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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013

UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: editor@ijitce.co.uk Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 17/14 Ganapathy Nagar 2nd Street Ekkattuthangal Chennai -600032 Mobile: 91-7598208700

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013

IJITCE PUBLICATION

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING Vol.3 No.2 February 2013

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013

From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about Ethanolic Leaf Extracts and MHD effects on peristaltic flow. Let us review research around the world this month; Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University Medical School and his colleagues reported the development of a brain-machine interface that enables rats to detect infrared light via their sense of touch. Now, the same group of researchers has taken this technology in an entirely new direction – they have developed a brain-to-brain interface that can transmit information from one rat directly to another, enabling the animal on the receiving end to perform behavioural tasks without training. A Toronto researcher who has dedicated his career to proving whether certain types of problems are solvable by computers has won this year's Gerhard Herzberg Canada Gold Medal for Science and Engineering, which comes with $1 million in research funding. Researchers at Northwestern University have developed a wirelessly rechargeable lithium-ion battery that can stretch up to 300 percent of its original size and still power stretchable electronics.No longer needing to be connected by a cord to an electrical outlet, the stretchable electronic devices now could be used anywhere, including inside the human body. The implantable electronics could monitor anything from brain waves to heart activity, succeeding where flat, rigid batteries would fail. Huang and Rogers have demonstrated a battery that continues to work — powering a commercial light-emitting diode (LED) — even when stretched, folded, twisted and mounted on a human elbow. The battery can work for eight to nine hours before it needs recharging, which can be done wirelessly. It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technology-related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013

Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at Shangai Jiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin, Germany Dr. Marco L. Bianchini Ph.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM), Italy Dr. Nijad Kabbara Ph.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh, Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University, No. 303, University Road, Puli Town, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Mr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP Project Manager - Software, Applied Materials, 1a park lane, cranford, UK Dr. Bulent Acma Ph.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics, Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP), 26470 Eskisehir, TURKEY Dr. Selvanathan Arumugam Ph.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602, USA.

Review Board Members Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168, Australia Dr. Zhiming Yang MD., Ph. D. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science,1550 Orleans Street Rm 441, Baltimore MD, 21231,USA Dr. Jifeng Wang Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA Dr. Giuseppe Baldacchini ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 45 - P.O. Box 65,00044 Frascati, Roma, ITALY. Dr. Mutamed Turki Nayef Khatib Assistant Professor of Telecommunication Engineering,Head of Telecommunication Engineering Department,Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), Tul Karm, PALESTINE.


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Naik Nitin Ashokrao B.sc,M.Sc Lecturer in Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya Nanded University Dr.A.Kathirvell, B.E, M.E, Ph.D,MISTE, MIACSIT, MENGG Professor - Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Tagore Engineering College, Chennai Dr. H. S. Fadewar B.sc,M.sc,M.Phil.,ph.d,PGDBM,B.Ed. Associate Professor - Sinhgad Institute of Management & Computer Application, Mumbai-Banglore Westernly Express Way Narhe, Pune - 41 Dr. David Batten Leader, Algal Pre-Feasibility Study,Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels,CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship Private Bag 1,Aspendale, Vic. 3195,AUSTRALIA Dr R C Panda (MTech & PhD(IITM);Ex-Faculty (Curtin Univ Tech, Perth, Australia))Scientist CLRI (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai - 600 020,India Miss Jing He PH.D. Candidate of Georgia State University,1450 Willow Lake Dr. NE,Atlanta, GA, 30329 Jeremiah Neubert Assistant Professor,Mechanical Engineering,University of North Dakota Hui Shen Mechanical Engineering Dept,Ohio Northern Univ. Dr. Xiangfa Wu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor / Mechanical Engineering,NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY Seraphin Chally Abou Professor,Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart,MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall,1305 Ordean Court,Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. Qiang Cheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,Computer Science Department Southern Illinois University CarbondaleFaner Hall, Room 2140-Mail Code 45111000 Faner Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 Dr. Carlos Barrios, PhD Assistant Professor of Architecture,School of Architecture and Planning,The Catholic University of America Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar) 01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil


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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013

Contents Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of S. alata Linn on Post-Harvest Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) Tuber Rot Pathogens by Tedela, P.O., Ijato, J Y ..................................................................[31] MHD effects on peristaltic flow of a Bingham fluid in a channel with permeable walls by V.Rama Chandraiah, K.Chakradhar and R. Siva Prasad..................................................................................................................[35]


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013

Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of S. alata Linn on Post-Harvest Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) Tuber Rot Pathogens #1

Tedela , P.O., Ijato, J Y*2 #

Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, P.M.B 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria. patosateddy@yahoo.com; GSM: 08033968087 * Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, P.M.B 5363, Ekiti State, Nigeria. jamesyeni@yahoo.com

rot include mealy bug (Plarococcus citri), storage beetle (coleoptera), as well as scale insect (Aspidiella harti). References [1]-[3], reported the association of many fungi such as Asperigillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus flavus Rosellinia bunodes, A. tamari, Fusarium species as causal organisms of yam tuber diseases. Medicinal values of S. alata leaf extracts against ringworm, itching, eczema, pruritis, scabies and ulcer have also been reported by [5],[7]. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of S. alata on post harvest rot pathogens of yam tubers in vitro.

ABSTRACT The Antimicrobial effect of ethanolic leaves extract of Senna alata was determined in vitro. It was found that all the varied concentrations of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the mycelia growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus glaucus, 40and 50g in 10% ethanol inhibited the radial mycelia growth of A. niger and A glaucus by 96.43%, 30 and 40g in 20% ethanol reduced the radial thrive of mycelia of B. theobromae by 97.10 and 97.07 % respectively, 20g in 30% ethanol, 30 and 40g in 40% ethanol reduced A. flavus by 100%, all the concentrations of extracts in 50% ethanol reduced the radial mycelia extension of A. flavus by 100%. This finding revealed that ethanolic leaves extract of S. alata had significant potential for the control of fungal rot of yam tubers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of materials and preparation Healthy and Infected yam tubers with symptoms of rot were purchased at Oba market in Otun-Ekiti, placed separately in a sterile polythene bags and taken to the laboratory of Plant Science, Ekiti State University, AdoEkiti for authentication in the herbarium and for analysis. Leaves of Senna alata were collected from the premises of Enterprise Bank within Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti campus, taken to herbarium unit of the University in the Department of Plant Science for identity authentication, 0 air dried at room temperature and stored at 24 C until ready for use

Key words: in vitro, Senna alata, rot pathogens, yam tuber rot

INTRODUCTION Senna alata commonly referred to as ringworm Senna belongs to the family FabaceaeIt is a Pan tropical, ornamental plant that is widely distributed from America to India [4]. It is erect, 1.5 to 3 meters high, branched shrub and has coarse bark. The leaves are pinnate with orange rachis on stout branches with 16 to 28 leaflets, 5 to 15 centimeters in length, broad and rounded at the apex, inflorescence 10 to 50 centimeters long, in simple or panicle racemes, terminal and at the axils of the leaves. Flowers yellow, about 4 centimeters in diameter. The pod is straight, dark brown or nearly black, containing 50 to 60 flattened triangular seeds. Rot pathogens which are majorly fungi often penetrate the tuber through wounds which are caused by insects, nematodes as well as poor handling before, during and after harvest. Insects that predispose yam to

Preparation of plant extracts Leaves of S. alata were dried, ground and weighed into 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50g. Each sample was added to 100ml of varied concentrations of ethanol: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. The mixtures were filtered with a four-fold cheese cloth and the filtrates were used to poison the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) prior to inoculation.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013 Where Isolation of fungal organisms from rotten yam Infected yam tubers were washed in a running tap water, rinsed in sterile distilled water, sterilized with 70% ethanol to remove external contaminant. Sections of yam tubers were cut with sterilized scalpel, surface sterilized with 30% ethanol, rinsed with several changes of sterile distilled water and were plated on (PDA), the plated dishes were incubated at room temperature and observed daily for 5 days for fungal growth after which pure cultures were taken and identified according to [4] and stored in slant using Mc Cartney bottles for pathogenicity test and antifungal studies

dc = Average diameter of colony with control dt = Average diameter of colony with treatment

RESULTS Forty grams of S. alata in 10% ethanolic concentration had 95.83% inhibition on B. theobromae while the least inhibition was 50g (93.23%), 40g of 10% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 94.90% inhibition on A. flavus while the least being 50g (79.03%). Also, both 30 and 40g of 10% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 95.23% inhibition on A. glaucus and the least was 50g (92.10%). The result indicated that concentrations of 30 and 40g in 10% ethanol had high inhibitory value against B. theobromae, A. flavus, and A. glaucus (Table 1).

Pathogenicity test

Table I: Percentage inhibition of mycelia radial growth (mm) of rot organisms grown on poisoned PDA with varied concentrations of 10% ethanolic extracts of S. alata

Healthy yam tubers were surface sterilized with 0.1M of Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) for 1 minute and washed in five changes of distilled water. Five millilitres cork-borer was punched to a depth of 4mm into the healthy yam tubers and the bored tissues were removed. Five (5) mm diameter disc of pure isolate was cut and placed back into hole created in the yam tuber. The wound was sealed with prepared paraffin wax according to the method of [6]. The control was set up in the same manner except that sterile agar disc was used instead of the fungal inoculum. The inoculated yam tubers were placed in four replications at room temperature (28Âą20C) under sterile condition. The pathogens were re-inoculated into yam tubers, observed for disease development, identified on the basis of morphology and observed culture characteristics were compared with structures in Snowdon, (1990).

10% Ethanolic extract (g/100ml)

B. theobromae

A. flavus

A. glaucus

A. niger

10g

95.70a

94.33b

93.87a

91.77a

20g

94.00a

93.43b

93.77a

96.83b

30g

95.17a

93.50b

95.23a

93.13ab

40g

95.83a

94.90b

95.23a

96.43ab

50g

93.23a

79. 03a

92.10a

96.43ab

Control

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

% inhibition of mycelia growth (mm)

DMRT was used to separate means. Means followed by the same alphabet(s) in the same column are not significantly different (p=0.05)

Table 2 shows that thirty grams of 20% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 97.10% inhibition on B. theobromae and the least was 50g (95.47%), 40g of 20% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 89.63% inhibition on A. flavus and the least being 10g in 20% ethanolic (82.03%). Also, 50g of 20% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 95.97% inhibition on A. glaucus with the least being 30g (84.07%), 50g in 20% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 96.27% inhibition on A. niger and the least being 10g (92.27%). The result indicated that a concentration of 50g in 20% ethanolic was the most inhibitive on A. glaucus and A. niger while B. theobromae and A. flavus was most inhibited by 30 and 40g in 20% ethanolic respectively.

Effect of S. alata ethanolic leaves extract on mycelia extension of isolated rot fungi of yam tubers The method of [9] was adopted to determine the effect of leaves extract on mycelia extension of the fungi. This was obtained by placing one disc (3mm diameter) of 5-days-old culture of the pathogens in each of three Petri dishes (1cm diameter) with 170ml PDA medium and 1ml leaf extract. The control experiments were set up with 1ml of sterile distilled water. Three replicates per isolate were incubated at room temperature (28Âą2 0C) for 7days. Daily measurements of the mycelia extension of the cultures were determined along two diameters. Mycelia growth inhibition was taken as growth of the fungus on the ethanolic leaf extract expressed in percentage of growth. Fungitoxicity was determined in form of percentage growth of colony inhibition and calculated according to this formula: Growth inhibition (%) = dc-dt x 100 dc 1

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013 Table II: Percentage inhibition of mycelia radial growth (mm) of rot organism grown on poisoned PDA with varying concentrations of 20% ethanolic extracts of S. alata. 20% Ethanolic extract (g/100ml)

B. Theobromae

A. Flavus

A. Glaucus

A. Niger

10g

96.77a

82.03a

94.47b

92.27a

20g

95.63a

85.17ab

95.43b

95.77a

30g

97.10a

82.93ab

84.07a

93.27a

40g

97.07a

89.63b

94.87b

94.53a

50g

95.47a

84.53ab

95.97b

96.27a

Control

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Table IV: Percentage inhibition of mycelia growth (mm) of rot organisms grown on poisoned PDA with varied concentrations of 40% ethanolic extracts of S. alata.

% inhibition of mycelia growth (mm)

DMRT was used to separate means. Means followed by the same alphabet in the same column are not significantly different (p=0.05)

% inhibition of mycelia growth (mm) A. flavus

A. glaucus

A. niger

94.20ab 96.03b 91.13a 92.40ab 90.83a 0.00

96.37abc 100.00c 95.97abc 97.83bc 92.60a 0.00

96.33a 94.67a 96.57a 95.53a 96.57a 0.00

93.77bc 96.03c 96.00c 85.87a 91.00b 0.00

A. flavus

A. glaucus

A. niger

10g

91.50bc

97.63a

95.13b

97.03c

20g

89.20bc

97.60a

95.80b

97.47c

30g

68.57a

100.00a

54.67a

50.47a

40g

84.97abc

100.00a

54.67a

78.43b

50g

97.83c

99.63a

95.76b

79.70bc

Control

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Table 5 shows that thirty grams of 50% ethanolic extracts of S. alata had 89.40% inhibition on B. theobromae while the least was 40g (60.60%.). All the varied weight of extracts in 50% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 100% inhibition on A. flavus. Also, 40g of 50% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 100.00% inhibition on A. glaucus while 20 and 30g inhibited the least (54.67%), 10g in 50% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 87.70% inhibition on A. niger while the least being 30g (60.77%).

Table III: Percentage inhibition of mycelia growth (mm) of rot organisms grown on poisoned PDA with varying concentrations of 30% ethanolic extracts of S. alata.

B. theobromae

B. theobromae

% inhibition of mycelia growth (mm)

DMRT was used to separate means. Means followed by the same alphabets in the same column are not significantly different (p=0.05)

Twenty grams of 30% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 96.03% inhibition on B. theobromae and the least being 50g (90.83%.), 20g in 30% ethanolic had 100% inhibition on A. flavus and the least being 50g (92.60%). Also, both 30 and 50g in 30% had 96.57% inhibition on A. glaucus and the least being 20g (94.67 %). The result indicated that concentration of 20g in 30% ethanol had the highest inhibitory effect on the fungi but with slight change in A. glaucus (Table 3).

30% Ethanolic extract (g/100ml) 10g 20g 30g 40g 50g Control

40% Ethanolic extract (g/100ml)

Table V: Percentage inhibition of mycelia growth (mm) of rot organisms grown on poisoned PDA with varied concentrations of 50% ethanolic extracts of S. alata. 50% Ethanolic extract (g/100ml)

DMRT was used to separate means. Means followed by the same alphabets in the same column are not significantly different (p=0.05)

Table 4 shows that fifty grams of 40% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 97.87% inhibition on B. theobromae while the least was 30g (68.57%.), both 30 and 40g of 40% ethanolic extracts concentrations of S. alata had 100% inhibition on A. flavus and the least being 20g (97.60%). Also, 20g of 40% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 95.80% inhibition on A. glaucus while the least being 30g and 40g (54.67%.), 20g of 40% ethanolic extracts concentration of S. alata had 97.47% inhibition on A. niger and the least was 30g (50.47%). The result indicated that a concentration of 20g in 40% ethanolic had high inhibitory value on A. niger and A. glaucus while B. theobromae and A. flavus were inhibited by 30, 40 and 50 g.

% inhibition of mycelia growth (mm) B. theobromae

A. flavus

A. glaucus

A. niger

10g

75.30a

100.00a

76.33b

87.70a

20g

70.80a

100.00a

54.67a

65.63a

30g

89.40a

100.00a

54.67a

60.77a

40g

60.60a

100.00a

100.00b

73.10a

50g

84.20a

100.00a

87.43b

76.20a

Control

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

DMRT was used to separate means. Means followed by the same alphabet in the same column are not significantly different (p=0.05)

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Isolated organisms: B. theobromae, A. flavus, A. niger and A glaucus were found associated with rot of D. rotundata in the present study. Association of these organisms with post harvest rots of yam tubers had been reported by [8],[10]. Forty and fifty grams concentrations were most active in 10% ethanol while twenty grams in both 30 and 40% ethanol were found active as well as 10g in 50% ethanolic concentration rated as the most inhibitive concentrations. It can be established that Senna alata is potent against rot organisms of yam tubers, and it has been found very active in controlling post harvest dry rot of yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir).

REFERENCES [1] T.O.Adejumo, and G. Lagenkamper, ”Evaluation of botanicals as bio-pesticicide on the growth of Fusarium vertililioides causing rot diseases and fumonisin production of maize.”, J. of Microbiology and Antimicrobials, Vol 4(1), pp. 23-31, 2012 [2] J.Y. Ijato, “Inhibitory effects of two indigenous plant extracts; Zingiber officinale and Ocimum gratissimum on post harvest yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) rot, in vitro”,. Journal of American Science, 7(1), pp 43-47,2011a. [3] J.Y. Ijato, “Evaluation of antifungal effects of extracts of Allium Sativum and Nicotiana tobacum against soft rot of yam (Dioscorea Alata)”, Researcher, 3(2),pp 1-5. 2011b [4] D, Ibrahim and H Osman.” Antimicrobial activity of S alata from Malaysia”, J. ethnopharmacol, 5(3), pp 151-156, 1995. [5] M.N, Abubacker , R. Ramannathan and T. Senthil kumar “In vitro antifungal activity of Cassia alata Linn. Flower extract”. Natural Product Radiance, Vol.7 (1), pp.6-9 .2008. [6] M.O. Fawole and B.A Oso, “Laboratory Manual of Microbiology”, Spectrum Books Ltd, Ibadan,1988. [7], S. Alam, “Antimicrobial activity of natural products from medicinal plants”, Gormal J. of Med., Sci., vol.7(1), (2009): [8] R. N. Okigbo and U.O. Ogbonnaya, “Antifungal effects of two tropical plant leaves extract (Ocimum gratissimum and Aframomum melegueta) on post harvest yam (Dioscorea spp.) rot”, Afr. J. Biotech., 5(9),pp.727-731, 2006. [9] R.N Okigbo, “Mycoflora of tuber surface of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and post harvest control of pathogens with Baccilius subtilis”. Mycopathol, 156, pp.81-85. 2002 [10] R.N Okigbo,” Biological Control of Post harvest fungal rot of yam (Dioscorea spp.) with Bacillus subtilis”. Mycopathologia, 159, pp.307314, 2005. [11] A.C. Amadioha, and V.I. Obi,1999,”Control of anthracnose disease of cowpea by Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum. Acta Phytopathol Entomol. Hungerica.; 34(2),pp.85-89,1999.

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MHD effects on peristaltic flow of a Bingham fluid in a channel with permeable walls V.Rama Chandraiah*, K.Chakradhar**, R. Siva Prasad*** * Department of Mathematics, Srinivasa Institute of Technology & Science, kadapa, A.P., INDIA * *Department of Mathematics, Dr.Y.S.R. Engg. College of Technology, Kadapa, A.P., INDIA *** Department of Mathematics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, A.P., INDIA E-Mail: ph.d9866368769@gmail.com studied the effect of yield stress on peristaltic pumping of Non- Newtonian fluids in a channel. The Non Newtinian fluids are Bingham and Herschel- Bulkley fluids. Vajravelu et al [6, 7] made a detailed study on the effect of yield stress on peristaltic pumping of HerschelBulkley fluid in an inclined tube and a channel. All these investigations are confined to hydromagnetic study of a physiological fluid obeying some yield stress model. It is reported that some physiological fluids like blood are conducting fluids. Motivated by this MHD effects on peristaltic flow of a Bingham fluid in a channel with permeable walls is investigated in this chapter under long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. The expressions for the velocity field in the plug flow and non-plug flow regions, the pressure rise in the channel and the volume flow rate are obtained. The effects of the magnetic field, yield stress and amplitude ratio on the pumping characteristics are discussed.

Abstract: MHD effects on peristaltic flow of a Bingham fluid in a channel with permeable walls is studied under long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. This model can be applied to the blood flow in the sense that erythrocytes region and the plasma regions may be described as plug flow and non-plug flow regions. The effect of yields stress, Magnetic parameter, Darcy number and slip parameter on the pumping characteristics is discussed through graphs. Keywords: Peristaltic transport, Magnetic parameter, Bingham fluid, permeable walls. I. INTRODUCTION Physiological fluids in animal and human bodies are in general, pumped by the continuous contraction and expansion of the ducts. These contractions and expansion are expected to be caused by peristaltic waves that propagate along the walls of ducts. In general during peristaltic action the fluid is pumped from lower pressure to higher pressure. Peristaltic transport occurs widely in the stomach, ureter, bile duct, small vessels etc. The principle of peristalsis is used by roller pumps for pumping fluids without being contaminated due to the contact with the pumping machinery. The initial work on peristalsis is done by using lab frame analysis. The important characteristics of peristaltic pumping namely trapping and reflux phenomenon are studied in detail by Shapiro et al [1] for the peristaltic flow of a viscous fluid through a tube and a channel.

II.MATHEMATICALFORMULATION Consider the MHD effects on peristaltic pumping of a Bingham fluid in a channel with permeable walls, under long wave length and low Reynolds number assumptions (Fig 1).The flow between the permeable walls is governed by Navier-Stokes equations whereas the flow in the permeable beds is according to Darcy’s law. The channel is of half-width a. The region between y=0 and y= is called plug flow region. In the plug flow region | have |

| |

in the region between y= and y=h, we . The wall deformation is given by

H(X,t)=a+bsin (X-ct) In physiological peristalsis the pumping fluid cannot always be treated as a Newtonian fluid. Kapur [2] suggested several Non- Newtonian models for physiological flows. He made theoretical investigations regarding blood as a casson and Hershel- Bulkley fluids. Blair and Spanner [3] reported that blood obeys casson model for moderate shear rate flows. Lew et al [4] reported that chyme is a Non Newtonian material having plastic like properties. In view of this Sreenadh et al [5]

Where b is the amplitude,

(1) is the wave length and c is

the wave speed. Under the assumptions that channel length is an integral multiple of the wave length and the pressure difference across the ends of the tube is a constant, the flow becomes steady in the wave frame (x,y) moving with velocity c away from the fixed frame (X,Y). The transformation between these two frames is given by

35

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.3 NO.2 FEBRUARY 2013 X= X-ct; Y);

y= y;

u(x,y)= U(X-ct,Y);

v(x,y)=V(X-ct,

Where, C 1 = (τ 0 − C ); C = (−1+ M 2 ) + M C 1D 1 ; P = (− ∂p + M 2 ). 2 ∂x M 2 M D2 P

Where (U, V) are velocity components in the laboratory frame and (u,v) are velocity components in the wave frame. In many physiological situations it is proved experimentally that the Reynolds number of the flow is very small. So, we assume that the wave length is infinite. So the flow is of Poiseuille type at each local cross-section.

We find the upper limit of plug flow region using the boundary condition that

ψ yy = 0

h=

= ; ;

=

= ; ;

= =

; ;

=

;

=

=

;

=

;

=

Also by using the condition ;

We obtain P=

∂ ∂p (τ 0 −ψ y y ) − M 2 (ψ y + 1) = − ∂y ∂x

Taking

Where

y 0 τ0 = =τ, h τh

0

(9)

y = y 0 in equation (7) and using the relation (9)

we get the velocity in plug flow region as

(2)

u p = − M C 1S i n M y 0 + M C 2C o s M y 0 −

(3)

σe M = B 0a µ

at y=h

h Hence

∂p ∂y

τ yx = τh

(8)

τh

;

In the equations governing the motion (dropping the bars) is

0=

τ0

y = y 0 so we have y 0 =

P

We introduce the following non- dimensional quantities = ;

at

P M 2

(10)

Integrating the equations (7) and (10) and using the conditions ψ p = 0 at y=0, ψ = ψ p at

.

y = y0.

we get stream function as The non- dimensional boundary conditions are

ψ = 0;

at y=0

ψ yy = τ 0

at y=0

u = ψ y = −1−

D a ∂u α ∂y

at y=h

ψ = C 1C o s M y + C 2S in M y + (

(4) (5)

(6)

y0

h

0

y0

q = ∫u pdy + ∫ udy =

τ 0 is the yield stress.

P k2−M hD 2 ( )+ s M 2 MD2

(12)

The instantaneous volume flow rate Q (x, t) in the laboratory frame between the centre line and the permeable wall is

SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM Solving equation (2) subject to the boundary conditions (4) to (6) we obtain the velocity as

P u = ψ y = − M C 1S i n M y + M C 2C o s M y − 2 M

(11)

The volume flux q through each cross- section on the wave frame is given by

k Where ψ is the stream function, Da = 2 , α = slip a parameter and

−P y ); M 2

Q (X,t) =

(7)

H

h

0

0

∫ U ( X ,Y , t )d Y = ∫ (u + 1)d y = q + h (13)

From equation (12), we have

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d p M 3D 2 (q − s ) = −M d x (k 2 − M h D 2 )

2

, the flux (14)

for Bingham fluid depends on yield stress

and it increases with increasing .

The average volume flow rate Q over one wave period

From equation ((16)), we have calculated the pressure difference as a function of for different values

(T= )

of

Q =

of the peristaltic wave as

1 Q ( X , t )d t = q + 1 T ∫0

(15)

Integrating the equation (14) with respect to x over one wave length, we get the pressure rise over one cycle of the wave as 1

0

M 3D 2 (q − s ) − M 2}d x (k 2 − M h D 2 )

fluid depends on yield stress and it increases with increasing yield stress. From equation ((16)), we have calculated the pressure difference as a function of for different values of Darcy number Da, for fixed =

(16)

Where h ( x ) = 1+ φ sin 2π x

2; M=0.25; =0.6; =0.6 and is shown in figure (4), We observe that for a given , the flux depends on Darcy number and it decreases with increasing Darcy number Da. For free pumping the flux is constant and it is

The time average flux at zero pressure rise (drop) is denoted by

Q 0 and the pressure rise required to

produce zero average flow rate is denoted by ∆p 0 so

independent of Da.

we have 1

∆p 0 = − ∫ { 0

M 3D 2 (−1− s ) }d x (k 2 − M h D 2 )

The variation of pressure rise with time averaged flow rate is calculated from ((16)), for different values of and is shown in figure (5) for fixed Da=0.005;

(17)

M=0.25; =0.6; =0.6. We observe that the longer the slip parameter, the greater the pressure rise against which the pump works. For a given , the flux

The dimensionless friction force F at the wall across one wave length is given by 1

F = ∫ h (− 0

M 3D 2 (q − s ) dP − M 2}d x )d x = −∫ h { − dx ( k M h D ) 2 2 0

increases with increasing . For a given flux , the pressure difference

1

increases with increasing .

(18) The variation of pressure rise with time averaged flow rate is calculated from ((16)), for different values of and is shown in figure (6) for fixed = 2;

III. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULT

Da=0.005; =0.6; =0.6. We observe that the larger the

In order to see the effect of various pertinent parameters

Hartmann parameter (M), the smaller the pressure rise against which the pump works. For a given , the flux

such as the yield stress ( ), amplitude ratio ( ), Darcy number (Da), Hartmann number (M) and slip parameter

decreases with increasing . For a given flux , the

( ) on pumping characteristics we have plotted Figures 2 – 11.

pressure difference

decreases with increasing .

From equation (18), we have calculated the frictional force as a function of for different yield stress

The variation of pressure rise with time averaged flow rate is calculated from equation ((16)), for different amplitude ratios ) and is shown in figure (2) for fixed

= 2;

Da=0.005; M=0.25; =0.6. It is observed that for a Bingham fluid, the peristaltic wave passing over the channel wall pumps against more pressure rise ( ) compared to Newtonian fluid. This type of behavior may be due to the presence of plug flow in Bingham fluid. Further, we observe that there is no difference in flux for Bingham fluid and Newtonian fluids for free pumping case ( ). For a given the flux for a Bingham

T

∆p = − ∫ {

is shown in figure (3) for fixed values

( ), amplitude ratio ( ), Darcy number (Da), Hartmann number (M) and slip parameter ( ) and it is observed

= 2; Da=0.005; M=0.25; =0.6. We observe

that the frictional force F has the opposite behavior compared to pressure rise ( ) and is depicted in figures

that the higher the amplitude ratio, the greater the pressure rise against which the pump works. For a given

(7-11).

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Da I

0.005

II

0.025

III

0.050

IV

0.075

Fig. 1: Physical model for Bingham fluid in a channel with permeable walls. Fig: 4.The variation of Da for fixed

Fig: 2.The variation of

with

I

0.6

II

0.65

III

0.70

IV

0.75

with for the different values of

= 2; M=0.25; =0.6; =0.6;

for the different values of

for fixed = 2; Da=0.005; M=0.25; =0.6;

I

0.6

II

0.7

III

0.8

IV

0.9

I

0.5

II

1.0

III

1.5

IV

2.0

Fig: 5. The variation of with for the different values of for fixed Da=0.005; M=0.25; =0.6; =0.6;

M

Fig: 3.The variation of of

for fixed

I

0.25

II

0.65

III

1.05

IV

1.45

with for the different values

= 2; Da=0.005; M=0.25; =0.6;

Fig: 6. The variation of with for the different values of M for fixed = 2; Da=0.005; =0.6; =0.6;

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I

0.60

II

0.65

III

0.70

IV

0.75

F

Fig: 7.The variation of for fixed

I

0.6

II

0.7

III

0.8

with for the different values of

I

0.5

II

0.1

III

1.5

IV

2.0

Fig: 10. The variation of

= 2; Da=0.005; M = 0.25; =0.6;

of

with

for the different values

for fixed Da=0.005; M=0.25; =0.6;

M

F IV

I

0.25

II

0.65

III

1.05

IV

1.45

0.9

Fig: 11. The variation of of Fig: 8. The variation of of

=0.6;

for fixed

with

for fixed

with for the different values

= 2; Da=0.005; =0.6;

=0.6;

REFERENCES

for the different values

[1] Shapiro, A.H., Jaffrin, M.Y and Weinberg, S.L. Peristaltic pumping with long wavelengths at low Reynolds number, J. Fluid Mech. 37(1969), 799-825.

= 2; Da=0.005; M=0.25; =0.6;

[2] Kapur, J.N. Mathematical Models in Biology and Medicine, Affiliated East-West Press Private Limited, New Delhi, 1985. [3] G.W.S. Blair, D.C. Spanner, An Introduction to Bioreheology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1974.

Da I

0.005

II

0.025

III

0.050

IV

0.075

[4] Lew, H.S., Fung, Y.C. and Lowenstein, C.B. Peristaltic carrying and mixing of Chyme in the small intestine ( An analysis of a mathematical model of peristaltic of the small intestine), J. Biomech., 4 (1971), 297315. [5] Sreenadh, S., Narahari, M. and Ramesh Babu, V. Effect of yield stress on peristaltic pumping of Non-Newtonian fluids in a channel, International Symposium on advances in fluid Mechanics, UGC-Centre for Advanced Studies in Fluid mechanics, Bangalore University, June2004, 234-247.

Fig:9. The variation of for fixed

with

[6] Vajravelu, K., Sreenadh, S. and Ramesh Babu, V. Peristaltic transport of a Hershel-Bulkley fluid in an inclined tube, Int. J. Non linear Mech. 40(2005) 83-90.

for the different values of

= 2; M=0.25; =0.6; =0.6;

[7] Vajravelu, K. Sreenadh, S. and Ramesh Babu, V. Peristaltic pumping of a Hershel-Bulkley fluid in a channel, Appl. Math. and Computation, 169(2005), 726-735.

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IJITCE Feb 2013  

International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711). Vol.3 No.2 Feb 2013

IJITCE Feb 2013  

International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711). Vol.3 No.2 Feb 2013

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