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UK: Managing Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering 1a park lane, Cranford London TW59WA UK E-Mail: editor@ijitce.co.uk Phone: +44-773-043-0249 USA: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering Dr. Arumugam Department of Chemistry University of Georgia GA-30602, USA. Phone: 001-706-206-0812 Fax:001-706-542-2626 India: Editor International Journal of Innovative Technology & Creative Engineering Dr. Arthanariee. A. M Finance Tracking Center India 17/14 Ganapathy Nagar 2nd Street Ekkattuthangal Chennai -600032 Mobile: 91-7598208700

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012

From Editor's Desk Dear Researcher, Greetings! Research article in this issue discusses about A Novel Approach of Image Enhancement. Let us review research around the world this month; The dream of a car that can drive itself has grown over the last decade as the necessary technologies have gradually proved their worth, but the idea has faced major legal hurdles. Not for much longer. Politicians are now scrambling to make self-driving cars a reality. From Hawaii to Florida, and Oxford to Berlin, the race is on to get driverless cars onto our streets. But concerns about the safety of autonomous cars are misplaced in a world where 1.2 million people die every year in road accidents due to human error, says Paul Newman, a robotics engineer at the University of Oxford The team also investigated matching a human face to an avatar generated from that face previous studies show that avatars often resemble their owners. Combining their colour-based technique with existing facial recognition software produced the best results, suggesting it might be possible to track someone between the physical and virtual worlds. They will present the work at the Defense, Security, and Sensing conference in Baltimore, Marylan A UK based team has combined two methods into a new technique to investigate cell-substrate interactions in biomedical research. The new technique, correlative light-ion microscopy (CLIM), combines both ion and fluorescence microscopy to obtain topographical and biochemical information for the same area of a sample. On land, scientists can continually monitor almost anything, from ecosystems and volcanoes to characteristics of the atmosphere. Under the sea, things are much more limited. John Delaney, an oceanographer at the University of Washington in Seattle, is determined to change this.He is wiring up the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate off the coast of the north-western US to create a constant virtual presence in the Pacific Ocean. "It's no understatement to say that this will revolutionise the way we understand the planet," It has been an absolute pleasure to present you articles that you wish to read. We look forward to many more new technology-related research articles from you and your friends. We are anxiously awaiting the rich and thorough research papers that have been prepared by our authors for the next issue. Thanks, Editorial Team IJITCE


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Editorial Members Dr. Chee Kyun Ng Ph.D Department of Computer and Communication Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor,Malaysia. Dr. Simon SEE Ph.D Chief Technologist and Technical Director at Oracle Corporation, Associate Professor (Adjunct) at Nanyang Technological University Professor (Adjunct) at Shangai Jiaotong University, 27 West Coast Rise #08-12,Singapore 127470 Dr. sc.agr. Horst Juergen SCHWARTZ Ph.D, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Asternplatz 2a, D-12203 Berlin, Germany Dr. Marco L. Bianchini Ph.D Italian National Research Council; IBAF-CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM), Italy

Dr. Nijad Kabbara Ph.D Marine Research Centre / Remote Sensing Centre/ National Council for Scientific Research, P. O. Box: 189 Jounieh, Lebanon Dr. Aaron Solomon Ph.D Department of Computer Science, National Chi Nan University, No. 303, University Road, Puli Town, Nantou County 54561, Taiwan Dr. Arthanariee. A. M M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.S.,Ph.D Director - Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Ellispettai, Erode, Tamil Nadu,India Dr. Takaharu KAMEOKA, Ph.D Professor, Laboratory of Food, Environmental & Cultural Informatics Division of Sustainable Resource Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan Mr. M. Sivakumar M.C.A.,ITIL.,PRINCE2.,ISTQB.,OCP.,ICP Project Manager - Software, Applied Materials, 1a park lane, cranford, UK Dr. Bulent Acma Ph.D Anadolu University, Department of Economics, Unit of Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP), 26470 Eskisehir, TURKEY Dr. Selvanathan Arumugam Ph.D Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, GA-30602, USA.

Review Board Members Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168, Australia Dr. Zhiming Yang MD., Ph. D. Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science,1550 Orleans Street Rm 441, Baltimore MD, 21231,USA Dr. Jifeng Wang Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA Dr. Giuseppe Baldacchini ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 45 - P.O. Box 65,00044 Frascati, Roma, ITALY. Dr. Mutamed Turki Nayef Khatib Assistant Professor of Telecommunication Engineering,Head of Telecommunication Engineering Department,Palestine Technical University (Kadoorie), Tul Karm, PALESTINE.


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Dr.P.Uma Maheswari Prof & Head,Depaartment of CSE/IT, INFO Institute of Engineering,Coimbatore. Dr. T. Christopher, Ph.D., Assistant Professor & Head,Department of Computer Science,Government Arts College(Autonomous),Udumalpet, India. Dr. T. DEVI Ph.D. Engg. (Warwick, UK), Head,Department of Computer Applications,Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-641 046, India.

Dr. Renato J. orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar) ,01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Visiting Scholar at INSEAD,INSEAD Social Innovation Centre,Boulevard de Constance,77305 Fontainebleau - France Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business SchoolRua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar), 01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Javad Robati Crop Production Departement,University of Maragheh,Golshahr,Maragheh,Iran Vinesh Sukumar (PhD, MBA) Product Engineering Segment Manager, Imaging Products, Aptina Imaging Inc. Dr. Binod Kumar PhD(CS), M.Phil.(CS), MIAENG,MIEEE HOD & Associate Professor, IT Dept, Medi-Caps Inst. of Science & Tech.(MIST),Indore, India Dr. S. B. Warkad Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, India Dr. doc. Ing. Rostislav Choteborský, Ph.D. Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie Technická fakulta,Ceská zemedelská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials,CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Private Bag 33, Clayton South MDC 3169,Gate 5 Normanby Rd., Clayton Vic. 3168 DR.Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg.,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Mr. Abhishek Taneja B.sc(Electronics),M.B.E,M.C.A.,M.Phil., Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science & Applications, at Dronacharya Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra. (India). Dr. Ing. Rostislav Chot•borský,ph.d, Katedra materiálu a strojírenské technologie, Technická fakulta,•eská zem•d•lská univerzita v Praze,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6, 165 21


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012 Dr. Amala VijayaSelvi Rajan, B.sc,Ph.d, Faculty – Information Technology Dubai Women’s College – Higher Colleges of Technology,P.O. Box – 16062, Dubai, UAE Naik Nitin Ashokrao B.sc,M.Sc Lecturer in Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya Nanded University Dr.A.Kathirvell, B.E, M.E, Ph.D,MISTE, MIACSIT, MENGG Professor - Department of Computer Science and Engineering,Tagore Engineering College, Chennai Dr. H. S. Fadewar B.sc,M.sc,M.Phil.,ph.d,PGDBM,B.Ed. Associate Professor - Sinhgad Institute of Management & Computer Application, Mumbai-Banglore Westernly Express Way Narhe, Pune - 41 Dr. David Batten Leader, Algal Pre-Feasibility Study,Transport Technologies and Sustainable Fuels,CSIRO Energy Transformed Flagship Private Bag 1,Aspendale, Vic. 3195,AUSTRALIA Dr R C Panda (MTech & PhD(IITM);Ex-Faculty (Curtin Univ Tech, Perth, Australia))Scientist CLRI (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai - 600 020,India Miss Jing He PH.D. Candidate of Georgia State University,1450 Willow Lake Dr. NE,Atlanta, GA, 30329 Jeremiah Neubert Assistant Professor,Mechanical Engineering,University of North Dakota Hui Shen Mechanical Engineering Dept,Ohio Northern Univ. Dr. Xiangfa Wu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor / Mechanical Engineering,NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY Seraphin Chally Abou Professor,Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart,MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall,1305 Ordean Court,Duluth, Minnesota 55812-3042 Dr. Qiang Cheng, Ph.D. Assistant Professor,Computer Science Department Southern Illinois University CarbondaleFaner Hall, Room 2140-Mail Code 45111000 Faner Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 Dr. Carlos Barrios, PhD Assistant Professor of Architecture,School of Architecture and Planning,The Catholic University of America Y. Benal Yurtlu Assist. Prof. Ondokuz Mayis University Dr. Lucy M. Brown, Ph.D. Texas State University,601 University Drive,School of Journalism and Mass Communication,OM330B,San Marcos, TX 78666 Dr. Paul Koltun Senior Research ScientistLCA and Industrial Ecology Group,Metallic & Ceramic Materials CSIRO Process Science & Engineering Dr.Sumeer Gul Assistant Professor,Department of Library and Information Science,University of Kashmir,India Dr. Chutima Boonthum-Denecke, Ph.D Department of Computer Science,Science & Technology Bldg., Rm 120,Hampton University,Hampton, VA 23688 Dr. Renato J. Orsato Professor at FGV-EAESP,Getulio Vargas Foundation,São Paulo Business School,Rua Itapeva, 474 (8° andar) 01332-000, São Paulo (SP), Brazil


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Dr. Wael M. G. Ibrahim Department Head-Electronics Engineering Technology Dept.School of Engineering Technology ECPI College of Technology 5501 Greenwich Road - Suite 100,Virginia Beach, VA 23462 Dr. Messaoud Jake Bahoura Associate Professor-Engineering Department and Center for Materials Research Norfolk State University,700 Park avenue,Norfolk, VA 23504 Dr. V. P. Eswaramurthy M.C.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. P. Kamakkannan,M.C.A., Ph.D ., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 007, India. Dr. V. Karthikeyani Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Computer Science, Government Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-636 008, India. Dr. K. Thangadurai Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College ( Autonomous ), Karur - 639 005,India. Dr. N. Maheswari Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of MCA, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattangulathur, Kanchipiram Dt - 603 203, India. Mr. Md. Musfique Anwar B.Sc(Engg.) Lecturer, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Mrs. Smitha Ramachandran M.Sc(CS)., SAP Analyst, Akzonobel, Slough, United Kingdom. Dr. V. Vallimayil Ph.D., Director, Department of MCA, Vivekanandha Business School For Women, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode - 637 205, India. Mr. M. Moorthi M.C.A., M.Phil., Assistant Professor, Department of computer Applications, Kongu Arts and Science College, India Prema Selvaraj Bsc,M.C.A,M.Phil Assistant Professor,Department of Computer Science,KSR College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode Mr. G. Rajendran M.C.A., M.Phil., N.E.T., PGDBM., PGDBF., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem, India. Dr. Pradeep H Pendse B.E.,M.M.S.,Ph.d Dean - IT,Welingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, Mumbai, India Muhammad Javed Centre for Next Generation Localisation, School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland Dr. G. GOBI Assistant Professor-Department of Physics,Government Arts College,Salem - 636 007 Dr.S.Senthilkumar Post Doctoral Research Fellow, (Mathematics and Computer Science & Applications),Universiti Sains Malaysia,School of Mathematical Sciences, Pulau Pinang-11800,[PENANG],MALAYSIA. Manoj Sharma Associate Professor Deptt. of ECE, Prannath Parnami Institute of Management & Technology, Hissar, Haryana, India RAMKUMAR JAGANATHAN Asst-Professor,Dept of Computer Science, V.L.B Janakiammal college of Arts & Science, Coimbatore,Tamilnadu, India


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Dr. S. B. Warkad Assoc. Professor, Priyadarshini College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India Dr. Saurabh Pal Associate Professor, UNS Institute of Engg. & Tech., VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India Manimala Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Electronics and Instrumentation, St Joseph’s College of Engineering & Technology, Choondacherry Post, Kottayam Dt. Kerala -686579 Dr. Qazi S. M. Zia-ul-Haque Control Engineer Synchrotron-light for Experimental Sciences and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME),P. O. Box 7, Allan 19252, Jordan Dr. A. Subramani, M.C.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D. Professor,Department of Computer Applications, K.S.R. College of Engineering, Tiruchengode - 637215 Dr. Seraphin Chally Abou Professor, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Depart. MEHS Program, 235 Voss-Kovach Hall, 1305 Ordean Court Duluth, Minnesota 558123042 Dr. K. Kousalya Professor, Department of CSE,Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai-638 052 Dr. (Mrs.) R. Uma Rani Asso.Prof., Department of Computer Science, Sri Sarada College For Women, Salem-16, Tamil Nadu, India. MOHAMMAD YAZDANI-ASRAMI Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Babol "Noshirvani" University of Technology, Iran. Dr. Kulasekharan, N, Ph.D Technical Lead - CFD,GE Appliances and Lighting, GE India,John F Welch Technology Center,Plot # 122, EPIP, Phase 2,Whitefield Road,Bangalore – 560066, India. Dr. Manjeet Bansal Dean (Post Graduate),Department of Civil Engineering,Punjab Technical University,Giani Zail Singh Campus,Bathinda -151001 (Punjab),INDIA Dr. Oliver Juki• Vice Dean for education,Virovitica College,Matije Gupca 78,33000 Virovitica, Croatia Dr. Lori A. Wolff, Ph.D., J.D. Professor of Leadership and Counselor Education,The University of Mississippi,Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, 139 Guyton University, MS 38677


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012

Contents A Novel Approach of Image Enhancement ………[1]


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012

A Novel Approach of Image Enhancement #1

*2

Rajiv Kumar , Arthanariee A. M , Sivakumar M

!3

1

Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), India #

dhimanrajiv2000@yahoo.co.in

2

Bharathidasan School of Computer Applications, Erode (Tamil Nadu), India *

arthanarimsvc@gmail.com

3

Anna University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), India ! sivala@gmail.com image pixel and its neighbors will be calculated to minimize the effectiveness of noisy pixels. The distance values represent the relation between good pixels and noisy pixels, which satisfy the assumption, that “far noisy pixels have less effect on surrounded good ones [11, 12, 15]”. In section II, authors have proposed a novel filter which removes the noisy pixels and transforms them into good pixels. In section III, the performance of proposed filter has been evaluated and compared with average filter, Gaussian filter and unsharp filter on the basis of four parameters – eme, mse, rmse and psnr. The graphs and various images that are obtained from these filters have been also displayed. Finally, paper concludes in section IV. II. proposed filter In proposed filter, pixels are scanned from center to boundary to calculate the distance between them by using Newton-Raphson method. The NewtonRaphson method is a powerful technique for solving equations numerically. It is based on the equation (1) as given below:

Abstract—Image enhancement is used to improve the certain features of an image. In this paper, a novel filter of image enhancement has been proposed. The proposed filter is implemented for masking , and operation. Authors have convoluted masks with various poorly contrast images which convert them into good quality images. The performance of proposed filter is analyzed and compared with other existing filters, namely, average filter, Gaussian filter and unsharp filter. The authors evaluated the performance of these filters on the basis of four parameters – eme (quality measure of image enhancement), mse (mean square error), rmse (root mean square error) and psnr (peak-to- signal noise ratio). The Matlab 7.4 is used for implementation of proposed filter. The experimental results have carried on more than 1000 images which prove that the proposed filter enhances poor quality images very effectively. Keywords: Image Enhancement, Average Filter, Gaussian, Unsharp Filter

I. Introduction Image enhancement [1, 2, 7, 8, 13] is the processing of image to enhance the certain features of an image. Image enhancement is used in the following cases: (1) removal of noise from image, (2) enhancement of the dark image and (3) highlight the edges of the objects present in an image. The result is more suitable than the original image for certain specific applications. Processing techniques are very much problem oriented. For example, best techniques for enhancement of X-ray image may not be best for enhancement for microscopic images [3, 9, 10, 12]. In this paper, a novel filter of image enhancement has been proposed. The proposed filter is used to remove the noisy pixels and transform them into good one. The proposed filter is based on calculating the distance between image pixels and their neighbors. It is used to enhance abnormal pixels values to remove noise and enhance the appearance of an image. The distance between the

Where = Central pixel = Neighboring pixel of Equation (2) is chosen experimentally and this is the fitness criterion. This formula is applied on 1000 images and results are found very satisfactory. The central pixel is assumed to be 1. Then use 4connectivity neighboring pixels and apply the Newton Raphson method using above fitness criterion. The distance is calculated between centralized pixel and its neighbors. Then, apply the same process until all the pixels are scanned. Do not scan those pixels which are already scanned. The table 1 has shown for 3×3 proposed filter.

1


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012 TABLE 1. FILTER OF DIMENSIONS 3 × 3

1.67

2

1.67

2

1

2

1.67

2

1.67

TABLE 2. FILTER OF DIMENSIONS 5 × 5

1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62

1.62 1.67 2 1.67 1.62

1.67 2 1 2 1.67

1.62 1.67 2 1.67 1.62

1.62 1.62 1.67 1.62 1.62

TABLE 3. PROPOSED FILTER OF DIMENSIONS 7 × 7

1.62

1.62

1.62

1.62

1.62

1.62

1.62

1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62

1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62

1.62 1.67 2 1.67 1.62 1.62

1.67 2 1 2 1.67 1.62

1.62 1.67 2 1.67 1.62 1.62

1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62

1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.62

Algorithm

Step 7: Exit

Step 1: Choose any n × n matrix. Step 2: Check whether the matrix is odd or even. If even, then exit otherwise proceed to Step3. Step 3: Initialize the central pixel of the matrix equal to 1 i.e Step 4: Scan from the Central pixel to all neighboring pixels by using 4-connectivity. Step 5: Apply Newton-Raphson Method to find out the value of neighboring pixels using the formula:

Step 6: Repeat step 4 and 5 until all pixels are scanned (NOTE: Do not scan those pixels that are already scanned.

Convolution of 3 × 3 proposed filter with image

The above 3 × 3 proposed filter is convoluted with given image with the formula as given in equation (5).

(5) Where N is the total number of cells in the filter, R is the response of filter at that particular point and Wi,j is the mask. In table 4, authors consider the image of dimension 8 ×8. We can take image is of any size. In this paper, all images are of size 256 × 256.

TABLE 4 : ORIGINAL IMAGE OF DIMENSION 8 × 8

23 67 45 49 123 12 25 126

35 98 87 67 178 45 27 126

45 125 67 98 56 126 29 98

89 245 126 56 67 127 126 76

125 23 129 126 37 56 126 56

128 0 34 212 98 57 128 123

37 56 25 0 127 127 98 56

0 123 67 27 1 128 56 65

This 3 × 3 proposed filter is convoluted with above image. The resultant image of same dimension after convolution is shown in table 5

2


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012 Table 5: RESULTANT IMAGE AFTER CONVOLUTION

43.3704

76.3333

123.8519

129.5185

112.5926

64.8519

67.7778

45.9259

61.9259

104.1111

163.5185

161.4444

179.1481

112.0741

89.7407

52.4815

66.7778

106.7778

188.0741

193.3333

171.7778

109.4074

104.7037

56.7037

99.2963

138.8889

136.0370

148.6296

167.8519

132.3333

123.9259

46.2593

76.6296

131.0000

151.0741

120.4074

164.9259

161.3333

142.8519

86.2963

75.9630

116.9259

140.7037

132.4815

146.8148

168.9630

157.6296

96.7778

57.1111

105.9259

150.0370

149.4444

152.1481

144.4074

161.5185

104.7778

49.3333

65.7778

76.5556

85.1481

114.5926

102.2593

103.8519

50.2593

By comparing table 4 and table 5, authors concluded that the intensity value of poor pixels in original image has been converted into good one in the resultant image.

eme (quality measure of image enhancement), mse (mean square error), rmse (root mean square error) and psnr (peak-to-signal noise ratio) have been chosen to measure the performance of these filters. These algorithms can be applied on n × n dimensions (n is odd). In this paper, 3 × 3, 5 × 5 and 7 × 7 dimensions have been taken and they convolute with various poor quality images. The results are implemented using MATLAB 7.4 using Image Processing Toolbox (IPT) [4, 5, 13]. The following results based on above parameters [14] have been shown in tables given below:

III.

performance evaluation and comparsion of proposed filter with average , Gaussian and Unsharp filter

The performance of the proposed filter has been evaluated and compared with average, Gaussian and unsharp filter. The four parameters, namely,

TABLE 6. FILTER OF DIMENSIONS 3 × 3

eme mse rmse psnr

Proposed Filter

Average Filter

Gaussian Filter

Unsharp Filter

10.5830 2.3381 1.5291 44.4422

10.1776 34.8754 5.9055 32.7056

12.4495 10.9640 3.3112 37.7311

11.7259 250.0045 15.8115 24.1513

TABLE 7.

eme mse rmse psnr

FILTER OF DIMENSIONS 5 × 5

Proposed Filter

Average Filter

Gaussian Filter

Unsharp Filter

8.6970 8.9660 2.9943 38.6048

8.0220 48.5326 6.9665 31.2705

12.4395 11.0212 3.3198 37.7085

8.5870 250.7480 15.8350 24.1384

TABLE 8. FILTER OF DIMENSIONS 7 × 7

eme mse rmse psnr

Proposed Filter 7.9809 39.1786 6.2593 32.2003

Average Filter 6.6004 55.8348 7.4723 30.6618

3

Gaussian Filter 12.4395 11.0212 3.3198 37.7085

Unsharp Filter 8.0803 251.1722 15.8484 24.1311


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012 The graphs of proposed filter along with average, Gaussian and unsharp filter on various parameters have shown for 3 × 3, 5 × 5 and 7 × 7 dimensions [4, 13].

Figure 1. Comparison of filters using various parameters of 3 × 3 dimensions

Figure 3. Comparison of filters using various parameters of 7 × 7 dimensions

Figure 2. Comparison of filters using various parameters of 5 × 5 dimensions

The image results of proposed, average, Gaussian and unsharp filter have been shown in figure 4.

Figure 4. Image results of (a) Original image (b) proposed, (c) average, (d) Gaussian and (e) unsharp filters using 3 × 3, 5 × 5 and 7 × 7 dimensions

4


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012 IV.

[2] AniatiMurni [2000], Image Processing, class handouts, Faculty of Computer Science, University of Indonesia, Jakarta. [3] Ashish Mehta,” A Literature Survey On image enhancement”, MHTASH002, Research Methods, Date: 07 August 2006. [4] D-I-Y Matlab Tutorials http://pesona.mmu.edu.my/~johnsee/matlab [5] E.S. Gopi, Digital Image Processing using Matlab, Senior Lecturer, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri. Venkateswara College of Engineering Pennalur, Sriperumbudur, Tamilnadu, SciTech Publication (India) Pvt. Ltd., 2007. [6] “Image Quality Evaluation Based On Image Weighted Separating Block Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio”, IEEE Int.Conf. Neural Networks & Signal Processing, Nanjing, China, December 14-17, 2003. [7] J.C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., 1992. [8] K. R. Castleman (1979),Digital Image Processing. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ [9]Mr. Salem Saleh Al-amri1, Dr.N.V. Kalyankar2,Dr.S.D.Khamitkar,” Linear and Non-linear Contrast Enhancement Image”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.10 No.2, February 2010. [10] Muhammad Shahzad, Shiraz Latif,” Efficient Image Enhancement Techniques”, Journal of Information & Communication Technology Vol. 3, No. 1, (Spring 2009) 50-55. [11] RaghadJawadAHMED,”Image enhancement and noise removal by using new spatial filters”, U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series C, Vol. 73, Iss. 1, 2011 ISSN 1454-234x. [12] Raman Maini and HimanshuAggarwal, “A comprehensive review of Image Enhancement techniques, journal of computing”, volume 2, issue 3, march 2010, issn 2151-9617 [13] R. C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods, Digital Image processing, Addision-Wesely, 2003 R. Gonzalez, R. Woods and S. Eddins “Digital Image Processing Using Matlab”, 2004, Prentice Hall. [14] S. S. Agaian, K Panetta, and A. M. Grigorian, “A new measure of image enhancement,” presented at the IASTED Int. Conf. Signal Processing Communication, Marbella, Spain, Sep. 19-22, 2000. [15] T.S. Huang, G.J. Yang, And G.Y. Tang, "A Fast Two Dimensional Median Filtering Algorithm", IEEE Trans. On Accustics, Speech, Signal Processing, Vol. ASSP-27, No.1, Feb 1997.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, a novel approach of image enhancement has been proposed. The proposed filter is compared with average, Gaussian and unsharp filter on the basis of four parameters- eme (quality measure of image enhancement), mse (mean square error), rmse (root mean square error) and psnr (peak-to-signal noise ratio). The performance of proposed filter has been evaluated on more than 1000 images using MATLAB 7.4 and the results are found very satisfactory. From table 4, it is clear that the quality of proposed filter is higher than average filter but low as compared with Gaussian and unsharp filter. As it is clear from table 5, the error rate of proposed filter is much less than other filters. When the dimension of the filter is increased then the error between the original image and enhanced image of proposed filter is also increased but still it is much less than other filters. Similar is the case with rmse value in table 6. Table 7 shows that psnr values of proposed filter is slightly higher than other filters. In case of increased filter dimensions, psnr value of proposed filter has been decreased but still it is good as compared with other filters. In short, it has been concluded that propagation error between the original image and enhanced image using proposed filter is less than other filters. The quality of proposed filter is much better than average filter but less as compared to Gaussian and unsharp filter. REFERENCES [1] A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY & CREATIVE ENGINEERING (ISSN:2045-8711) VOL.2 NO.4 APR 2012

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IJITCE April 2012  
IJITCE April 2012  

International Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (ISSN:2045-8711)

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