INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.9 SEPTEMBER 2013
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.9 SEPTEMBER 2013
UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: email@example.com Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 17/14 Ganapathy Nagar 2nd Street Ekkattuthangal Chennai -600032 Mobile: 91-7598208700
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.9 SEPTEMBER 2013
International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Vol.3 No.9 September 2013
From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about Assessment of Public Water Distribution. Let us review research around the world this month; Future factories let workers build a car from home. The factories of the future will look very different from those today, with not a person in sight. Instead, workers will log into robot-assisted manufacturing "cells" to make what they want from the comfort of their own home. You won't even need to be employed by the factory: people on online social networks will be able to log in and set laser cutters and 3D printers to work, bashing out gadgets to order. That's the vision of Goran Putnik, an engineer at the University of Minho in GuimarĂŁes, Portugal. The "cloud manufacturing" notion he is pioneering aims to extend telecommuting to those with jobs in factories. It will also take the "maker" movement, in which people band together to tinker with electronics, and make it professional. Touchscreen phones know it's you from taps and swipes. The fingerprint recognition feature on the upcoming iPhone 5s, Touch ID, might be eye-catching, but you still have to log into your device. Identifying someone by the way they tap and swipe on a touchscreen might be the more natural, unobtrusive future of smartphone biometrics.Developed by Cheng Bo at the Illinois Institute of Technology and his colleagues, SilentSense does just that. Using the phone's built-in sensors, it records the unique patterns of pressure, duration and fingertip size and position each user exhibits when interacting with their phone or tablet. 3D-printed objects outgrow their printers.3D printing may be set to change the world by letting us make all sorts of bespoke objects, but there's one little problem: the printers can only print items smaller than themselves. Until now, that is.The approach, called Hyperform, converts the object to be printed into a single long chain made from interlocking links. An algorithm works out how that chain can be packed together into the smallest cube possible using a Hilbert curve â€“ a fractal-based pattern that is the most efficient way of squeezing a single line into a small as space as possible. The resulting cube is small enough to be printed inside a standard printer. Skylar Tibbits at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Self-Assembly Lab and colleague Marcelo Coelho have come up with a way for standard 3D printers to print out large-scale objects. It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technologies related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.
Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE
Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at Shangai Jiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin, Germany Dr. Marco L. Bianchini Ph.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM), Italy Dr. Nijad Kabbara Ph.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh, Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University, No. 303, University Road, Puli Town, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Mr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP Project Manager - Software, Applied Materials, 1a park lane, cranford, UK Dr. Bulent Acma Ph.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics, Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP), 26470 Eskisehir, TURKEY Dr. Selvanathan Arumugam Ph.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602, USA.
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Contents Assessment of Public Water Distribution System of Indore City, India by Kartikey Tiwari, Aman Jatale, Sahil Khandelwal…....................................................................................................................
Assessment of Public Water Distribution System of Indore City, India Kartikey Tiwari#1, Aman Jatale*2, Sahil Khandelwal#3 #
Department of Civil Engineering, Sanghvi Institute of Management & Science Behind IIM-Indore, Pigdambar, 453331, Indore, India 1
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 2
A water distribution system is an interconnected collection of sources, pipes, and hydraulic control elements delivering consumers prescribed water quantities at desired pressures and water qualities. The present paper deals with the study of Average water demand in specified areas of Indore City, India, and this is based on water demand calculations per capita demand. The observation of the water supply system for three colonies; Bank colony, Vishwakarma Nagar, and Usha Nagar from Annapurna tank Indore were studied. Suitable data were acquired to identify whether the Average water demand for a single person (which is about 135 L/day) is fulfilled or not. The subtleties of overall analysis and conclusion was carried out in imperturbable aspects design system, supplying velocity, losses in different forms etc. On evaluation of all the results of deep study we incurred the conclusion with a measure to enhance the quality which we have discussed ahead in our paper.
Keywords: Average Water Demand, Design System, Pressure, Supplying Velocity. I. INTRODUCTION After complete treatment of water, it becomes necessary to distribute it to a number of houses, estates, industries and public places by means of a network of distribution system. The distribution system consists of pipes of various sizes, values, meters, pumps etc. The following are the requirements of a good distribution system.
8. The quantity of pipes laid should be good and it should not trust. 9. It should be watertight and the water losses due to leakage should be minimum as far as possible II. TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM For efficient distribution it is required that water should reach to every consumer with repaired rate of flow. Depending upon the methods of distribution, the distribution system is classified as follows: 1. Gravity System 2. Pumping System 3. Dual System on Combined Gravity and Pumping System. II.I Gravity System When some ground sufficiently high above the city area is available, this can best utilized for the distribution system in maintaining pressure in water pipes. The water flows in the mains due to gravitational force. As no pumping is required, therefore it is the most reliable system for the distribution of water. The water head available at the consumer door is just minimum required and the remaining head is consumed in frictional and other losses.
1. It should convey the treated water up to the consumers with the same degree of purity. 2. The water should reach to every consumer with the repaired pressure head. 3. Sufficient quantity of treated water should reach for the domestic and industrial use. 4. It should be economical and easy to maintain and use. 5. It should be able to transport sufficient quantity of water during emergency such as firefighting etc. 6. During repair work, it should cause obstruction to the traffic. 7. It should be safe against any future pollution.
Fig.1.Gravity System of Distribution
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.9 SEPTEMBER 2013 II.II Pumping System III. LAYOUT OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM In this system water is directly pumped in the mains .The maintenance cost is high. High lift pumps are required and the operations are continuously watched. If There are four different systems of distribution which are the power fails, the whole supply of the town will best used. Depending upon their layout and direction of popped. Therefore standby diesel pumps should be supply, they are classified as follows: kept. 3.1 Dead End or Tree System 3.2 Grid iron System 3.3 Circular or Ring System 3.4 Radial System 3.1 Dead End System The below figure show is the layout of this system .It is suitable for irregular developed towns or cities .In this system one main starts from require reservoir along the main road .Sub mains are connected to the main in both the direction as along the roads which meet the main road .Sub mains, branches and minor distributors are connected to sub mains. They are cheap in initial cost.
Fig.2.Pumping System of Distribution. II.III Dual System
When the pipe breaks down or is closed for repair the whole locality beyond the point goes without water.
This is also known as combined gravity and pumping system. In the beginning when demand is small the water is stored in the elevated reservoir, but when demand increases the rate of pumping, the flow in the distribution system comes both from the pumping station as well as elevated reservoir. As in this system water comes from two sources one, from reservoir and second from pumping station, it is closed dual system.
Fig.4.Layout of dead end system 3.2 Grid iron System
Fig.3.Dual System of Distribution
This system is also known as reticulated system and is most convenient for town shaving rectangular layout of roads. This system is an improvement of dead end system. All the dead ends are interconnected and water circulates freely throughout the system. Main line is laid along the main road. Sub mains are taken in both the directions along other minor road sand streets. From
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.9 SEPTEMBER 2013 these sub mains branches are taken out and are disadvantages of all these systems, we have found out interconnected as shown in figure. that grid iron system is most suitable for our site. Therefore we have adopted grid iron system. This system removes all the disadvantages of dead end system
Fig.7.Layout of radial system Fig.5.Layout of grid iron system IV. PRESSURE IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 3.3 Circular or Ring System System can be adopted only in well planned locality of cities. In this system each locality is divided into square or circular block sand the water mains are laid around all the four sides of the square or round the circle. This system requires many values and more pipe length. This system is suitable for towns and cities having well
When the water enters in the distribution main, the water head continuously is lost due to friction in pipes, at entrance of reducers due to valves, bends, meters etc. till it reaches the consumer's tap. The net available head at the consumer's tap is the head at the entrance of the water main minus all the losses in the way. The effective head available at the service connection to a building is very important, because the height up to which the water can rise in the building will depend on this available head only. The greater the head the more will be the height up to which it will rise. If adequate head is not available at the connection to the building, the water will nd rd th not reach the upper stores (Le. 2 , 3 , 4 etc.) to overcome this difficulty the required effective head is maintained in the street pipe lines. The water should reach each and consumer therefore it should reach on the uppermost stories. The pressure which is required to be maintained in the distribution system depends upon the following factors: 4.1. The height of highest building up to which Water should reach without boosting.
Fig.6.Layout of Circular System
4.2. The distance of the locality from the Distribution reservoir.
3.5 Radial System This system is not adopted in India, because for this system the roads should be laid out radial from the center. This system is the reverse of ring system. The entire district is divided into various zones and one reservoir is provided for each zone, which is placed in the center of zone. By considering the advantages and
4.3. The supply is to be metered or not. Higher pressure will be required to compensate for, the high Loss of head in meters. 4.4 How much pressure will be required for firehydrants.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.9 SEPTEMBER 2013 The funds available for the project work. Sometimes the design pressure is determined from the firefighting requirements. In some cities and towns the firefighting squads are equipped with pumping sets fitted on their vehicles for lifting the water at the site itself. At such places the design pressure may be determined by the minimum required by the consumers. nd rd But in most of towns in India the people living at 2 , 3 th or 4 stories face lots of difficulties due to non-supply of water in their stories. At such places small lifting pumps may be individually used which directly pump the water in their water lines. In multistoried structures the following pressures are considered satisfactory.
Up to 3 stories
From 3 to 6 stories
From 6to10 stories
The layout of the city of town, topography etc. will be greatly affected, the layout and design of the distribution system. The existing population expected future population commercial and industrial present and future water requirements all have to be considered in the layout and design of the distribution system. The main work in the distribution system design is to determine the sizes of the distribution pipes which will be capable to carry their paired quantity of water at the desired pressure. VI. DESIGN OF PIPE LINE Till date no direct method are available for the design of distribution pipes. While doing the design first of all Diameter of the pipes are assumed the terminal pressure heads which could be made available. At the end of each pipe section after allowing for the loss of pressure head in the pipe section when full peak flow discharge is flowing are then determined. The determination of the friction losses in each pipe section is done. The total discharge flowing through main pipes is to be determined in advance.
4.2 to5.27 Kg/cm
While designing pipes of distribution systems the following points should be kept in mind: 1. The main line should be designed to carry 3 times the average demand of the city. 2. The service pipes should be able to carry twice the average demand. 3. The water demand at various points in the city should be noted. 4. The length sand sizes of each pipe should be clearly marked on the site plan along with hydrants, valves, meters, etc.
Diameter of pipe
V.I Manual Design
2.1 to 4.2 Kg/cm
V. DESIGN OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Hazen William Formula is widely used for determine the velocity through pipes. It states 2
v = 0.408709 q / dh Where
v = flow velocity (m/s) 1.852 1.852 4.8655 f = 0.2083 (100/c) q / dh Where f = friction head loss in feet of water per 100 feet of pipe (fth20/100 ft pipe). c = Hazen-Williams roughness constant q = volume flow (gal/min) dh = inside hydraulic diameter (inches) The Hazen-Williams equation can be assumed to be relatively accurate for piping systems with Reynolds Numbers above 105 (turbulent flow). 1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m 1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm
f = 0.2083 (100/100) 1.852 .4321.852 / 80 4.865 f = .7 3
1 gal (US)/min =6.30888x10-5 m /s = 0.227 3 3 -3 3 m /h =0.0631 d m (litre)/s = 2.228x10 ft /s = 0.1337 3 ft /min =0.8327 Imperial gal (UK)/min
Calculation for velocity (m/s) v = 0.408709 q / dh2
v = 0.408709 × Single house getting per day about 400 to 450 Lt in about 20 min,
v =.27 m/s VIII. ANALYSIS OF HEAD LOSS
Calculation of flow MLD (mega litres per day) IX. CONCLUSION
In 20 min→ 450 Lt In 1 min→ In 1 hr→
2 3 4
.43 1.13 2.73
80 100 150
5 6 7
5 6 7
6 7 8
9 10 11 12
9 10 11 12
10 11 12 13
5.25 6.61 7.02 7.64 4 8.81 9.24 9.45 9.57
1 2 3
1 2 3
Actual head loss
250 300 356
.27 .32 .36
250 300 400
.7 1.6 1.4 1.1 2 .91 .86 .62
450 550 558
.49 .58 .65
500 620 700 750
.43 .21 .12 .01
680 691 710 715
.79 .82 .85 .92
Calculation for Head loss
Average water demand for a single person is about 135 L/day this is based on water demand calculations per capita demand .But from the observation of the water supply system for three colonies; Bank colony, Vishwakarma Nagar, and Usha Nagar from Annapurna tank Indore. We observed that water supply system is not capable for providing per capita demand of 135 L/day but only fulfilling about 80 to 85 L/day. This is because of the losses in the pipe and the pressure losses. Because of the losses, the velocity of the water also decreases as we have observed the velocity from the main supply is 0.92 m/s but when it reaches to home, it reduces to 0.27 m/s. REFERENCES 
Water supply engineering by S.K.Garg
Introduction to general design of Domestic Water-supply Systems. (Engineering design of all domestic water systems intended for operations).
IRC (1980). Public stand post water supplies: a design and construction manual. International Reference Centre for Community Water Supply and Sanitation. Technical Paper no 14. The Hague, Netherlands.
DWAF (1997). Minimum standards and guidelines for groundwater resource development for the community water supply and sanitation programme. Department of Water Affairs & Forestry.
DWAF (2000c). Water supply service levels: A guide for Local authorities. Department of Water Affairs & Forestry The Hazen–Williams equation which relates the flow of water in a pipe with the physical properties of the pipe and the pressure drop.
f = 0.2083 (100/c) c=100 q=.432 dh =80mm
Published on Jan 8, 2014