asked to select, process and output information independently. The term “independently” means in self-governed way and emphasizes not passive but active use of ICT. Students are asked to understand influence of ICT to the society, to obtain sound attitudes towards information society, and to contribute to the development of sound society. The subject must be a good continuation of the materials relevant to ICT taught in the junior high school subject “technology and homemaking”. The content of this is almost as same as the “Informatics A” shown below, although their levels are different.
Teacher Training License for “Informatics” education Single license for Informatics is given both for non-vocational and vocational subject as well. This means that although majority of education is for non-vocational purposes, teachers must be qualified for vocational purpose as well. This decision seems to be sound because otherwise those teachers of mere user of the computer may become teachers of “Informatics”. We believe that comprehensive knowledge including software engineering is necessary for teaching problem solving in general, because its central part, that is, requirement analysis, design, implementation and evaluation of the software to complete would be the most experienced and effective methodology for solving the problem. Another important field of vocational informatics is multi-media information processing and this, too, would be useful for developing the students’ capability for representing their ideas on information technology. The way to give a license The compulsory subject “Informatics” starts in 2003 in Japanese high schools, but no licensed teacher existed until the conversion training started in the year 2000. This training is done for the current qualified teachers of mathematics, science, commerce and industrial subject. Although the “Informatics” education must mainly be carried out by those converted teachers from other subjects, there are two other ways to raise qualified teachers, namely, by qualifying examination that examines the knowledge of qualified teachers in other subjects and by university education on “Informatics” in teacher training courses. However, the former is very competitive and the latter takes time. Therefore, those two ways of raising qualified teachers would not be dominant in terms of active teachers in schools, because majority of teachers will be supplied by conversion training.
ICT in the Developing Nations
The component “Informatics C” emphasizes the role and influence of information network in the society and tries to promote the sound attitudes towards information society. It includes digital representation of information, information network and communication, responsibility for collecting and broadcasting information, and development of ICT and its influence on the society.
The Matrix of Competences
The component “Informatics B” emphasizes scientific understanding of the computer and its function and organization, and of the method of using the computer. It includes usage of computer for solving the problems, modeling of the problem in terms of information processing and data administration, and ICT for realizing information society.
The component “Informatics A” mainly comprises training of essential ICT skills to select, process, and output information and students are expected to use these skills independently. This includes effectiveness of ICT, utilization of ICT in collecting, outputting, and processing information, and understanding of the change of life caused by the introduction of ICT on our society.
The Role of ICT in Schools
ICT education has three components There are three components called “Informatics A”, “Informatics B”, “Informatics C” in nonvocational subjects. After year 2003, students are asked to take at least one of them.