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ISSN 2320 – 6020

IJBSTR REVIEW PAPER VOL 1 [ISSUE 8] AUGUST 2013

A Review Report on Urban Sprawl and Its Impact on Urban Environment Priyanka Dubey ABSTRACT: Urban sprawl refers to the degree of urbanisation, which is, an international phenomenon mainly determined by population growth and huge scale migration. In early countries like India, wherever the inhabitants, is over one billion, one-sixth of the world’s populace, urban sprawl is taking its charge, on the natural resources at a disturbing pace. Urban planners require in order related to the hurry of expansion, model and degree of sprawl to provide basic facilities, such as water, hygiene, electricity, etc. This paper brings out the extent, of sprawl captivating place over, an era of almost, three decades using GIS and Remote Sensing. The study, also attempts to describe some of the countryside metrics required for quantifying sprawl. For understanding and modelling this dynamic phenomenon, famous causative factors are considered. KEY WORDS: Urban Sprawl, Low density sprawl, Ribbon sprawl, Leap frog Development INTRODUCTION The procedure of urbanisation is a worldwide phenomenon taking place the world over, where humans dwell. All countries are horizontal to this bewildering occurrence chiefly accountable due to the augment in population growth, wealth and infrastructure initiatives. The extent of urbanisation or the spread out is one such occurrence that drives the change, in land use patterns. The sprawl usually takes place, in radial way around the city middle or in linear course, along, the highways. Typically slump takes place, on the town fringe, at the border of a built-up area, or along the highways. The learn, on urban spread out (The Regionalist, 1997; Sierra Club, 1998) is attempted in the urbanized countries (Batty et al., 1999; Torrens and Alberti, 2000; Barnes et al., 2001, Hurd et al., 2001; Epstein et al., 2002) and newly in developing countries such as China (Yeh and Li, 2001; Cheng and Masser, 2003) and India (Jothimani, 1997; Lata et. al., 2001; Sudhira et. al., 2003). In India on your own currently, 25.73% of the inhabitants (Census of India, 2001) subsist in the urban centres, as it is planned, that in the after that fifteen years, regarding 33% would be livelihood in the town centres. This indicates the disturbing rate of urbanisation and the degree of sprawl that could happen. In order to understand these growing rate of urban sprawl. An effort is complete to know the sprawl dynamics and evolve suitable management strategies that could help in the region’s sustainable growth. Understanding such an occurrence and its pattern helps in preparation for effective natural reserve utilisation and provision of communications facilities.

The urbanized is generally careful as the parameter for quantifying urban slump (Torrens and Alberti, 2000; Barnes et al., 2001; Epstein et al., 2002).It is quantified by bearing in mind the resistant or the built-up as the input feature of spread out, which is delineated by top sheets or from side to side the data acquired remotely. Urban Sprawl In India, with an extraordinary population growth and immigration, an augmented, urban inhabitants and urbanisation is in, advertent. More and more towns and city are blooming with modify in the land use the length of the highways and in the instant vicinity of the city. This diffuse development outside of solid urban and village centres the length of highways and in rural area is defined as sprawl (Theo bald, 2001). Urbanisation is an appearance of metropolitan growth that is a reply to often bewildering set of economic, social, and supporting forces and to the corporeal geography of a region. Some of the cause of the sprawl includes inhabitant’s growth, economy, patterns of communications initiatives like the building of roads and the stipulation of infrastructure using community money encouraging growth. The direct, implication of such, urban sprawl is the alter in land use and ground cover of the region. Types of Urban Sprawl: Sprawl development consists of three basic spatial forms: Low density sprawl: Low density sprawl is the consumptive use of land for urban purposes along the boundaries of existing municipal areas. This type of sprawl is supported by bit by bit extensions of basic urban infrastructures such as water, sewer, power and roads.

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IJBSTR REVIEW PAPER VOL 1 [ISSUE 8] AUGUST 2013 Leap frog Development:

This form of progress is most costly with respect to provided that urban services such as water and sewerage Leap frog development is an irregular pattern of urbanization, with patches of developed lands that are widely alienated from each other and from the boundaries, although indistinct in cases of recognized urbanized areas.

Fig. 1: Low Density and Single Use Development Ribbon sprawl: Ribbon sprawl is expansion that follows major moving corridors, outward from urban cores. Lands adjacent to corridors are developed, but those without direct access remain in rural uses /covers, over time these nearby “raw” lands, may be converted to urban uses, as land values increase and communications is extensive vertically from the major roads and lines.

Fig.3: Scattered and Leapfrog Development Study Area The Remote Sensing data, GIS joint with Shannon's entropy, has prove to be efficient in monitor and measuring the urban spread out of Pune, a rising city in the Indian situation of Maharashtra. Database: Digital data, of IRS 1D LISS III of 5th December 2001, pertaining to path-095 and row 059, Survey of India top sheets (Index No. 47F/14, 47F/15) on 1:50,000 scales were use for the reason. Maps and other collateral data were procured from Pune Municipal business (PMC), Town Planning Office, and Mashal NGO group, (who were involved in the training of city development plan). The demographic details were in use from census abstracts. METHODOLOGY

Fig.2: Un-centred Strip Development.

The digital remote sensing information was processed, and geo-referenced in Erdas 8.3.1 software. At first the top sheets were scan and geo-referenced and old as, base for image register. The geo-referenced FCC picture was further enhanced by means of essential enhancement techniques. After that chart interpretation of image was complete to identify the main land use classes. The improved image was classified on the foundation of samples collected from dissimilar classes. Maximum likelihood classifier, of supervised classification in Erdas was used to categorize the image into four main classes and again they remerged into two main lessons as built-up and Non- urbanized area.

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IJBSTR REVIEW PAPER VOL 1 [ISSUE 8] AUGUST 2013

idea to recognize, whether land expansion is towards a more, dispersed or dense pattern.

FIG.5: Population Density A and Population Density B

(A) Fig-1.4(A)FCC Image of Study Area

(B) (B) Classified Area

Measuring Urban Sprawl

Fig.6: Population of Pune (1951- 2001)

Urban spread out over the period of 1980 to 2001, approximately a period of two decades was determined by compute the area of all, the settlements, from the digitized top sheets, of 1979-80 and compare it with the region obtained from the ,classified IRS 1D mage. Shannon's entropy was second-hand to capture the quantity of sprawl in these, time periods. Shannon's entropy (E), can be used to calculate the degree of spatial attention and dispersion exhibit by geographical uneven. (Theil, 1967: Thomas, 1981) This calculation is based on the idea that landscape entropy or disorganization, increases with sprawl. Town land uses are viewed as interrupt and fragmenting previously homogenous, rural landscape, thereby rising landscape disorganization. Entropy worth vary from 0 to 1. If the sharing is maximally concentrated in one area, the lowest value 0 will be obtained. Conversely an evenly scatter distribution across space will give a greatest value the dispersal of urbanized areas from a city, centre will lead to, an augment in the entropy worth. This gives an obvious

Entropy (E) can be calculated by using this formula. đ?’?

đ?‘Ź= đ?’Š

đ?&#x;? đ?‘ˇ đ?‘Ťđ?‘Źđ?‘ľđ?’Š. đ?’?đ?’?đ?’ˆ( )/ đ?’?đ?’?đ?’ˆ(đ?’?) đ?’‘đ?‘Ťđ?‘Źđ?‘ľđ?’Š

Where, P DENi = DENi /

đ?’? đ?’Š đ?‘Ťđ?‘Źđ?‘ľđ?’Š

DENi is the density of ground development. That equals to the quantity of land development (Built-up area) alienated by the total quantity of land in the ITH zone, in a total, of N zones. As entropy can be old to measure the sharing of a geographical experience, the difference on entropy between, two different periods of moment can also be used, topoint out the change in the amount of dispersal of land growth or urban spread out. (Anthony gar-on YEH.et al). đ?œ&#x;đ?‘Ź = đ?’• + đ?&#x;? − (đ?’•)

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IJBSTR REVIEW PAPER VOL 1 [ISSUE 8] AUGUST 2013

ISSN 2320 – 6020

To analyses, the sprawl of Pune capital, the study area was alienated into 14 zones based on the directorial wards of Pune City. Additional to quantify the spread out, the villages which were freshly merged with PMC were also in use into the psychiatry. The ward limitations were digitized from the, scanned map of PMC and likewise the newly additional 23 village boundaries were, also digitized. Two types, of thematic layers are wanted for calculation of density of land development in every zone. In universal, the sprawl is exaggerated by some location factors, such as, distance to urban center and infrastructure. Entropy was calculated base on these factors by create buffer zones from the center as well as of the highway. Three zone were created, from the city centre, namely: center, middle and the edging zones, based on their site, which followed their managerial boundaries. Then the road bumper zones of 500m, 1000m, 1500m and 2000m from, national highway were shaped in the Arc View GIS ,and these buffer zone were overlay on image built-up region theme. CONCLUSION The future scope, of the urban sprawl, measure through GIS and remote sensing system would look into generate, the images of further spread out under different scenario, to understand any hazard to natural wealth and ecosystem. This enterprise demonstrates the application of GIS and RS technique in studying urban lounge and its dynamics. With the growth and infrastructure initiatives typically around the urban center, the impacts of urban slump would be, on the usual resources and biology. REFERENCES 1.

2.

3.

4.

1-Barnes K.B., Morgan III, J.M., Roberge, M. C., Lowe, S., 2001. Sprawl Development: Its Patterns, Consequences, and Measurement. Batty M., Xie Y., Sun Z., 1999. The dynamics of urban sprawl. Working Paper Series, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College, and London. (http://www.casa.ac.uk/working Dakshin Kannada District. Series9. Directorate of Census Operations, Karnataka. Census of India. Cheng, J., Masser, I., 2003. Urban growth pattern modelling: acase study of Wuhan City, PR China. Landscape Urban Plan.62, 199–217. Civco, D. L., Hurd, J. D., Wilson, E.H., Arnold, C. L., Prisloe, M., 2002. Quantifying and describing urbanizing landscapes in the Northeast.

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A Review Report on Urban Sprawl and Its Impact on Urban Environment