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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014

UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: editor@ijitce.co.uk Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 17/14 Ganapathy Nagar 2nd Street Ekkattuthangal Chennai -600032 Mobile: 91-7598208700

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014

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IJITCE PUBLICATION

International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Vol.4 No.3 March 2014

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014

From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about Performance Analysis of Energy Efficiency. Let us review research around the world this month; Don't waste CO2, turn it into bottles and glue. Liquid Light of Monmouth Junction, New Jersey, showed off its prototype CO2 converter at the ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit in Washington DC last week. About the length and width of a coffee table, and a few inches thick, the module is a layer cake of steel and plastic. Inside it are catalysts that can produce more than 60 carbon-based chemicals, from just CO2 and electricity. By linking many of these devices together, a chemical plant could convert CO2 into hundreds of thousands of tonnes of products in a year, says co-founder Kyle Teamey. Both Liquid Light and Dioxide Materials can already produce fuels from CO2. But they will not be bringing them to market yet, as it is cheaper to break down crude oil into petrol and heating oil. That could soon change, though. Teamey says wind power is nearly cheap enough for it to be economic to use it to make fuel. Dolphin whistle instantly translated by computer. IT was late August 2013 and Denise Herzing was swimming in the Caribbean. The dolphin pod she had been tracking for the past 25 years was playing around her boat. Suddenly, she heard one of them say, "Sargassum". "I was like whoa! We have a match. I was stunned," says Herzing, who is the director of the Wild Dolphin Project. She was wearing a prototype dolphin translator called Cetacean Hearing and Telemetry (CHAT) and it had just translated a live dolphin whistle for the first time. It detected a whistle for sargassum, or seaweed, which she and her team had invented to use when playing with the dolphin pod. They hoped the dolphins would adopt the whistles, which are easy to distinguish from their own natural whistles – and they were not disappointed. When the computer picked up the sargassum whistle, Herzing heard her own recorded voice saying the word into her ear. Pull arsenic from drinking water and convert to bricks. MORE than 100 million people around the world are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic, which is found naturally in groundwater but has no obvious taste or odour. Its effects build up over time, slowly poisoning the body and leading to serious problems like heart disease, cancer and reproductive issues. Now a project aims to filter it out of drinking water – and lock it up in the concrete of new buildings. A team at the University of California, Berkeley, is planning a trial to filter 10,000 litres of water every day in rural sites across India. Susan Amrose and her team have designed a container that can hold 600 litres of water pumped in directly from a nearby well. Inside, it is fitted with a series of steel plates. A small voltage runs through the plates, making them rust more quickly. Arsenic binds to the rust as it forms and falls to the bottom of tank, where it is collected as rusty sludge. The treated water is then pumped out.. It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technologies related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.

Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014

Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at Shangai Jiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin, Germany Dr. Marco L. Bianchini Ph.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM), Italy Dr. Nijad Kabbara Ph.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh, Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University, No. 303, University Road, Puli Town, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Mr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP Project Manager - Software, Applied Materials, 1a park lane, cranford, UK Dr. Bulent Acma Ph.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics, Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP), 26470 Eskisehir, TURKEY Dr. Selvanathan Arumugam Ph.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602, USA.

Review Board Members Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168, Australia Dr. Zhiming Yang MD., Ph. D. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science,1550 Orleans Street Rm 441, Baltimore MD, 21231,USA Dr. Jifeng Wang Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA Dr. Giuseppe Baldacchini ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 45 - P.O. Box 65,00044 Frascati, Roma, ITALY. Dr. Mutamed Turki Nayef Khatib Assistant Professor of Telecommunication Engineering,Head of Telecommunication Engineering Department,Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), Tul Karm, PALESTINE.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 Dr.P.Uma Maheswari Prof & Head,Depaartment of CSE/IT, INFO Institute of Engineering,Coimbatore. Dr. T. Christopher, Ph.D., Assistant Professor & Head,Department of Computer Science,Government Arts College(Autonomous),Udumalpet, India. Dr. T. DEVI Ph.D. Engg. (Warwick, UK), Head,Department of Computer Applications,Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-641 046, India. Dr. Renato J. orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Visiting Scholar at INSEAD,INSEAD Social Innovation Centre,Boulevard de Constance,77305 Fontainebleau - France Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business SchoolRua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar),01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Javad Robati Crop Production Departement,University of Maragheh,Golshahr,Maragheh,Iran Vinesh Sukumar (PhD, MBA) Product Engineering Segment Manager, Imaging Products, Aptina Imaging Inc. Dr. Binod Kumar PhD(CS), M.Phil.(CS), MIAENG,MIEEE HOD & Associate Professor, IT Dept, Medi-Caps Inst. of Science & Tech.(MIST),Indore, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, India Dr. doc. Ing. Rostislav Choteborský, Ph.D. Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie Technická fakulta,Ceská zemedelská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168 DR.Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg.,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Mr. Abhishek Taneja B.sc(Electronics),M.B.E,M.C.A.,M.Phil., Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Applications, at Dronacharya Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra. (India). Dr. Ing. Rostislav Chotěborský,ph.d, Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie, Technická fakulta,Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 Dr. Amala VijayaSelvi Rajan, B.sc,Ph.d, Faculty – Information Technology Dubai Women’s College – Higher Colleges of Technology,P.O. Box – 16062, Dubai, UAE

Naik Nitin Ashokrao B.sc,M.Sc Lecturer in Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya Nanded University Dr.A.Kathirvell, B.E, M.E, Ph.D,MISTE, MIACSIT, MENGG Professor - Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Tagore Engineering College, Chennai Dr. H. S. Fadewar B.sc,M.sc,M.Phil.,ph.d,PGDBM,B.Ed. Associate Professor - Sinhgad Institute of Management & Computer Application, Mumbai-Banglore Westernly Express Way Narhe, Pune - 41 Dr. David Batten Leader, Algal Pre-Feasibility Study,Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels,CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship Private Bag 1,Aspendale, Vic. 3195,AUSTRALIA Dr R C Panda (MTech & PhD(IITM);Ex-Faculty (Curtin Univ Tech, Perth, Australia))Scientist CLRI (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai - 600 020,India Miss Jing He PH.D. Candidate of Georgia State University,1450 Willow Lake Dr. NE,Atlanta, GA, 30329 Jeremiah Neubert Assistant Professor,Mechanical Engineering,University of North Dakota Hui Shen Mechanical Engineering Dept,Ohio Northern Univ. Dr. Xiangfa Wu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor / Mechanical Engineering,NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY Seraphin Chally Abou Professor,Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart,MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall,1305 Ordean Court,Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. Qiang Cheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,Computer Science Department Southern Illinois University CarbondaleFaner Hall, Room 2140-Mail Code 45111000 Faner Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 Dr. Carlos Barrios, PhD Assistant Professor of Architecture,School of Architecture and Planning,The Catholic University of America Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,S찾o Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8째 andar)01332-000, S찾o Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Wael M. G. Ibrahim Department Head-Electronics Engineering Technology Dept.School of Engineering Technology ECPI College of Technology 5501 Greenwich Road Suite 100,Virginia Beach, VA 23462 Dr. Messaoud Jake Bahoura Associate Professor-Engineering Department and Center for Materials Research Norfolk State University,700 Park avenue,Norfolk, VA 23504 Dr. V. P. Eswaramurthy M.C.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. P. Kamakkannan,M.C.A., Ph.D ., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. V. Karthikeyani Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 008, India. Dr. K. Thangadurai Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College ( Autonomous ), Karur - 639 005,India. Dr. N. Maheswari Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of MCA, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattangulathur, Kanchipiram Dt - 603 203, India. Mr. Md. Musfique Anwar B.Sc(Engg.) Lecturer, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mrs. Smitha Ramachandran M.Sc(CS)., SAP Analyst, Akzonobel, Slough, United Kingdom. Dr. V. Vallimayil Ph.D., Director, Department of MCA, Vivekanandha Business School For Women, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode - 637 205, India. Mr. M. Moorthi M.C.A., M.Phil., Assistant Professor, Department of computer Applications, Kongu Arts and Science College, India Prema Selvaraj Bsc,M.C.A,M.Phil Assistant Professor,Department of Computer Science,KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode Mr. G. Rajendran M.C.A., M.Phil., N.E.T., PGDBM., PGDBF., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem, India. Dr. Pradeep H Pendse B.E.,M.M.S.,Ph.d Dean - IT,Welingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, Mumbai, India Muhammad Javed Centre for Next Generation Localisation, School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dr. G. GOBI Assistant Professor-Department of Physics,Government Arts College,Salem - 636 007 Dr.S.Senthilkumar Post Doctoral Research Fellow, (Mathematics and Computer Science & Applications),Universiti Sains Malaysia,School of Mathematical Sciences, Pulau Pinang-11800,[PENANG],MALAYSIA.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 Manoj Sharma Associate Professor Deptt. of ECE, Prannath Parnami Institute of Management & Technology, Hissar, Haryana, India RAMKUMAR JAGANATHAN Asst-Professor,Dept of Computer Science, V.L.B Janakiammal college of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Assoc. Professor, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India Dr. Saurabh Pal Associate Professor, UNS Institute of Engg. & Tech., VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India Manimala Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation, St Joseph’s College of Engineering & Technology, Choondacherry Post, Kottayam Dt. Kerala -686579 Dr. Qazi S. M. Zia-ul-Haque Control Engineer Synchrotron-light for Experimental Sciences and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME),P. O. Box 7, Allan 19252, Jordan Dr. A. Subramani, M.C.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D. Professor,Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode - 637215 Dr. Seraphin Chally Abou Professor, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart. MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall, 1305 Ordean Court Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. K. Kousalya Professor, Department of CSE,Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai-638 052 Dr. (Mrs.) R. Uma Rani Asso.Prof., Department of Computer Science, Sri Sarada College For Women, Salem-16, Tamil Nadu, India. MOHAMMAD YAZDANI-ASRAMI Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Babol "Noshirvani" University of Technology, Iran. Dr. Kulasekharan, N, Ph.D Technical Lead - CFD,GE Appliances and Lighting, GE India,John F Welch Technology Center, Plot # 122, EPIP, Phase 2,Whitefield Road,Bangalore – 560066, India. Dr. Manjeet Bansal Dean (Post Graduate),Department of Civil Engineering ,Punjab Technical University,Giani Zail Singh Campus, Bathinda -151001 (Punjab),INDIA Dr. Oliver Jukić Vice Dean for education, Virovitica College, Matije Gupca 78,33000 Virovitica, Croatia Dr. Lori A. Wolff, Ph.D., J.D. Professor of Leadership and Counselor Education, The University of Mississippi, Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, 139 Guyton University, MS 38677

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014

Contents Performance Analysis of Energy Efficiency in WSN System by Juned Khan, Prof H.L Sharma, Dr Harjit Singh…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….[192]

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014

Performance Analysis of Energy Efficiency in WSN System Juned Khan*, Prof H.L Sharma**, Dr Harjit Singh*** *M.Tech Student, SSIET Patti, ** Professor, SSIET Patti, ***Asst Prof, CTIET Jalandhar

Abstract— Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are ad-

I. INTRODUCTION

hoc networks, consisting of distributed devices (motes)

WSN is widely used to collect reliable and accurate

using sensor nodes to monitor physical or environmental

information

conditions at different locations. Devices in a WSN are

environments, and can be used in National Defense,

resource constrained; they have low processing speed,

Military

storage capacity, and communication bandwidth. In

Monitor, Traffic Management, Medical Care, Smart

most settings,the network must operate for long periods

Home [1] etc. The sensor whose resources are limited is

of time, but the nodes are battery powered, so the

cheap, and depends on battery to supply electricity, so

available energy resources limit their overall operation. It

it’s important for Routing to efficiently utilize its power in

is a great challenging aim to design an energy efficient

both military and civilian applications such as target

routing protocol, which can minimize the delay while

tracking, surveillance, and security management. It has

offering highenergy efficiency and long span of network

been well recognized that clustering provides an efficient

lifetime. In this paper, we study the impact of

and scalable way to design and organize large-scale

heterogeneity and survey different clustering algorithms

WSNs for energy efficiency of data communication. But

for heterogeneous WSNs; highlighting their objectives,

sensor networks deployed in harsh or unstructured

features, complexity, etc. Then proposed the TSEP

environments, sensor nodes are typically powered by

routing protocol for prolong the lifetime of a WSN and

irreplaceable batteries with a limited amount of energy

compared the result with

supply. We would like the sensor network to perform its

routing

protocol

LEACH

basic distributed clustering (Low

Energy

in

Affairs,

the

distance

Industrial

and

Control,

hazardous

Environmental

Adaptive

functionality as long as possible. A variety of protocols

Clustering Hierarchy). Simulation results using MATLAB

have been proposed to enhance the life of WSN and for

are showed that the TSEP hetrogeneous system

routing

significantly reduces energy consumption and increase

Communication protocols highly affect the performance

the total life time of the wireless sensor network

of wireless sensor networks by an evenly distribution of

compared with LEACH.

energy load and decreasing their energy consumption

the

correct

data

to

the

base

station.

and thereupon prolonging their lifetime. Thus, designing energy efficient protocols is crucial for prolonging the

Key words — Clustering, Energy efficiency,

lifetime of wireless sensor networks. So, we described a

Heterogeneity, Stability, Throughput, WSN

novel energy efficient and lifetime increased proposed protocol as enhanced from LEACH protocol [2-3].

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 III. HETEROGENEOUS MODEL FOR WSN II. PAST EVALUATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

From the last few years, the researchers attract towards wireless sensor networks due to its broad applications

Sensor network growth was set off by the United States

and unique challenges. Early study on wireless sensor

in the Cold War. A network of acoustic sensors was

networks mostly focused on the homogeneous wireless

located on planned areas on the underneath of the sea

sensor network in which every node contain similar

for detection and tracking of Soviet submarines [4]. The

system resource. But, now a day’s heterogeneous

system of acoustic sensors was known as the Sound

wireless sensor network is becoming more and more

Surveillance System (SOSUS). Human operators had a

well-liked.

vital job in these systems. The sensor network was

demonstrate that heterogeneous nodes be able to

wired network that did not contain the energy bandwidth

improve network reliability and prolong network lifetime

restrictions of wireless system. Contemporary study on

without

sensor networks started in 1980 through the Distributed

heterogeneous node provides data filtering, fusion and

Sensor Networks (DSN) agenda at the Defence

transport and is more costly and more capable. It might

Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Current

posses one or more type of heterogeneous resource,

enhances during computing and communication has

e.g., improved energy capability or communication

origin a considerable move in sensor network study and

ability. They can be line powered, or their batteries can

got it nearer to achieving the unique vision. Tiny and

be replaced easily. Compared with the normal nodes,

low-cost sensors based upon micro-electro-mechanical

they might be configured with additional powerful

system (MEMS) technology, wireless networking, and

microprocessor and additional memory. Moreover, they

economical

the

can communicate among the sink node through high-

operation of wireless ad hoc networks designed for

bandwidth, long-distance network, for example Ethernet.

different applications. Therefore, the agenda developed

The existence of heterogeneous nodes in a wireless

by latest networking method is appropriate for extremely

sensor network is able to enlarge network reliability and

dynamic ad hoc environments.

network lifetime. In heterogeneous wireless sensor

Wireless networks based on IEEE 802.11 standards [5]

network, one essential and vital deployment difficulty is

now are able to provide bandwidth forthcoming those of

to make a decision that how many and wherever

wired networks. At the similar time, the IEEE has

heterogeneous nodes be supposed to be deployed in

observed the low cost and high abilities that sensor

the network [7].

low-power

processors

authorize

Furthermore

considerably

the

results

increasing

of

the

researches

cost.

The

networks advise. The association has defined the IEEE 802.15 standard designed for personal area networks

3.1 Impact of heterogeneity on WSN

(PANs), having a radius of 5 to 10 m [6]. Beside this, enhances in chip capability and processor manufacture

a) Prolonging network lifetime. In the heterogeneous

abilities have decreased the energy per bit necessity for

wireless sensor network, all normal nodes know how

both

Sensing,

to send data report to the base station (sink) through

processing and communications now achieved on a

the adjacent heterogeneous node. Moreover the

particular chip.

normal nodes, particularly around the base station,

computing

and

communication.

don’t require forward enormous packets from other nodes [8]. The average energy utilization for

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 forwarding a packet from the normal nodes to the

other clusters. The BS, which is located either inside or

sink in heterogeneous sensor networks will be much

outside the sensor network region, could be wire

less than the energy consumed in homogeneous

connected

sensor networks. As the size of network increases,

considered to have unlimited energy supply. Apparently,

the gap of energy utilization between these two

the number and location of CHs in hierarchical WSNs

types of networks will be larger and larger.

have a significant effect on the energy consumption for

or

rechargeable,

and

hence

is

often

data communication from LNs to the BS [8-10]. b) Improving reliability of data transmission. As the sensor network links tend to have low reliability as well

as

every

continuous

hop

delivery

considerably rate.

With

lowers

the

heterogeneous

nodes, there will be fewer hops between normal sensor nodes and the base station (sink). Thus the heterogeneous sensor network is able to obtain much superior end-to-end delivery rate than the homogeneous sensor network. Figure 2. Nodes communicate to Base Station

c) Decreasing latency of data transportation. Computational

heterogeneity

can

reduce

through Cluster Heads

the

processing latency in instant nodes. Also link heterogeneity is capable of reduce the waiting time

4.1 Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy

in the transmitting queue. Fewer hops between sensor nodes and sink node too signify fewer

Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) minimizes energy dissipation since cluster heads are

forwarding latency[9].

formed based on the received signal strength and the energy consumption is less since the transmission is

IV. Clustering Hierarchy

only done by cluster heads. To balance the energy It has been well recognized that clustering provides an efficient and scalable way to design and organize largescale

WSNs

for

energy

efficiency

of

data

communication. In a typical hierarchical WSN that deploys

a

large

number

of

homogeneous

or

dissipation of nodes, cluster heads change randomly over time. The node chooses a random number between 0 and 1 and becomes the cluster head for the current round if the number is less than the following threshold: T(n) = p/(1-p*(r*mod(1/p)))

heterogeneous sensors, clusters are formed around a

otherwise

set of strategically selected or randomly designated Cluster Heads (CHs). The sensors within each cluster, often referred to as Leaf Nodes (LNs), collect and send environmental measurements to their corresponding

if nâ‚ŹG= 0 (1)

Where, p is the desired percentage of cluster heads, r is the current round and G is the set of nodes that have not been cluster heads in the last 1/p rounds [11].

CH, which performs an appropriate form of data processing (i.e., aggregation and compression) and sends the result to a BS for integration with data from

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 4.2 Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol

Tnrm = pnrm / [ 1– pnrm( r*mod 1/pnrm) ] , if nnrm

(TSEP)

€ G’

(8)

Threshold sensitive Stable Election Protocol is based on three levels of heterogeneity and has a reactive routing

Tint = pint / [ 1 – pint ( r*mod 1/ pint) ],

protocol [12]. Advance nodes having energy greater

G’’

if nint €

(9)

than all other nodes; intermediate nodes have energy in between normal and advance nodes whereas the

Tadv = padv / [ 1– padv ( r*mod 1/ padv) ], if nadv

remaining nodes are normal nodes. Intermediate nodes

€ G’’’

(10)

can be elected with ‘x’, a part of nodes which are intermediate nodes and by using the relation that energy

Here G’, G’’ and G’’’ are the set of normal nodes,

of normal nodes is ‘μ’ times additional than that used for

intermediate nodes and advanced nodes that has not

the normal nodes. In the case of SEP energy considered

turn out to be cluster heads in the past respectively

for normal nodes is Eo, for advance nodes it is Eadv = Eo(1+A)

V. Performance measurement parameters with

(2)

simulation

and energy for intermediate nodes can be calculated as Ein = Eo (1 + μ)

(3)

where μ = A/2 . As a result, the tota Energy of all the

The performance measures that are used to evaluate

nodes will become

clustering protocols are;

Et = n*Eo(1+m*A + x*n) (4) where, ‘n’ is number of nodes, ‘m’ is fraction of

a) Stability period : It is defined as the time period until

advanced nodes to entire number of nodes ‘n’ having

death of the first node dead.

energy greater than remaining of nodes and ‘x’ is

b) Network lifetime. It is defined as the start of

fraction of intermediate nodes. The best possible

operation of the sensor network to the death of the first

probability of nodes, which are separated on the basis of

alive node.

energy, to be selected as a cluster head can be

c) Number of cluster heads per round. This measures

computed by using following formulas:

the number of elected cluster heads or preassigned

Pnrm = p*/ (1+m*A + x*n)

(5)

cluster heads with their energy levels.

Pint = p*(1+μ)/ (1+m*A + x*n)

(6)

d) Throughput. Rate of data sent over the network.

Padv = p*(1+A)/ (1+m*A + x*n)

(7)

(Data sent from cluster head to sink + the rate of data

Thus, to ensure that cluster head selection is made in

sent by nodes to their heads)

the similar method as we have assumed, we have taken an additional factor into consideration, which is threshold

VI Simulation Result of Hierarchical Routing

level. Every node produces randomly a number inclusive

Protocol

of ‘0’ and ‘1’, when produced value is less than threshold then this node turns into cluster head [6]. For every this

The performance analysis of the routing protocols for

types of node, there are different formulas for the

wireless sensor networks has been performed in

computation

MATLAB. The 2-level hierarchy includes two types of

of

threshold

depending

probabilities, which are shown below:

upon

their

nodes such as normal nodes & advanced nodes and varies the energy from 0 to 1. While in 3-level hierarchy, three

195

types

of

nodes

such

as

normal

nodes,

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 intermediate nodes and advanced nodes are present and have the value of energy 0, 0.5 & 1 respectively. This type of hierarchy is used for TSEP. The clustered wireless sensor network in a field is designed with dimensions of 100x100. The position of the sink or base station is located at the center.

6.1 Simulation Parameters for Comparison LEACH & TSEP

The 100m x100m region has been created for the

Fig1 Number of packets to Base Station in LEACH

comparative analysis of LEACH & TSEP protocols on the basis of network lifetime, stability period and throughput. The 100 sensor nodes spread randomly and the sink or base station is located at the center point (50Ă—50). The packet size of 4000 bits has been sent by the nodes to their cluster heads as well as the combined packet size that a cluster head sends to the sink. The parameters used in the simulation are mentioned below in Table 1. Table 1 Simulation Parameters

Parameters

Value

Network Field

(100,100)

Number of Nodes

100

Initial Energy of Nodes

0.5 J

Message Size

4000 bits

Eelec

50 nJ/bit

Eamp

0.0013 pJ/bit/m4

Efs

10 nJ/bit/m2

EDA

5 nJ/bit/signal

Threshold Distance

Fig 2 Stability of LEACH

70

6.1.1 Performance Comparison Results of LEACH & TSEP Fig 3 Throughput of LEACH

Case 1: m =0.4, A=1, Îź= 0.5, x= 0.2

196

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 It is observed from the simulation results in Fig 1 to Fig 6 that number of packets sent to the base station in case of LEACH lies in range of 0-20 nodes in the 0-300 rounds and at least 3-4 packets still sent to the base station around the 1000

th

round. For TSEP routing

protocol, the packet sent to the base station are in the range of 0-30 for 0-1300 rounds and last 2-3 packets sent up to 2950 rounds. The stability of the LEACH lies in the range 310-700 rounds, since the first sensor node th

dies at 310 and last node goes up to 700 round. For TSEP, the first dies at 1100 round and the algorithm is Fig 4 Number of packets to Base Station in TSEP

stable up to 1500 rounds. The cluster heads affect the stability and life time of the routing protocols since larger the cluster heads more will be the packets sent to the base station. For LEACH, the life time of the sensor nodes is up to 680, since the last CH node dies at 680

th

th

round. For the TSEP, the last node dies at 1100 and th

1500 round. The throughput of the TSEP algorithm is high since it can sustain the life time up to more number of rounds.

VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Fig 5 Stability of TSEP The present paper deals with the energy efficient saving TSEP clustering routing protocol for WSN. Simulative Results showed that the TSEP Heterogeneous System provides better performance in energy efficiency and increasing level in lifetime of the wireless sensor networks our the LEACH system in the individual clustering of the whole network.

Fig 6 Throughput of TSEP

197

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.4 NO.3 M ARCH 2014 REFERENCES

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International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711) Vol. 4 Issue. 3

Mar14  

International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711) Vol. 4 Issue. 3

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