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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: editor@ijitce.co.uk Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 17/14 Ganapathy Nagar 2nd Street Ekkattuthangal Chennai -600032 Mobile: 91-7598208700

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

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IJITCE PUBLICATION

International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Vol.3 No.11 June 2013

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about Categorization of At 900 MHz carrier frequency equalizing the Doppler effect, GPS – IMU based Autonomous Target Tracking Algorithm. Let us review research around the world this month; People need to know manual understanding of any system before and after automation. Today our children mostly depend on calculator. We need to ensure they should understand fundamentals very clear. A recent report reviles that the automated systems at issue span the whole gamut of computerised flight aids, including autopilot and automatic control of speed and landing, which save the pilot work that computers are supposedly better. Cockpit computers also run safety checks that ensure, for instance, that the plane's wing always bites into the airflow at the right lift-producing angle. But the FAA report found that pilots can get "addicted" to the automation – and that that dependence must be combated with fresh training. One reason is that trouble can arise when pilots believe flight parameters are being automatically maintained when, for some reason, they are not. Tiny flying robots usually mimic nature's flyers, like birds and insects – but perhaps that's due to a lack of imagination. A four-winged design created by Leif Ristroph and colleagues at New York University, which boasts a body plan reminiscent of a jellyfish, is more stable in the air than insect-like machines. The prototype consists of a carbon-fibre frame surrounded by two pairs of thin plastic wings that open and close when driven by a motor. Its shape allows it to fly upright with little effort, without requiring sensors or intelligence to adjust its wings like those used by insects. "Making a dumb machine is a nice strategy for very small robots," says Ristroph. "Without circuits and sensors, it's also lighter." LED carpet turns the floor into a screen. The carpet is the result of a collaboration between Dutch carpet-maker Desso of Waalwijk and display and lighting firm Philips of Eindhoven. The trick was to engineer a carpet backing that could transmit light, says Desso's Ludwig Cammaert. Instead of the usual opaque, rubbery resin, Cammaert built a translucent plastic backing that can stand up to heavy wear and tear. This is laid on top of a 10-millimetre-thick steel screen peppered with LEDs. The carpet could provide animated signage on the floors of shops, theatres, and hotels, says Ed Huibers of Philips. And at airports, arrows could point passengers toward their departure gate, for example. "Architects are looking into other interesting applications now, too – such as placing QR codes on the floor".

It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technologies related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.

Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at Shangai Jiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin, Germany Dr. Marco L. Bianchini Ph.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM), Italy Dr. Nijad Kabbara Ph.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh, Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University, No. 303, University Road, Puli Town, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Mr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP Project Manager - Software, Applied Materials, 1a park lane, cranford, UK Dr. Bulent Acma Ph.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics, Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP), 26470 Eskisehir, TURKEY Dr. Selvanathan Arumugam Ph.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602, USA.

Review Board Members Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168, Australia Dr. Zhiming Yang MD., Ph. D. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science,1550 Orleans Street Rm 441, Baltimore MD, 21231,USA Dr. Jifeng Wang Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA Dr. Giuseppe Baldacchini ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 45 - P.O. Box 65,00044 Frascati, Roma, ITALY. Dr. Mutamed Turki Nayef Khatib Assistant Professor of Telecommunication Engineering,Head of Telecommunication Engineering Department,Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), Tul Karm, PALESTINE.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 Dr.P.Uma Maheswari Prof & Head,Depaartment of CSE/IT, INFO Institute of Engineering,Coimbatore. Dr. T. Christopher, Ph.D., Assistant Professor & Head,Department of Computer Science,Government Arts College(Autonomous),Udumalpet, India. Dr. T. DEVI Ph.D. Engg. (Warwick, UK), Head,Department of Computer Applications,Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-641 046, India. Dr. Renato J. orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Visiting Scholar at INSEAD,INSEAD Social Innovation Centre,Boulevard de Constance,77305 Fontainebleau - France Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business SchoolRua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Javad Robati Crop Production Departement,University of Maragheh,Golshahr,Maragheh,Iran Vinesh Sukumar (PhD, MBA) Product Engineering Segment Manager, Imaging Products, Aptina Imaging Inc. Dr. Binod Kumar PhD(CS), M.Phil.(CS), MIAENG,MIEEE HOD & Associate Professor, IT Dept, Medi-Caps Inst. of Science & Tech.(MIST),Indore, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, India Dr. doc. Ing. Rostislav Choteborský, Ph.D. Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie Technická fakulta,Ceská zemedelská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168 DR.Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg.,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Mr. Abhishek Taneja B.sc(Electronics),M.B.E,M.C.A.,M.Phil., Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Applications, at Dronacharya Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra. (India). Dr. Ing. Rostislav Chotěborský,ph.d, Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie, Technická fakulta,Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 Dr. Amala VijayaSelvi Rajan, B.sc,Ph.d, Faculty – Information Technology Dubai Women’s College – Higher Colleges of Technology,P.O. Box – 16062, Dubai, UAE

Naik Nitin Ashokrao B.sc,M.Sc Lecturer in Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya Nanded University Dr.A.Kathirvell, B.E, M.E, Ph.D,MISTE, MIACSIT, MENGG Professor - Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Tagore Engineering College, Chennai Dr. H. S. Fadewar B.sc,M.sc,M.Phil.,ph.d,PGDBM,B.Ed. Associate Professor - Sinhgad Institute of Management & Computer Application, Mumbai-Banglore Westernly Express Way Narhe, Pune - 41 Dr. David Batten Leader, Algal Pre-Feasibility Study,Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels,CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship Private Bag 1,Aspendale, Vic. 3195,AUSTRALIA Dr R C Panda (MTech & PhD(IITM);Ex-Faculty (Curtin Univ Tech, Perth, Australia))Scientist CLRI (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai - 600 020,India Miss Jing He PH.D. Candidate of Georgia State University,1450 Willow Lake Dr. NE,Atlanta, GA, 30329 Jeremiah Neubert Assistant Professor,Mechanical Engineering,University of North Dakota Hui Shen Mechanical Engineering Dept,Ohio Northern Univ. Dr. Xiangfa Wu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor / Mechanical Engineering,NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY Seraphin Chally Abou Professor,Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart,MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall,1305 Ordean Court,Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. Qiang Cheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,Computer Science Department Southern Illinois University CarbondaleFaner Hall, Room 2140-Mail Code 45111000 Faner Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 Dr. Carlos Barrios, PhD Assistant Professor of Architecture,School of Architecture and Planning,The Catholic University of America Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,S찾o Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8째 andar)01332-000, S찾o Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Wael M. G. Ibrahim Department Head-Electronics Engineering Technology Dept.School of Engineering Technology ECPI College of Technology 5501 Greenwich Road Suite 100,Virginia Beach, VA 23462 Dr. Messaoud Jake Bahoura Associate Professor-Engineering Department and Center for Materials Research Norfolk State University,700 Park avenue,Norfolk, VA 23504 Dr. V. P. Eswaramurthy M.C.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. P. Kamakkannan,M.C.A., Ph.D ., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. V. Karthikeyani Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 008, India. Dr. K. Thangadurai Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College ( Autonomous ), Karur - 639 005,India. Dr. N. Maheswari Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of MCA, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattangulathur, Kanchipiram Dt - 603 203, India. Mr. Md. Musfique Anwar B.Sc(Engg.) Lecturer, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mrs. Smitha Ramachandran M.Sc(CS)., SAP Analyst, Akzonobel, Slough, United Kingdom. Dr. V. Vallimayil Ph.D., Director, Department of MCA, Vivekanandha Business School For Women, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode - 637 205, India. Mr. M. Moorthi M.C.A., M.Phil., Assistant Professor, Department of computer Applications, Kongu Arts and Science College, India Prema Selvaraj Bsc,M.C.A,M.Phil Assistant Professor,Department of Computer Science,KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode Mr. G. Rajendran M.C.A., M.Phil., N.E.T., PGDBM., PGDBF., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem, India. Dr. Pradeep H Pendse B.E.,M.M.S.,Ph.d Dean - IT,Welingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, Mumbai, India Muhammad Javed Centre for Next Generation Localisation, School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dr. G. GOBI Assistant Professor-Department of Physics,Government Arts College,Salem - 636 007 Dr.S.Senthilkumar Post Doctoral Research Fellow, (Mathematics and Computer Science & Applications),Universiti Sains Malaysia,School of Mathematical Sciences, Pulau Pinang-11800,[PENANG],MALAYSIA.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 Manoj Sharma Associate Professor Deptt. of ECE, Prannath Parnami Institute of Management & Technology, Hissar, Haryana, India RAMKUMAR JAGANATHAN Asst-Professor,Dept of Computer Science, V.L.B Janakiammal college of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Assoc. Professor, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India Dr. Saurabh Pal Associate Professor, UNS Institute of Engg. & Tech., VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India Manimala Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation, St Joseph’s College of Engineering & Technology, Choondacherry Post, Kottayam Dt. Kerala -686579 Dr. Qazi S. M. Zia-ul-Haque Control Engineer Synchrotron-light for Experimental Sciences and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME),P. O. Box 7, Allan 19252, Jordan Dr. A. Subramani, M.C.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D. Professor,Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode - 637215 Dr. Seraphin Chally Abou Professor, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart. MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall, 1305 Ordean Court Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. K. Kousalya Professor, Department of CSE,Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai-638 052 Dr. (Mrs.) R. Uma Rani Asso.Prof., Department of Computer Science, Sri Sarada College For Women, Salem-16, Tamil Nadu, India. MOHAMMAD YAZDANI-ASRAMI Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Babol "Noshirvani" University of Technology, Iran. Dr. Kulasekharan, N, Ph.D Technical Lead - CFD,GE Appliances and Lighting, GE India,John F Welch Technology Center, Plot # 122, EPIP, Phase 2,Whitefield Road,Bangalore – 560066, India. Dr. Manjeet Bansal Dean (Post Graduate),Department of Civil Engineering ,Punjab Technical University,Giani Zail Singh Campus, Bathinda -151001 (Punjab),INDIA Dr. Oliver Jukić Vice Dean for education, Virovitica College, Matije Gupca 78,33000 Virovitica, Croatia Dr. Lori A. Wolff, Ph.D., J.D. Professor of Leadership and Counselor Education, The University of Mississippi, Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, 139 Guyton University, MS 38677

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

Contents BUNDH BREEDING – REJUVENATION OF A NOVEL TECHNOLOGY FOR QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION BY THE FISH SEED PRODUCERS OF BANKURA DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA. by N.R.Chattopadhyay, P.P.Ghorai, S.K.De…......................................................................................................[145]

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

BUNDH BREEDING – REJUVENATION OF A NOVEL TECHNOLOGY FOR QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION BY THE FISH SEED PRODUCERS OF BANKURA DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA N.R.Chattopadhyay1, P.P.Ghorai2, S.K.De3 1 Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fishery Sciences, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, 5-Budherhat Road, P.O- Panchasayar, Kolkata – 94, West Bengal, India. 2, 3 Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University, Medinipur (West) - 721102, West Bengal, India E-mail: nrchatterjee@yahoo.com Abstract - Bundh breeding is a traditional method for quality seed production in captivity and practiced by fish seed producers of Bengal since long time. The seeds produced through such method, due to its quality had a considerable demand in the country. After the introduction of induced breeding technology, the farmers were interested in procuring seed produced out of induced breeding mainly to overcome the transportation hazards. The farmers again realized that the seeds procured from hatcheries are not only qualitatively inferior but interfere with production. With this realization, the fish breeders of Bankura district of West Bengal, India started bundh breeding with a new approach and modified form. The seeds produced at present can be compared to wild collection and are more economic compared to induced breeding. This has revolutionized the quality seed production through bundh breeding in Bengal.

that sustainability in aquaculture primarily depends on quality seed production and its steady supply to farming sector. As the fish seed is the major input for fish farming, there is always a growing demand of quality fish seed. In early fifties and before more than 70% of seed required for cultural practice had been contributed by bundh breeding of Bankura and Medinipur district (Khanna, S.S, An Introduction to Fishes, 1992, pp 506 – 512) due to the presence of undulating terrain with vast catchment area in both the districts. Bankura was pioneer in respect of production of fish seed of Indian major carp by simulating natural conditions in captivity. The seeds produced through such technology is being considered as good as the seeds collected from nature in terms of quality and productivity, particularly when the natural source is declining fast due to several changes in physico-chemical and biological properties of water and air, the demand for such seed is again gaining importance.

Keywords: Bundh breeding, technology, Quality seed.

Bundh are nothing but specialized types of pond in the vicinity of vast catchment area where riverine conditions are simulated during breeding season due to steady and rapid flow of rain water from the catchment area towards the pond .These ponds are constructed in the midst of a vast low lying area with proper embankment to receive large quantity of rain water from catchment area after heavy shower. Bundh are of two types one is dry bundh or seasonal bundh and another is wet bundh or perennial bundh (Dhote, A.K . Fish Breeding, NCERT ; pp

Induced

breeding

Introduction Fish is the cheapest and easily digestible source of animal protein not only in India but in almost all the developing and developed countries of the world in various forms. Production of fish depends primarily on the availability of good quality of seed. It is now a realized fact

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 33 – 43) A dry bundh has been described as a shallow depression enclosed by an earthen wall (locally known as bundh) on three sides, which receives fresh rain water from the catchment area during the monsoon season. Such impoundments, which remain more or less dry during a greater part of the year, are known as dry bundh. The topography of the land has a great role to play in the location and distribution of dry-bundh. The wet bundh is a kind of small or large perennial pond or tank, in the midst of a low-lying area, bounded on three sides by high embankments. In summer, generally a quarter parts of most of these bundh dries up, while the central part, deeper than the surrounding area always holds some water. These ponds are stocked with brood fish for use in breeding season. During the monsoons, when water from the catchment areas rushes towards the central part in the form of streamlets, the fish move towards the surrounding shallower region of the pond ( locally known as moan ) and perform sex ply and spawn within 4-5 hours. The fertilized eggs are collected with gamcha or scoop net and are placed in hatching hapa or hatching pits constructed around the pond by removing required amount of surface soil. Before the introduction of hypophysation technique this was the main source of fish seed supply not only to state but to the whole country and the farmers preferred it because the seeds are as good as the natural seed collected from river. With the introduction of induced breeding technology, the easiest procedure for the production of quality seed in captivity, farmers of Bengal, in particular, adopted the technology prior to other states and shouldered the responsibility for production of quality seeds in captivity. Primarily farmers, who were initially depended on the seed source (70 %) from Bundh breeding except natural source, started depending on the seeds developed through hypophysation, may be due quality assurance, easy availability and less price.

and are creating a negative impact on culture practice,the importance of Bundh breeding gaining importance with a new look. With these understanding the fish breeders of Bankura and Midinipur district started raising seed of carps with scientific approaches of programe , but till today the practice of bundh breeding of Bankura district specially in Panchmura area is one which was being practiced in early fifties with a traditional mode. The pecularity is that the soil of this area is characteristically different from other areas of the district. The soil when mixed with water in hatching pond it offers buyancy to the fertilized eggs and the eggs remains floating .This enhances hatching rate. Otherwise the fertilized eggs settles at the bottom and hatching is impaired.

Site Description The breeding site is located is located in the villages of Panchmura, Dhobajor , Bapmara, Radhanagar, P.OPanchmura, P.S- Taldangra under Taldangra Gram Panchyet, in khatra sub-division of Bankura District in West Bengal , pin code – 722156, (Fig.1)India. 0 Geographically the said places are located 22.9667 North 0 and 87.1667 East. It has an average elevation of 68 meter (223 ft.).The bundh are situated 33 Km. from Bishnupur Railway station and 14 Km. from Taldangra, 43 Km from Bankura Railway station by road. Nearest Railway station is Piardoba of South Eastern Railway which is 22 Km. away from panchmura, the Ideal breeding place of Indian major carp. Fish farmers of Panchmura area of Bankura district practice this age old novel technology of quality seed production in a modified form considering the need of the time. The fish breeders mainly undertake breeding of Indian Major Carps (IMC) but sometimes exotic carps like silver carps and grass carps are considered depending on the mandate from the farmers. The study is based on an exclusive field survey and farmers Interview following a questioner schedule.

For a considerable period this traditional and novel technology of quality seed production sector faced a setback following the criteria mentioned along with some other associated problems. Now, when it is realised that due to profit making approaches of fish breeders, the seeds produced out of induced breeding lost its quality

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 to the bundh, but in the absence of stocking pond brooders are transferred to the breeding site during the time of breeding either by cycle or van rickshaw with the help of large sized aluminum handi (20 lit capacity) with an opening of 20 inches.

Fig.1. Location of Panchmura in the map of Bankura district Present status and workingrinciple of bundh breeding in Panchmura of Bankura district, West Bengal, India Brood Stock Management For any breeding programme brood stock management is considered to be the primary criteria on which success of the seed production at desired level is achieved. Bundh breeding conducted during pre-monsoon (month of March to May), monsoon (month of June & July) and post-monsoon period (month of August) and for this brood stock management is a continuous process in the area of study. only few big farmers have their own land ( bundh) including stocking pond( Plate.1,a&b) and breeding pool, but maximum number of farmers ( small and marginal ) adopt bundh on lease during breeding season and used to collect brood from leased bundh or collect matured brood fish from neighboring village . Prior to breeding the brood fish are stocked in ponds adjacent

Plate.1, a&b. Stocking pond in Panchmura village of Bankura district Breeding Practice For success in breeding, good breeding ground & favorable climatic condition is the primary criteria .Again the brood fish should be at the ripe stage of maturity ,and if not , breeding will not be successful instead of favorable criteria. The fish breeders generally, adopt natural breeding and stripping is a rare occasion. Sympathetic

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 breeding, in which small number of fishes of a breeding group are induced and are released in bundh with noninduced one, so that non-induced fish will be stimulated by the spawning behavior of induced fishes. This practice reduces not only the hazards to induce individual fish but to some extent reduce the cost. Compare to induce breeding the seed produced through Bundh breeding qualitatively more superior than that of induced breeding. The fish farmer should be encouraged to stock the seeds collected from Bundh and the seeds of induced fish breeders who are produce quality seeds. Govt. and institutional level initiative is needed to create overall appraisal regarding collection of quality seeds.

Preparation of breeding bundh Bundh is a shallow pond (length-50ft × width-30ft × depth-6ft) having slope from one end to other (Plate. 3 & 4 ) in such that in the upper end water depth is 4ft.,while at the lower end it is 6ft and having an embankment. Generally the breeding ground is sandy. Water is supplied to the bundh from shallow pump or from the nearby rivulet by diesel pump or by electric motor pump which is available. Water height maintained 2.5 ft at the upper end and 3.5ft at the lower end. Along with the inflowing water towards bund, the farmer used to mix one type of special soil, available in this area and collected from 10 ft below the surface soil. They are convinced that this soil imparts buoyancy to the fertilized eggs to float in water after spawning. According to the fish breeders, this also increases hatching percentage in bundh (Plate.2). The breeding bundh has the capacity to hold about 200kg.to 300 kg. Brood fish for single game. Although the number and weight of brood fish released to the breeding pond depend upon the availability of brood fish and demand of fish seed. After completion of one game entire water is drained out and the breeding ground is washed thoroughly and left for one or two days for removal of bad odor and again prepare the bundh for next cycle.

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Plate.2. Soil available in the area useful for spawning and hatching, particularly prohibit clamping of eggs.

Plate.3 Farmers’ engaged in preparation of

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

Plate.4. Sun drying of breeding bundh breeding bundh.

Plate. 6 Netting for collection of brood fish

Transfer of brood fish As soon as the preparation of the breeding pool (pond) is completed, the farmers collect brood fish from stocking bundh and release selected mature broods in the ratio of 1:1 (male: female) in the breeding bundh. After release water supply is maintained in the morning between 6 a.m. to 10am (Plate.5). This facilitates fish movement as well stimulate breeders to go for breeding following courtship.

Plate.7,8. Selection of mature broods for Injection

Plate. 5 Water inlet into the breeding bundh

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

Plate.10, a

Plate. 9 Sun drying of net

Inducing agent The fish breeders of Panchmura areas are now using WOVA-FH (chemically salmon Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Analogue and Domperidone), a synthetic inducing agent. Just before administration of injection, and 4 hours after their collection, the brooders (both male and female) are caught from the brooders pond and used to keep them in net or hapa to be taken for injection at ease (Plate.7). The fish breeders exploit sympathetic breeding by injecting only 90 brood fish out of 300 considered for a single game. For this they prepare 90 ml of diluted solution by adding 80 ml of saline water to 10 ml of inducing agent (WOVA-FH). Now, out of 300 broods (150 pc male+150pc female) the fish breeders inject the diluted inducing agent only to 90 pieces (Plate. 10,a&b) i.e. only 30% of total brood fish are induced (30 piece male + 60 piece female). Both the male and females are injected only one dose at the rate of 1 ml. diluted solution per kg. body weight in case of Indian Major Carp. Although percentage of brood fish to be injected and dose of inducing agent varies depending upon temperature, maturity of brood fish and the period of breeding season(i.e., pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon).

Plate.10, b Plate.10, a & b.Injection of WOVA-FH to a catla fish on the bank of a breeding bundh in panchmura.

Breeding, spawning &Fertilization After injection the brooders are released again into the breeding bundh (Plate.5 & 6) and within half an hour, the injected male and female exhibit breeding behavior which include sporting. Rapid underwater movement followed by splashing of water is indicative of sporting mood of the breeders. Sporting continues for 2-3 hours in the shallow region of the breeding bundh having a depth of 1 ft. Breeding ends in spawning ,the females start releasing eggs at the shallow region and male being enticed started releasing milt over the eggs, which results in fertilization. Sometime spawning continues for 8 hours and both the sporting, spawning and fertilization is depended on temperature of air and water .Even after completion of spawning, the fish breeders allow the

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 brooders in the breeding bundh along with fertilized eggs for 3-4 hours and kept a strict vigil on the overall conditions of the pond. After sometime the breeders started stirring the water by moving within the pond for declamping the egg mass. The fish breeders conduct this stirring movement in the midnight of first day or day 1. (Plate. 11, a & b).

eggs by net(Plate. 12,a&b). The farmers of Panchmura area transfer the egg from breeding bundh to the hatching bundh by cycle messenger (Plate.14) with aluminum handi (Plate.13, a&b).

Plate.11, a

Plate.12,a&b. Collection of egg from a breeding bundh by net.

Plate.11, b Fig.11,a&b. Water movement by farmers leg to protect settlement of egg in hatching bundh nd

From 2 day onwards as the development of egg proceeds, a point appears in its middle and after 2 to 3 hours, the point changes to a Bengali 5 like structure. Along with this the embryo indicates rapid movement within the egg shell. Immediately the fish breeders started transferring brood fish into stocking pond and release the developing eggs into hatching bundh after collecting the

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 hatching farmers of Panchmura area follow the following process to get maximum result.

Preparation of hatching bundh Hatching bundh is nothing but a series of muddy or earthen pits of various sizes like 38ft. ×15ft. ×4ft., 23ft. ×15ft. ×4ft., 12ft×7ft×4ft. Bottom of the hatching bundh is convex in shape, and so hold more water bodies in the middle than its surroundings (Plate.15). The water depth of the hatching bundh is 2.5 ft in the middle and 1 ft in the surrounding. The water which is used for the hatching process is from shallow or nearby canal of rivulet. Before releasing eggs into the hatching bundh, the fish breeders allow the bundh to be sundried for 3 to 4 days (Plate.15) and fill it with water upto desired level as required for hatching (Plate.16). The fish breeders avoid use of any chemical, cleaning agent or any fertilizer.

Plate.13,a&b.Loading of developing eggs in alluminium handi for its transfer to hatching bundh

Plate.15.Preparation of hatching bundh

Plate.14.Egg transfer to the hatching bundh by cycle carrier

Hatching Plate.16.Hatching bund filled with water

Hatching is a process by which spawn or hatchlings are released from the fertilized egg. For

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 farmers make a shade by palm leave (Fig.20, a&b) to avoid excess heat. When the embryos exhibit rapid twitching movement, the fish breeders supply more water to the bundh to complete hatching. It takes 6 to 7 hours for completion of hatching practice after releasing of egg to the hatching bundh. It is noted that for getting maximum result in hatching in this place the congenital temperature 0 for hatching of Indian major Carp should be 28 C in water 0 and 42 C in air. The fish breeders started preparation of nd hatching bundh for the 2 operation, immediately after the completion of first hatching. (Plate.17).

Plate.17. Cleaning of hatching bundh after completion of a Hatching for reuse Hatching practice After preparing of hatching bundh (Plate.17), the farmers release the egg to the bundh (Plate.18). The amount of egg released for hatching depends on the size of the bundh and environmental condition. They measure the egg by using a special aluminum handi (20’’mouth size) that can contain about 20 liters of water (Fig. 13, a&b). In next day early morning within 5 a.m. to 8 a.m. farmers release the egg in the preselected hatching bundh. Farmers release 1 handi of eggs in 23ft. ×15 ft. ×4 ft. size bundh, 1.5 handi of eggs in 38 ft. ×13 ft. ×3ft. sized bundh and 0.5 handi in 12ft. ×7 ft. ×4ft. sized hatching bundh. Within 20 minutes after releasing of egg to the hatching bundh, they supply water mixed with special soil (and increase the height of water body about 4 inches. In a regular interval they examine the egg in the hatching bundh and wait for the time when the embryo within the egg exhibit quivering movement. From 9 a.m. onwards they enter into the bundh and move the egg in the water by their leg with one hour interval to avoid settlement of egg and maintain temperature to avoid excess heating of upper layer of the water body (Plate.19). But in the month of May and June from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m.

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Plate.18.Fertilized Eggs in hatching bundh

Plate.19. Outlet for draining excess water

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

Plate.21,a&b. Examination of egg at regular interval when hatching time approaches Rearing of hatchlings The hatchlings or spawn remain in the same hatching bundh for two days. Only water temperature is controlled by preparing a shade upon the bundh by palm leave (Plate.20, a&b). Water supply is necessary twice in a day for maintain the height of water bodies. During rearing the fish breeders make a regular examination of the developing hatchlings (Plate.21, a&b).

Plate.20,a&b.Farmers providing shades to the hatching bundh by palm leave for temperature regulation

Plate.22. Rearing of hatchlings Collection of hatchlings From third day onwards since hatching, the hatchlings from different hatching bundh are collected and transferred into hatching hapa. The size of this earthen hapa is 18 ft. Ă— 10 ft. Ă— 4 ft., but it also varies depending upon their availability of the hapa. In pre-monsoon period the carrying capacity of the hapa is 30 bati (135ml. /bati), whereas in monsoon period it is 40 bati. (One bati contain about 40000 to 50000 spawn, age about 3 days)

Production of hatchlings In pre monsoon period hatchling production is 9 to 10 bati (135 ml.) per handi of egg. Whereas in monsoon period the production is much higher than pre-monsoon period (about 10 to 12 bati per handi of egg).

Marketing of spawn or hatchlings

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 On the third day (in hatching bundh) afternoon the hatchlings are counted by special bati (Plate.23 &24) after collecting it from hapa and packed with oxygen in plastic bag for marketing. The packaging of three days hatchling or spawn (size about 5 to 6 mm.) of Panchmura area is made either by oxygen packing in plastic bag (Plate.25). Each bag can hold one bati of spawn or by aluminum handi (each handi contain one bati of spawn).

Plate.25.Packing of spawn for transport

Reference 1. Dhote, A. K . Fish Breeding, NCERT ; pp 33 – 43 2. Khanna, S.S, An Introduction to Fishes, 1992, pp 506 – 512

Plate.23. Collection of spawn from hapa Plate.

24.measurement of spawn for sale

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013

ALERT MESSAGE CREATION BASED ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD ALGORITHM M.JAYAKUMAR, DR.T CHRISTOPHER PG & RESEARCH DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, GOVERNMENT ARTS COLLEGE, UDUMALPET, TAMILNADU, INDIA Jayakumar _mpl@yahoo.co.in ,Chris.hodcs@gmail.com Abstract— Today the worldwide activities of various network is becoming tougher in spite of the availability of organizations, enterprises and institutions, general many cryptographic algorithms [3]. The popular agencies and individuals are done through Internet. cryptographic algorithm is an Advanced Encryption The fast evolution of digital data exchange, security Standard (AES).This algorithm each cipher uses several information becomes much important in data rounds of fixed operations and key generation, storage and transmission. The dramatic increase of distributed to achieve desired security level [4]. Further data theft is a concern for the Internet community as improvement of secure key mixing based Advanced a whole. Cryptography allows people to carry over Encryption Standard algorithm is integrate the function the confidence found in the data transaction of key using 12 digit numeric keys and Date & Time. electronic world; Everyday thousands of people This algorithm used 12 digit numeric keys as a Mobile interact electronically, whether it is through e-mail, Number. So every time encryption process is complete e-commerce, E-banking or overall data the stage alert message send to corresponding receiver. transformation using Internet. The perpetual Last ten numbers is specifying Mobile Number then first increase of information transmitted electronically two numbers are country code. KAES algorithm is has led to an increased reliance on cryptography. maintaining success cryptography vital principle of data Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm provides security, efficiency and flexibility. high security to information on networks. Further 2. Cryptography and Network Security Algorithm secure key mixing based Advanced Encryption Standard (KAES) algorithm is proposed by Due to vast improvement in the fields of modifying the classical Advanced Encryption computation and network technology, in open Standard algorithm. This algorithm is based on networked systems, information is being received and secure keys of 12 digit numeric key (Mobile misused by adversaries by means of facilitating attacks Number). State matrixes are cyclically shifted at various levels in the communication. Every random generation values based and create new concerned about keeping important data confidential, password sent to communicators mobile. KAES file, folder, or disk at encryption is a good solution. algorithms ensure the improved encryption For secure data transmission via Internet or any public performance, high secure and less encryption, network, there is no alternative to cryptography. Many decryption time. KAES algorithm is highly secure of us either knowingly or unknowingly using cryptic while improving the efficiency of cryptography messages while doing online purchase and money algorithms. transfer. And it is widely used by governmental and intelligence agencies around the world to safe Keywords: Secure key, Standard Encryption algorithm, transmission of any format of messages-online or Data security, Data integrity, privacy offline. No data online is secure unless you use any type of cryptography to send your messages. You 1. INTRODUCTION might be thinking what about email we send daily- no email is secure until email system are using any kind of The Internet is a non-secure, potentially hostile cryptography. So, whenever you send some environment for organizations to operate in. The confidential business information to your clients, make challenge is for organizations to harness the benefits sure you always use cryptography. In this hub I will that the Internet provides while they maintain necessary discuss little bit of history and basics of cryptographylevels of data and communication security [1][2].E-mail mainly modern day cryptography. Once you read this carries essential messages for the everyday workings of hub carefully, you will be confident enough to our business. Performing daily business transactions determine which cryptography to use when, because through electronic technologies is an accepted, reliable every crypto algorithm has it strength and weakness. A and necessary tool across the nation. Cryptography main challenge of data security in open network technologies have been developed to help organizations (Internet) is unauthorized access of data, duplicates, secure their systems and data against unauthorized hacking of password, hacking of messages, data loss. access. Security of information transmitted over the

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3. Secure Key based Advanced Encryption Standard The Secure keys mixing based Advanced Encryption Standard have three operational stages:  SubBytes takes the value of a word within a State Matrix and substitutes it with another value by a predefined S-box[5][6]  Shift Cells circularly shifts each column in KAES value KAES value 12 Digit numeric password1 = 919150282698 Dispatcher Mobile Number 12 Digit numeric password2 = 919344820156 Recipient Mobile Number Date & time = 290920130941 Encryption process data & time State matrix decimal valu = random generation Protection Value KAES value = Protection Value => 16 Addition value of Modulo 2 KAES value => create new password (96 to 192 bit key)  MixColumns takes the value of a 4-word column within the State Matrix and changes the four values using a predefined mathematical function[7][8]

Figure-1 Secure Key based AES KAES Algorithm The proposed secure key mixing based Advanced Encryption Standard (KAES) algorithm require a plain text as input and 12 digit numeric keys

(Mobile Numbers) and Date & Time as a key values. The main advantage of this proposed method is only can decrypt the encrypted text at the specific input of Date & Time and password. Further improvement of mobile alertness is new vital aspect of cryptographic world. Encryption Plain (byte in[4*Nb], byte out[4*Nb]) Key1 & Key2 (12 Digit numeric passwords) (Date & Time) Nb=4, 6,8 Nr=11 begin byte State Matrix[4,Nb] State Matrix = in For round = 1 step Nr SubBytes(State Matrix) Shift Cells Based on KAES value and password creation MixColumns(State Matrix) end for SubBytes(State Matrix) Shift Cells based on KAES value and password creation out = State Matrix end Alert message => Password (96bit to 192 bit) and Date & Time Decryption Cipher (byte in[4*Nb], byte out[4*Nb]) Key1 & Key2 (96 to 192 bit key) (Date & Time) Key =true Nb=4,6,8 Nr=11 begin byte State Matrix[4,Nb] State Matrix = in For round = 1 step Nr SubBytes(State Matrix) Shift Cells based on KAES value and password checking MixColumns(State Matrix) end for SubBytes(State Matrix) Shift Cells based on KAES value and password checking out = State Matrix Key=false Out =State Matrix in End 3 .1 The SubBytes transformation The substitute bytes transformation operates on each of the State Matrix bytes independently and changes the byte value [9]. An S-box, or substitution table, controls the transformation. SubBytes transformation is that a given byte in State Matrix s is given a new value in State Matrix s' according to the S-

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 box. The S-box is a function on a byte in State Matrix s so that: s'i,j = S-box (si,j) The general depiction of this transformation is shown Figure-2:

Figure-3 Secure Key based Shift cells 3.3 MixColumn() Transformation The Mix Columns transformation operates on the State column- by-column, treating each column as a four-term polynomial [10]. The columns are considered as 8 4 polynomials over GF (2 ) and multiplied modulo x +1 by a fixed polynomial a (x): 3 A (x) = (03) x + (01) x2+ (01) x+ (02) This can be written as a matrix multiplication as follows: S’(x) = A(x) x S(x)

Figure-2 S-box substitution 3.2 The Shift transformation

Cells

based

on

KAES

value

The shift cells transformation cyclically shifts the bytes based on KAES value. According to KAES value 11 then respectively as shown in Figure 3 SM = ∑

Where 0 ≤ I ≤3, 0 ≤ j ≤3

SC = ∑

Modulo 2

As a result of this multiplication, the four bytes in a column are replaced as [11] S’0, c S’0, c S’0, c S’0, c

= ([02].S0, c) x ([03].S1, c) x S2, c x S3, c = S0, c x ([02].S1, c x ([03].S2, c) x S3, c = S0, c x S1, c x ([02].S2, c) x ([03].S3, c) = ([03].S0, c) x S1, c x S2, c x ([02].S3, c)

16

Where 0 ≤ SC ≤15 SM

=> State Matrix

K1&K2

=> 12 Digit Numeric Values

DT

=> Date & Time State S

State S'

s0,0

s0,1

s0,2

s0,3

s0,0

s0,1

s0,2

s0,3

s1,0

s1,1

s1,2

s1,3

s1,2

s1,3

s1,0

s1,1

s2,0

s2,1

s2,2

s2,3

s2,0

s2,1

s2,3

s3,0

s3,0

s3,1

s3,2

s3,3

s3,1

s3,2

s3,3

s2,2

1A

9D

B7

4D

1A

9D

B7

4D

A8

92

ED

9F

A8

92

ED

9F

3C

4D

FB

FB

3C

4D

FB

51

51

40

F9

4D

40

F9

4D

FB

Figure-4 Mixcolumn multiplication Finally after 12 rounds we get chipper text as shown in Figure-5 FF

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E7

DD

F7

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 B1

7D

5C

F4

AC

68

AC

C6

00

C3

14

2C

Date & Time. Protection improvement of Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm is inbuilt the part of numeric password (Mobile Number). KAES value based on Shift cells process are increases the security. KAES Encryption process is inbuilt on dispatcher and recipient Mobile Number; it’s through automatically create the message is reach to receiver and sender. So hackers, unauthorized access is not possible. 5. CPU time Comparison

Figure-5 KAES Output

Time taken for encryption and decryption process is significantly less in KAES algorithm than AES algorithm. The Figure-6 shows time taken for encryption and decryption process of AES algorithm and KAES algorithm

For the plain text “436F6D707574657220536369656E6365”, Secure key 12 digit password key1 “919150282698”, key2 “919344820156”and Date & Time “29/09/2013 09:41”, the KAES algorithm generate the following output value

AES, ENCRYPTION 256 bit, 18

“FFB1AC00E77D68C3DD5CAC14F7F4C62C”

AES, ENCRYPTION 192 bit, 14

Password: “01410259731410611” Seconds

4. Protection Improvement of AES The most important security to be given during communication is “unauthorized access”. Main challenge of data security in open network (Internet) is unauthorized access of data, duplicates, hacking of password, hacking of messages, data loss. This algorithm is inbuilt communicators Mobile Number (initially collected regarding communicators Mobile Number) like a numeric 12 digit passwords, Date & time also including. So any doubt for message is wrong then easy to check Date & Time stamp and alert message status. It’s through double protection is created.

KAES, ENCRYPTION 256 bit, 9 AES

Figure-6 Encryption Time management of AES vs. KAES AES, DECRYPTION 256 bit, 20 AES, DECRYPTION 192 bit, 16

Seconds

III. KAES Algorithm: Security improvement purpose this algorithm is initiate add four security factor  12 Digit numeric password (Sender Mobile Number)  12 Digit numeric password (Receiver Mobile Number)  Date & time  Create new password different sizes ( 96 bit to 192 bit) Encryption time given value is receiver Mobile number except Date & Time automatically captures the machine. Decryption time is checking two keys of password and

KAES, ENCRYPTION 192 bit, 8

KAES

I. Alert Message & password: Only authorized holder access the text, this algorithm protect encryption time automatically message (Password and Date & Time) are send to receiver and decryption time message send to sender. Suppose unauthorized access is attempt in decryption process then the message status and structure automatically changed and alert message send to dispatcher. II. Date & Time: Since encryption process status are integrated in this algorithm, so it is easily identified wrong and faked messages received the receiver then the message originality easily checked. This stage alert message and Date & Time is verify then captures the message status.

AES, ENCRYPTION 128 bit, 10 KAES, ENCRYPTION 128 bit, 6

AES, DECRYPTION 128 bit, 11 KAES, DECRYPTION 128 bit, 7

KAES, DECRYPTION 192 bit, 10

KAES, DECRYPTION 256 bit, 12

AES KAES

Figure-7 Decryption Time management of AES vs. KAES 6. Advantages of Secure Key based AES The proposed KAES algorithm is effectively stops their known attack resistance than the AES th algorithm. As 6 figure shows in 256 bit encryption process, KAES algorithm takes 9 sec to encrypt plain text which is almost 50% of time while comparing AES algorithm. This algorithm designed using simplified 35 modules used and at the same time high data security of encryption and decryption process maintained. KAES algorithm Protection of inbuilt numeric key based

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 algorithm to execute the process is high level security in cryptography. Every time process is complete stage alert message send to corresponding key value holder. So unauthorized access is attempt easily identifying chance available. Secure key based AES algorithm ensure to met the standard cryptography goals such as  Information in computer is transmitted and has to be accessed only by the authorized holder and not by anyone else.  The information received by any system has to check the identity of the sender that whether the information is arriving from a authorized address or a false identity  Only the authorized party is allowed to decryption process, otherwise easily identify message originality.  Date & time as a key is used confidence to message originality. 6.1 Protection of Security attacks The development of computer networks has lead to a world full of connected computational resource. The most important factor is to secure the information store by a user. Information can be easily copied or erased or modified. This stage secure the information of secure key (Mobile Number) may be attached to each user, while configuring and sending may be a properly. Security review shown Figure-8

Figure-9 Power analysis of Side-Channel attack KAES algorithm is using three different type of keys .So key guessing and possible key checking is not possible. This algorithm is using one key automatically capture the machine and other key create different sizes. Uses for time and power analysis are not potential. Further maximum of unauthorized message modification is identifying or stop of this method using properly. Still inbuilt 12 digit passwords and Date & Time keys using the algorithm and creation different size of password are increase the security. Key size is similar but additional keys using this algorithm, so hackers attack is not possible. Shift cells transformation is 128 bit circulation based on random generating value. But AES algorithm shift row process is constant. Table-1 Comparison of AES & KAES Advanced encryption Secure key using Standard Advanced encryption standard Key size =128,192,256 Key Size = 192 Bit bit Encryption Rounds Encryption rounds =Initial Round +(10 =12 Rounds ,12,14) Modules =35 Modules =50 Single key Different type of three keys Shift rows Constant Random number generation Possible Side-Channel Not possible Attack Not possible for Alert Possible alert messages messages

Figure-8 Security review Brute –force and side channel attacks: A brute force attack systematically attempts every possible key. It is most often used in a known plaintext or cipher text-only attack. A side channel attack leverages additional information, such as time taken or CPU cycles used, to perform a calculation, voltage used. Side channel attack is hacker observes time/power and cracks cipher without trying each key. CPU cycle analysis shown Figure-9

7. CONCLUSION This approach also provides more security, confidentiality, and authentication as KAES algorithm is strong enough to Encryption and decryption process. The basic design of an encryption algorithm is based upon the strength of mathematical calculations, cryptanalytic resistance; randomness. This procedure explores efficiency of time/space, hardware and

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.11 NOVEMBER 2013 software and flexibility of keys. We proposed a revised Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm using Key mix using numeric keys and Date & Time key instead of conventional key addition which increases the security of KAES. Secure key mixing based advanced encryption standard is stronger and Date & Time include the processes increase the security. Unauthorized access is not possible for this algorithm because alert messages every process completed stage create and send to communicators mobile. The proposed secure key mixing based advanced encryption standard algorithm is very effective, efficient performance in terms of effect than other encryption algorithms. Security analysis and experimental results the proposed encryption and decryption scheme is fast and on the other hand it provides good security on the data. 8. REFERENCES [1]. Stallings W. Cryptography and Network Security. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,New Jersey, USA, second edition, 1999. [2]. U.S. Department of Commerce / National Institute of Standard and Technology. FIPS PUB 197, Specification for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), November 2001. Available at http://csrc.nist.gov/encryption/aes. [3]. William Stallings,“Network Security Essentials(Applications and Standards)”Pearson Education, 2004,pp.2-80. [4]. National Institute of Standards and Technology (US), Advanced Encryption Standard, Http://csrc.nist.gov/publication/drafts/dfips-AES.pdf. [5]. Charles P. Pfleeger, Shari Lawrence Pfleeger. “Security in Computing”, Pearson Education 2004 pp. 642-666. [6]. William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, Pearson Education, 2009. [7]. Behrouz A. Forouzan, De Anza College Cryptography and Network Security (McGrawHill,2007 ) [8]. W. Mao, Modern Cryptography: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall, 2003 [9]. Trenholme, S. "S-box." AES. 2010. http://www.samiam.org/s-box.html [10]. Wolfram MathWorld: The Web's Most Extensive Mathematics Resource. March 3, 2010. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/FiniteField.html [11]. Trenholme, S. "Rijndael‘s MixColumn Stage."

AES. 2010. column.html

http://www.samiam.org/mix-

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International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711) Vol.3 Issue.11

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