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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 06 | December 2016 ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Assessment of Present Ambient Air Quality of Indore City using Indian Air Quality Index - A Case Study Vijayant Panday Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering S.V.I.T.S. Indore

Er. Devendra Dohare Assistant Professor Department of CE & AMD S.G.S.I.T.S. Indore

Abstract In this study an attempt has been made to express the ambient air quality of Indore city in the form of air quality index (AQI). The sampling of 24 hr was carried out to evaluate Respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM), Sulphur dioxide (SO 2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Ammonia (NH3), Ozone (O3) and Lead (Pb), in winter and summer season of the year 2015 at four different locations in Indore city (Industrial at Pologround, commercial at Kothari market, residential at subhash nagar and economical sensitive zone at S.G.S.I.T.S. campus Indore). The AQI were calculated using using IND-AQI (Indian air quality index) procedure. (Mamta et al.,2010). The results shows that RSPM concentrations exceed the permissible limits and SO 2, NO2, NH3 and Pb levels were found under the prescribed limits of Indian NAAQS 2009 for both the season at all the selected sites of city. The concentrations of O3 were found to be higher than the standard limits in summer season as per Indian NAAQS 2009. (Chauhan et al.,2010). Keywords: Air Quality Index (AQI), Ambient Air Quality, NH3, NO2, O3, Pb, RSPM, SO2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ I.

INTRODUCTION

Indore city is the largest city in Madhya Pradesh state in central India with area of 13717 hectare and population about 32 lacks. Indore ranks among 20 most polluted cities of India. The concentration of air pollution in the Indore city is increasing with every passing year. This can be scary for the city residents with the new findings of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) count, a global initiative involving the World Health Organization, revealing that air pollution has emerged as one of the top 10 killers in the world. GBD findings say 65 per cent of the air pollution deaths occur in Asia and close to quarter of this in India. During the last decades there is a sharp increase in the vehicular population which has contribute to majority of air pollution emissions. Various types of pollutants are emitted in the atmosphere by natural and manmade sources, some of which have significant role and increasing impact on urban air quality. Therefore an attempt was made to represent the overall air quality in the form of air quality index. (Mamta et al 2010). An air quality index is defined as an overall scheme that transforms the weighed values of individual air pollution related parameters into a single number or set of numbers. In the present study air quality index was calculated using IND-AQI which was launched by the Minister for Environment, Forests & Climate Change Shri Prakash Javadekar, in New Delhi on 17 September 2014 under theSwachh Bharat Abhiyan. It is outlined as ‘One Number- One Colour-One Description’ for the common man to judge the air quality within his vicinity. There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe. The proposed AQI will consider eight pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, NH3, and Pb) for which short-term (up to 24-hourly averaging period) National Ambient Air Quality Standards are prescribed. Based on the measured ambient concentrations, corresponding standards and likely health impact, a sub-index is calculated for each of these pollutants. The worst sub-index reflects overall AQI. The AQI values and corresponding ambient concentrations (health breakpoints) as well as associated likely health impacts for the identified eight pollutants are as follows:

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Assessment of Present Ambient Air Quality of Indore City using Indian Air Quality Index - A Case Study (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 028)

Fig. 1: The AQI values and corresponding ambient concentrations (health breakpoints) as well as associated likely health impacts for the identified eight pollutants

II. METHODOLOGY ADOPTED Air pollution monitoring in Indore city was carried out at four location namely Subhash nagar, S.G.S.I.T.S., Kothari market and Pologround. Respirable dust sampler (RDS) was used for the sampling of selected parameters. For the analysis of various parameters which were sampled, standard methods prescribed by central pollution control board (CPCB) were used. For particulate matter, the ambient air was filtered through glass microfiber filter paper GF/A (20.3X25.4 cm). The particulate matter was determined by calculating the weight difference (i.e. before and after exposure) of filter paper and the concentration of particulate matter was determined by the ratio of particulate matter collected on the filter paper to volume of air sampled.(vineeta et al., 2010) Gaseous pollutants namely SO2, NO2, NH3 were collected on four hourly basis for 24h and for Ozone it was collected on four hourly basis for 8h, by drawing air flow of 1 lit./min. SO 2, NO2, NH3 and Ozone were analyzed by Improved West and Gaeke Method, Modified Jacob & Hochheiser Method, Indophenol Blue Method and Chemical method respectively. Concentrations of pollutants were measured in micrograms/cubic meter (µg/m 3). The concentration of Lead (Pb) was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Method. III. RESULTS The data obtained at four locations from monitoring of ambient air with in the study area were used to calculate the IND-AQI for summer and winter season. Particulate matter (PM10) The daily average concentration of PM10 varied from 175.59 to 200.49 µg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 204.21 to 260.91 µg/m3 at Kothari market, 179.39 to 197.20 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 211.69 to 282.90 µg/m3 at Pologround in winter season while in summer season it varied from 115.14 to 132.96 µg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 144.88 to 171.84 µg/m3 at Kothari market, 127.90 to 145.09 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 186.50 to 198.49 µg/m3 at Pologround. The mean concentration of PM 10 at Subhash nagar, Kothari market, S.G.S.I.T.S. and Pologround was (187.07±19.47), (237.68±41.35),(189.63±23.12) and (241.08±34.25) µg/m 3 in winter; (125.89±13.76),(161.58±16.27),(137.18±12.24) and (193.81±10.78) µg/m 3 in summer season respectively. PM10 was found to be maximum 282.90 µg/m3 at Pologround in winter season (Fig. 1) and minimum 115.14 µg/m3 at subhash nagar in summer season (Fig. 2). The PM10 concentration at all the four sites were found to exceed the standard value (100 µg/m3) as per Indian NAAQS-2009 in both the season. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) The 24 hourly mean concentration of SO2 varies from 11.07 to 12.08 μg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 12.05 to 13.05 μg/m3 at Kothari market, 10.44 to 12.07 μg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 12.82 to 13.63 μg/m3 at Polo Ground in winter season(Fig. 3) while in summer season(Fig. 4) it varies from 8.88 to 9.98 μg/m3 at Subhash nagar,9.87 to 10.46 μg/m3 at Kothari market, 9.73 to 10.62 μg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 10.75 to 11.09 μg/m3 at Polo Ground. The mean concentration of SO2 at Subhash nagar, Kothari market, S.G.S.I.T.S. and Pologround was (11.67±1.60), (12.53±1.83), (11.48±1.95) and (13.28±1.78) µg/m3 in winter; (8.88±9.98), (9.87±10.46), (9.73±10.62) and (10.75±11.09) ug/m 3 in summer season respectively. The SO2 concentrations at all the four sites were within the standard limit (80 µg/m3) as per Indian NAAQS-2009 in both the season. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) The daily mean concentration of NO2 varied from 16.31 to 17.81 µg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 16.51 to 18.25 µg/m3 at Kothari market, 15.38 to 18.36 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 20.96 to 22.71 µg/m3 at Pologround in winter season(Fig. 5) while in summer

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Assessment of Present Ambient Air Quality of Indore City using Indian Air Quality Index - A Case Study (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 028)

season(Fig. 6) it varies from 13.49 to 14.03 µg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 14.03 to 15.25 µg/m3 at Kothari market, 12.38 to 15.17 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 15.01 to 18.05 ug/m3 at Pologround. The mean concentration of NO2 at Subhash nagar, Kothari market, S.G.S.I.T.S. and Pologround was (17.08±1.62), (17.61±2.04),(16.72±2.35) and (21.67±2.47) µg/m3 in winter; (13.77±1.09), (14.49±1.56),(13.88±2.12) and (16.39±2.39) ug/m 3 in summer season respectively. The NO2 concentrations at all the four sites were found to be below the safety limit (80 µg/m3) as per Indian NAAQS-2009 in both the season. Ammonia (NH3) The 24 hourly mean concentration of NH3 varied from 60.17 to 70.04 µg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 69.52 to 76.72 µg/m3 at Kothari market, 62.43 to 70.82 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 99.50 to 109.67 µg/m3 at Pologround in winter season(Fig. 7) while in summer season(Fig. 8)it varies from 51.67 to 62.05 µg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 57.19 to 61.39 µg/m3 at Kothari market, 55.12 to 63.19 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 82.00 to 91.01 µg/m3 at Pologround. The mean concentration of NH3 at Subhash nagar, Kothari market, S.G.S.I.T.S. and Pologround was (65.20±6.25), (73.03±4.72), (67.37±6.21) and (103.95±5.67) ug/m3 in winter; (55.64±6.49), (59.59±4.92), (59.91±6.18) and (86.77±8.16) ug/m3 in summer season respectively. The NH3 concentration levels at all the sites didn’t cross the reference level (400 µg/m3) as per Indian NAAQS-2009 in both the season. Ozone(O3) The mean concentration of O3 varied from 63.18 to 73.06 µg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 87.79 to 101.11 µg/m3 at Kothari market, 63.70 to 71.29 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 82.87 to 91.27 µg/m3 at Pologround in winter season(Fig. 9) while in summer season(Fig. 10) it varies from 96.92 to 104.25 µg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 104.53 to 109.98 ug/m3 at Kothari market, 99.09 to 104.84 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 104.09 to 108.65 µg/m3 at Pologround. The mean concentration of O3 at Subhash nagar, Kothari market, S.G.S.I.T.S. and Pologround was (67.88±4.96), (93.28±6.96), (67.79±3.83) and (88.02±4.51) µg/m3 in winter; (100.92±3.71), (107.38±2.73), (101.93±2.88) and (106.54±2.30) µg/m 3 in summer season respectively. The O3 concentrations were found to be higher in summer season as compare to winter season. The daily average value of O3 remains within safety limit at all the site except Kothari market in winter season. The O 3 concentrations at all the sites in summer season were found to be higher than the standard limit (100 µg/m3) as per Indian NAAQS-2009. Lead (Pb) The mean value of Pb varies from 0.16 to 0.19 µg/m 3 at Subhash nagar, 0.15 to 0.18 µg/m3 at Kothari market, 0.11 to 0.14 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 0.14 to 0.17 µg/m3 at Pologround in winter season(Fig. 11) while in summer season(Fig. 12) it varies from 0.08 to 0.10 µg/m3 at Subhash nagar, 0.11 to 0.13 µg/m3 at Kothari market, 0.09 to 0.11 µg/m3 at S.G.S.I.T.S. and 0.11 to 0.13 µg/m3 at Pologround. The mean concentration of Pb at Subhash nagar, Kothari market, S.G.S.I.T.S. and Pologround was (0.17±0.03), (0.16±0.02), (0.13±0.02) and (0.16±0.02) µg/m3 in winter; (0.09±0.02), (0.12±0.03),(0.10±0.03) and (0.12±0.01) µg/m 3 in summer season respectively. The Pb concentrations at all the four sites were found to be below the standard limit (1 µg/m 3) as per Indian NAAQS-2009 in both the season. Indian Air Quality Indexes were found at all the selected location indicating the category moderately polluted in both the season except at Kothari market and Pologround in winter season the same found in poor category.

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Assessment of Present Ambient Air Quality of Indore City using Indian Air Quality Index - A Case Study (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 028)

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Assessment of Present Ambient Air Quality of Indore City using Indian Air Quality Index - A Case Study (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 028)

Fig. 2: Indian Air Quality Indexes were found at all the selected location indicating the category moderately polluted in both the season except at Kothari market and Pologround in winter season

IV. CONCLUSIONS Air pollution measured in the form of Air Quality Index can be used to provide a meaningful assessment of air pollution in the common man’s perception. (Pradeepta et al., 2010) The present study shows that among the various parameters studied like PM10, SO2, NO2, NH3, O3 and Pb; PM10 had been found beyond permissible limit at all the four location in both the season considered in the study. Ozone had been found to be beyond the permissible limit in summer season only, at all the selected locations. IND-AQI has been determined for both the seasons (winter & summer), it was found that the same was worst for winter season attributed to presence of high concentration of particulate matter (PM 10). REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]

Chauhan, A., Pawar, M., Kumar, R., and Joshi, P. C. (2010). “Ambient Air Quality Status in Uttarakhand (India): A Case Study of Haridwar And Dehradun Using Air Quality Index.” Journal of American Science., 6(9), 565-568. Kapoor, C.S., Bamniya, B. R., Jain, S., and Kapoor, K. (2013). “Status and Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality of ‛Cityof Lakes’ Udaipur, (Raj.) India.” Research in Health and Nutrition (RHN), Vol.1 (1). Harikrishnan S., Pradeep S., Ramalingam M., Prasanna. N., and Manivasagan V.(2012). “Ambient Air Quality Monitoring and Possible Health Effects Due to Air Pollution in Hosur Town, Tamilnadu, India.” Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, Vol.2(4),254-260. Shukla, V., Dalal, D., and Chaudhry, D. (2010) “Impact of vehicular exhaust on ambient air quality of Rohtak city, India.” Journal of Environmental Biology., 31(6), 929-932. Mamta, P., Bassin, J.K.(2010). “Analysis Of Ambient Air Quality Using Air Quality Index – A Case Study.” International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology., Vol.(I),106-114. Barman, S.C., Singh, R., Negi, M.P.S., and Bhargava, S.K.(2009). “Fine particles (PM2.5) in ambient air of Lucknow city due to fireworks on Diwali festival.” Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(5), 625-632. Kumar, A., Garg, A., and Pandel, U.,(2011).“A Study of Ambient Air Quality Status in Jaipur City (Rajasthan, India), Using Air Quality Index.” Nature and Science,9(6). Bhuyan, P., Samantray, P., Rout, S.,(2010). “Ambient Air Quality Status in Choudwar Area of Cuttack District”International Journal Of Environmental Sciences Vol. 1(3). Chauhan, A., and Pawar, M., (2010).“Assesment Of Ambient Air Quality Status In Urbanization, Industrialization And Commercial Center Of Uttarakhand (India)” New York Science Journal,3(7). Gidde, M.R.,( 2007). “Ambient Air Quality In Metropolitan Pune” Paper of Bharti Vidhyapeeth University Research Journal Vol 5 (2). Khandbahale, D S., and Saler, R S., (2013).“ Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Nashik city (Maharashtra, India)” BionanoFrontier, Vol. 6 (2). Meena, J., Pathak, A., Soni, A., Soni, D., and Kumar, A.,(2012). “study of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring on Himalayan Regions Garhwal and Kumaon, Uttarakhand, India” International Journal of Applied Engineering and Technology, 2012 Vol. 2 (3). Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB), Annual report 2011-2012, Ministry of Environment & Forests. Thesis by Jatav, M.,(2013). “Assessment of some Ambient Air Quality parameters at selected locations in Indore city(mp)- a case study” S.G.S.I.T.S. Indore. Balashanmugam, P., Ramanathan, A. R., and Kumar, V.,(2012) “Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Puducherry” in International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications Vol. 2(2). http://cpcb.nic.in/air.php http://cpcb.nic.in/AQI-FINAL-BOOK.pdf http://cpcb.nic.in/divisionsofheadoffice/pams/NAAQStatus_Trend_Report_2012.pdf

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Assessment of Present Ambient Air Quality of Indore city using Indian Air Quality Index - A Case Stu  

In this study an attempt has been made to express the ambient air quality of Indore city in the form of air quality index (AQI). The samplin...

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