPP/1000 women= [(Total no. of conceptions / no. of years) á No. of women] X 1000 The profile of abortion of the state and findings of four sample districts of it has been found to be within the single digit limit ranging from 3.3% to 9.2% [ ] The average abortion rate for the state as per RGI (Registrar General of India) is 6.8, with lower percentage in rural area (6.5%) in contrast to urban set up (8.2%). All these are much higher than the field survey data collected during 2010-12 from tribal villages of Deori and Mishing tribes. Such information about conception, voluntary and involuntary abortion and still birth amongst Deori and Mishing tribes in upper Assam present a disappointing fact.

ISSN 2277-8616

2.1 Abortion-conception ratio: Average conception per year per 1000 women amongst the Deori tribe has been estimated to be 322.22 in contrast to 333.33 for Mishing women (table-2 and 3). Thus, abortion rate exceeds the child boom rate of 2.0% as former has come to be 3.3 and 2.5 per 100 women for Deori and Mishing tribes, respectively. In spite of lower rate of conception, compared to that of Mishing women, sample Deori women have higher level of abortion resulting in lower fertility and worsening of reproductive health status to 33 women per 1000 Deori women during last three years. Ratio of abortion per one thousand women has been estimated from the field survey data/information to find the abortion trend using the formulaAverage abortion per year per 1000 women= [(Total no. of abortions/ no. of years) á No. of women] X 1000 The trend values of abortion/conception ratio for married women of both Deori and Mishing tribes for the period of 2010, 2011 and 2012 have been estimated using the formula given belowAbortion/conception ratio= (Total no. of abortions in the year / Total no. of conceptions in the year) X 1000 The trend value for both the tribes estimated to be declining. For, the estimated figures of average abortion per year per one thousand women for Deori and Mishing women happens to be 125.00, 157.89 and 43.48; and 102.56, 102.56 and 23.80 in the years of 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively (table-3 and 5). The cases of abortion have been found to be much lower in case of Mishing women compared to that in the case of Deori women. But population and level of health education amongst the Mishing tribe have yet been found to be much lower. The lower rate of abortion amongst the women of Mishing tribe is due mainly to carry out of each conception to its term. Analysis of combined data of Deori and Mishing women about average conception per year per 1000 women and average abortion per year per 1000 women has been made in table-4 The average conception of child per 1000 tribal women of both Deori and Mishing has been estimated to be 327.78 numbers against the average abortion rate of 29.17 per 1000 married women. If such trend continues the size of tribal population in the region would be doubled in five years and quadrupled in a decade at the cost of deterioration of reproductive health of 1/3rd tribal women. So, this region has been experiencing rapid growth in tribal population. Other things remaining the same, rapid population growth may lead to bigger family size, malnutrition, and deterioration of general health of common people and loss of reproductive capability particularly on the part of women belonging to such society/ethnic group. The average abortion rate being 29.17 per 1000 women per year is implying a substantial worsening of reproductive health of considerable size of women amongst the tribal society, which needs deep attention of the health workers and the concerned departments of the state to reduce it to a single digit. So, precautionary measures such as population education and health education about the consequences of higher rate of conception and abortion necessitate to be popularised through ANMs (auxiliary nurse midwives) and 260

IJSTRŠ2013 www.ijstr.org


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY 2013

other health workers. For, most of the women interacted during the field survey have rejected option of using contraceptive measures (such as: condoms, jelly, oral pills and/or IUCD) to avoid conceptions or pregnancy of child, mainly because of discomfort and afraid of side-effects of such contraceptive measures. Under such circumstances the women interacted asserted the utility of abstinence and careful sexual behavior to avoid any unwanted conceptions. As such, both the health specialists, gynecologists and the health activists have a golden chance to improve the quality of contraceptive measures and their proper use.

2.2 Still birth and RPH: The number of still birth(s) occurred to a group of married women during a period are the important parameters and indicators of Reproductive Health condition (RHC) of such married woman. Still birth is a pre-matured birth of a child, which is not carried to term and does not possess life at the time of birth. Such untimely birth of a dead child involves serious physical and psychological stress to its mother. It may, even if, cause a ceaseless bleeding, post-partum complication, fecundity reduction, weakening of general health and/or cease of reproductive capability of the woman. Similar to that of a child, still birth causes drainage of vitality and a procreative capacity of a mother. As such, reduction of still births should be a target of the state for improvement of nutrition and reproductive health of women. Ratio of still births to total births in case of Deori tribe has been estimated to be decreasing from 10.71% in 2010 to 6.82% in 2012. Ratio of still births to total births amongst the Mishing women in the year of 2012 has been estimated to be zero (table-8), not because of monitoring of the village level health workers (ASHA), but for their genetical traits. The chi square (X2) value between still birth and RPH of tribal women has been found to be 3.502, which is much lower than the table value 7.815 at 0.05 level of significance. Such estimation is implying a high level association between occurrences of still birth incidents and derogating RPH standard of tribal women. But, variance of abortion incident has been observed depending on social set up, geographical location and economic condition of people of the area. However, legal conception in a Mishing society has been found to be welcomed and it has, therefore, reduced the abortion rate. Ratio of still births to total child births of both Deori and Mishing women together has been estimated to be decreasing from 6.35% to 3.53% during 2010-2012. The reason of such decreasing trend in still birth has been observed to be due mainly to increasing health awareness amongst the child bearing women. 2.3 Abortion & disease prevalence: During the study period (2010-12), 7.5% Mishing and 9.17% Deori women have been suffering from worsening reproductive health, as because to that extent tribal women of respective community have the abortion experience. The reasons of abortions have been reported to be- i) Bleeding & abdomen pain, ii) Injury, iii) Anemia, iv) Un-wanted conception, v) Poor spacing, vi) Due to cervical problem, vii) Other associated health problems. It has been observed that there is a high level of association between abortion and reproductive health status. For, the estimated chisquare between the two comes out to be 0.088463 which is much lower than the table value 7.815 at 5% level of

ISSN 2277-8616

significance. Out of 240 numbers of women, both Deori and Mishing tribe, (20/240X100=) 8.33% women have resorted to abortion for various reasons as stated. But, in case of Mishing women, abortion resorted owing to bleeding and poor spacing has been observed to be nil. While in case of Deori women abortion due to other associated health problems has been reported to be nil. In total, 8.33% tribal women have undergone abortion for various reasons and to that extent confronted reproductive health deterioration. This serious aspect needs sharp attention of the health workers, so that reducing the abortion rate and keeping the fertility at lower level, the health status of tribal women could be promoted.

2.4 Age at Marriage and RPH of Tribal Women: Attempt has been made to correlate Age at marriage with the reproductive health problems of the tribal women. Instead of general health problem, reproductive health problems of the tribal women have been analysed. The analysis has been carried on with the treatment of information collected from the informants during the field study. In the analysis i) involuntary abortion, ii) severe anemic condition, iii) Blood diseases/High & low BP, iv) Jaundice, High fever, uterus problem, uterus tumor, postpartum complication, vaginal bleeding, sterility, cesarean lady, iv)still birth have been considered as Reproductive health problems of the tribal women. From the analysis of data, it is observed that (table-9), in spite of higher income level and educational advancement the percentage of Deori women suffering from reproductive health problems has been found to be higher (26.67%) than that of the married Mishing women (24.17%). Further, the correlation between age at marriage and reproductive health problems of tribal women has been found to be negative implying early marriage involves more health risk and reproductive health problems. As revealed in table-10, there is a negative correlation between the age at marriage and reproductive health problems (-0.787), and it is higher in case of Mishing population (-0.961) than that of the Deori population (-0.453). Thus, this indicates that the Mishing women are more immune to reproductive health problems and the findings conform to our observations. Early marriage of girls have been found to have less access to education, economic opportunity, health information causing unwanted pregnancy, involving higher maternal and infant deaths, higher rates of HIV/AIDS and obstetric fistula [ ]. Thus, improvement of living condition and age at marriage may have reduced such reproductive problems.

3. Conclusion: Incidence of abortion and still birth to tribal women has been a common phenomenon, leading to worsening of RPH of 33 and 25 Deori and Mishing women, respectively, per 1000 married women of them in every three years. Increase in health and population education and investment in such sectors has been observed to be the prime factor for promotion of general health and reproductive health of women. Poverty and inadequacy of knowledge about health have been found to be the major determining factors of abortion and still birth occurrence leading to gradual degradation of reproductive status of tribal women. Whereas, health sector is under the control of the state, and 261

IJSTRŠ2013 www.ijstr.org


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY 2013

ISSN 2277-8616

hence state is full responsible for investing in health sector and its improvement.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The authors acknowledge their thanks to University Grants Commission, Delhi for financial support to carry out a study of which the present work is a part of the project. The authors also sincerely acknowledge their debt to authors whose literature have been consulted in preparing this paper.

References: [1]. Govt. of Assam, Annual Health Survey, Assam, 2010-11 [2]. Govt. of Assam, Chief Minister‟s Vision for Children and Women in Assam 2016. [3]. Govt. of India, National Family and Health SurveyI, II & III, 1991-93, 1998-99 & 2005-06 [4]. Himansu Sekhar Rout (edited 2011), Health Care System: A Global Survey; New Century Publications, New Delhi, India, pp.103-151; and Discussions with Emeritus Professor H. Goswami, Director of CMS, Dibrugarh University. [5]. Population Reference Bureau, “Who Speaks for Me? Ending Child Marriage,” April 2011. [6]. Paul Glewwe, “Why does mothers‟ schooling raise child health in developing countries? Evidence from Morocco”, Journal of Human Resources, No.34, 1999, pp124-159 [7]. Michael P. Todaro & Stephen C. Smith, Economic Development (8th edition), Pearson Education in South Asia, 2006, p.402. [8]. V. C. Sinha & E. Zacharia. Elements of Demography (With Demographic Profile of India and World). Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, reprinted edition 2009. p.70 [9]. V. K. Rao, Population Education. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 2004, p.199 [10]. WHO, World health Report, Conquering Suffering and Enriching Humanity, Oxford University Press, 1997.

262 IJSTR©2013 www.ijstr.org


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY 2013

ISSN 2277-8616

Appendix: Tables of the field survey during 2010-12: 1: Estimated Outcome of pregnancy to ever married women in 15-49 age group

Districts/State

Total abortion (in %)

Abortion in rural area (in %)

Abortion in urban areas (in %)

Sivasagar

9.2

9.2

8.7

Dibrugarh

8.7

9.1

7.3

Dhemaji

6.0

6.2

4.5

Lakhimpur

3.3

3.0

-

Assam

6.8

6.5

8.2

Source: Annual Health Survey, 2010-11, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, New Delhi 2: Estimated average rate of conception and average rate of per year- per 1000 Deori women in the Sample Districts, 2010-2012 Abortion/conception ratio X 1000

Total abortion*

2012

2010

2011

2012

2010

2011

2012

Averag e abortio n per year per 1000 women

No. of abortion per 1000 women

2011

Average concepti on per year per 1000 women#

2010

2012

2011

2010

Districts

Total Conception

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

Sivasagar

11

5

6

244.44

1

0

1

22.22

90.90

0

166. 67

33.3 3

0

33.3 3

Dibrugarh

8

6

11

277.78

1

2

0

33.33

125.0 0

333.3 3

0

33.3 3

66.6 7

0

Dhemaji

9

18

8

388.89

2

4

0

66.67

222.2 2

222.0 0

0

66.6 7

133. 33

0

Lakhimpur

4

9

21

377.78

0

0

1

11.11

0.00

0

47.6 2

0

0

33.3 3

Total

32

38

46

322.22

4

6

2

33.33

125.0 0

157.8 9

43.4 8

33.3 3

50.0 0

16.6 7

##

Source of data: Field survey in upper Assam for the period 2010-12. *Total abortion= Voluntary and Involuntary abortions.

263 IJSTRŠ2013 www.ijstr.org


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY 2013

ISSN 2277-8616

3: Estimation of Abortion to the women of Mishing tribes of the sample districts, 2010-12

(6)

(7)

Sivasagar

13

13

2

311.11

0

2

0

Dibrugarh

10

5

6

233.33

2

2

Dhemaji

6

9

18

366.67

1

Lakhimpur

10

12

16

422.22

Total

39

39

42

333.33

2012

(5)

2011

(4)

2010

(3)

No. of abortion per 1000 women

2012

(2)

Average abortion per year per 1000 women##

2011

2012

2012

2011

2011

(1)

Average conceptio n per year per 1000 women#

2010

2010

District

(Abortion/conception ratio) x 1000

Total abortion*

2010

Total Conception

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12) 66.6 7 66.6 7

(13)

22.22

0

153.85

0

0

0

44.44

200.00

400.00

0

0

1

22.22

166.67

0

55.5 6

0

33.33

1

0

0

11.11

100.00

0

0

0

0

4

4

1

25.00

102.56

102.56

23.8 0

33.3 3

8.33

66.6 7 33.3 3 33.3 3 33.3 3

0 0

Source of data: Field survey in upper Assam for the period 2010-12. *Total abortion= Voluntary and Involuntary abortions # Average conception per year per 1000 women = [(Total no. of conceptions / no. of years) ÷ No. of women] X 1000 ##Average abortion per year per 1000 women= [(Total no. of abortions/ no. of years) ÷ No. of women] X 1000 4: Abortion to the women of Deori and Mishing Tribes of the Sample Districts, 2010-12 (Combined table)

2012

2010

2011

2012

2012

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

Sivasagar

24

18

8

277.78

1

2

1

22.22

41.60

Dibrugarh

18

11

17

255.56

3

4

0

38.89

Dhemaji

15

27

26

377.78

3

4

1

Lakhimpur

14

21

37

400.00

1

0

Total

71

77

88

327.78

8

10

No. of abortion per 1000 women

2011

2011

2010

2012

Average abortion per year per 1000 women##

2011

Average conceptio n per year per 1000 women#

2010

District

(Abortion/conception ratio) x 1000

Total abortion*

2010

Total Conception

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

125.0 0

16.6 7 50.0 0

33.3 3 66.6 7

16.6 7

166.6 7

111.1 1 363.6 4

44.44

200.0 0

148.1 5

38.46

50.0 0

66.6 7

16.6 7

1

11.11

71.43

0

27.03

3

29.17

112.6 7

140.8 4

34.09

0

16.6 7 66.6 7

0 83.3 3

0

16.6 7 25.0 0

Source of data: Field survey in upper Assam for the period 2010-12. 264 IJSTR©2013 www.ijstr.org


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY 2013

ISSN 2277-8616

5: Field data on still birth to the women of Deori and Mishing Tribes of the Sample Districts Ratio of still births to total births (in %)

2010

2011

2012

2010

2011

2012

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

Deori

4

120

25

32

41

3

0

3

28

32

44

10.71

0.00

6.82

Mishing

4

120

34

33

41

1

2

0

35

35

41

2.86

5.71

0.00

Total

8

240

59

65

82

4

2

3

63

67

85

6.35

2.98

3.53

2012

No of Sample women

2011

No of sample districts

2010

Tribes

2012

Total births

2011

Still Births

2010

Live births

Source of data: Field survey in upper Assam for the period 2010-12. 6: Field data on number of tribal women undergone abortions and reporting RPH problem (Deori tribe)

Present Age Group

No. of women interviewed

No. of women undergone abortion

No. of abortions occurred

No. of women using contraceptives

No. of Deori women suffering RPH problem

Estimation of Deori women suffering RPH problem Col.(6)/120x100

Col.(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

15-19

0

0

0

0

0

0%

20-24

38

4

5

13

11

9.17%

25-29

46

5

4

23

11

9.17%

30 -49

36

3

4

21

10

8.33%

Total

120

12

13

57

32

26.67%

Source of data: Field survey in upper Assam for the period 2010-12. 7: Field data on number of tribal women undergone abortions and reporting RPH problem (Mishing tribe)

Present Age Group

No. of women interviewed

No. of women undergone abortion

No. of abortions occurred

No. of women using contraceptives

No. of Mishing women with RPH problem

Estimation of Mishing women with RPH problem Col.(6)/120x100

Col.(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

15-19

1

0

0

0

0

0%

20-24

27

2

2

6

7

5.83%

25-29

47

3

3

28

9

7.50%

30 -49

45

4

4

22

13

10.83%

Total

120

9

9

56

29

24.16%

Source of data: Field survey in upper Assam for the period 2010-12. 265 IJSTRŠ2013 www.ijstr.org


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 2, ISSUE 5, MAY 2013

ISSN 2277-8616

8: Reasons of abortions of Deori and Mishing Women of Sample Districts

% to total abortions

due to cervical problem*

Poor spacing

Unwanted conception

Anemia

Injury

Total no. of abortions

(1)

Bleeding & abdomen pain

Districts

No. of tribal women undergo ne abortion

Other associated health problems

Reasons of abortions

(18)

(19)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

D

M

D

M

D

M

D

M

D

M

D

M

D

M

D

M

Dibrugarh

3

4

0

0

2

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

2

0

1

7

Sivasagar

2

2

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1#

0

0

0

1

0

0

4

Dhemaji

5

2

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

4

0

0

1**

7

Lakhimpu r

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

Total

11

9

2

0

3

1

1

1

1

2

1

0

4

3

0

2

21

% to of 120 women of each tribe

9. 16

7.5

1.6 7

0

2.5

.83

.8 3

.8 3

.83

0.83

0

3.3 3

2.5

0

1.67

8.7 5@

1.67

33.3 3 19.0 5 33.3 3 14.2 9 100

Source of data: Field survey in upper Assam for the period 2010-12. „D‟=Deori women, „M‟= Mishing women interviewed during the study period and undergone either voluntary or involuntary abortion within their reproductive period, 15-49 age group. *Miscarriage due to cervical incompetence to carry out the conception till term. *The term period refers to 37-38 weeks and abortion refers to loss of embryo before 22 weeks. **suffers from kidney problem. # Female embryo was avoided. @Percentage to total 240 women of both the tribes. Table-9: Age at Marriage of the Respondents and RPH problem of Women in the Sample Districts of Assam, 2012

Age at Marriage

No. of Deori women got married

No. of Deori women reporting RPH problem (3)

Estimation of Deori women suffering RPH problem (4) Col.3/120 x 100

no. of Mishing women got married

no. of Mishingwomen reporting RPH problem

estimation of Mishingwome n suffering RPH problem

Total no. of women suffering RPH problem

Estimation of women suffering RPH problem

(5)

(6)

(7) Col.6/120 x 100

(8)

(9) Col.8/240 x 100

Col.(1)

(2)

15-19

39

2+1+2+1=6

5.0%

45

3+4+4+1=12

10.0%

84

35.0%

20-24

60

7+2+5+5=19

15.83%

60

5+3+2+1=11

9.17%

120

50.0%

25-29

13

1+1+2+0=4

3.33%

13

1+1+1+2=5

4.17%

26

10.83%

30 -49

8

2+0+1+0=3

2.5%

2

1+0+0+0=1

0.83%

10

4.17%

#

#

@

12*+4**+10 +6 10*+8**+7 +4 26.67% 24.17% 120 240 100.00% @ =32 =29 RPH problem refers to #involuntary abortion, severe anemic condition, **Blood diseases/High & low BP, *Jaundice, High fever, uterus problem, uterus tumor, postpartum complication, veginal bleeding, sterility, cesarean lady, @still birth. Note: One Deori women had undergone two times involuntary abortion. Source of data: Field survey in upper Assam for the period 2010-12. Total

120

266 IJSTR©2013 www.ijstr.org

Abortion incidents still birth and reproductive health risk of deori and mishing women in the north  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you