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ISSN 2320 – 6020

IJBSTR REVIEWPAPER VOL 1 [ISSUE 8] AUGUST 2013

Utilization of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) as Pozzolanic Material in Concrete: A Review Kanchan Lata Singh and S. M. Ali Jawaid* ABSTRACT- Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials CRMs or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane is annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45 % bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of 675 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper examined the potential of bagasse ash for development as pozzolanic materials in concrete. The bagasse ash is a by-product from the combustion of bagasse as a fuel in thermal power plants and sugar cane industries. This paper presents a review on the uses of sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete. From review it may be concluded that Sugarcane Bagasse ash can be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete due to its high silica content. KEY WORDS: Bagasse Ash, Pozzolanic Activity, Supplementary Cementitious Materials, Compressive Strength. INTRODUCTION Utilization of agricultural, industrial and agro- industrial byproducts in concrete production has become an attractive to the researchers over the entire world. Utilization of such wastes as cement replacement materials can reduce the cost of concrete and also minimize the negative environmental effects associated with the disposal of these wastes. Currently, many countries are using pozzolanic materials in concrete structures for improving compressive strength and reducing the cost of concrete. The use of pozzolans in concrete production brings positive effects to the environment, since by substituting large quantities of cement by bagasse ash in concrete production, reduces the problem associated with their disposal [1], and the decrease in the emission of greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) the main cause of global warming. The calcium hydroxide (unfavorable product from the cement hydration) released during the hydration of Portland cement reacts with the silica content present in the pozzolans and water to form additional calcium silicate hydrate which irresponsible for the compressive strength in concrete [1]. Author: Kanchan Lata Singh is currently pursuing master of technology program in environmental engineering in Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering Collage Gorakhpur273010(Uttar Pradesh) India. Email:kanchanlata0408@gmail.com *Co-Author: SM Ali Jawaid is currently Assistance Professor in, Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering Collage Gorakhpur-273010(Uttar Pradesh) India .E-mail: smaj@rediffmail.com

As stated by Cordeiro et. al. (2008), the improved compressive strength depends on both physical and chemical effects of the SCBA. The physical effect (or the so-called filler effect) is concerned with the packing characteristics of the mixture, which in turn depends on the size, shape, and texture of the SCBA particles. The chemical effect relates to the ability of the SCBA to provide reactive siliceous and/or aluminous compounds to participate in the pozzolanic reaction with calcium hydroxide (an unfavorable product from cement hydration) and water. The product of such reaction is called calcium silicate hydrate, a compound known to be responsible for compressive strength in cement-based materials. Cordeiro (2006) found that the pozzolanic reactivity of SCBA depended strongly on the incinerating temperature; a maximum reactivity occurred at around 500°C. Sugar cane bagasse ash is recently accepted as a pozzolanic material, study of using bagasse ash as a pozzolanic material is not well-known and its uses are limited and most of bagasse ash is disposed in the landfills [7], and “only a few studies have been reported on the use of bagasse ash as a pozzolanic material in respect of the cement paste” [8]. There is a continuous increase in the production of sugar worldwide. Utilization of such agroindustrial by-products as cement replacement materials CRMs in concrete will not only save the environment; but also will reduce the cement production and consequently the high energy consumption, reduce the CO2 emission, improve the mechanical properties and durability of the produced concrete and reduce the cost of concrete.

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ISSN 2320 – 6020

IJBSTR REVIEWPAPER VOL 1 [ISSUE 8] AUGUST 2013

Table 1: Composition of Bagasse MATERIALS AND METHODS Bagasse ash (BA) from the sugar plant in Nakhorn- sawan was brought into a porcelain grinding mill for 8 hrs to decrease its particles size after grinding; SEM was used for microstructures analysis. BA was blended with cement, sand and water. Then each composition was poured into moulds (diameter 1² × height 2²) and de-moulded after 24 hrs. The samples were then taken to submerge under water in order to cure, respectively. Consequently, the compressive strength [6] was determined by UTM. From previous studies [5, 7], the suitable curing time was 28 days for analysis the strength of Concrete. SEM was used to identify microstructures of each specimen. However, the expected structures such as C-H-S, amorphous silica and other crystalline phases would be explored by XRD further. COMPARISION AND DISCUSSION The compressive strength and the normalized compressive strength of concretes are given in Fig 1–2.The compressive strengths at the ages of 7, 28 and90 days were 60.5, 65.6 and 75.2 MPa, respectively. Meanwhile, the normalized compressive strengths of the concrete combined with10BA and with 20BA.The low early strengths and the later age strength development was the common feature of the pozzolan such as ground bagasse ash [6, 7]. The results indicate that 10% of BA seems to be the optimum limit.

Fig 2: Relationship between replacement level and compressive strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Test One of the ways for solving this problem is the reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash waste for the purpose of partial replacement of natural raw material in the production of clay ceramics. The micro structural characterization of clay ceramic bearing sugarcane bagasse ash waste fired at different temperatures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste on the microstructure and technological properties of clay ceramic were investigated the mechanical strength. This behavior is caused by the high amounts of quartz and unburned bagasse particles in the Sugarcane bagasse ash waste. These results suggest that only small additions of sugarcane bagasse ash waste should be used to produce clay ceramics.

Fig. 1: Compressive strength of concrete. Fig. 3: (10% Bagasse Ash)

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IJBSTR REVIEWPAPER VOL 1 [ISSUE 8] AUGUST 2013 REFERENCES 1.

Fig 4: (20% Bagasse Ash) Microstructures by SEM of ashes and specimens at 28 days In 10% Bagasse Ash, it was observed that particles of Bagasse Ash with less porosity and less density, in the specimen, compared to 20% Bagasse Ash due to the less amount of bagasse ash the less porosity of bagasse ash. From fig 2(20% bagasse ash) shows that large number of voids and loose packing of soil grains which could be the reason for its permeability and less strength in structure as compared to Fig 1(10% bagasse ash) shows small number of voids means having more strength. Less porosity is beneficial because it may cause samples to be easily broken at the edge of porosity due to the stress concentration on their edges [11]. CONCLUSION The main effects of the Sugarcane bagasse ash waste addition were to increase of the water absorption and reduced the cost of produced concrete. 1.

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The results show that the (10% sugarcane bagasse ash) in blended concrete had significantly higher compressive strength, ascompare to 20% sugarcane bagasse ash. Sugarcane bagasee ash is pozzolanic material which may be utilized in the production of pozzolanic cement concrete which leads to reduction in cost. The durability of concrete can be enhanced by using the Sugarcane bagasse ash as a cement replacement material as it can reduce the permeability and increase the strength. Partial replacement of cement by Sugarcane bagasse ash increases workability of fresh concrete.

Sirirat Janjaturaphan and Supaporn Wansom (2010), “Pozzolanic Activity of Industrial Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash”, Journal of Science and Technology, 17, 349-357. 2. Singh N.B., Singh V.D. and Rai S. (2000). “Hydration of bagasse ash-blended Portland cement”, Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, U.P. 273009, India. 3. Ganesan, K., Rajagopal, K., & Thangavel, K. (2007), “Evaluation of bagasse ash as supplementary cementitious material”. Cement and Concrete Composites, 29, 515-524. 4. IS 516 -1959 “Methods of Tests for strength of concrete”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. 5. Ajay Goyal, A.M. Anwar, Hattori Kunio, Ogata Hidehiko,(2007), “ Properties Of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash and Its Potential As Cement - Pozzolana Binder”, Twelfth International Colloquium on Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, 12th ICSGE, Cairo – Egypt 6. S. Sujjavanich and A. Duangchan, (2000), “Pozzolanic Reactivity and Water Requirement of Bagasse Ash,” Proceeding in the 2nd National Concrete Conference, Chiengmai, Thailand. 7. Sumrerng Rukzon, Prinya Chindaprasirt,(2012), “ Utilization of bagasse ash in high-strength concrete”, Materials and Design, 34, 45-50 8. Guilherme Chagas Cordeiro, Romildo Dias Toledo Filho, Luís Marcelo Tavares, Eduardo de MoraesRego Fairbairn, (2009), “Ultrafine grinding of sugar cane bagasse ash for application as pozzolanic admixture in concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, 39, 110–115 9. Nuntachai Chusilp, Napongsatorn Likhitsripaiboon and Chai Jaturapitakkul, (2009), “Development of Bagasse Ash as a Pozzolanic Material in Concrete,” Asian Journal on Energy and Environment, 10, 149159. 10. A. V. Narasimha Rao (2011) “Applications of agricultural and domestic wastes in geotechnical Applications” Journal of Environmental Research and Development Vol- 5, No.3, Jan- pp: 673-678.

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Utilization of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) as Pozzolanic Material in Concrete: A Review