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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 06 | December 2016 ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Assessment of Rural Water Quality in Aizawl, Mamit and Serchhip District of Mizoram, India H. Laldintluanga Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering Mizoram University, Mizoram, India

F. Lalbiakmawia Assistant (Hydrogeologist) Department of PHE PHE Department Mizoram, India

R. Lalbiaknungi Consultant Department of PHE PHE Department Mizoram, India

Abstract Water quality is a term used here to express the suitability of water to sustain various uses or processes. Earth's water resources, including rivers, lakes, oceans, and underground aquifers, are under stress in many regions. Humans need water for drinking, sanitation, agriculture, and industry; and contaminated water can spread illnesses and disease vectors, so clean water quality is both an environmental and a public health issue. Providing safe drinking water is one of the greatest public health challenges facing national governments today. The water sample is collected and tested on rural area of three districts in Mizoram State to study of water quality, India using standard methods. A study has been made to investigate the present of physical parameters (pH, turbidity etc.), inorganic or chemical (Hardness, Calcium, alkalinity etc.) and Toxic metals (arsenic, iron etc.) of water on the villages water source. It has been found that pH value is in the normal range in case of spring water; meanwhile the reservoir water has pH value less than the permissible limits. Correlation analysis on the parameters of water analysis is also shown. Keywords: Water Quality, Rural Drinking Water, Mizoram ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ I.

INTRODUCTION

Water quality is affected by a wide range of natural and human influences. The most important of the natural influences are geological, hydrological and climatic, since these affect the quantity and the quality of water available (1). Although degradation of water quality is almost invariably the result of human activities, certain natural phenomena can result in water quality falling below that required for particular purposes. Natural events such as torrential rainfall and hurricanes lead to excessive erosion and landslides, which in turn increase the content of suspended material in affected rivers and lakes. Seasonal overturn of the water in some lakes can bring water with little or no dissolved oxygen to the surface. Such natural events may be frequent or occasional. Permanent natural conditions in some areas may make water unfit for drinking or for specific uses. Aquatic vegetation growth, death and decomposition of aquatic plants and algae will affect the concentration of nitrogenous and phosphorous nutrients, pH, carbonates, dissolved oxygen and other chemicals sensitive to oxidation/reduction conditions. Aquatic vegetation has a profound effect on the chemistry of lake water and a less pronounced, but possibly significant effect, on river water. Under the influence of these major environmental factors, the concentrations of many chemicals in river water are liable to change from season to season. In small watersheds (<100 km2) the influence of a single factor can cause a variation of several orders of magnitude. Water quality is generally more constant in watersheds greater than 100,000 km2, and the variation is usually within one order of magnitude for most of the measured variables. (2) The degree to which wild fire degrades water quality and supply depends on wildfire extent and intensity, post wildfire precipitation, watershed topography, and local ecology. Potential effects of wildfire on municipal water supplies and downstream aquatic ecosystems include the following: ď&#x20AC;­ Increased loading of streams by nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, and metals, ď&#x20AC;­ Post fire erosion and transport of sediment and debris to downstream water-treatment plants, water-supply reservoirs, and aquatic ecosystems, and ď&#x20AC;­ Changes in source-water chemistry that can alter drinking- water treatment (3). The polluted water may have undesirable colour, odour, taste, turbidity, organic matter contents, harmful chemical contents, toxic and heavy metals, pesticides, oily matters, industrial waste products, radioactivity, high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), acids, alkalies, domestic sewage content, virus, bacteria, protozoa, rotifers, worms.,etc. Pollution of surface waters (rivers, lakes, ponds), ground waters, sea water are all harmful for human and animal health. Pollution of the drinking water and that of food chain is by far the most worry-some aspect (4).

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Assessment of Rural Water Quality in Aizawl, Mamit and Serchhip District of Mizoram, India (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 021)

Clean water is necessary for healthy communities and strong economies. Although it might be possible to remove some contaminants from groundwater, the quality of the water drawn into a public-supply well prior to treatment remains important because a high-quality source of water can help eliminate or reduce the risk of delivering contaminated drinking water to the public. The quality of the source water also is an economic issue because removing contaminants from groundwater is expensive and difficult (5). The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on transport and fate of highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, naturally occurring organic compounds, fecal- indicator bacteria, and selected metals within the source area have contributed that the quality of water source area (6). Soil pH is generally increased after forest fire (Tufeccioglu et al., 2010; Aref et al., 2011; Boerner et al., 2009). However significant increase occurs only at higher temperature (450-5000C) (Certini, 2005). The presence of ash may increase soil pH due to high pH of ash (Molina et al., 2007; Schafer and Mack, 2010). Soil pH is inexorably increased by the soil heating as a result of organic acids denaturation. However, significant increases occur only at high temperatures (>450–5000C), in coincidence of the complete combustion of fuel and the consequent release of bases (Arocena and Opio 2003) that also leads to an enhancement of base saturation (Macadam 1987). Khanna et al. (1994) assessed that the capacity of ash to neutralise soil acidity is well correlated with the sum of the concentrations of K,Ca, and Mg in the ash itself. (7) II. STUDY AREA About the Population According to the 2011 census Mamit district has a population of 85,757. The district has a population density of 28 inhabitants per square kilometre (73 /sq mi) . In 1985 Mamit district became home to Dampa Tiger Reserve, which has an area of 500 km². According to the 2011 census Aizawl district has a population of 404,054. The district occupies an area of 3,576.31 square kilometres. The district has a population density of 113 inhabitants per square kilometre (290/sq mi). According to the 2011 census Serchhip district has a population of 64,937. The district occupies an area of 1421.60 km². The district has a population density of 29 inhabitants per square kilometre (75/sq mi). In 1991 the area became home to the Khawnglung Wildlife Sanctuary, which has an area of 35 km². Table – 1.1 Details of study area District Area (in km²) Population Aizawl 3576.31 404054 Mamit 3025.75 85797 Serchhip 1421.60 64937

Area & Topography The entire three districts are hilly terrain and is part of the western extension of the system that links up with the ranges of Nagaland & Manipur in the north and Chin Hills of Myanmar in the east and ramifies from the sub-Himalayan Patkoi-Arakan Ranges. The terrains are crisscrossed by valleys and deep gorges where the rivers wend their ways to constitute its river system. Three major rivers viz. Teirei, Tut and Tlawng, Mat which run parallel to each other almost up to Bairabi. The river Tlawng in turn joins the river Barak in Assam and this is navigable upto Sairang during certain season of the year. As the region falls within the sub-tropical rain forest region, the vegetation of the district falls into three categories as under: Tropical wet Evergreen Vegetation.  Tropical Semi-Evergreen Vegetation.  Mountain Sub-Tropical Pine Forest. With its fertile soil and plentiful rain, the vegetation is an admixture of species which ranges from bamboos and canes to fuel woods and timber species -which, with proper management could be exploited on commercial basis. Raising plantation commercially viable species such as Teak and Gomari are of vital importance, other species such as Pine and Eucalyptus etc. are also adopted on a smaller scale. Climate The three districts are under the influence of Sub-Tropical Monsoon and the climate is tempered to a great extent by the altitude of its terrain and therefore is pleasant and not subjected to extremes. According to the classification of the Department of Environment & Forest, Govt. of Mizoram, the year is characterized by four distinct seasons:  Summer : March to May  Rainy season : June to August  Autumn : September to October  Winter : November to February The temperature varies between 100 to 280 Celsius in between winter and summer. The District receives abundant rainfall with an average of 2200 mms. It is heaviest during June, July & August. The winter is normally cold and dry.

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Assessment of Rural Water Quality in Aizawl, Mamit and Serchhip District of Mizoram, India (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 021)

III. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD AND PROCEDURES Sampling Process The following steps are adopted for sampling process used to collect the water sample in the three districts of Mizoram  Methods: Multi-Stage (Stratified) Random Sampling  Stratification: By Districts (less than 4 Village each)  Final Sampling Unit (FSU): 22 Households in each of the selected villages  Sampling Frame: National Population (Registrar) Census 2011.  Stages: 1) Stage – I: Selection of Villages (From each of the districts) 2) Stage – II: Selection of Census Enumeration Blocks (EB) from each of the selected villages. 3) Stage – III: Preparation of Households List (from AHL of Census 2011). 4) Stage – IV: Selection of Households or Final Sampling Unit, FSU (22 each from the selected EBs). The water samples were collected in the month of April in pre monsoon season and month of November post season. The average values of tested water sample are calculated for the analysis instead of the individual household sample data.

5

RATU

22

6

BAWNGTHA H

22

LENGTE

22

SAITHAH

22

7 Mamit 8

Rainwate r

W. PHAILENG BAWNGTHA H

9 10 11

22 22

LENGTE

22

12

SAITHAH

22

13

W. PHAILENG

22

14

LUNGKAWLH

22

15

KHUMTUNG

22

16

EAST THINGLIAN

22

Mamit

Serchh ip

Spring

Reservoi r

17

HMUNTHA

22

18

N. MUALCHENG

22

19

LUNGKAWLH

22

KHUMTUNG

22

EAST THINGLIAN

22

22

HMUNTHA

22

23

N.

22

20 21

Serchh ip

Handpu mp( Tube well)

1.43 3.14 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

6.85

1.00

6.58

1.00

6.33

1.00

6.10

0.10

6.64

1.00

6.00

1.00

5.70

1.00

7.00

1.00

6.50

1.00

6.00

7.55

3.82

20.6 4 20.6 4 22.0 9 18.0 0 20.0 0 20.0 0 16.0 0 28.8 6 35.6 8 17.6 0 25.7 7 14.3 6 20.0 0 20.0 0 40.0 0 25.0 0 30.0

11.9 1 11.9 1 14.4 1 18.0 0 10.0 0 10.0 0 14.0 0 10.5 9 13.0 9 6.07 7.64 19.8 2 10.0 0

10.0 0 11.3 6 10.4 5 11.3 6 12.2 7 12.2 7 14.7 7 14.7 7 17.2 7

8.00

0.11

1.23

0.00

0.00

0.45

7.73

0.00

2.27

0.05

0.70

0.00

0.00

0.15

0.01

0.15

0.01

0.15

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.00

8.77

0.00

0.05

8.91

6.86

0.00

0.11

8.27

2.80

0.00

0.09

8.67

6.14

5.91

0.00

0.05

12.0 8

5.27

7.45

0.00

0.11

0.09

8.00

4.00

0.00

0.00

25.0 0

2.00

0.00

0.00

5.00

5.00

0.00

15.0 0

25.0 0 10.0 0 15.0

20.0 0

10.0 0 13.0 0

5.00

6.00

4.00

0.00

0.00

10.0

8.00

4.00

0.00

0.30

4.00

19.3 2 10.4 5

0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0

0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0 0 0.0

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e-Coli

22

21.3 6 21.5 5 31.0 0

14.2 7 11.4 5 24.3 2 21.0 5 13.0 9 13.1 8 13.4 5 13.4 5 14.8 2 10.0 0 16.0 0 20.0 0 12.0 0

Total Coliform

KELSIH

10.1 9

8.27

107. 91 42.5 5 101. 86 85.4 5 136. 00 22.1 8 36.8 2 36.8 2 32.1 0 50.0 0 32.0 0 50.0 0 40.0 0

Iron (mg/L)

4

Spring

25.3 6

Arsenic (mg/L)

22

Aizawl

55.6 4 14.4 5 47.5 5 33.4 5 53.0 9

Nitrate (mg/L)

NAUSEL

3

2.22

81.9 3 26.6 0 137. 40 63.2 0 72.0 8 29.0 9 33.0 0 33.0 0 30.8 2 24.0 0 23.0 0 23.0 0 23.0 0

Fluoride (mg/L)

22

0.87

Sulphate (mg/L)

2

MUALPHEN G

7.3 7 7.0 4 7.7 5 7.4 5 7.4 9 6.7 5 6.4 2 6.4 2 6.4 3 7.2 1 6.8 0 7.5 0 6.8 1 6.2 2 6.3 9 6.3 4 6.0 2 6.0 9 6.0 3 6.2 0 6.7 5 5.8 2 6.0

Chloride (mg/L)

22

Alkalinity (mg/L)

ZAWNGIN

Type of water source

Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L) Calcium Hardness (mg/L) Magnesium Hardness (mg/L)

1

Distric t

Turbidity(NT U)

Village Name

No of sample s collect ed

Sl No

pH

Table – 1.2 Correlation between water parameters before monsoon

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

113


Assessment of Rural Water Quality in Aizawl, Mamit and Serchhip District of Mizoram, India (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 021) MUALCHENG

3

0

0

0

0

1

Spring

22

NAUSEL

4

22

KELSIH

5

22

RATU

6

22

BAWNGTHAH

22

LENGTE

8

22

SAITHAH

9

22

W. PHAILENG

7 Mamit

Spring

10

22

LUNGKAWLH

22

KHUMTUNG

22

HMUNTHA

13

22

N. MUALCHENG

14

22

LUNGKAWLH

22

KHUMTUNG

22

HMUNTHA

22

N. MUALCHENG

11 12

15 16

Serchhi p

Serchhi p

Reservoi r

Spring

17 20 21 22 23

Serchhi p

Hand pump( Tube well)

22

LUNGKAWLH

22

KHUMTUNG

22

HMUNTHA

22

N. MUALCHENG

58.7 71.9 28.2 40.0 24.5 26.9 7.1 6.8 6.0 6.6 7.0 6.7 5.0 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.7

19.2

83.2

18.6

72.0

29.0

111. 8

5.2

50.0

10.0

50.0

22.4

62.1

5.0

59.1

7.5

25.2

10.9

12. 6

0.0

31.2

6.3

7.5

0.0

13.6

6.4

6.2

0.0

19.4

5.3

7.5

0.0

16.0

6.0

2.0

0.0

18.0

10.0

3.0

0.0

14.0

8.0

4.0

0.0

12.0

8.0

2.0

0.0

0.0 0.0 71. 6 73. 2

100. 0

12.0

8.0

0.0

82.0

10.0

9.0

0.0

114. 0

14.0

10. 0

0.0

80.0

22.0

4.0

0.0

0. 1 0. 0 0. 2 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0

0.6 0.0 4.0 1.0 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 40. 0 10. 0 40. 0 10. 0

0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0

Iron (mg/L)

44.0

11. 4 10. 7 10. 3 10. 7 11. 3

Arsenic (mg/L)

8.5

10. 9 10. 2 19. 1 18. 0 11. 3 25. 0 25. 0 24. 8

Nitrate (mg/L)

98.1

0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0

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e-Coli

Aizawl

101. 3

26.4

Total Coliform

3

24.1

44. 6 10. 8 41. 4 27. 5 39. 6 10. 2 15. 0 25. 6 13. 6 27. 7 30. 1 19. 7 14. 4 18. 0 18. 0 14. 0 18. 0 50. 0 48. 0 54. 0 50. 0

Fluoride (mg/L)

MUALPHENG

72.0

Sulphate (mg/L)

22

2. 6 2. 1 5. 3 1. 3 2. 6 1. 0 1. 0 1. 0 1. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1

Chloride (mg/L)

2

6. 7 6. 6 7. 1 6. 7 6. 7 7. 2 7. 0 7. 0 7. 0 6. 2 6. 3 6. 0 6. 1 6. 3 6. 5 6. 1 6. 1 6. 4 6. 6 6. 6 6. 4

Alkalinity (mg/L)

ZAWNGIN

Magnesium Hardness (mg/L)

22

Calcium Hardness (mg/L)

1

Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L)

Village Name

District

Type of water source

Turbidity(NTU)

No of sample collecte d

Sl No

pH

Table â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1.3 Correlation between water parameters after monsoon

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

114


Assessment of Rural Water Quality in Aizawl, Mamit and Serchhip District of Mizoram, India (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 021)

Fig. 1.1: Pre-monsoon vs post monsoon in Aizawl District (Spring)

Fig. 1.2: Rainwater vs Spring in Mamit District

Fig. 1.3: Pre Monsoon vs Post monsoon (Spring) in Mamit District All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

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Assessment of Rural Water Quality in Aizawl, Mamit and Serchhip District of Mizoram, India (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 021)

Fig. 1.4: Tube well vs Reservoir water (pre monsoon), Serchhip District

Fig. 1.5: Spring vs Tube well vs Reservoir (post monsoon), Serchhip District

Fig. 1.6: Reservoir vs. Tube well (pre Monsoon & post Monsoon), Serchhip district All rights reserved by www.ijste.org

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Assessment of Rural Water Quality in Aizawl, Mamit and Serchhip District of Mizoram, India (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 021)

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The pH values found in reservoir water are less than permissible limit (i.e 6.5-8.5) as it is shown on the table 1.2 and table 1.3. We also observed that in case of spring source of water, the pre-monsoon pH values are higher than post monsoon pH values in all the villages in the study area. In case of tube well (hand pump) water, the pH level increases in post monsoon. The remarkable finding is that all the parameters used to measure quality of water such as pH, Turbidity(NTU) , Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L), Calcium Hardness (mg/L),Magnesium Hardness (mg/L), Alkalinity(mg/L), Chloride (mg/L), Sulphate (mg/L), Fluoride (mg/L), Nitrate(mg/L),Arsenic(mg/L) and Iron(mg/L) have all shown lower value after monsoon ( rainy season) in spring source of water. The practice of Shifting cultivation (slash and burn) during the month of January - March in every year in the study area has contributed on the present of more carbon dioxide in the air. The large area of land covered by trees and bamboo were cut down and burned for agricultural purpose. The presence of more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere combines with rainwater form carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is one of the factors that lower the pH value after the monsoon. The pH of a body of water is affected by the bedrock and soil composition through which the water moves, both in its bed and as groundwater. Some rock types such as limestone and sandstone can, to an extent, neutralize the acid while others, such as granite, have virtually no effect on pH. The rock types of the study area are sandstone and shale dominant. It is found that the sandstone present is higher in the study area. The present of highly dominant sandstone in the soil composition may be the reason which lower pH value of spring water after the monsoon. Soil pH increased by the forest fire as a result of organic acids denaturation may infiltrate the groundwater during the monsoon. This maybe the level of pH increase in tube well in post monsoon compare to pre-monsoon. The rainfall has played an important role in the reduction of pH value in water. The study area shows that reduction in pH value after heavy monsoon rainfall. The fresh rainwater has diluted the present of acidity in the water during monsoon. Correlation Analysis Correlation refers to any broad class of statistical relationships involving dependence. A correlation coefficient of +1 indicates that two variables are perfectly related in a positive linear sense; a correlation coefficient of -1 indicates that two variables are perfectly related in a negative linear sense, and a correlation coefficient of 0 indicates that there is no linear relationship between the two variables. The direction of the dependent variable's change depends on the sign of the coefficient. If the coefficient is a positive number, then the dependent variable will move in the same direction as the independent variable; if the coefficient is negative, then the dependent variable will move in the opposite direction of the independent variable. The correlation matrices for 14 variables were prepared for water sample taken from different villages. The result of correlation matrix at is shown in Tables 1.4 and 1.5, respectively.

e-Coli

Total Coliform

Iron (mg/L)

Arsenic (mg/L)

Nitrate (mg/L)

Fluoride (mg/L)

Sulphate (mg/L)

Chloride (mg/L)

Alkalinity (mg/L)

Magnesium Hardness (mg/L)

Calcium Hardness (mg/L)

Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L)

Turbidity(NTU)

Parameters Ph Turbidity(NTU) Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L) Calcium Hardness (mg/L) Magnesium Hardness (mg/L) Alkalinity (mg/L) Chloride (mg/L) Sulphate (mg/L) Fluoride (mg/L) Nitrate (mg/L) Arsenic (mg/L) Iron (mg/L) Total Coliform e-Coli

pH

Table - 1.4 Correlation between water parameters before monsoon

1 0.521 1 0.770 0.798 1 0.441 0.452 0.620 1 0.616 0.328 0.633 0.735 1 0.858 0.530 0.875 0.656 0.769 1 0.793 0.518 0.768 0.236 0.429 0.703 1 0.383 0.285 0.589 0.173 0.305 0.549 0.579 1 0.036 -0.034 -0.129 0.250 0.213 -0.134 -0.197 -0.158 1 -0.434 -0.002 -0.329 0.213 -0.142 -0.438 -0.543 -0.494 0.502 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -0.179 -0.306 -0.310 -0.315 -0.090 -0.270 0.002 -0.050 0.202 0.048 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 There is a strong positive correlation between pH and other water parameters. ď&#x20AC;­ There is weak correlation between Turbidity and water parameters. This shows that there is minimum amount of organic content in the water.

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Assessment of Rural Water Quality in Aizawl, Mamit and Serchhip District of Mizoram, India (IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 06 / 021)

  

Total dissolved solids shows strong positive relationship with pH value (0.770), Turbidity (0.798), magnesium hardness (0.633), Alkalinity (0.875), Chloride (0.768). Calcium hardness and magnesium hardness shows strong correlation with Alkalinity (0.656), (0.769). Alkalinity shows strong positive relationship between other parameters. Magnesium Hardness (0.769), pH value (0.858), Total dissolved solids (0.875).

e-Coli

Total Coliform

Iron (mg/L)

Arsenic (mg/L)

Nitrate (mg/L)

Fluoride (mg/L)

Sulphate (mg/L)

Chloride (mg/L)

Alkalinity (mg/L)

Magnesium Hardness (mg/L)

Calcium Hardness (mg/L)

Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L)

Turbidity(NTU)

pH

Parameters

Table - 1.5 Correlation between water parameters after monsoon

pH 1 Turbidity(NTU) 0.595 1 Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L) 0.634 0.935 1 Calcium Hardness (mg/L) 0.055 0.155 0.194 1 Magnesium Hardness (mg/L) -0.110 -0.268 -0.269 0.842 1 Alkalinity (mg/L) 0.711 0.811 0.909 0.147 -0.263 1 Chloride (mg/L) 0.782 0.450 0.518 -0.063 -0.196 0.556 1 Sulphate (mg/L) 0.487 0.205 0.191 -0.154 -0.236 0.421 0.289 1 Fluoride (mg/L) -0.127 0.205 0.210 -0.152 -0.245 0.060 0.022 -0.052 1 Nitrate (mg/L) -0.013 -0.187 -0.205 0.683 0.895 -0.217 -0.109 -0.184 -0.202 1 Arsenic (mg/L) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Iron (mg/L) 0.316 -0.018 0.178 -0.065 -0.083 0.251 0.423 0.297 0.139 -0.073 0 1 Total Coliform 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 e-Coli 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  There is a strong positive correlation between pH and other water parameters such as total dissolved solids, alkalinity and chloride in both pre- and post-monsoon water.  There is strong correlation of chemical properties of water between turbidity and total dissolved solids in both season.  pH value, Alkalinity and Total Dissolved Solids are having high correlation each other than the remaining parameters. It indicates that their contribution to the water quality is high in the study area in both pre season and post monsoon.

V. CONCLUSION The water of spring source in the study area was pH value between 6.5 to 8.5 (i.e. within the permissible limit of drinking water). Meanwhile, water sample taken from the Tube well and reservoir have low pH value. This may be due to the highly present of sandstone and shale in the study area. Forest fire for agriculture purpose (shifting cultivation) has caused the water quality. Rainfall is one of the factors which cause the changing of water quality parameter. The water quality in the study area is mainly determined by the present of dissolved solids and turbidity in water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are thankful to their colleagues of Mizoram University and PHE Department of Mizoram for their co-operation and support during the course of study. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Jamie Bartram and Richard Balance, “Water Quality Monitoring - A Practical Guide to the Design and Implementation of Freshwater, Quality Studies and Monitoring Programmes” United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization. Emelko, M.B., Silins, U., Bladon, K.D., Stone, M., 2011, Implications of land disturbance on drinking water treatability in a changing climate— Demonstrating the need for “source water supply and protection” strategies: Water Research, v. 45, p 461–472. Trivedi, R.C.(CPCB)2003, “Key Note Address—Water Quality Standards”, International Conference on Water Quality Management, Febuary, New Delhi. National Water-Quality Assessment Program, “Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well Vulnerability to Contamination: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality” US Geological Survey 2001. Marcus C. Waldron and Gardner C. Bent, “Factors Affecting Reservoir and Stream-Water Quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area and Implications for Source-Water Protection”. Satyam Verma, S. Jayakumar(2012), “Impact of forest fire on physical, chemical and biological properties of soil: A review” Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2(3):168-176 Giacomo Certini (2005), “Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review” February Springer-Verlag.

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Assessment of Rural Water Quality in Aizawl, Mamit and Serchhip District Of Mizoram, India