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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013

UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: editor@ijitce.co.uk Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 17/14 Ganapathy Nagar 2nd Street Ekkattuthangal Chennai -600032 Mobile: 91-7598208700

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013

IJITCE PUBLICATION

International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Vol.3 No.10 October 2013

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013

From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about inner creativity and BER analysis. Let us review research around the world this month; Parking app can predict when a spot will open up. SICK of searching for a city parking spot? Let your phone do the work. An app can automatically determine when its user has parked, and can alert others when the spot comes open again, all without manual input. Built by Wen-Yuah Shih and Kun-Chan Lan of National Cheng Kung University in Tainan City, Taiwan, the app uses a phone's accelerometer to recognise when a motorist is driving, when the car stops, and when they get out of the car and start walking – inferring from this sequence that they have parked. The GPS position of the parking spot is then broadcast to other users of the app and marked as "occupied" on their street map. The app uses the phone's compass to note a driver's walking path and waits for them to return in the direction of the parking space. If the user is then sensed moving away from the spot at driving speed the app broadcasts a "parking spot empty" message.

Solar-powered cars streak across Australia. This is a live laboratory, the fastest solar-powered cars race from Darwin to the sleepy city of Adelaide in the south, hitting speeds of more than 100 kilometres per hour. Cars making it to the end will have travelled 3000 kilometres through the red deserts into the woodlands of South Australia. The designs, particularly a more realistic type of car taking part for the first time this year, will one day make an impact far beyond this one race.

Imagine waving your hand in front of a map on your computer screen and feeling a force push back against you. The strength of the force could be proportional to the population or crime rate, say, of each city you pass over. Tom Carter and his colleagues at the University of Bristol, UK, will demonstrate just such a system this week at the User Interface Systems and Technology conference in St Andrews, UK. Called UltraHaptics, it uses an array of 320 ultrasound speakers set behind a touchscreen to generate beams of high-frequency sound waves. The waves are linked to the software running the displayed content and interact to create hotspots that give different sensations as people move their hands. "What you feel is a vibration. The ultrasound exerts a force on your skin, slightly displacing it. We then turn this on and off at a frequency suited to the receptors in your hand so that you feel the vibration," says Carter. "A 4-hertz vibration feels like heavy raindrops on your hand," he says. "At around 125 Hz it feels like you are touching foam and at 250 Hz you get a strong buzz." UltraHaptics could be used to make invisible sliders for in-car entertainment systems, Carter says, so drivers could feel their way to the desired volume. And people whose hands are often dirty, like chefs or mechanics, could use invisible haptic to flip through manuals or recipes. It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technologies related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.

Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013

Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at Shangai Jiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin, Germany Dr. Marco L. Bianchini Ph.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM), Italy Dr. Nijad Kabbara Ph.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh, Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University, No. 303, University Road, Puli Town, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Mr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP Project Manager - Software, Applied Materials, 1a park lane, cranford, UK Dr. Bulent Acma Ph.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics, Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP), 26470 Eskisehir, TURKEY Dr. Selvanathan Arumugam Ph.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602, USA.

Review Board Members Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168, Australia Dr. Zhiming Yang MD., Ph. D. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science,1550 Orleans Street Rm 441, Baltimore MD, 21231,USA Dr. Jifeng Wang Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA Dr. Giuseppe Baldacchini ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 45 - P.O. Box 65,00044 Frascati, Roma, ITALY. Dr. Mutamed Turki Nayef Khatib Assistant Professor of Telecommunication Engineering,Head of Telecommunication Engineering Department,Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), Tul Karm, PALESTINE. Dr.P.Uma Maheswari Prof & Head,Depaartment of CSE/IT, INFO Institute of Engineering,Coimbatore.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 Dr. T. Christopher, Ph.D., Assistant Professor & Head,Department of Computer Science,Government Arts College(Autonomous),Udumalpet, India. Dr. T. DEVI Ph.D. Engg. (Warwick, UK), Head,Department of Computer Applications,Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-641 046, India. Dr. Renato J. orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Visiting Scholar at INSEAD,INSEAD Social Innovation Centre,Boulevard de Constance,77305 Fontainebleau - France Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business SchoolRua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Javad Robati Crop Production Departement,University of Maragheh,Golshahr,Maragheh,Iran Vinesh Sukumar (PhD, MBA) Product Engineering Segment Manager, Imaging Products, Aptina Imaging Inc. Dr. Binod Kumar PhD(CS), M.Phil.(CS), MIAENG,MIEEE HOD & Associate Professor, IT Dept, Medi-Caps Inst. of Science & Tech.(MIST),Indore, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, India Dr. doc. Ing. Rostislav Choteborský, Ph.D. Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie Technická fakulta,Ceská zemedelská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168 DR.Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg.,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Mr. Abhishek Taneja B.sc(Electronics),M.B.E,M.C.A.,M.Phil., Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Applications, at Dronacharya Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra. (India). Dr. Ing. Rostislav Chotěborský,ph.d, Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie, Technická fakulta,Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21

Dr. Amala VijayaSelvi Rajan, B.sc,Ph.d, Faculty – Information Technology Dubai Women’s College – Higher Colleges of Technology,P.O. Box – 16062, Dubai, UAE

Naik Nitin Ashokrao B.sc,M.Sc Lecturer in Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya Nanded University

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 Dr.A.Kathirvell, B.E, M.E, Ph.D,MISTE, MIACSIT, MENGG Professor - Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Tagore Engineering College, Chennai Dr. H. S. Fadewar B.sc,M.sc,M.Phil.,ph.d,PGDBM,B.Ed. Associate Professor - Sinhgad Institute of Management & Computer Application, Mumbai-Banglore Westernly Express Way Narhe, Pune - 41 Dr. David Batten Leader, Algal Pre-Feasibility Study,Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels,CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship Private Bag 1,Aspendale, Vic. 3195,AUSTRALIA Dr R C Panda (MTech & PhD(IITM);Ex-Faculty (Curtin Univ Tech, Perth, Australia))Scientist CLRI (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai - 600 020,India Miss Jing He PH.D. Candidate of Georgia State University,1450 Willow Lake Dr. NE,Atlanta, GA, 30329 Jeremiah Neubert Assistant Professor,Mechanical Engineering,University of North Dakota Hui Shen Mechanical Engineering Dept,Ohio Northern Univ. Dr. Xiangfa Wu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor / Mechanical Engineering,NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY Seraphin Chally Abou Professor,Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart,MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall,1305 Ordean Court,Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. Qiang Cheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,Computer Science Department Southern Illinois University CarbondaleFaner Hall, Room 2140-Mail Code 45111000 Faner Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 Dr. Carlos Barrios, PhD Assistant Professor of Architecture,School of Architecture and Planning,The Catholic University of America Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,S찾o Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8째 andar)01332-000, S찾o Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Wael M. G. Ibrahim Department Head-Electronics Engineering Technology Dept.School of Engineering Technology ECPI College of Technology 5501 Greenwich Road - Suite 100,Virginia Beach, VA 23462

Dr. Messaoud Jake Bahoura Associate Professor-Engineering Department and Center for Materials Research Norfolk State University,700 Park avenue,Norfolk, VA 23504

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 Dr. V. P. Eswaramurthy M.C.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. P. Kamakkannan,M.C.A., Ph.D ., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. V. Karthikeyani Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 008, India. Dr. K. Thangadurai Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College ( Autonomous ), Karur - 639 005,India. Dr. N. Maheswari Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of MCA, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattangulathur, Kanchipiram Dt - 603 203, India. Mr. Md. Musfique Anwar B.Sc(Engg.) Lecturer, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mrs. Smitha Ramachandran M.Sc(CS)., SAP Analyst, Akzonobel, Slough, United Kingdom. Dr. V. Vallimayil Ph.D., Director, Department of MCA, Vivekanandha Business School For Women, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode - 637 205, India. Mr. M. Moorthi M.C.A., M.Phil., Assistant Professor, Department of computer Applications, Kongu Arts and Science College, India Prema Selvaraj Bsc,M.C.A,M.Phil Assistant Professor,Department of Computer Science,KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode Mr. G. Rajendran M.C.A., M.Phil., N.E.T., PGDBM., PGDBF., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem, India. Dr. Pradeep H Pendse B.E.,M.M.S.,Ph.d Dean - IT,Welingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, Mumbai, India Muhammad Javed Centre for Next Generation Localisation, School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dr. G. GOBI Assistant Professor-Department of Physics,Government Arts College,Salem - 636 007 Dr.S.Senthilkumar Post Doctoral Research Fellow, (Mathematics and Computer Science & Applications),Universiti Sains Malaysia,School of Mathematical Sciences, Pulau Pinang-11800,[PENANG],MALAYSIA. Manoj Sharma Associate Professor Deptt. of ECE, Prannath Parnami Institute of Management & Technology, Hissar, Haryana, India RAMKUMAR JAGANATHAN Asst-Professor,Dept of Computer Science, V.L.B Janakiammal college of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Assoc. Professor, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India Dr. Saurabh Pal Associate Professor, UNS Institute of Engg. & Tech., VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India Manimala Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation, St Joseph’s College of Engineering & Technology, Choondacherry Post, Kottayam Dt. Kerala -686579

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 Dr. Qazi S. M. Zia-ul-Haque Control Engineer Synchrotron-light for Experimental Sciences and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME),P. O. Box 7, Allan 19252, Jordan Dr. A. Subramani, M.C.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D. Professor,Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode - 637215 Dr. Seraphin Chally Abou Professor, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart. MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall, 1305 Ordean Court Duluth, Minnesota 558123042 Dr. K. Kousalya Professor, Department of CSE,Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai-638 052 Dr. (Mrs.) R. Uma Rani Asso.Prof., Department of Computer Science, Sri Sarada College For Women, Salem-16, Tamil Nadu, India. MOHAMMAD YAZDANI-ASRAMI Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Babol "Noshirvani" University of Technology, Iran. Dr. Kulasekharan, N, Ph.D Technical Lead - CFD,GE Appliances and Lighting, GE India,John F Welch Technology Center, Plot # 122, EPIP, Phase 2,Whitefield Road,Bangalore – 560066, India. Dr. Manjeet Bansal Dean (Post Graduate),Department of Civil Engineering ,Punjab Technical University,Giani Zail Singh Campus, Bathinda -151001 (Punjab),INDIA Dr. Oliver Jukić Vice Dean for education, Virovitica College, Matije Gupca 78,33000 Virovitica, Croatia Dr. Lori A. Wolff, Ph.D., J.D. Professor of Leadership and Counselor Education, The University of Mississippi, Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, 139 Guyton University, MS 38677

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013

Contents Free Your Mind: Unlock Your Inner Creativity by Alyssa Black, William Dow, Stephanie Harrison, Adam Krebs, Kathleen McGuire, Jessica Urbano, Philipp Storch, Bradley Chase, Frank Jacobitz, Thomas Schubert…....................................................................................................................[127]

BER Analysis for WCDMA System In Downlink FDD Mode by Juned Khan,Dr.Suyeb Ahmed Khan,Dr. Jasvir Singh…............................................................................................................[139]

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013

Free Your Mind: Unlock Your Inner Creativity Alyssa Black1, William Dow2, Stephanie Harrison3, Adam Krebs4, Kathleen McGuire5, Jessica Urbano6, Philipp Storch7, Bradley Chase8, Frank Jacobitz9, Thomas Schubert10 Shiley-Marcos School of Engineering, University of San Diego 5998 Alcala Park, San Diego, California, 92110, USA 1

atblack@sandiego.edu,

2 3

sharrison@sandiego.edu 4

5

wdow@sandiego.edu,

akrebs@sandiego.edu

ktmcguire@sandiego.edu 6

jurbano@sandiego.edu

7

pstorch@sandiego.edu

8 9 10

bchase@sandiego.edu

jacobitz@sandiego.edu

schubert@sandiego.edu

Abstract - Creativity is a major factor in many careers, subjects, and disciplines. Although many people first assume engineering to be a field of study that does not require any creativity, it is actually an essential tool for successful engineers. The mark of a truly accomplished engineer is the ability to problem-solve effectively; in other words, to generate creative solutions. Although the goal as engineers is to become more creative throughout one’s career, is it even possible to gain creativity? Is creativity an innate quality, or a learned one? Since the engineering process demands creativity, we looked into how creativity can be improved, and how exactly it is used in the engineering design process. We surveyed engineering freshman students to determine how they view themselves and how important they think creativity is in relation to engineering. We then conducted research to see what creativity means to different people, how one can improve creativity according to various theories, and how creative processes have been used in past engineering projects. We presented this information to all sections of a secondsemester engineering freshman course and surveyed the students at the beginning and end of the lecture to see how their views changed. We evaluated this data to discover if students perceive creativity as learned or innate and how it affects their ideas on engineering. The students showed an improvement in awareness of the importance of creativity in engineering and how often it is used. Many did not change their opinion of themselves with regard to creativity but some actually ranked themselves lower after the presentation, presumably because they realized the extent of how creative some people are, especially in regard to

engineering. The other data we analyzed was student responses to short questions. We asked students what qualities they associate with creative people and the most commonly used words were “thinks outside of the box,” “innovative,” “confident,” and “open minded.” We also asked what the best techniques for improving creativity within a group are. The most common answers were “different backgrounds,” “different ideas,” “being comfortable,” and “diversity.” These answers mirrored the overall message we attempted to portray throughout our presentation to a fair degree.

Keywords: Creativity, Engineering Design, Undergraduate Education, Assessment

I. INTRODUCTION Creativity and its importance in the workplace are not often thought about in too much detail since people often believe they cannot change their creative abilities. Numerous professionals throughout the past few years have studied creative processes in different fields to better understand how it develops and how it can be applied. There has been research into how to best use creativity in engineering as well as research on the philosophy of group dynamics. There is work being done to see if the brain can help unlock some secrets of what makes a person creative. There are also several theories on whether creativity is learned or innate, and if it is learned, how it can be improved.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 A. Creativity and Engineering other potential hindrances and consciously try to prevent Even though engineering differs from many careers them when working in a group setting. commonly related to creativity, such as arts and music, the importance of creative thinking is still vital in the field. One must approach a project with an open mind and be capable of generating new ideas in order to achieve success. When facing a problem in engineering, occasionally there is an obvious answer, but more often than not some level of creativity is required to obtain an elegant and efficient solution. Lumsdaine and Lumsdaine [1] argue that creativity is of utmost importance; however, in many cases the education systems tend to hinder the development of the skill. Schools tend to shape the minds of the students to more aptly retain large amounts of information, instead of to teach how to approach a variety of different, complex problems. With today’s continuously changing culture, the ability to use resources in a creative and flexible manner is essential. There is no set model for each new problem that arises during projects, no step-by-step process to obtain an answer; thus, a successful engineer must be able to use the surrounding resources to arrive at a unique solution. The techniques taught in many schools, to plug variables into given equations to obtain a solution, do not efficiently develop creative problem solving ability. Instead, they teach to tests such as the ACT and SAT. There is a demand for engineers, as well as other professionals, to have certain skill sets, to be able to generate solutions when they are not apparent. Yet, if it is not taught in school how to effectively be creative, how does one go about understanding the essentials of creative problem solving? There are many theories detailing strategies and techniques to improve creativity. At the foundation of many of these is the idea that creativity is a developed skill. Often engineering firms require group effort. Although in groups it may seem easier to come up with more creative solutions, there are many ways that group work can hinder creative thinking. Fogler and LeBlanc [2] discuss several of the most common problems that groups may run into, such as not having a clear mission, overbearing “experts” who prohibit others from participating to their full extent, and unquestioned acceptance of opinions. One must be aware of these and

Identifying the issue is the first of many areas in problem solving or engineering design where one could potentially fail to use creativity. In most cases, problems are multifaceted; there are several paths to start an analysis and they all would lead to different solutions to the original problem. Creative people are more likely to spend a longer amount of time assessing their different options before embarking on forming a solution [3]. This issue is important because it shows that even before the solutions are being formed, creativity is prevalent and important in the process. To be an engineer without creativity would result in being ill suited for all but the most remedial tasks. It is important to consider the benefits of learning about creativity and how to enhance one’s personal creative techniques. B. Neuroscience Over the past sixty years, the interest in the neuroscience behind creative thought has surged. Countless experiments have been conducted, each attempting to pinpoint exactly what is occurring in the brain during the creative process. There are several aspects of creativity that have been tested in such experiments, each employing vastly different testing methods. The primary methodologies used by neuroscientists in these experiments are based on the results of electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tests. An EEG detects electromagnetic fields generated by brain activity through sensors placed on the scalp. While it can detect changes in activity almost immediately, it can be difficult to determine the location of the activity. PET measures neural activity by monitoring changes in blood flow in certain regions of the brain. It takes longer than EEG (about forty seconds) but it can be more helpful in determining the specific brain regions in which activity occurs. fMRI is the most common of these techniques; it uses a magnetic field to detect the ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated blood. When activity increases in a region, the blood flow increases faster than oxygen is used [4]. While all of these methods are helpful in the scientific study of the creative process, it can be difficult to rely on

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 any one test or trial. Many trials must be conducted, often C. Improving Creative Skills using a combination of methodologies, in an attempt to Clearly there is much debate about the nature of the increase the accuracy of conclusions. neurological processes of creative thinking. This ties into There are several problems that arise when reviewing experiments related to brain activity and creativity. The first of which is the question of how creativity can be measured. Many researchers rely on tests that incorporate divergent thinking, but this does not always guarantee creative thought. There is inconsistency in defining what exactly creativity means. Keeping these concerns in mind, most researchers have chosen to use either the Torrance test [5] or Williams’ Creativity Assessment Pack (CAP) test [6], both of which are designed to measure test subjects’ ability to use divergent thinking. In reviewing 72 published experiments, the most recent published in the spring of 2010, Dietrich and Kanso [7] show that many of the conclusions are contradictory. This leads to the even bigger problem of determining which data is more reliable. There is a wide variety in the data gathered, which makes it nearly impossible to draw conclusions on which specific part of the brain is responsible for creativity, or, more accurately, is responsible for divergent thinking. However, there was one conclusion that seemed fairly clear from the data: creative thinking is tied to the prefrontal cortices. The question of which cortices are more involved than others remains hard to determine. In relation to right-brain versus left-brain dominance, the results of different experiments do not support each other. For example: Goel and Vartanian [8] reported right-sided activation while ChavezEakle [9] reported left-sided activation. On the topic of dominance, Herrmann developed a complete theory of brain dominance referred to as the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument. In the Herrmann model, the brain is divided into quadrants, each correlated with different characteristics and ways of thinking. Herrmann argues that Quadrant D, the upper right cerebral quadrant, is mainly responsible for creative thinking, which would seem to indicate that creativity is indeed right brain dominant (see discussion in [10]). However, data acquired from countless experiments fail to support any link between divergent thinking (creativity) and the right side of the brain. While the data does not disprove such dominance theories, it is also insufficient to fully support them.

the bigger question of whether or not creativity can be learned or improved. As aspiring engineers, we decided to further analyze the idea of learning to be more creative. We began by taking a closer look at the history of creativity in general and the ways in which creativity has been used in engineering. This also required looking at different methods of developing creativity. A major proponent of creativity as something that can be improved is Nordgren [11]. He believes that creativity can be found in everyone, but that each individual must consciously choose to take advantage of it. Nordgren also argues that channeling one’s creativity is key to becoming successful in the business world. Due to efforts of other individuals who share Nordgren’s beliefs, the concept of being able to improve someone’s level of creative thinking is becoming more widely accepted. Current research regarding creativity, how it exists, and whether or not it can be improved is found in multiple areas of study. In nearly every branch of academia, there is a desire to understand creative processes and how they can be improved, since the majority of career fields can benefit from more creative personnel. An interesting distinction in personal creativity that is currently being explored is whether creativity is found in a person as a whole, or if it is only expressed in certain characteristics of a person. If the latter is true, it could stand that everyone is creative in certain areas, but not necessarily in others, and that some people may not perceive themselves as creative simply because they have not developed their specific creative characteristics. Research on the differences between domain specific theories and general creativity theories have been debated and explained by Baer [12]. His argument of domain specificity supports the argument that creativity lies in nearly everyone, and can be unlocked if only one knows where to look for it. Research on personality traits is also being done to better understand the roots of creativity. It is often assumed that artists and musicians are more creative than mathematicians and scientists, but is there any proof to that assumption? Walonick [13] discusses what it means

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 to “be creative”, and how there is more than one how each method could be applied in an engineering interpretation of the term. Using the work of Wycoff [14], a setting. creativity consultant, Walonick details four common traits II. PROCESS found in creative people: they are willing to take risks and The process that we went through for our research on have the courage to be wrong, they are willing to express their thoughts and feelings, they have a sense of humor, how students view themselves with regard to creativity and they accept and trust their own intuition. These traits and the way that they view creativity in regards to are interesting because some people could argue that engineering began in spring 2012. At the University of San these things can be taught, but others would say they are Diego all first year engineering students are enrolled in ENGR 102: Introduction to Engineering Design. The innate. honors section of this course took on the task of It is also important to note that these are not the only understanding and teaching the other ENGR 102 students set of characteristics used to define or categorize a the importance of creativity. After we conducted research creative individual. Other theories discussing personality on theories about creativity, we developed a lecture to traits have arisen, such as the ideas from Ogot and teach the Engineering 102 student what we had learned. Okudan [15]. They believe that creativity is based on four We then went through the IRB process to get the research things also: desire and fulfillment, knowledge of objects approved. Before and after viewing the lecture the and principles possessed, openness and willingness to students all took a survey on how they felt about creative accept criticism from others, and knowledge of processes, processes and if their views changed after hearing about especially design and problem solving in regards to current research. engineering. Their theory argues that creativity can be learned, since knowledge of processes and knowledge of A. Lecture Material At the beginning of the 45-minute lecture, the students objects and principles can be learned by anyone who has the drive. The other two traits are more difficult to teach. participated in a couple of brain teasers, to get them Being able to identify what helps people stimulate creative thinking about problem solving. We used an interactive thinking is a step in the correct direction in terms of activity where students had to rearrange a couple of cups utilizing and enhancing creativity processes not only in of juice to get them in a certain order in the minimum number of moves. Not an obvious solution, it required the engineering, but in nearly any career. student to recognize the unwarranted assumption that D. Goals cups can only be moved and not poured. The primary objective of this study was to observe how Once the opening activities were completed, we went freshmen engineering students perceive themselves and their creative abilities, both before and after they were over the physiological processes of creativity. The given a brief presentation on creativity. The authors are a information on the differences between creative thinkers group of honors engineering freshman students, their and the general population was easier to explain than the faculty advisor and instructor, as well as two collaborating breakdown of what part of the brain does what job. The engineering faculty. We wanted to see if our presentation explanation was put into simple biological terms, but it was would have an impact on their outlook in regards to their still hard to discuss neurological processes when, in career path and its creative elements. The hope was that general, the audience did not have a background in the presentation would help the students realize their own biology. creative potential, as well as to argue for the importance and necessity of creativity in the field of engineering. Due to the nature of the lecture, it would have been very difficult to cause a strong change in the students’ creative abilities; thus, we aimed instead to present a variety of proposed methods of improving creativity and to discuss

The next subject covered was personality traits and how they relate to creativity. Some of the key characteristics include a desire to test unknowns, an ability to visualize, and possess a multitude of opposing traits. These characteristics sound similar to what one thinks of when thinking about characteristics of engineers in general;

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 usually engineers are curious, want to test unknown of creativity. We tried to explain each one in a way that possibilities, and have the ability to visualize changes. everyone could understand, but it was a lot of information to cover. The two that seemed easiest to explain were Before deciding on how to teach creativity, one has to overcoming contradictions (solving a problem without consider whether creativity can even be taught. The compromise) and function sharing (simplifying a design lecture also went over the two sides of the nature versus whenever possible). The creative industry slide probably nurture argument: whether we are who we are because interested the audience more than the theories, as it we were born this way or because we were raised this talked about how jobs that incorporate creativity are likely way. This part of the lecture was one of the most to not only command a higher salary, but also be more influential topics, as teaching creativity does not seem to enjoyable for employees. Everyone in the room would love be a widely accepted notion. After discussing right-brain to be a Disney “imaginer” [19], for example. From there, dominance versus left-brain dominance, we closed the we discussed the common barriers to innovation. The first topic with another activity. We drew a nine dot problem up of these roadblocks was small group dynamics. Everyone on the board, where students had to connect all the dots in the room can understand how working in a small group without lifting their pencils. We had students try to solve it tends to stifle creative thinking and going outside the box, on the board. Interspersing several tests that involved especially after all the group work in engineering freshman divergent thinking was a way to keep the students labs. When in a group, it is not as simple as trying out ten interested, and also showed how creativity is helpful in a different ideas; everyone has to agree on which idea to try multitude of situations. and which to dismiss. This also ties into the problems with departments and poor leadership. We then talked about the difference between general intelligence and creativity. People often confuse the two The main goal of the lecture was to show that creativity as being synonymous, but tests that measure general is important, necessary, and accessible in nearly every intelligence tend to miss creativity. We went over situation and every person. It is beneficial to think of Sternberg’s [16] writing on what intelligence is and the oneself as creative and try to enhance it to improve three types of intelligence. We went over the meaning of countless situations. knowledge and how it is being able to recognize information that is genuinely new. Sternberg’s theory also B. Assessment covers the thinking style, personality style, and motivation Before and after the lecture, students filled out a survey of creative people. It is about questioning the known which had questions ranking how creative each student information, taking risks, and being able to stay motivated. believed they were and how important creativity is for To conclude the portion about intelligence and creativity, engineering. They ranked their answers on a scale from 1 we restated the idea that tests miss creativity. One test in to 10. This scale was later found to be too large, but we particular that every audience member is familiar with is were able to use the results regardless. We created the the SAT. We talked about studies that show that high SAT survey using a before and after method. The students scores do not automatically guarantee success later on filled one out before viewing our material, then filled out [17]. We tried to emphasize that intelligence and creativity the same questions along with a few extra short answer combined is what brings a new perspective to problem- questions after the presentation so a comparison could be solving, as well as providing the best odds for success. made on how their opinions changed and what they The next lecture topic was on professional creativity. We talked about Sweden’s soccer players and how professional athletes demonstrated above average creativity arguably linked to improvisation in competition [18], briefly summarized Nordgren’s [11] ideas on creativity, and then transitioned into creativity within engineering. We began with engineering design theories

learned. The questions asked the students to think about how creativity is applicable to the field of engineering as well as their own everyday lives. These questions allowed us to evaluate what students knew about creativity as well as to see the effectiveness of the lecture material.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 C. IRB Process They were the exact same questions asked in the preTo get the research involving human subjects approved lecture survey, however they were asked at the conclusion we became familiar with the Institutional Review Board of the lecture. These questions were used to record the (IRB) process and obtained IRB certification. We then trend of improvement of how the subject viewed himself or created the presentation and the survey to give to the herself creatively after seeing the lecture material on ENGR 102 students. These students were our pool to creativity with the pre-lecture questions serving as a gauge what engineering students already know about calibration tool. creativity and how they regard themselves in respect to A numerical difference, if positive, would denote an creativity. We then completed and submitted an IRB application. It required a statement of purpose and that all improvement on an individual level in the understanding of materials that would be used during the study are creativity and a heighted self-awareness. A negative attached. We also had to justify any risk that the study put difference denotes a stark realization on the individual the participants in and write a form to get signed informed level gained through the presentation that the subject was consent. The form was mostly a technicality because the not as creative as they had thought or that creative creativity research did not involve any risk beyond that practices were not as important or necessary. A null encountered in daily life to the subjects and the study was difference would denote no change for an individual. completely optional. After addressing a couple of A. Initial Analysis of the Common Three Questions suggestions, the proposal was approved. In our survey, 67 sets of results were included. As previously stated, the first three questions were common III DATA ANALYSIS The survey for the creativity presentations included two to both surveys. As such, it was possible to directly parts: a pre-lecture survey and a post-lecture survey. The compare individual as well as group responses pre- and pre-lecture survey was designed to test preconceived post-lecture. A qualitative analysis of these three common notions about the subject of creativity as it relates to questions follows: detailed statistical analysis on them successful engineering practices, the subject’s own self- follows in section IIIB. awareness about his or her own creativity, and whether or not creative approaches have worked in the past. These first three questions were administered before the lecture and were all quantitative. Subjects were asked to grade these questions on a scale of one to ten with one being the lowest in necessity, creativity, or effectiveness respectively. The post-lecture survey was administered after the lecture and included the same three original questions along with four questions that required qualitative answers. These four questions asked: what the subject felt were traits and characteristics of a creative person; the best ways to enhance creativity in small group settings; scientific and technological innovations that were made possible with creativity; and challenges overcome with the robots used during the first semester. These final four questions were asked after the conclusion of the lecture to encourage reflection on the lecture topics and personal revelations about the subject’s own self-awareness of their creativity. The qualitative questions that preceded them served a similar function.

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1. Do you consider yourself a creative person? Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10 with 1 being not creative and 10 being highly creative. The distribution of pre- and post-lecture responses to this question is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pre- and post-lecture results for question 1

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Fraction of Responses

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 The distribution shows some positive shift in responses due to the lecture: the mean score increased from 6.88 to 45% 7.13 with 34% of the individuals reporting an increase and 40% 18% reporting a decrease in their perception of self35% creativity.

2. Do you consider creativity necessary for solving engineering problems? Rate your decision on a scale from 1 to 10 with 1 being not necessary and 10 being absolutely necessary.

Pre-lecture

30%

Post-lecture

25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1

The distribution of pre- and post-lecture responses to this question is shown in Fig. 2.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Score Fig. 3. Pre- and post-lecture results for question 3 There is positive shift in responses due to the lecture: the mean score increased from 7.52 to 7.90 with 28% of the individuals reporting an increase and 10% reporting a decrease in their perception of the need for creativity in engineering problem solving.

Fig. 2. Pre- and post-lecture results for question 2 Again there is some positive shift in responses due to the lecture: the mean score increased from 8.27 to 8.52 with 31% of the individuals reporting an increase while 12% reporting a decrease in their perception of the need for creativity in engineering problem solving.

3. Have creative approaches been successful for you in any problems that you have been presented with? Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10 with 1 being not successful and 10 being highly successful.

The distribution of pre- and post-lecture responses to this question is shown in Fig. 3.

Overall in these three questions, there was a positive increase in higher numerical values of 8, 9, and 10, with a simultaneous drop in the lower numerical values of 5, 6, and 7. This indicated that numbers in the 5, 6, and 7 range could have moved to the higher 8, 9, and 10 range in the post-lecture survey. The final case for improvement rested with the frequency of the integers in the differences of the data sets. Here, the frequency of zeros, positives, and negatives was observed. Zeros occurred with 55% of the population, positives with 31% of the population, and negatives with 13% of the population. From this perspective, a negative shift only occurred with about one fifth of the group. One third remained stagnant and almost half saw a positive shift. Overall, based on qualitative analysis of the numerical data, there seems to be a general positive shift in the population in the understanding of creativity. B. Statistical Analysis of the Common Three Questions Until this point, the analysis has been purely practical and intuitive with assumptions on the data being made with basic mathematical analysis of means and frequencies. To analyze this data, a Wilcoxon signed rank

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 [20] test is appropriate. For this test, two populations of 65, p < .05, two-tailed test) had a statistically significant nonparametric data were required. The Wilcoxon test change in distribution. compared the two sets of data and tested to see if there The results for the Wilcoxon test are displayed in Table was a statistically significant change in distribution 1 along with the Wilcoxon critical values. between the two. TABLE  Wilcoxon results for questions 1-3

The results represented two populations of nonparametric data required for the Wilcoxon test. This test determined if the null hypothesis could be rejected. The null hypothesis means that there is no change in the distribution for the data for a p < 0.05. The test indicated that the overall grouping of scores (totals) was significantly different from pre to post-test (W = 217, z = -3.3919, p < .05, two-tailed test). Therefore, there exists a statistically significant result that there was a change in the distribution of the pre and post-test results for the totals that represents a positive increase. For Question 1 (W = 201, z = -1.8672, p < .05, two-tailed test) and Question 2 (W = 130, z = -1.89203, p < .05, two-tailed test), the z-stat reflected that there was no statistical significance in the distribution of the data with respect to pre and post-lecture surveys. However, the table for W values of the Wilcoxon Test for a two-tailed test with p < 0.05 put both of these W values for Question 1 (W = 201, n = 35) and Question 2 (W = 130, n = 29) just over the critical W value. It was a requirement that the W values be less than the critical values. For Question 1, the critical value was 195 at n = 35 and p < 0.05, a difference of 6 points. For Question 2, the critical value was 126 at n = 29 and p < 0.05, a difference of 4 points. Furthermore, if a z-stat (tie adjusted) score was used for both Question 1 (z-tie adjusted = -1.9670, z-critical = 1.95996) and Question 2 (z-tie adjusted = -1.9870, z-critical = 1.95996), the z-stat score was above the critical value, while only slightly. However, the original z-score indicates that there was no statistical significance. The fact that the data was close to both the W critical value and the z-stat (tie adjusted) critical values for both Question 1 and Question 2 argued for a practical significance in the data. While not statistically significant, the data still increased in distribution despite failing the necessary results to reject the null hypothesis and a practical argument can be made with the results for a change in distribution. The third question, Question 3 (W =

Wilcoxon Result

n

Critical Values

Totals

217

45

343

Question 1

201

35

195

Question 2

130

29

126

Question 3

64.5

26

98

C. Observations on the Four Questions Unique to the Post-Lecture Survey. The final four questions of the post-lecture survey related to material presented in the lecture and personal experiences. 4. What are various characteristics that you would use to describe a creative person? Question 4 asked the survey takers to list the attributes of a creative person. There was a wide range of answers, but the most common by far was someone who can “think outside the box”. The responses to this question are described by a Wordle Diagram [21] shown in Figure 4. Seventeen people answered the question as such. No other attributes come close to being chosen as frequently. There were four adjectives written by at least six people: innovative, intellectual, open-minded, and problem solver. This was less than half the amount of people who chose the first answer. Occasionally there were longer explanations of the words, but for the majority there were only adjectives listed. Two people said that there were various personalities for creative people, and that there was no way to pinpoint one certain creative trait.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013

Fig. 4. A Wordle Diagram representation showing the frequency of responses to question 4. Larger words correspond to a higher frequency.

Fig 5. A Wordle Diagram representation showing the frequency of responses to question 5. Larger words correspond to a higher frequency

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 5. What do you think is the best way to enhance 7. How would you describe the creativity that you creativity in group settings? Why? employ when solving problems related to engineering, such as problems last semester with the The fifth question asked how to improve creativity within robots? Did you use any creative approaches to a group. The key word in the responses for this question solve these problems? Did you think that these was “different”. All of the most popular responses approaches worked well? contained this word: different backgrounds, different ideas, and different people. The main point that most of the responses hit on was the need for diversity. Another Not all participants answered each of the three parts of important idea in the responses to this question was the question 7; about half of the participants left at least one of need to share and combine ideas. Many survey takers the three parts blank. said that it was important to share their own ideas and keep an open mind to other peoples’ ideas. The Some answers were too ambiguous to interpret with responses to this question are described by a Wordle confidence. Other people were unable to answer the last Diagram shown in Figure 5. two parts of the question because they were not at USD for their first semester. Few people actually wrote their answers in complete sentences; most used roughly five 6. Name a technological or scientific innovation that words on each part of the question that they were required creativity. Do you think that this innovation answering. would have been possible without the creative Many people did not “describe the creativity” that they breakthroughs behind it? used to solve problems, but instead stated a problem that One of the qualitative questions we asked the students they overcame, such as “how to improve going around was to list a creative invention. There was a wide range of obstacles.” The question was not answered as intended answers, but there were a few that came up more often making results difficult to analyze. than others. The most popular creative invention that was listed was the cell phone. It is interesting to note that while D. Error Analysis Sources of error in gathering the data include the selfseven students listed “cell phone” as their answer; five other students wrote “iPhone” as theirs. There is some rating scale and differences in presentation. The selfambiguity in analyzing these two answers. On one hand, rating scale asked participants to rate themselves on a they can be seen as virtually the same answer, because scale from 1 to 10 where each question defined the the iPhone is a type of cell phone. However on the other relative strength of the values. The issue with this scale hand, some students could have chosen the iPhone was that it offered too broad a spectrum of numbers; few because of its innovation in the cell phone industry, which participants felt inclined to dip below 5 unless the matter would then separate the iPhone from the cell phone in the was extreme and for moderate to the opposite extreme analysis. These two answers are significant because the others stuck to the 8, 9, and 10. Furthermore, the broad amount of students who listed either of these is double spectrum could have been confusing. On a scale of 1 to that of the next highest answer, the car, listed by six 10, the qualitative difference for a particular individual students. An iPad, computer, and light bulb were chosen between 7 and 8 may have been minimal and the actual four times each. The light bulb represents the only item in assessment of that individual’s choice may have been the most popular inventions that is not technology that has misrepresented. For these reasons, a scale ranging from been recently developed. There were many students who 1 to about 5 may have been more reasonable. Attaching chose inventions that no other students chose; some of a definition to a number such as “strongly agree” for a these are the wheel, the Tesla generator, and the sewing value of 5 could have also made the scale more comprehensive and more easily understood. machine.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 The difference in how the presentations were conducted believed to be improved, and what they can do to apply could have affected the data. A different two-person creativity to engineering. The questions in the survey group gave each presentation; therefore, no presentation included questions asking them to rank themselves on was exactly the same. Particular groups could have been how creative they are, and asked them which more motivating and thus received more positive results. characteristics apply to creative people. The most On the other hand, a more dull presentation could have common answer was “thinks outside the box” which was caused participants to lose interest and not take the test an expected answer. as seriously. A goal of the class was for the members of After analyzing the results from the surveys, several the honors section to gain the experience of preparing, presenting, and assessing a lecture on creativity. Since conclusions can be made. The first is that the presentation the lecture was given by different pairs of students, an definitively altered the students’ perspective on the intrinsic variability due to presentation styles was importance of creativity in the field of engineering. One of unavoidable and contributed to a possible unseen effect the focuses of the lecture was to illustrate how often creativity is necessary in the many types of problem on the collected data. solving that engineers, and many other professionals, IV CONCLUSION face. The presentation showed that creativity can be We originally set out to gain a better idea of how our useful in nearly every aspect of careers and lives. One of fellow freshman engineering students viewed the the results we found most surprising was that some relationship between creativity and engineering. In order students saw themselves as less creative after the lecture; to pursue such an objective we first had to gain a broader we can only assume this is because they realized how perspective on the state of creativity research in general. great the potential is for incorporating creativity into even While there remain many unresolved questions about the the simplest problem solving tasks which they had not neurological processes behind creative thought and done yet. The rest of the results were mainly as expected, whether creativity is innate or learned, we presented a but we were glad to see that some of the answers did lecture to our peers on a basis that creativity is something improve after the presentation. we should all strive to incorporate into our engineering careers. We looked into research on neurological studies that try to figure out what in the brain relates to creativity. There is a lot of research being conducted about how to improve creativity. One of the theories is that creativity is domain specific, so it is necessary to focus on creativity in certain traits. There is also a lot of work on personality traits relating to creativity. Overall, the research we looked into taught us about the various methods for improving creativity in minor ways, and applying those improvements to engineering. After collecting theories on how best to improve creativity, we presented to the ENGR 102 classes. They filled out a pre survey, watched and participated in the presentation, then filled out a post survey with the same questions as the pre with a few qualitative questions added. During the presentation the students participated in some creativity tests to give them an idea of how creative they can be when they try. We then gave them information on research being done on creativity, how it is

We set out to find out if creativity is necessary and if it can be improved. We found that the answer to both of those questions is yes and that we just need to figure out how. Presenting this information to the engineering students gave them some insight into how they can help improve their own creativity and utilize it in the future. As more research is done, we hope that more improvements can be made and engineering and all other career fields will benefit.

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[3]

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E. Lumsdaine, and M. Lumsdaine, Creative Problem Solving, McGraw-Hill, Inc., United States, 1995. H. Scott Folger, and Steven E. LeBlanc, Strategies for Creative Problem Solving, Prentice Hall PTR, New Jersey, 1995. J. Daniel Couger, Creative Problem Solving and Opportunity Finding, Boyd & Fraser Publishing Company, Massachusetts, 1995.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 April, 2012. http://www.axonpotential.com/eliteK. Sawyer, “The cognitive neuroscience of creativity: a critical review,” Creativity Research Journal, vol. soccer-players-brains-excel-at-planning-and23, pp. 137-154, 2011. problem-solving (accessed May 26, 2013) K. Hee Kim, “Can We Trust Creativity Tests? A [19] http://wdi.disneycareers.com/en/about-walt-disneyReview of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking imagineering/what-we-do/, (accessed May 26, 2013). (TTCT),” Creativity Research Journal, vol. 18, pp. 3- [20] D. Sheskin, Handbook of Parametric and nd 14, 2006. Nonparametric Statistical Procedures, 2 Ed. A. J. Cropley, “Defining and measuring creativity: Are Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2000 creativity tests worth using?”, Roeper Review, vol. [21] Carmel McNaught and Paul Lam, “Using Wordle as a 23, pp. 72-79, 2000. Supplementary Research Tool,” The Qualitative A. Dietrich, and R. Kanso, “A review of EEG, ERP, Report, vol 15, no 3, May 2010. and neuroimaging studies of creativity and insight,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 136, pp. 822-848, 2012. O. Vartanian, and V. Goel, “Dissociating the roles of right ventral lateral and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex in generation and maintenance of hypotheses is setshift problems,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 15, pp. 11701177, 2005. A. Graff-Geurrero, C. Cruz-Fuentes, J. GarciaReyna, and R. Aurora Chavez-Eakle, “Cerebral blood flow associated with creative performance: a comparative study,” NeuroImage, vol. 38, pp. 519528, 2007. E. Lumsdaine and M. Lumsdaine, “Creative problem solving,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 13, pp. 4-9, 1994. Carl Nordgren, “Carl Nordgren on Creative Populism.” Online video. Ted: Ideas worth Spreading. 19 April, 2011, http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxDuke-CarlNordgren-on-Creat John Baer, “The Case for Domain Specificity of Creativity,” Creativity Research Journal, vol. 11:2, pp. 173-177, 1998. 13] David S. Walonick, “Promoting Human Creativity”, StatPac Survey Research Library. (Walonick,),1993,http://www.statpac.org/walonick/cre ativity.htm (accessed May 26, 2013) Joyce Wycoff., Mindmapping: Your Personal Guide to Exploring Creativity and Problem-Solving, Berkley Trade., 1991. Madara Ogot, and Gül E. Okudan, “Systematic Creativity Methods in Engineering Education: A Learning Styles Perspective,” International Journal of Engineering, vol. 22:3, pp.566-576, 2006 Robert Sternberg, “Implicit theories of intelligence, creativity, and wisdom,”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 49, pp. 607-627,1985. Gerald W. Bracey, “Test Scores in the Long Run.” Phi Delta Kappan 82, no. 8 p 137. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, 2001. Peterson, Dan. “Elite Soccer Players’ Brains Excel at Planning and Problem Solving.” Axon Potential. 26

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013

BER Analysis for WCDMA System In Downlink FDD Mode Juned Khan*,Dr.Suyeb Ahmed Khan**,Dr. Jasvir Singh*** *Mtech Student SSIET Patti**Assot Prof, SSIET Patti, ***Prof Dept of Electronics Technology, GNDU University, Amritsar, Punjab India. Email:suyeb786@yahoo.co.in Abstract— Wideband CDMA is one of the 3

rd

Generation technology, which is now popular in cellular systems due to its superior capacity and performance. Due to wide bandwidth of WCDMA system, support high data rate with variety of services on AWGN channel. Inspite of these advantages, Multiple Access Interference (MAI) is a factor which limits the capacity and performance of DS-CDMA based system. Present paper deals with the study of BER with three kinds of power control assumption (Perfect, Imperfect & variable power). The power control arises because of multiple access interference. The performance of the transmitter power control is one of the several dependent factors for deciding the capacity of WCDMA. It is observed that the performance degradation of a desired user depends on its spreading factor as well as every users (cause of MAI) present in the same network being operated at the variable power control. The performance is based on signal to noise ratio value in achieving the target value -3 of BER (10 ).

data rates in a direct sequences CDMA system as explained in [7]. Power control is the technique to mitigate the effect of interference [16]. In the present study, WCDMA system capacity has been analyzed on perfect, Imperfect & Variable power control. The study of multirate is based on the variable power control. 2. System Model: In downlink Cellular Mobile Communication systems, base station transmit signal to all the users present in a cell independently, since their relative time delays are randomly distributed. K independently number of user use the same carrier frequency and may transmit simultaneously with the base station in a cell [2]. The binary source generates a binary sequence bk(m) contain transmitted signal energy per chip (E ck) with the time shift (  k ) for the K user, where m is the time instant and CkI,CkQ are the PN codes assigned to I and Q channels. The spreaded data X k(t) is given in Eqn.(1).

Keywords: BER Analysis, WCDMA, FDD

X k (t ) 

M

m M

Eck bkI (m)C kI (t  mT   k )

 j Eck bkQ (m)C kQ (t  mT   k )

1. Introduction: The existing mobile communication systems mainly support voice services. Other expected services are data transmission (facsimile) and multimedia services. Further, the increasing demand for information requires an easy way to access and process the information [1]. Several attempts have already been made to approximate the BER in DS-CDMA based system with reduction in MAI and improve the quality of service; [2,3,4]. The aim of 3G systems are to provide a multirate services (from 12.2 kbps to 2 Mbps) to all the users present in a cell, operates with single base station. There are of course many ways to design a multi-rate systems [5,6,7]. In [5] repetition coding was used to support different rates, but this is applicable for the few data rates. A more conventional way is to alter the processing-gain and spread all signals, independently of the bit rate, to the same bandwidth [6]. Different modulation schemes are also supported the multiple

(1) Each transmitted signal is passed through a channel & reaches to the receiver. The channel is modelled by the zero mean Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) n(t) 2 with variance σn . The bit error probability (Pb) on AWGN Gaussian Channel for QPSK modulation is represented in Eqn (2) [2, 9,10]. 1

 2K  1 No  2 Pb  Q    3 ( SF ) 2 Eb  

(2)

Where No is the Gaussian noise one–sided power spectral density, Eb is the signal bit energy, k-1 are the interfering users & SF is the spreading factor. This expression for the Bit Error Probability is obtained with perfect power[14]. In downlink all the users are handled

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 by a single base station and transmit their data with users present at adjacent cell of radius (r i). Assume that spreading factor (64) at 5 MHz bandwidth. Perfect the users are located in a cell are uniformly distributed. Power means the entire signal transmitted from the base So those users present near the base station will station is same for all the users present in the cell. operate at high signal power strength with those present at the far [10]. Kj is an active user in ring (j) and Ki -1 are 3. Study of Probability of Error with Spreading the interfering user present at the different location. So Factor at Imperfect Power: the interference contribute from the interfering user (Ki1) from the adjacent cell to the desired user is a function The base station controls its transmission power to of power strength. the different users according to the position and interference situation with in a cell. Imperfect power 1 7 means the Users are operated at different power     2 P   i  according their position[13].Those users present near N0 2  i 2   .K i  1 (4) the base station would be operating with the high power Pb  Q   2 E 3 SF P  b j and suffer less interference. But those users present at    the cell edge would operate at low power and also    suffered by high interference form same cell and other cell. When the power control is imperfect, the received Since all users have the same signal to noise ratio per amplitude Ak of the k-th user can be modelled as bit, the received power for the different users will be random variable with uniform distribution around the different for different data rates from the single base nominal value of the received power level Ao. This station, resulting in near far effects. Assume that the means that the probability density function of Ak can be different users are operated with different data rate. Therefore, the data rates can be ordered as R1=1/T1> R2 used = 1/T2 >……..>Rn=1/Tn with the spreading factor 64 at 5 1 MHz bandwidth. Also assume that all bit rates are A0  V  Ak  A0  V f ( Ak )  multiples of the rates Rn and that the powers Pi, such 2V that all users in sub cell transmit at same signal to noise Where, V is the maximum variation range of the ratio per bit Eb [8, 11]. Than the performance of user (Ki) received signal with respect to the mean value A0 [16, with multirate (Ri) for probability of error in a QPSK 17]. Then, in the case of conventional correlation type modulated system is expressed in Eqn (5). receiver, the probability of Error are given in Eqn (3).

1

 N  V2  2 K i  11  2 3 A0    i 1 Pb  Q  3( SF )   

  n  2   Ri  N 2 0 i  1  Pb  Q   .K i  1    2 Eb 3SF R j      

1 2

       No  (3)  2 Eb   

4. Study of Multi-Rate Services with Spreading Factor at variable Power: Multirate mean variable data rates, produced by varying received power of the user as a function of its position in a cell. The present study considers a single hexagonal cell configuration for multirate that consists of seven circular rings each having a different radius (r i) and the numbering is start from the inner ring as shown in figure (1). A base station (BS1) is located at the centre of the hexagonal cell and all the mobile users present in a circular ring around the base station. Assuming that first ring is an active cell of desired user with radius (rj) and their received signal power from the base station is Pj. Similarly, Pi is the received power of

(5)

Where Ri refer to variable data rate, whereas Rj refer to active user data rate. In QPSK modulation many channels are available in parallel to achieve a high data rate for all the users at fixed spreading factor. Assume that Ro be the constant data rate in one QPSK Channel for desired user, for multirate data, which are multiples of this rate have been used [12]. So the effect of near far is negligible and Bit Error Rate is obtained by substitute the value of Ro in place Rj for an active user in a single QPSK channel in Eqn (5).

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 N Pb  Q  0  2 Eb  

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 1 orthogonality way that is retain in the receiver. So these  n  2 users’ causes the Multiple Access Interference to be  Ri  non-zero and the performance of the system is 2  i 1  .K i  1 (6) deteriorates as the number of users is increased.  

3SF

 

R0

  

Eqn (6) is used to study the multirate scenario in the absence of any channel property for the calculation of BER in WCDMA system. 5. Performance Analysis: The multi users have been operated with a single base station are spreaded by channelization sequence. The different sequences are assigned to the different users so that all users are being orthogonal in a cell. Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor code (OVSF) are used as a channelization sequences [18] and they enable orthogonal transmission with variable spreading factor. Walsh-Hadamard codes are used to generate orthogonal codes with different spreading factors. Spreading Factor for FDD downlink mode of WCDMA is n calculated by SF =512/2 , where n is the number of bits in each slot [19]. At the receiver site, the capability to recover a given user signals are directly influenced by the spreading factor. Higher the spreading factor greater the capability to recover a given user’s signal. The performance of WCDMA system is based on Bit Error Rate (BER) for the various number of interference at different value of Spreading factor, when Eb/No is varying from (2-20). Each user is a source of interference for other users, and the interference is bigger, if the operating users are high. Present study deals with three case of power control. In first case, assumes that all the users transmit at the same power (transmit power and received power are same) and the type of service is same for all. The Calculated result from Eqn (SF Last EQn), shows how the number of users and the type of service degrading the BER performances[15]. It is observed from the figure (1) that system becomes interference limited as the Number of Interference is increased (from 2 to 5) one by one at the fixed value of spreading factor (32) with the varying condition of Signal to Noise ratio (Eb/No), the required quality of service (BER) is decreased. The target value -3 of BER (10 ) is achieved at Eb/No is 5.9 dB, when there is single interference with the desired user. But as the interference users are increased from 1 to 4 the -3 achievable target i.e BER 10 is achieved at Eb/No is 11.1 dB. At low spreading factor, the other users are not aligned in time therefore the code do not align in an

Figure (2) shows that as the spreading factor -3 increases from 32 to 64, the target BER (10 ) is attained at Eb/No is 5.6 dB with the single interference present along with the desired user. But the main difference occurred at the higher number of user, the target value of BER is attained at Eb/No is 7.2 dB with the 4 user. The better orthogonality between the users with the spreading factor 64 are maintained and hence, decreases the MAI effect in WCDMA system and increase the performance of the network. The difference between the two services at higher number of interference is 3.9 dB in term of signal to noise ratio -3 (Eb/No) for achieving the target value BER (10 ). The spectral efficiency of a DS-CDMA system can be represented as (Eb/No*)/(Eb/No) where (Eb/No)> (Eb/No*). A reduction in the operating value of Eb/No from 11.1 dB to 9 dB is accompanied by an increase in spectral efficiency of 81.4 %. With a 2.1 dB decrease in Eb/No, the system utilization is increased from 4 to 7 Users. Figure (3) shows the comparison between the two services of SF 32 and 64 at varying condition of Eb/No for the fixed user (three). The performance of the desired user is much better with SF (64) for fixed number of interference. Increasing of SF leads to interference reduction. This conclusion is an intrinsic property in CDMA systems that interference is vice versa with spreading factor. In downlink, different signals of users are synchrounous and therefore because users orthogonally, a remarkable interference is eliminated and that paths that are not separable by rake receiver have effect on desired signal. But in Uplink because users transmit the signal randomly, there are not orthogonal codes and users are separated by scrambling codes. So, it is assumed that downlink performance is better than uplink. In the Second case, assume that the transmitted power from the single base station to the number of user in the cell is not perfect. Figure (4 & 5) shows the effect of imperfect power control on the performance of a WCDMA system. When the power is imperfect, the transmitted amplitude Ak of the kth user is a random variable with uniform distribution around the nominal value of the received power level Ao. The same performance has been carried out as in figure 1 & 2. The value of k=V/Ao is 0.5 for imperfect power. The target -3 value of BER (10 ) is achieved at 6.8 dB value of Eb/No at SF 32 with single interference but the same result is achieved at 14.2 dB with 4Interference. Whereas, at SF

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BER

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 1.00E+00 (64), Eb/No is 5.2 dB for single user and 9.2 dB for five 2 User users are required to achieve the target value of BER. 1.00E-01 3 User 4 User As expected, that the BER is significantly lower 1.00E-02 5 User increasing spreading factor. In all the analysis the 1.00E-03 performance of the system degrades respect to the case 1.00E-04 of perfect power as shown in figure (6). 1.00E-05 1.00E-06 1.00E-07 1.00E-08 2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Eb/No

Figure 2 BER Vs Eb/No at Spreading Factor 64 in WCDMA downlink Mode. The number of interference users varies from 2 to 5.

1.00E+00 SF = 32 1.00E-01

SF = 64

1.00E-02

BER

In the third case varying power is the base multirate study. To evaluate the performance for multirate services in WCDMA system at 5 MHz Bandwidth, first fix, the number of user (Ki) at 5 and spreading factor (SF) with the function of signal to noise ratio. To study the different multirate schemes, three data rates such as Ri = Ro, Ri = 2Ro & Ri = 4Ro have considered. These different data rate services are occupied by the interfering users at fixed data rate of active user (R o). High data rate users require greater value of Eb/No in -3 achieving the target value of BER (10 ) [12]. They achieve this by transmitted the signal at high power. This in turn implies higher level of interference and consequently a decrease in capacity in the network. So the presence of high data rate interferer user degrades the performance of the desired user more than the low data rate interfererâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s user as shown in figure 7 & 8.

1.00E-03

1.00E-04

1.00E-05

The present study result has compared with Lehnert [4] result and showed the better performance with the combined effect

1.00E-06

1.00E-07

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Eb/No 1.00E+00 2 User 3 User

1.00E-01

Figure 3 BER Vs Eb/No with two Spreading Factor (32, 64) at fixed Number of Interference Three.

4 User 5 User

BER

1.00E-02

1.00E-03

1.00E-04

1.00E+00 User 2

1.00E-05

User 3

1.00E-01

User 4 1.00E-06

User 5

1.00E-02

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

BER

1.00E-07 20

Eb/No

1.00E-03

1.00E-04

1.00E-05

Figure 1 BER Vs Eb/No at Spreading Factor 32 in WCDMA Downlink Mode. The number of interferences users varies from 2 to 5.

1.00E-06 2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Eb/No

Figure 4 BER Vs Eb/No with Spreading Factor 32 in WCDMA downlink Mode at Imperfect Power. The number of interference users varies from 2 to 5.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.10 OCTOBER 2013 1.00E+00 User 2 1.00E-01

User 3

1.00E+00

User 4

1.00E-02

User 5

Ri=Ro at SF 64

1.00E-03

BER

1.00E-01

Ri=2Ro at SF 64

1.00E-04

Ri=4Ro at SF 64

BER

1.00E-05

1.00E-02

1.00E-06 1.00E-07

1.00E-03

1.00E-08 2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Eb/No

1.00E-04 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Eb/No

Figure 5 BER Vs Eb/No with Spreading Factor 64 in WCDMA downlink Mode at Imperfect Power. The number of interference users varies from 2 to 5.

Figure8 Study of Multi Rate services with SF (64)

Conclusion:

BER

1.00E+00 1.00E-01

User 2 at Imperfect Pow er

1.00E-02

User 2 at perfect Pow er

1.00E-03 1.00E-04 1.00E-05 1.00E-06 1.00E-07 2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

Eb/No

Figure 6 Comparison of BER at Perfect & Imperfect Power BER with Spreading Factor 64 at 2 User in WCDMA downlink Mode.

1.00E+00 Ri=Ro at S F 32 Ri=2Ro at S F 32 Ri=4Ro at S F 32

BE R

1.00E-01

The problem of describing the interference generated by a number of users in a asynchronous WCDMA system is made a complex task by the inherent unpredictability of the wireless communication scenario. The Gaussian Approximation, by mean of the central limit theorem theory and power control lead to a fundamental simplification of the MAI problem, thus allowing an analytical development and a very computationally efficient solution for the system performance estimate in term of BER. Different kind of data rates have studied on the basis of variable power control at constant chip rate in WCDMA system. It has been seen that the operating condition of signal to noise ratio with high data rate services is found to be high. But at high value of spreading factor independent to power control, the signal to noise ratio for achieving the target value of BER is found to be lower. It is due to the better orthogonality code are used to the desired user along with the interference users. In this paper we have only considered the simple multirate services for the performance of WCDMA system. The same performance can be improved by the inclusion of efficient coding methods and multiuser detection algorithm. References:

1.00E-02

[1]

[2]

1.00E-03 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

E b/No

Figure 7 Study of Multi Rate services with SF (32)

[3]

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Tero ojanpera, Ramjee Prasad, Wideband CDMA for third Generation Mobile Communication, Artech House year 2000. Suyeb Ahmed khan, Jasvir Singh, Mahmood Mian “Performance of Different Spreading Factor in WCDMA Downlink FDD Mode”, International Journal of Lateral Computing 3 (2006) 236-252. K. Yao, “Error probability of asynchronous spread spectrum multiple access communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., pp. 803–809, Aug. 1977.

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[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

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