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IPM Research Brief No.5 The Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest Management

The Role of Integrated Pest Management: How IPM Contributes to the CGIAR System Priorities and the Millennium Development Goals

About the SP-IPM \~rhen

delegates to the Earth Summit met in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 they recognized a looming crisis in international development. Attempts to rai~e living standards through conventional development approaches were not only having a woefully limited impact on poverty and other indicators of underdevelopment, they were also 'costing the carrh'. In effect, inappropriate deveJopment strategie~ were destroying the planet's ccologicallifc-suppOft systems. In the field of agriculture, undue reliance on pesticides and fertilizers to raise production was undermining the sustain ability of that production. In the Agenda 21 action plan that emerged from the Summit, integrated pest management (IPM) was explicitly recognized as a key part of the solmion ro this problem. It would allow more food to be produced with less negative impact on agricultural and natural ecosystems. In 1996, as part of its response to Agenda 21, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) launched its Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest Management (SP-IPM). The SP-IP1.-1 is a global partnership whose task is to draw together the IPM efforts of the international agriculmral research centers and their panners, and (Q focus these efforts more clearly on the needs of poor farmers in developing countries. The program tackles those areas where research promises solutions to pressing problems of sustainable agriculture but where impact has so far been limited. The SP-IPM expects to achieve rapid progress by alleviating constraints such as fragmentation of research and developmem (R&D) efforts and weak links between researchers and farmers. It is already breaking down barriers to information exchange, filling research gaps where necessary, and developing effective models of partnerships among researchers, extensionists, and farmers. Specifically, the SP-IPM promotes: Inter-institutional partnerships for increased effectiveness ofIPM research • Holisric and ecological approaches and methodologies for IPM technology development Effective communication among stakeholders for informed rPM decision-making Farmer uptake of IPM technologies for larger, healrhier harvests • Public awareness of rPM and its impact on sustainable agriculrure. "Ihe program's stakeholder groups are as follow-s: internacional research institutions that include IP.M as a major parr of their agenda; specialized agencies and networks promoting and supporting IPM; non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and farmer support groups; and [he plant protection industry. The R&D organizations and farmers who are our principal cliems benefit from the program through access to technical resources and expertise, information, advice, collaborative field activities, and capacity-building activities. All these services aid the efforts of farmers to manage pests, achieve greater food security, and to raise their incomes \vithin a healthier environment. Core donor partners have been or an: the Governments of Norway, S",/itzerland, and Italy. Donors supporring special projects have included funding agencies in Australia, Denmark, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as the Global rPM Facility and the World Bank (through the CGIAR). For more information , ...Tite to: SP-IPM Secretariat International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria International mailing address: cio UTA Limited, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Road, Croydon, CR9 3EE, UK E-mail: Website:

About this Brief The IPM Research Brief series is part of the SP-IPM's strategy for promoting information exchange among stakeholders. Irs purpose is to build public awareness and understanding of the benefits of integrated pest management and to encourage the full integration of this approach into mainstream agriculture. The briefs arc primarily intended for agricultural research managers, policy makers, and the development partners with whom governments plan rPM inputs into agricultural and rural development activities. The briefs analyze the biological and ecologica1 bases of IPMrelated food insecurity issues of common concern across different agro-ecosystems and regions. They also synthesize research results and advise on opportunities for scaling up the benefits achieved in pilot studies. Global recognition of the scale of the problems caused by food insecurity and poverty and of the enormous potential to do something about it is embedded in the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). 'lhe MDGs set our a framework for development, providing a focus through which research and devdopmem organizations can direct and coordjnate their operations. Recognizing their central role in this campaign, the CGIAR System Priorities explicitly aim to ensure that publicly funded re~earch by CGIAR centers contributes to meeting the MDGs. This brief highlights ways in which lPM can contribute to meeting the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs and shows how the SP-IPM will take forward the IPM agenda to maximize this contribution. The brief provides a range of examples ofIPM's past and current contributions, drawing on ongoing work ofSP-IP\1 member organizations and focusing on lPM's contribution to both rural productivity and human capitaL The brief then outlines the SP-IPM strategy to deliver its contributions to CGIAR System Priorities as the channel through which the SP-IPM contrib'utes to the achievement of the MDGs. The strategy is focused on three key emerging themes - adapting IPM to climate variability and change; management of contaminants in foods, feeds and the environment; and improving agro-ecosystem resilience for soil, root and plant health. Ir addresses the most pressing challenges and opportunities for IPM in agricultural development, while building on the strong linkages between CGIAR centers and national agricultural research systems (NARS) for collaborative research and capacity building at all levels. This brief was prepared by the SP-IPM Secretariat under the leadership of the former SP-IPM Coordinator Dr Braima James in collaboration with Green Ink Publishing Services Ltd (UK) and with the financial support of Crop Life International. It is based ~n materials provided by researchers at Centro Internacional de 1.-1ejoramiemo de \1afz y Trigo (CIMMYT), Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP), International Center tor Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (lCARDA), African Insect Science for Food and Health (ICIPE), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (lCRISAT), International Rice Research Institute (IRRO and International Institute of Tropicoll Agriculmre nITA). The Secretariat thanks all those colleagues who supplied information and photos, reviewed drafts, or otherwise contributed to this brief.

© SP- IPM 2008 Correct citation: SP-IPM (2008) 111e Role ofImegrated Pest Management: How TPM Contributes to the CGIAR System Priorities and (he Millennium Develo ment Goals. IPM Research Brief No. 5. SP-IPM Secretariat, International Institute ofTro ical A riculture (UTA Ibadan, Ni eria.

IPM Research Brief No.5

The Role of Integrated Pest Management: How IPM Contributes to the CCIAR System Priorities and the Millennium Development Coals Contents Acronyms and Abbreviations


Human History, the Millennium Development Goals and IPM


Settling down Gaps in the green 'evolution' Research-based solutions /PM 's fo ur objectives Contributing to the MD Gs The Geography of Hunger and Poverty

Pests and diseases in step with three guises of hunger MD G progress? Yes, but... A Global Coalition against Poverty and Hunger

O fficial Development Assistance: Monterrey and beyond Poverty Redu ction Strategy Papers Science, the MDGs and CGIAR research priorities The Contribution of IPM Research

Rural productivity Ca pacity development The Way Forward

3 3 5 5 8 8

8 10 12


12 73 14


19 23

Adapting to climate change Managing contaminants Improved agro-ecosystem resilience In conclusion Reference Sources and Further Reading

23 25 26

27 28

IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs


1he World Vegetable Cen ter Co nsultati ve Group on Inrerna rional Agricul tu ra l Research Cenrer Commissioned External Rev iew Centro Imcrn acio nal de Mcjora mienm de Maiz y Trigo Centro Inrernacio nal de b Papa

d ieh10 rod iphenyl[ri ch loroetha ne Department of Econom ic and Socia l Affairs of (h e United Narions

EI Ni ri o Osci llation Events Food and Agri culture Orga ni zation of rh e United Na ti o ns

Farmer Field Schools farmer parriciparory lea rning farme r participarory research geograph ical in format io n syste m

genetically modified organism gross national product Human Immun ode ficie ncy Vi rus/Acquired Immun odeficiency Syndrome

Inte rnational Assoc iati o n for rhe Plant Protection Sciences Inte rnari o nal Center for Agriculfllral Research in Dry Areas Afri ca n In secr Science for Food and Hea lrh (fo rmerly In re rn ati o nal Centre


In ternatio nal C rops Resea rch In sti rure for rhe Semi -Arid Tropics Internatio nal Institu te of Tropical Agri cultu re Inte rn atio nal Mon etary Fund integ rated pes t managcmel1l Inte rnati o nal Ri ce Researc h Insritute

Kenya Agriculrural Resea rch Instirute Lune biologique co ntrc Ics locustes e t sa ute riaux

Millennium Development Goa l natio nal agri culturaJ research sys te ms non-governmenta l organiza ri o n Offic ial Devclopmel1l Ass isrance Pes ticid e Action

etwo rk

persistenr o rga nic pollutants

Poverty Reduction and Growlh Faci li ty Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers SyS temwide Prog ram o n Integrated Pest Man age ment research and develo pme nr U nired Na tions


IPM Research Brief No.5

Human History, the Millennium Development Goals and IPM Settling down

co nfronrat io n w it h the pes ts an d diseases of plants and livcsrock. Inadequate moisture and so ilnu rrienr depletion res ulted in sickl y plants, creatin g an easy buffer fo r insects, fll_ngi, vi ruses an d other path oge ns. The ag ri culru ral warri o r's learn ing curve in rhe fi ght against th is new set of enemies, many o f them microscopic in a world wi th ou t microscopes, was und o ubredl y steep.

We can imagi ne hu maniry's gradual shift from a no mad ic li fe of hun ring and garhering abo ur II millennia ago to a more sedentary o nc. The new li fesryle emerged independently in at least seven regio ns. It ce ntered on cultivating cereals and o ther plants from selected an d saved seed , d o mes ticating and breeding animals, and p rotect ing those precio us assets from pests and diseases. W hile a han dful of fascinari ng exceptio ns to the rule persisr - for example, the Tuareg nomads of the Sahel , rh e recl usive Maseha Pim hUllter-gath erers of rh e Peruvian Amazo n, and th e In uir of Canada, G reenland and Alaska - mis broad social and technical rransirioll [0 agri culture is rh e common heri tage of humanity. In rh e indusrriali zed co untri es, th e task of growing food has, ad mittedl y, been executed by a shrinking propo rtion of the population in rccen t decad es. Statisti cs from the Food and Agri culru re Organi7"1fion of rhe United Na ri o ns (FAO) indica te [hat in 2000 o nl y about 7.6% of developed co untries' pop ul at io ns were engaged in food prod ucti o n, compared with 52% in th e develo ping wo rl d , almost 2.5 billion peo ple (FAO websire) . Indeed, agri culture rema.i ns the backbo ne of natio nal eco no mies in much of rhe tropi cs, with effi cient producti on of food, fodd er, fiber, fuel and animal products, for both ho me consumptio n and trade, still widely considered an esse n rial step ping stone to broader development. Develo pment planners full y recognize thar "th e histOri cal model is that rapid prod uctivity increases in agri culrure sti mulate ove rall economic growth", Industry and mod ern urban culture no tw ithstandin g, t he recent histOry of H omo ,apiellS is largel y abo ur f:1r ming and pasro ralism , abo ut human survival pred icated o n th e clever man ipulation and protecti o n of plants and animals. W hile agrarian life offered a mo re reliable food suppl y for Neolithic peo ples and paved the way for 'civil i7.1rion' , it also presented th em wi th a bewilderin g new set of prac ti cal problems. The hardships of seasonal migrari on and rhe unreliability of supplies of ga me and edible wild plants we re exchanged for th e vagaries of rainfall , the d windl ing soil ferrility so rypica l of swidden agriculture, and perpetual

Gaps in the green 'evolution' Following [he las r ice age and spann ing some 11,000 years, mis 'green evoilltion' alrered the physical landscape as we ll as the genetic makeup of a significa nt p ropo rti o n of the Earth's plant cover. The green revolutioll of th e lare 20,h Century, still fresh in our memo ri es, also had a majo r impact, though in a tin y fraction of th e time, by boosring food supplies, es pecially of ri ce and whear in As ia, and making rhem afforda ble to th e poor. Just as important from th e pe rspective of furure gains, it gro unded world agriculture in science, particularl y ge neti cs-based plant breeding, the new tec hniques of molecular biology, and eco no mics. But rh e overall histOrical success of farming should not blind us to a few sobering facts. Hunge r and poverty have been unwelco me co mpanio ns of nearly all communities throu ghour recorded histO ry. The human fami ly of the 2 1" Centu ry is no exception. Stat istics for 2004 from FAO indicate m at, world wide, more than 850 mi llio n people, over 13% of th e tOtal popu lati o n, still go to bed hungry each night. And m e proportion of peo ple li ving o n less than o ne US doll ar a day - abo ut 18% in 200 I , dropping to 15% in 2004 - rem ains an intern atio nal embarrass men t in this era of eco no m ic glo baliza tion . Recognition of th e gravity of this situat io n and of m e eno rm o us potential [Q do so methin g abo ut it is embedded in the Unired Na rions' Millenni um Development Goals (MDG s). In parti cular th e first MDG addresses head on the eradi cation of extreme poverry and hunger. The initial rargers of M DG I , based o n measurable indicatOrs, are to halve hun ge r and income poverty berween 1990 and 20 15. Taken tOge th er, rh e eight MDGs have been described as "a uni versally shared framework for development" (see Table I).


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

Ta ble 1. The Mille nnium Develo pme nt Goa ls a nd th e ir ta rge ts Goal


Goal I: Eradica te extreme poverty and hunger • H alve, bcnvecn 1990 and 2015. the proporrion of peop le whose inco me is less chan one US dollar a day • Halve. bcrween 1990 and 20 15. th e propo nio n of people who suffer from hunger Goal 2: Achieve universal prim ary educa ri on

Ensure [h ~([. by 20 15. children everywhere. boys and girls 3likc. will be ab le comp lete a full cou rse of primary schoo Ung

Goal 3: Promo te gend er equa liry and empowe r women

Elimin:u c gender dispa rity in prim ary and secondary cdu calio n preferab ly by 2005 and to aU levcls of edll cario n no later than 20 15

Goa/4: Reduce chilclmortali ty

Redu ce by rwo-rhirds. bcn.veen 1990 and 201 5, the und er-five morraliry rarc

Goal 5: Improve marerna l hcaldl

Redu ce by ducc-qua n ers, berwee n 1990 :l.Ild 201 5. lhe ma lernal mo rrali ty rario

Goa/6: Comba, HIV/A IDS, malaria

Have halted by 20 15, and begun to reverse, ,he spread or HIV/A I OS Have haired by 20 15, and begun to reverse. the incidence of malaria and o ther major diseases

and o ther diseases Goal 7: Ensu re enviro nmema l susrainabiliry

Goal 8: Develop a global parrners hip for devel opmenr


Inregra rc the principles of sustainable develo pmenr into co untry policies and programs and reverse the loss of enviro nmental rcsources Halve. by 20 15. th e proponion of the po pulatio n without sllstainable access to safe drinkin g wmer and basic sa nitari o n Imp rove the lives of al leasr 100 millio n slum dwell ers by 2020 Address the special needs of the least developed cO llnlries, landl ocked cOllnrrics and small -island develo ping srarcs • Develop further an open, rul e-based, predicrable. no n-discriminatory tradin g and financial sys tcm Deal co mprehensively with developing counrri es' deb t In coo peratio n with developing cO Llnrri cs. devel op and implcmcnr strmcgies for decenl and productive work for yourh In cooperati o n with the private secto r, make ava il able the benefirs of new rcchno logics. especially informario n and co mmunica ri o ns

The World Ba nk summarizes the income-related com po ne nt of glo bal pove rty thus: " It has been estimated th at in 200 1, 1.1 bi llio n peo p le had consumption levels below US$ I a day and 2.7 bill io n lived On less tha n US$2 a d ay. 1l1ese figures arc lowe r rhan ea rli er esrimates J in di catin g th ar some progress has take n place. b ut th ey stil l rcma in roo hig h in rerm s of h um a n su ffe rin g, an d m uch more remai ns ro be d o ne." ~1l1e Un ited Nario ns Mi llcnium Projec t's T:1sk Force o n H un ger rcporrs that most of rhe world 's chro n ically o r

acurel y mal no urished arc in Asia, partic ul arly Indi a a nd

C hin a. ea rly o ne-q uarter of the tOtal - more than 200 m illio n - a re in sub-Sa ha ran Africa. This is a di sturbin gly h igh share g iven the regio n's s mall populatio n campa_red wirh thaI of As ia. Afr ica is the only region or the world where hu nge r is in creasing. Starva ri o n o n thar co nrin cnt is a trag ic fact o rIi fe: each week an estima ted 35,000 peo ple di e of chro ni c maln o uri sh me nt. The srro ng li nk wirh agricul tural p ro d ucti o n is evide nt since su b-Sa ha ra n Africa is also the o nly regio n w here per ca pira food prod ucti o n is wa ning.


IPM Research Brief No.5

Table 2. Estimated losses of crops to pests, 1988-90

Research-based solutions Given ,he scale a nd urgency of t he MOGs a nd of ,he problems th ey tac kl e, tWO key q uestions abou t hun ger must be answered: W hat are irs major causes? What ca n feasibl y be done to address th ose causes with a view ro meeting rhe 20 15 ta rget? lluo ughOlIf human history, f..'lInines have bee n tri gge red by war, ge nocide. greed , uninFo rm ed policy

Losses duc to pests (USS billions) Region





Afr ica

4. 1








7. 1



2 1.7

Asia L1 lin America

making and marker fa ilu res. Bur more often than nor, rhe

ca uses of hunge r have been 'nawral' - d ro ughts, Aood s, a nd outb reaks of pests a nd disea es. W hil e indi vidual climatic ca lamiri es are ex tre mel y difficult ( 0 combat head-o n. rh e crop pests and diseases [hat contribute to acute, chronic and hidd en hun ge r a re gene rall y a me nabl e to researc h- based so lu tio ns. Integ ra ted pest rnall agern cnt (lPM ) is o ne sli ch app roach, wi th a growing track record of sliccess. Over rh e mille nnia, agr iculture has had to ada pt ro ever-ex panding deman d. It is es tim ated that at rhe dawn of rh e tran si ti o n ro agriculture, rh e human populadon was on ly abo ut 5 millio n. Today , he re are 1320 times as man)' people ro feed as th ere were the n. As :1 consequ e nce of co ntinllo us prod ucri o n increases ro meet de mand , c nrir(' ecosysrcms have bee n crea red , alre red o r d es tro),ed . Toda), rh e scale an d mi x of agricultural pes rs and discases, which are integral compo nents of those ccosys te ms. are as much dle produc ts of agri cul tura l practices as arc the actual food cro ps and li vestOck rai sed . C learl y, f:1 fIners leave big Foorprints. I n (he developing world . ir is estimated th at be tween 1988 and 1990 pestS cau sed US$ 12 .8 bi ll ion of losses in AFri ca. US$ 145 .2 billio n in Asia, a nd US$2 1.7 billion in La tin Amer ica (see Table 2) . Eve n th e m ost m odern a nd techni cally savvy of Farmers can become exasperated b)' the diffic ulties in vo lved in dea lin g e ffectivel y w ith pes ts and di seases. The challe nge to rh e propo ne n ts a nd use rs of II' M has been ro max imi ze rhe usa ble human share of production witho ut underm ining lh e reso urcc basc. As successful as (he g reen revolud o n was in averr ing major f., mincs in the lattcr half of [he 20 th Century. it also had uninrc nded eco logical co nsequen ces, notab ly an erosion of biological d_iversiry through monocro pping and th c inapp ro priate use of agroc hem ica ls. Today. agric ul tural research For development a nd he ld-level pract ice d eal with


Orrkr ,/ nl. (1994)

some of the unwa nred co nsequ c nces of both green evo lution and revo luti o n. always recognizing th at pes ts and diseases are dynami c. requiring co nStant mo niroring. prevention and co untermeasures. 1he inAu ence of such (:''lcrors as climate c hange and w idespread movcme nt o fli ving materials due to expanded international trade on ly adds ro rhe importance of that vigi lan ce. ~nl e Systemwid e Program on integra ted Pest Manage ment (S I'- II' M ) cha mpio ns resea rch and o utreaci, by ce nrcrs of th e Consulrarive Group o n Intern ati o nal

Agri cultural Research (CG IAR) and their partners ro provide t.'lrmcrs with eco l ogi c~lll )' durable oprions for managi ng pests, including diseases a nd weeds. -r;,ble 3 gives a Few exa mples of sll ccessful IPM inrerventio ns.

IPM's four objecti ves W hi le th e o bvio lls and immediate aim is crop protectio n. I PM has Fo ur distinct ye t interrelated objectives. l1,e first is food securi ry - e nsuring rhat harvcsts are sufficien rl y bou nri Ful a nd o f good enough quality ro adequ ately nourish th e far m fa milies and o th er consumers w ho depe nd o n th em. Every cow pea or kernd of mai ze devo ured by

pod borers or cereal srcmhorcrs is one fewer for the sto rage bin or suppe r rable. I PM is direc tl y re levant, th en , to MDG I's target of halvi ng hunge r. It is also in step w ith recommendatio ns fro m (h e Hun ge r Task Force conce rnin g better nutriti o n for the chroni c.,lI y hungr), and vulne rabl e. (See Box I For a list oFTas k Force reco mm e nd at io ns ge rm ane to I PM research. ) 111c seco nd objective of IPM is cos t-effecti ve produc ti on (o r competitiveness. Agrochc mica ls are a heavy


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

Table 3. IPM impact cases Pes.


Loss/situation selected locations

Intervention by whom ' and howl

Cassava mealy bug

40% 105s/27 cO lllHries o f sub-Sah aran Africa

11TA/ Bioco nrro l

Andean po[am weevil

50% loss/ Peru

C ip/ Mi crobials

Loss drop USS I 211l

Srriga weed in maize

USS 13 m loss/ Kell )'o

IC IP El Hab i(at managemen t

> 100% yield goi n

Benefits 90% drop in losses USS811l to USS20 m


Dhlmondback mo th in cabbage Ri ce lea f feed ers

20 sprays needed per seaso nl 111c Philippines

AVRD I Pesti cid e LIse

68% of f.1 rmers apply insecticidcsn 'he Ph ilip pines

I RR I/Col11 ll1un ica tion

managemcnr plus bioco nrrol



2.5 bc nefir-cos r rat io

Spro)'s drop to 4 U $ )0111 per annum PropOfl io n o r fil rm ers spraying d rop ped ( 0 11 %

I Acronyms gillf1l in (ICfonYIII Iisl Oil p. 2

SOllra: Attnptnlfrom jnllU:I t!t ,Ii. (2007) havi ng to pay rh e high costs of no n- re newable inpurs. 111is is one of seve ral ways in w hi dl filM has a key ro le ro play

Box 1. Hunger Task Force recommendations with implications for IPM research

in achi ev ing th e poverty- redu ction ta rge t of MD G I . Man y I PM o ptio ns, however, a re kn owled ge- a nd labo r- in rensive

Several reco mmendatio ns o f the U Millennium Project's Task Force o n Hunger speci fy areas o f develo pment ill which IPM resea rch ca n playa significa lH role either direcdy o r in direcdy:

co mpa red wirh , say, co nve nrion a l s prayi n g wirh pesricid es. 111eir eco no mi c anracrive ncss. rhe n , is heav il y inAue nced by local wages and far m ers' w illin g ness fO in vest rim e ro learn

link nutritional and agri culrural inrerventions

new m crh o d s rhar enab le t hem

• Strengthen agricultural and llurririo naJ resea rch

the health a nd qua li ty s tandard s of t he public, cs pecio ll )' in indus rri a li zed co unrri es t har import food sru ffs fro m the

Improve access to ben er seeds and orhcr p lanting materials

d evelo pin g wo rl d. I PM options make it eas ie r for farme rs ro comply w idl m ax imum pesri ci d c res id ue s ra nd a rd s a nd , und e r cerrai n co nditi o ns. to o btain cerrifi ca rion as pro d uce rs

Red uce malnurririo n, including vitamin and mineral deficiencies, among children and ado lescents • Build and strength en nati o nal and local ea rly warn ing sysrems and respo nse capab ili ty.

fi nancia l burden

0 11


ben e r und e rs ta nd agro-

ecosysre ms as rh e bas is of sound pest ma nageme n r d ecis io ns . Ano [her aspec r of co m periri ve ness is the abi liry to m ee r

Improve so il hca lrh and help communiti es and households reSlOre o r enhance n:aural reso urces

Souru: UN Mill~'lIIiltm


or o rga ni call y grow n , o r other quality-ass ured food s. 11,e capac iry ro grow a nd se ll hi g h-value producrs, whethe r in loca l o r ex po n markers, i increas in g ly recog ni zed


intern ario nally as a key in g redi enr in a ll ev ia tin g rura l pove rry in rh e cOllnrri es of rh e So uth. In f:1( t , di ve rsificario n of far m s inro hig h-value produc rs is a m o n g rh e 40 sub-

fa rm ers :l nd often beyo nd the eco no mi c

reach of smallh o ld ers in part ic ul a r. In a reas far from u rba n sup p ly po ints, such prod ucrs m ay simpl y nor be avai labl e.

rceolTImendadons m a.d e by [he Hun ger Tas k Force in 2 005. Thirdly, (PM is direccl y co ncern ed w irh pro teerin g

I PM is an ex pa ndin g roolk it of cos r-effecri ve renewab le o pri o ns [hat ca n help f:1rmcrs c ur produ crio ll losses w ithom

the en viro nme nt , the subjec t of MD G 7. It pays a tten t ion


I PM Research Brief No. 5

to, t'l.kc~ aJvantage of, and sometimes enhances existing ecosystem processes rather [han ignoring or underminin g

them . These dynamics include the natural balance between biological control agents (predarors, parasiroids and enromoparhogens) and prey, plants' innate or borrowed chemical defenses, the mix and density of local vegetation. and rhe seaso nal rh ythm s of growing environmerns,

especially temperature. day length and rainfall parrerns.

In exploiting these facmfs. IPM tries ro minimize use of chemica l pesti cides. although these products remain integral 10 II'M and rrequently playa key role in plant protection .

or great imponan cc here is rhe maintenance of biodive rsity, especia lly the protection of non -target organisms

a pigeonpea variety resistant to t-telic.ovcrpil, has been wieldy adopted by farmers 111 T~lndtlr region ot Andhra Pradesh India, dnd has reduced insecticide use by -10"10.

ICPt JJ2 -

both above and below ground. The documented negative effects ofbroad-specrrulll pesticides over rhe years are a major

reason for swel ling public mistrust of synthetic chemicals in agriculture. '''ese include the organochlorines aldrin. C3mphechlor. chlo rdane. DDT. dieldrin. endrin. heptachlor and mirex. all of which are on the list of persistent - read harmful - organic pollutants (POI's) covered under the 2004 Srockholm Convention. II'M research offers a range ofbiopesticides and botanicals as alternatives ro synthetic pesti cides. bur even with thcse options it calls for appropriate

that contaminate staple foods and deteriorate food quality before or after the harvest (in storage. ror example). -n,e best known mycotoxins are aflatOxins. produced by AJpergillus

training of end users ro ensure both judicious applicadon of the products and maximum benefits.

spec ies , which commo nly occur in cereals, nuts and roOt and tube r cro ps. Fusarium species also produce mycorox in s such as fumonisins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in cerra in cereals, including barley, maize and wheat. Mycoroxin s are Ihe subject of non -tariff trade barriers that reduce

Finally. IPM aims to sa feguard human health . As with any approach ro improving the food supply, it is concern ed

agricu ltural profitability. '''e impact is exemplified by ex port losses of more than US$450 million due to aAalOxins in

with providing consumers with nutritious products of

groundnuts under the current European Union regu larory

good quality. But it also co ntributes to human health by

standard. which permits a maximum of 4 pg kg , - five times more stringent than the US standard of20 pg kg ' . The developed world enforces regulatOry standards to limit the exposure of humans and animals to dietary mycorox ins.

reducing inappropriate pesticide regimes. thereby curring the

risks ofliving with pesticides. especially risks due to fam ily members' exposure (0 pesticides in and around the farm. The re is also a reduction in pesticide residues on produce for consumers and less risk of so ils, irrigation Water and drinking water becoming contaminated. Another specific area in which IPM is contributing

Monitoring and enforcement of standards are, however, rare in most developing countries. Existing and new I PM techniques can help recluce mycoroxin contamination in

pre- harvest and post-harvest Stages or cro p production. IPM principles and component technologies pioneered in agriculture are also being adapted and applied by health agencies and animal husbandry against disease

significa ntly to human health through improved food safety. and thereby to achieving MOGs 4.5 and 6. is the fight against poisoning resulting frolll contamination offood, feed and (he environmenr by mycotox ins and

vecto rs. notably to conno1 the tran smission of malaria and

chemical pesticides. Mycotoxins ore produced by fungi

other diseases by mosquitOes. an issue addressed by MDG 6.


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

Contributing to the MDCs

for fund ing and implementing the M DGs: and the research prio ri ties of th e CG lAR, as rh e channel through which the SI'- I I'M co ntributes to t he achievement or the M DCs. The brief also provides a range of examples or 1I'M 's pasr and current co nrribmions, draw ing on th e ongoing wo rk of SI'-II'M member organ izati o ns and focusing o n rh e need to increase both rural productiviry and human capital. Finally, it o utlines a way forward . a strategy to maxim ize th e contribution tha t the S P-IPM makes ro meeting the G IAR's research prio riti es, and rhro ugh them, to achieving rh e MDGs.

Agriculture has risen on rh e global agenda in recem yea rs in pan beÂŤ1 use halving hunger by 2015 is a key co mpone nt of rhe first MDG . As we have JUSt seen, rhe objecrives or IPM are rully congruent with several or the MDGs; rhe SP-I PM aims specificall y to increase th e quality and usefulness or I PM research and outreach in ways that promore the achievemelH of the M DGs. 1l1C rcst of this brief exa mines progress in eliminati ng hunger and poverty; con nectio ns berween types of hunge r and pests and diseases; nati o nal and internation al mechanisms

The Geography of Hunger and Poverty Pests and diseases in step with three guises of hunger

Mauritania in th e West, smnds o ut as a modern exa mple of a natural cause of acute hunge r. At th e time (here seemed linle op rion bUl to hi t rh e locus!s hard and rast with a barrage of chemical pes ric ides. Alrho ugh rhis had little direct effecr, rh e plague finally perered out. As reported many yea rs larer in th e an nual report of the Inrernationa1 Instiwtc orTropical Agr iculrure (IITA): "Afrer ea ting th eir way through cro ps an d vegeta tio n, the locust swarms Aew om over th e Atlantic O cea n where they died". But t he d amage had already bee n

Around th e world. hun ger has three major guises: acute, ch ronic and hidden hun ger. Many specific cro p pes ts and diseases are strongly a ociarcd with each of these form s of hunger. Acure hu nger is the mosr visually strikin g as ir causes acute undernourish ment, lIsually tri gge red by war, economic and po litical crises. or natural disasters sti ch as droughts and pesr outbreaks. Despire its high profile in rh e news media, o ften graphi call y d epicted by t he ga unt faces and sri ck-rhin limbs of rarving children, such tempora ry depriva tion acco unts for JUSt 100/0 of rh e ongoing rota I incidence or wo rld hunger. Each o f th e three guises of hunger ca n be mitigated. if nor eliminated. with a mi x of I PM solurio ns, farmer ingenuity and appropri are pro-


agri culture po li cies.

Acute hunger: Teeth of the wind Since the dawn or agricu lrure. locusts have rained disaster o n farmers under cerrain cl imatic and ecological conditio ns, usually in hard-to-predict cycles or 10 to 20 years. The Arabic name (or the desert locust is 'teeth of the wind', an apt moniker given this colorful and grega rious insect's voracious appetire for vegeration along irs lo ng-range Aighr path. The 1986-88 o uthreak of Schis/ocercn gregnrin locusts, which swe pt the Sah el from Eri trea in the Eas r to

'Teeth of the wincl':


LOCU51S swarming.

IPM Research Brief No.5

done. Totaling an estimated 40 biiiion locusts, rh e invasion devasrarcd farmers' crops. The 1986--88 locust outbreak stimulated vibrant international collaboration , involving research organizations and rhe private secror, which led to an effective bioconrrol product, now commercially available under the brand name Green Muscle ' \1, It is based on rhe fungus Metnrhizillm (/!Iisopli(/e, a pathogen that specifically targets grasshoppers and locusrs, leaving other organisms unharmed. Green Muscl e J'.\1 was developed by an international research conso rtium named LUBI LOSA , an acronym for the French equivalent of'biological control of locusts and grasshoppers'.

intakes of smpie food cro ps such as ri ce, wheat and mai ze. The Millennium Pro ject's Hunger Task Force used a more conservative estimate in 2005, purring the absolute number at "more tha n 2 billion people" , still close to one-third of the world's population.

Box 2. Breeding for resistance to grai n borers First observed in Tam.ania in the late 1970s, rhe larger grain borer is actually a native of Central America. Over a period of six momhs, this small beede is capable of desrroying more than a third of th e maize farmers keep in storage bins. Atlempts at biological concrol, using rhe becdes' natural predaLOrs from Ce ntral America, resulled in Iimired success, leaving farmers wilh few other options. Recent work by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KAR l) and [he Centro I nlernacional de MejoramientO de Mail. y Trigo (CI M MYf) has idel1lified narural resistance to the borer in mai7..e seed originally rrom ,he C"ibbean, and held in C1MMYT's germ plasm bank. ConventionaJ plam breeding techniques have been uscd [0 combine [his resi)[ance with charac[erisrics of importance to Kenyan farmers. S[i11 in the rrial stages, the new maize varieties wi ll undergo testing by national seed authorities over the next 1-3 years, before being made available to seed companies for seed production and saJe.

Chronic hunger C hronic undernourishment is rhe second and much more common form of hunger. It results from nor having enough protein and enetgy in the dail y diet over long periods and is strongly linked to poverty. 11,e Hunger Task Force notcs [hat chronic lIndernolirishmcnr, whether it be a lack of calories and protein or a eriously defici ent intake of micro nuuiems, resultS in underweight and stunted children and high child mortality from associated diseases. In o ne set of 20 developing counuies for which weighted averages were produced , malnutrition was implicated in more than hair or all child deaths. As illustrated by Box 2, day-to-day losses of staple grains that co ntribute to chronic undernourishment can be combated by II'M and breeding techniques.

Souret: ClMMYT E-II'WS, 110/. 4110. 9, S.pre",b" 2007

Hidden hunger ' Hidden' hunger is caused by a continuo us lack or paucity of essential micronutrients. So, this form of hunger comes not so much from having tOO little food to eat, as from an insufficiently varied diet, especially lack oHruits, leafy green vegetables, and meat and fish products that are ri ch in vitamins and m inerals. The HarvestPlus Challenge Program of the CGLAR estimates t11at more than half rhe world's population, more than 3 billion people. suffer micronutrient malnutrition , norabl y deficiencies of vitamin A. zi nc and iron. It notes d1 .H diets deficient in micronutricms are characterized by high

Plant parasitic nematodes such ,15 Meloidogyne spp. are idesprmd and can cause !iignificant damage to crops.



IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

Mycotoxins are a good example of a cause of hidden

and orher facrors targeted by the M OGs - diRers of course

hunger. ll1cy undermine food quality, arc anri-l1urridonal.

between countries and between regions. So, while in one

have carcinogenic and tumorigenic properties. cause birth defects, and result in poor growth and immune suppression

dle siruadon [here may have been less grave

in children and young animals. Mycotoxins are responsible

than in another region where progress is being made. For

for many deaths in Africa and Asia and mycotoxin-safe food

example, Western Asia, currently classified as a region of

should be considered an important component of primary health care.

comparatively 'low poverty', has nor been making progress

region there may have been no progress on a specific target, [0

begin with

tOward the MOG targer or halving extreme poverty. In contrast, Sourhern Asia, tagged as a region of 'very high

More generally, any agricultural pest or disease

that makes people overly reliant on a staple food crops can cOIHriburc (0 hidden hunger. For example. the tsetse Ry makes vasr regions of Africa unsu itable fo r livestock

poverty', is expected to meet its poverty-reduction target


prevailing trends persist.

Table 4, an abridged and adapted version of the MOG progress chart, gives a geographic breakdown for MOG I: both [he current situotion with regard to hunger

production, an option that cou ld orhcnyise enrich the

micronutrient COlltent of people's diets.

and poverty, and trends toward or away from achieving the

2015 targets (Ir shou ld be remembered that the analysis of progress in halving hunger and poverty is based on the period 1990-2015). Regions where poverty and/or hunger are high or very high, and whose minimal progress (or lack of it) to date indicates that they are unlikely to achieve the MO I targets, can be considered 'hot' zones. On [he hunger ftOnt, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia and the Asian portion of the Commonwealth of Independent States of the former Soviet Union fall intO [his category. Sub-Saharan Africa has extra burdens and is clearly a special case. Apart from the improbabi lity of its meeri ng

MDC progress? Yes, but... In the 2007 MOG progress chart prepared by the United adons' Department of Economic and Social Affairs

(OESA), green symbolizes optimism . Light green and dark green boxes signal major advances toward achieving the

targets for 2015. In contrast, beige and red are ominous colors. They tell us something has gone awry - [hat goals are unlikely to be met by 2015 (beige), or thar the situarion is stagnant or, worse, deteriorating (red). The severity of (he various embod iments of human poverty -low income, hunger, il lness, gender ineq uality

Staples such as maize may be conrclminated by mycotoxins both pre-- and post.hilrv(.'St.


IPM Research Brief No.5

Table 4. Summary of curreni state of hunge r and extreme poverty, by region, and progress toward MOG 1 iargeis

ContinentfRegion/Sub-Region Africa


Level of extreme poverty (text) and progress on MDG 1 (cell color)

Hunger level (text) and progress on MDG 1 (cell color)


Very high

Very high

No nhern


Very low





Sourhern Western

Ocean ia


L1rin America and Caribbean

Commonwealth of Independenr States




Low Sour(~:

Adtlplt'dfrom 2007 chart by UN DESA, Stfllistics Division

II T.1rgc l has already been l11 el o r is vc ry close being mer. II Targe l is ex pected co be mer by 20 15 if prevailing [fcnds to

pcrsisL O r rh e problem [his targe r is des igned 10 address is !lot

Ta rge r is no r ex pected


countries break down as follows (FAO figures . 2004): India. 22 1 million; sub-Saharan Africa. 204 million; Asia and Pacific excl udin g C hina . India and rhe Nea r E."t. 156 mi llion; C hina. 142 millio n; L"in America and rhe Ca ribbean , 53 mi ll ion; and the Nea r Easr and No rth Africa.

:1 se rious concern in rhe region. 10

be mer by 20 15.

No progress. or:t deteriora tio n o r reversal.

39 million. Th e indusrrializcd wo rl d and cO lllHri es in rh e hun ger reducrion target, cu rrent [rends sugges t it w ill

rrans irion acco unt for a further 37 million undernourished

also miss the targer of halving ex treme poverry by 20 15. In [,ct. rhe track reco rd to dare consisrs mosrly of red and beige boxes - the M DC equi valent of a drought: sub-Sahara n Africa is expecred to fa ll sho rt of all bur o ne of rhe 18 targets for 20 15. A tOral of eight targets are not expected to be met

people. -rhe Hunge r Task Force nares that abo ut 80% of rhese hungry people live in rural areas. Of these. nearly rwo-thirds are members of smallholder farm families and o ne-quaner are landless laborers. The remaining rural poor

and there has been either no progress o r else a reversal on the remaining ninc . 111c single parch of greenery in th e U chan is progress 0 11 measles immunizatio n. In abso lute terms (h e numbers of unde rnourished peopl e by region and in rh e wo rld 's (wo mOSt popu lolls

are pasroralis(s, nsherfolk and forest lIsers. Since agriculmre remains the predominanr econom ic activity in the rllfa l

developing wo rld . it is clear that IPM, as a key contributOr ro agricultural efficiency, has a viral role to play ill alleviat ing global hunger.


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

A Global Coalition against Poverty and Hunger Achievemenr of the MDCs, including the specifi c hun ge r and poverry targets, requires concerred in ternational and

Jeffrey Sachs' 2005 reporr ror the U Millcnnium Projecr was hi ghl y criri cal of development assistan ce processes an d insrirurions, listin g 10 sho n comi ngs in inrernari o nal development parrn erships, wi th a reco mmcnd arion o n how ro ad dress each. lncse deal with va rio us aspects of bilareral and multilateral assis tance. ra nging from technical suppOrt and institutional coordination . ro project financin g and debt rel ief. Recommendati o n lOis of special interes t as it ad dresses a systemic problem wirh ex ternal ass isran ce, namely po licy coherence: " Dono rs sho uld eva luarc their develo pment, fina nce. foreign , and trade policies fo r coherence with respect to supportin g rh e M DCs. Do nors sho uld subjecr [hemselves ro at least th e samc standards of transparcncyas d1ey ex pect of developing cou nrries. with independenr techn ical reviews:' I f th e M DCs represe nr an unprecedented develop mcnr and governa nce challenge to th e poorer co unrri es, th ey are un do ubtedly a great f1nan cia l and policy challenge to rh e ind ustrialized co untries. and man y stakeholders have remi nded th e ri cher co unnies of rh eir o blig,,,io ns (see Box 3).

nationa l effon s - on rh e gro und in villages, row ns a nd ci ties. wit hin fina nce and secroral minisrries, at rhe hi ghest levels of national po licy making, and in global fora. Jeffrey Sachs, who headed the Millenni um Project for th e UN Secrera ry-Ceneral , pur it rhis way in January 2005: "O Uf Project has been a microcosm of a large r [rllth: ac hieving th e Millennium Devclopmelll Coals wi ll requ ire a global

parrnership suirable for an interco nnected wo rld. The wo rld

nu ly shares a commo n f..,rc," W hile fin al res ponsibility for action o n th e Iv lDCs restS with each individual m ember CO ulltry of the UN, Illulrilarcra l o rga niz..1 rio ns a nd rhe donor agencies of rh e richer (ounni es have crucial supporting ro les [Q play. In this secti o n we brieAy exa mine a few of the inrerconn ccted arra nge menrs and mechanisms - fin ~lJ1 cia l , ope r~lri o n a l and sciemific - th ar are being used to pursue rh e M DCs, no tab ly tvl DC I . We also look at the overall financial co mmitments and Aows needed to achieve rhe goa ls.

Official Development Assistance: Monterrey and beyond

Poverty Redu ction Strategy Papers

The Ma rch 2002 Inrcrn at io nal Co nference on Financi ng for Development held in Monrerrey, Mexico, esra bl ished a global framewo rk for poverry-alleviarion eHorrs and funding. -111e Monrerrey Consensus, as the resultin g set of guid ing principles is kn own, recognized th e nc."Cd for joi nt action by develo ped and develo ping co untri es to achieve "intern atio naJly agreed develo pment goals, incl uding those conrai ned in d1 e Mi llennium Declaration". Recogni zing rhat a sign ifica nt boosr in OAicia l Development Assistance (ODA) wo uld be needed. the do nor countries co mm itted themselves ro providing th~H extra fund ing :md ro improving their development pol icies and stra tegies ro make aDA mo re eftecti ve. "We urge develo ped cou ntries who have nOt yet do ne so," stated rhe Monterrey Consensus, "to make concrete effo rts toward rhe target of 0.7 percen r of ... gross natio nal producr (CNP) ... as ODA to developing countries."

Ald10 ugh 'pove rty'. alo ng with its acco mpl ice, hun ge r, is mcnri o ned specificaJly in M DC I. irs eve ntual eradi car io n is also th e overridin g aim of the eight MDGs raken as a who le. So, th c rargc<s or va rious other M DGs - lack of basic schooling, gender inequality and o rh er forms of excl usion , disease. child mo rrali ry. inadequare warer and sa niration , and so o n - can be rega rd ed esse ntially as sympmms of a dee per probl em o f human pove rty. A key mechanism fo r planning. o rga nizing and executin g anti-poverry projects and progra_ms at the co untry level , with the overa ll goal o f th e MDGs in mind , is Poverty Red uction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) . 11,ese are pro-poo r development plans, with medium- to lo ng- rcrm time hori7.o ns, form ula ted by national gove rnm eIHs wirh broad publi c participatio n. As such th ey arc 'ow ned' by each indi vidual counrry.


IPM Research Brief No.5

ap proach. As of August 2007. 78 low-income co untri cs we re

Box 3. Financing progress on the MOGs: Whose responsibility?

eligible for PRGF ass istance. Most PRSl's take a sectoral ap proach to development. As agr iculture co nrinues ro playa majo r role in develo ping country eco nomies, a nd beca use of its direct co nn ection

"Altho ugh pove rty reduceio n is th e prim ary res po nsibil ity of develo ping co unrri es themsel ves. achi eving the CO~lls in [h e pooresl cOUlHries - those [hal genuinely aspi re to achieve (he MOG targets - will req uire signi fica nt incn.:ases in a DA to b reak [he poverr)' tra p. We urge alilow- inco lll c countri es to in crease th eir own reso urce mobili zatio n for rhe G oals by devoting budget revenucs t'O p ri o ri ry invcs rnlcm s. And in co umries where govern ance is adequ ate bur domestic resources are 1101 . we call o n do no rs ro fo llow th rough o n thei r lo ng-sta ndin g cOl11l11irmem s to increase aid signi fica ntly. In sho Tr, we cal1 for co-financi ng the scale lip of M DC-based in veStmenrs. l "), e rich co umri es muSt no longer delay o n thei r side of (he bargai n."


food security and hunge r reduction . PRSl's tend to

(reat thi s secror in so m e derail. As th e central means of coordinaring develo pme nt e Au rts within each cou nny. th e PRSPs are a powe rful M D G mecha ni sm fo r promoting a nd ha rn essing improved agricu\(Urai managemcnr m ethods an d re earch res ults. NarionaJ mechani sms for developme nr a nd

implementat io n of IPM sho uld be included in the PRSl's ro ensure (hat I.PM efForts do nor rem ain local, iso lated and


Science, the MDGs a nd CG IAR research priorilies

Souru: ÂŁ\"ct!rpr from UN Millt!nium Project (2005b)

The UN Millennium Project repo rt in 2005 envisioned a number of 'qu ic k w in' inrerve nri o ns - m easures thar co uld be implemented immediatel y and d eli ve r benefits qui ckl y. A m o ng rh ese is th e establishment of na ti o na l scie ntifi c

The PRSP approach was initiated by the World Bank and the IlHernational Monetary Fund (1M!') in 1999. before the laun ch of the M DGs. II was ilHended as a way

advisory offices. 11, ese wo uld be charged wirh helping political leaders co nso lidate the rol e of science in polic)'

ro pull rogerher a nd coordinate vario us strands of na tional development efforts: priority se ning, projecr d esign , pove rtya llevia tion effo n s, and dom es tic a nd ex te rn al financing. including donor-cou ntry assista nce. In many instances, th e PRS P and rh e co untry's nationa l d evelo pment plan are o ne

m akin g. Bur the repon also un derl ined the need LO mobili ze international d o nor su ppon fo r resea rch a nd d evelopment ro address rh e need s of rh e poor in rh e a reas of agri culrure. natura l reso urce and e nvironme maJ management, health.

and the sam e document. In 2005. the Millennium Project, in irs III vesting ill DelJl!lopmenl repo rt, recolllmend ed th at co unni es whic h

energy and climate. The ex pected price tag: US$7 billion a ),ear by 20 I 5. Many intern atio nal a nd nati o nal o rga ni za tions. including uni versities, no n-gove rnm en ral organ i7. arions

alread y have a PRSI' in place shou ld revise it so that it is full y alig ned with the MDGs and "ambitious enough" to

(NGO s) and bilateral age ncies. either conduct research in

achiev(' (hem. " Whe re th e Goals are already within reac h a nd greate r progress is so ught, we sugges t th a t co untri es adopt a n ' MOG - plus' stra tegy. w ith rnore ambitious targets." The PRSPs are no t mere sta tem e nrs of good

these areas o r provide vital suppon ro it. In rhe global arena,

the CG lAR f.1 mily of 15 research centers, 13 of wh ich are headquartered in developing counrries, sra nds o ur in the firsr rwo of these d omains. namely agriculture and manage ment of namral reso urces a nd th e enviro nm enr. l"e disrincrion is largel y due LO th e ce nrers' lo ng scic nrifi c experience and achievem enrs in developi ng countri es. in so me cases going

intentions. As the IMF nores. PRSPs provide Lhe "o pera tiona l basis for Fund and Bank concessionallend ing and for debt relier" for the poorer co untries. 111c Pove rty Reduction and

Growth Facili ty (PRG F) is the IMF's low-interest lending

back five decades. Their collecti ve portfolio of resul rs comp rises a huge repository of kn owledge. 111is is backed by extensive

mechan ism for co untri es th a l ha ve adopted the PRSP


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

ge ne banks - whar the CG IAR calls the 'crown jewels' of agri-

MDGs. The fact ,har IPM is give n a low pro fil e in rhe CG IAR prio ri ties docu mem was recogni zed by ,he 2007 Cenrer Commissio ned Extern al Review (CCE R) of rhe SP-II'M . The CCE R repo n no res thar: "l1,e SP- IPM has

culture - and srrong co llabor.ui ve links with , on the o ne hand ,

Farmers, pasmralis[s and other users of 1l3 [ufai resources, and o n rhe other hand ,

A RS and adva nced research insritutions.

Th e CG IA R network and irs inrer- insriruri onal

made progress rowards c rea ting syne rg ies bc rwccn th e IPM wo rk carri ed Ollt at Centers and ro raise th e vi sibility o f

prog rams arc clearl y in a stron g pos itio n ro help devel o ping co unuies ac hieve several NID G ta rge ts. especia ll y rh ose of M DG 1. As o ne G IAR scienrist pur i, a, ,he 2004

IPM wirhin the CG IAR sysrem . ... Neverrheless. there is a conrinuing srron g perccprion of low visibili ry [h at may be

Annual Gene ral Meerin g of the CG IAR in Mex ico Ci 'y: "111C

partly du e to the [,ct rh at IPM does nor appear ex plici rly in rhe fi ve G IAR ys rem Prio riri es." -I he CCER repo n co ncludes tha, I I'M resea rch to address global pes r pro blems is srill needed and thar IPM ca n cOllniburc ro several of rhe goals sel Ollt by rhe Science ollnci lunder its sub-prio rities. In panicuiar. the

Millenni um D evel o pment Goa ls have crea red rh e

space ro :lCL Cente rs are lIsin g rh e MD Gs as a frarn ewo rk .

not only for making choices and configurin g pann erships, rcams and approaches. bur also for definin g targe ts and

ind icJrors aga inst which success is measured." In 2005. rh e Science Coun cil of rhe CG IAR released i,s System Priorities for eCtAl? I?esenrcb 2005- 20/5. 1l1is doclInl l:nr sets o ut a long-refm vision fo r the CC LAR

Sys te m Prio rities o ffe r "new o ppo rruniries for th e S P- IPM . particula rly th ro ug h the e mphas is g iven ro fru its and vegetables for income general'ion and improved nutri tion."

-I:,ble 5 (o n pages 16 and 17), drawn from the

sys tem's wo rk. w id, th e ai m o f maki ng th e "'grea rest poss ibl e

conrriburion" ro dlC MDGs 3S well as ro similar goals beyond 201 5. One of three criteri a used ro set the 20

Science Counc il doclIm c m , shows th e CG IA R System Prioriti es and spec ifi c priori ti es, goa ls and sco pe of research ac ti viti es th at in volve. o r po te miaHy in vo lve, IPM . The

priorities was rh e ex pected impacr of the research o n povcrry all eviat ion. food security and nur ri ri o n. an d sustain able

rabl e also highlighrs the rype of impac r, as identi fied by rh e

management of narural resources. The Science Counci l no tcs

Science Counc il , that CG LAR resea rc h unde r each rel eva nr

[hat rh e prio riti es wc[c sci ccrcd

sys tem prio riry is ex pected ro have, wi dl res peCt ro the most


co ntribute ro rh e M D Gs,

w ith specia l e mphas is o n rh e fi rst goal, namely eradi ca tin g

perri nem M DGs.

extreme poverty and hunger.

Beyo nd th e specific System Prio riti es and go:,ls, th e Sc ie nce Co uncil docume nt also hig hlig hts a number

111c pri o riti es cloclim enr


our a


beginning with fi ve broad System Prioriti es. Below these 20 speci fic prio rit ies alo ng wid, assoc iated goa ls and resea rc h acrivities are spel led o ur. To some, the CG IA R Sysrem Prio ri ties do no r do adequare ju rice

cutl in g th emes, adaptatio n to clima te d l ange stands o ut as bein g of parricular impo n ance in (PM research and is a

ro IPM 's po renti al co nrri buri ons ro rh e ac hi evc l11 cnr o f

majo r focus o r future 51'-1I'M plans.

or cross-cutting glo bal rhemes which sho ul d be addressed

st rU Ctu re,

thro ug h a combinatio n o f th e prio rit ies . O f th ese cross-

The Contribution of IPM research IPM clearl ), has an integ ral rol e to pl ay in achi ev in g seve ral

sup ply and quality oHood , poverly alleviari o n and

ofrhe CG IAR Sysrem Prio rities and throu gh rh em the tvlDGs. The CG IAR Sysrem Pri o riries o urlined in Table 5 highlighr the po renrial for IPM to co nrribute to increased

sustain able manage ment o f water, bnd and fo res t" reso urccs. \'(Ihile (PM acti viri es most obvio usly conrribure ro mee rin g

MDG I rhrough these acri vities. rh ey also have a direcr


IPM Research Brief No.5

roie ro piay in meeting MOG 7 (Ensuring envirollmcnrai susrainabili ry) a nd make direct a nd indirect cO llniburions

food fo r subsistence t.1 fm fa miiies, hi gher incomes from sai es of surp lus o r marketable crops, and mo re in come retained ro meet t.1rm fami lies' needs. IPM plays a role in increasing rural producri vity via a wide range of pathways. In f.mne rs' fi elds, IPM techniq ues ca n enh ance th e basic reso urces for crop production . Soil resources, comprising a complex mi x of organic and inorga nic marrer, form the bas is of sustainab le productive agri culture. Soil fert ili ty is declin ing in Illany parts of the wo rld an d erosio n is increasing. Give n the stro ng and we ll known relario nship betwee n so il fertility and plant health , managing th e so il to conse rve fe rtili ty and enhance so il bio ta is, therefore. a first cru cial step in growing healthy crops with narura l resis tance to pes ts and diseases. Eco no mi c press ures th at di ctate agri cult ural inten sifi cation have led to redu ced fa llows and the abando nmenr of cro p rorarions in man y parts of rhe world. 1he res ult has been a depletion o f soil fertility and bi odi ve rsity, leadi ng to a greater susce ptibility to soilborne pests and diseases, as wel l as g rea ter preva lence of parasidc weeds.

to a num ber of o ther goals. as o udined in Table 6. 11,e contributio ns of I PM to meeting the CG IAR System Priori ties and thro ugh [hem. the MDGs, can be exa min ed und e r


ma in t hemes: rhe cont ributi o n ro

increasing rural prod ucti vity and rhe ex tensive work of IPM researchers and pract itioners on human capi tal development.

Ru ra l productivi ty Ra isin g ru ral producti vity is rhe m OSt immedi a te con tributi o n that (P M can m ake ro meeti ng rh e MD Gs.

IPM techniques may be used to reduce the levels of cro p losses suffered by filrmers - direcdy increasing crop producti vity. Alternati vely, where full cost acco untin g data are ava ilable, the greater benefits of I PM wi ll be felt th rough redu ced production COS t S, where pesticides can be replaced

by environmentall y durab le an d economicall y

so und alternati ves. 111c ner res ul t is th e sa me: additi onal resources in f.·umers· han ds, offerin g grea ter ;wailabil iry of

Table 6. Overview of IPM contributions to achieving the MDGs MDG I. Eradi cate exrreme poverry

(PM'. relevance to MDG D irecl

and hunger 4. Redu ce child mortality 5. Improve maternal healrh 6. Combar HI V/AlDS. malaria and orhcr di seases

D irecl

I PM's contributions Increased or stabilized crop yields (allow ing fo r sale of surplus food); redu ced pos r-harvest losses; lower production cos rs; berrer-qualiry produce for domesti c sale and export More and bener foo d; less da nger of food co nram in atio n by myco toxins (e.g .• anarox in poisoni ng) and pesti cides

Direcr/ lndirecr

Biopes ticides and botan icals th ar kill or repel malaria-bearing mosquitoes; good porenrial for fu ngus-based biopes rici des in vector co mrol

7. Ensu re environm enral slIs ra inabiliry

Direc i

En hanced agrob iod ive rsiry; less conramin ation of so ils and warer supplies due to reduced use/leaching of pesticides; improved naviga cion and fishi ng in in land warerways from berter co ntrol of aquatic weeds

8. Develop a global partnership for devd op mcn[


Knowledge shared across inrcrn atio nal borders, ccosys tems, crops and scientifi c disciplines thro ugh program s and netwo rks such as SP- IPM , rhe Internati onal Association fo r th e Plant Pro rccrio n Sciences (IAPPS). FAO G loballP M Faciliry. Pesticide Anion Network (PAN) and plant protectio n o rga niz;uions


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

Table 5. CGIAR System Priorities, tPM intervention points and type of impact on MOGs.

MDG I Er-J.dic u e extrem e IXl\'cn Y:Uld h unger

CG lAR System Prio ri ties, spttific goals and rucarch activil ies m al involve .PM conlributjo ns


Ind irect

Sustai ning biodiversity for curren I a nd fmurc gCllcr.l tions


Produci ng more and bener food:1t lower cost !lua ugh genelic improvcmcllls 2A. rvbil1laining :lIld enhancing yields of st:lples Specific goa l 2: IdclllifiCl tio n and development of pro· poor lr.lilS in crops Scope of research : Prod uction per unit !:and, c.g. duough disease resistance. or rcsiSI:IIl CC to ot her bioric su ess (e.g. resista nce parasitic Wt"t.-d. Strigll) 2C. Enhancing IlUiritio ll:l1 qualll}' and s.'lfcty Spccifi goa l 3: Ik-ducc COlll e nt of microbialloxins in staplc!I Idcmify ways to lower slIsccplibiliry to microbial conmmination and afl:Hoxin producl ion 20 . Genelic enhancellleni of high-va lue spt"Cies Specific goal 1: incre:lSi ng yield and stabili£), incorpora lc resiscallcc 10 pes lS and diseases Specific goal 3: Small hold r.'r li vestock improved An ima l discase rcsisr:lIlcc





Reducing rura l powrry through agricul lural di versifica tion :lIld em ergin g o ppo rtullilies for higlH 'alue co mmodifies and products 3A. In creasi ng incomc from (ruil and vegewblcs Spr.'ci fi c go:tl 2: Enh:lllce productiOIl through improvement of f.l rming s)'stems IcielHih ca tion of Pl:st :lI1cl disc:lSC resislan cc needs anJ opporrun ities Design improved productio n technolog ies. including IPfI,,1, 3 B. Income in c re:I~CS frol1l livestock SI)C ific goal 1: Opportuniti es for li vcslock g rowth identified Resea rch on epid emio logy :md eco nomics to prcdici impaCi of S)'Slc m chan ges o n diseases Genetic enh :l.Ilcement to incrt.."3.5(' bioric Stress toleran cc of food. feed and forage crops Im provin g 100ai productivi£), while ma illlai n ing adaplh'(" ctpaci£), (resilience. robuslness)




Poverry alleviation :md sustainable m:lnagcm em of water, land and fort.'S1 resources 4A. Intcgr.ned land . w:ller and forcsi man:lgem cnr Specific goal 2: Enhan ce man:lgem cl1I orI:l.ndscalX"S Idelllify principal constraints to susrainabiliry and impro\'cd producli\·iry of sysrems Spccifi c goa l 4: Opti mize us~ of w:lt er resources in ri v~r basins Analysis ofsJ>Ccific thrc:us to long-Ierm susrainabili ry posed by changes in climate. popula lion and land use 4 D . SusI:l. inable ag roccological int ensifica tio n in low- and high-potenti:ll areas Specific goa l J: Improvi ng soil productivity. preven ting d egracl:nion. rehabilit aling clegraded bnds D evelop il1tcgr:Hed pest and disease ma nagem ent sn :u egics " Specific goa l 6: D es ign methods (0 manage and e nhance biodiversity 10 increase income. reduce risk and vuln crabilir), thro ugh IP;,,!. crop di versific llion and genetic divcrsiry" Usc c rop genetic diversi£)' to roouce biotic risks Idenlify o ppofluni lies fo r I PM to reduce cicpcnclt ncy on lX"slicicles. increase produclivi(y and a.cilieve product <llIalit), 111:11 meels illlcrna lional srandards' Address emerging pC.'S1 and disease complexes in respo nse 10 illlensific:ttion and globaJ cha.ngc Eva lua.le the d eployme nr of gcnctically modified orga nisms (G MOs) fOf hosl-plant resiSI:lIlce as a companelll of IllM ' Specific go:tl 8: Idemify f.lclOrs thaI d etermine decision-making abolll natural resou rce: use in illl ensive production S),SICI1lS D evelop and d eploy knowledge-based methods for input usc at the fum level ;.

Improving policies a nd F.lcilit :uing inslirutional innova rio n


Scic n c~ and lechllo log)' pol icies and inSlirlllio ns

; B.



suppOrt susrai nabl e reducrion of poverty and hunger

Specific gO:l1 5: Enhancing knowlcdge-i l1le nsive institlllio ns Ca p:lci ly bu ildi ng in :l feaS of d ircct impo rt ance 10 th e CG IAR priorities M:lking markcls work for the poor SpeCific goa l I : Enhance livelihoods of smallho lder producers and food s;tfcry for co nsumcrs Examine <;OUfCes of co nt ;unin :llion and diseasl' in food har\'t.'S ting and production!o Rur:11 inslillilions ,md their gove rnance Sp("cific go:!1 I : Id cllIify mechani sms for srre ngthening producers' org:lIli1.:lIions :lnd m odes of p:trlicip:ltory resea rch Research on d es ign. monitoring an d evalu:ttion of p:tnicipa tor)' processes wit hin f.'trmcr organi7..:l tio ns

. These rcs(':1 r(.h-ll'vcI :l.Cl i\' iticlI :In.' till" o nly specifi c rcfl'ft'ncClo to [PM in tlir.' Science C ounci l dOClIlllr.'nt



IPM Research Brief No.5

Type of impact on MDGs expected from CGlAR research: direct or indirect MOG6 MOG 4






Develop a global

Rl-d U C~


malaria and OIher

Ensure environ menral

child mormliry

maternal he:ah h


slIs I3inabiliry

panncrsh ip for development

Ind ireci

Indi rect



in d i n~CI

ind irect

D irect



I ndireci


I ndi rcCl

Ind irect



just o ne slich weed , Striga hnlnonriJicll, is es tlm ared by FAG to cause yield losses of' over US$7 billion a year in Africa, and rhe fo uf parasiri c Striga species rogc(h er nega ri vely af1ecr the livel ihoods of over 100 million Africa n farmers. Indi vid ual far mers can lose u p to 80% of [heir crop yield ro rh e pa rasite, a devastat ing im pact. ' n,e prob lems of poor so il q uali[y and paras iric weeds are eno rm ous: so me 20--40 mi ll io n hectares ofland in subSaharan Afri ca are rho ugh[ ro be affected. 11,0 porenrial of II'M rechni,! ues ro com bar rhese problems is equally large. wid1 direct a nd im porta nt im pans o n fa rm e rs' abi lities to feed rhemselves an d rh eir fam ilies (see Box 4) . There are few clea re r exa m p les of t he need fo r a n in tegrated approach ro pest ma nage men t in th e p u rsui t of M DG 1. As we have see n, poor so il fe rtili ry is a ca use orboth inc reased weed p roblems an d susceptib il ity ro pests a nd d iseases. Cen rral ro rhe phi loso ph y of II' M is rhe need fo r good agro nomic practices ro be made avai lab le to farmers, ro su pport their abi lity to manage c rops in h:umony. rath er (ha n in co nAi ct, wit h na tural ecological sys rems. Approp ri ate c rop ma nagement practices a re a co rn ers[Q ne of fa rm er

D irect

Box 4. Combating parasitic weeds - an array of IPM options


Ind ireci



A n umber of promi sin g JPM optio ns to manage paras itic weeds are in devclopmcnr, th o ugh no single 'sil ver buller' has bee n fo und . O ptio ns incl ude ra ising soil fe rrili ty wi th o rga nic an d ino rg:m ic ferriJizers, co mprehensive breedi ng effo rts by CC IA R centers ro devel op resisranr cro p variedes; co nrrois o n co mmercial seed qu ali ty to preve nr co nraminatio n: and tra p cropp ing using planl5 that sri muJate suicid aJ germi nati o n of paras iric seeds. H igher input optio ns include rh e devel opmcnr of herbi cide- resistalH hoSl" cro p varieti es rhar allow thc appliC:'1 tioll of herb icides to kill the paras ite without" affecting the hos t plant, and a range of bio logical co m ro l and bio herbicide optio ns. If rhey are app lied as seed dressings o n rh e hos[ planr. lh e environment'll sidc-cllccl5 of herbicidcs are minimi zed . 111c CC tAR pri oriries o mli ned in Table 5 specificall y recognize [he impo na nce of comro lJing Strigll as p3n of [he smneg), ( 0 maimain and enh ance yiel ds of sraple crops.


Sou/'er,' SP路t PM (2003)


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

adoption of I PM and maintaining sustainable yields. For example, research co nducted by C IMM YT, Internarional Center for Agriculrural Resea rch in D ry Areas (ICARDA) and Turkish collaborarors on soilborne parhogens is focusing

especially susce ptible ro harm during feral development.

on rhe develo pment and use of resistanr w heat va rieties, in

clearly contributes direcrly to redu cing child morraliry and improving marernal hcalrh (M DCs 4 and 5). Bur as the EI Ca rchi case srudy (described in Box 5) shows, peSticides C3.n have a more in sidiolls effect 011 farme rs' productivity. IPM solu tions improve not o nly f.:1fmcrs' health and (hat of theif famil ies, bur also their producciviry. When o nsidering the co ntribution of (P M to rural productivity, it is imporrant nor to overlook rhe wider Tural

comb ination with an exploration of specific conservation agriculture techniques. Both crop rotarion of wheat and

non-host crops. as well as varied tillage pracrices. affect the levels of soilbo rn e parhoge ns. I PM resea rch ro address farmers' problems in rhe real world clearly needs ro be interdisciplinary. a combin ed efforr from plant pathologists, ento mo log ists, crop breede rs and agronomists. By irs nature.

research into IPM requires rhe development of parmerships. both interdisciplinary an d inrernarional , a key co ntribution ro meeting M DC 8. I PM as parr of good agriculrural pracri ce does nor only enhance rural producti viry rhrough irs impacr on yields

A reduction in rh e quan tity and [Oxiciry of chemical s L1sed

in ag riculture through inform ed decis ion-makin g

by end

users in th eif choice and application of prove n IP M options,

economy beyo nd fa rmin g. Fisheries and Fo restry comprise

im ponam componenrs of rural livelihoods, as well as rrade in food , fish and wood produ crs. Mainraining an d Box 5. Pesticide poisoning and productivity in Ecuador

and production cas(s. Evidence rrom around rh e world In rhe green EI Carchi hills of Ecuador, fa rme rs produce po ra mcs for demandi ng nati o nal and ex po rt markets. ll1e r.,rmi ng sysrem is imensiv(' and potatoes may be sprayed up ro 12 rim es in a Sin gle season, usi ng some o f lhe most rox ic produ cts ava il abl e, including mcramido fos and ca rbo furan. pes lic id es cl assified as highl y !Oxic by the Wo rld Heald, O rganiza ti on. Fa rm ers were idemified as suffering from pes ticide- linked illn esses, includin g headaches and nausea. brea thing difficul ties, and eye and sk in disord ers. O n cl ose r exa min atio n. epidemio logists discovered abo ut 60% of rh e ar-risk po pulatio n had already suffered signi fic.1. nt damage, incl udin g disru pted moro r skills, depressio n. listless ness and impai red decisio n- making. Th e study suggested that, not o nl y d id cuning back o n pesri cidcs save fa rm ers mo ney. but also ma( farmers who are ill make bad produ ctio n decis ions. "The highe r yields made poss ible duo ugh better decisio n making and more produ cti ve labo r ca n more (han make up fo r any losses thar migh( be caused by rhe redu ced use of pesti cides ." Research ers in t.h e area have pro mored IP M so luti o ns w ith EI Carchi's farmi ng co mmun iry. incl uding co mpo nems of improved potato va ri ecies w ith late blight res istance. simple (raps fo r Andean pOtatO weevil and be tter agro no mic practi ces and vigilance.

has shown repea tedly (hat th e excessive use of pesticides

severel y affecrs rural peo ple's healrh . In particular, POPs, including organocillorine peSticides, have been lin ked with damage to rhe nervous. reproclucrive and immune systems, as wel l as ro li ve r damage and ca ncer. Humans are

Pe ticicle poisoning .lffc'Cts farmers ' c:lbilit) to make sound production decisions.



c/P (2001) pp. 17-24

IPM Research Brief No.5

improving these iiveiihood options is an essentiai pathway [0

Box 6. A flowe r too many: water hyacinth in West Africa

poverry an d hunger reducti on, and an impon3nr resulr

of maintaining environm e ntal stabili ry. ll1c rol e of IPM in Inrroduced from Sourh America as an anractive. purpleAowe red ornamcmal, water hyaci nrh (Eirbbornin crn.s.siprs) became a major pest in West Afri c.1. By the larc 1980s. the planrs' dense mats of vegetation rhreatcned the coasta l creeks and lagoon systcms essential co many people's livelihoods in Benin. Core d'ivoire. Ghana. Nigeria and Togo. Chemical control was found to be roo environmentally damaging. while mechanical control was excessively expensive. In an arrempl ar biological comrol . three host-specific n::lIural enemies were used to control warer hyacilllh: two weevil species and a modl were imported from Ausrralia, mass- reared al the IITA srarion in Benin , and released in sOllthern Benin. The annual economic loss from water hyacinth in somhern Benin alone was estimared at USS83.9 million , mOSlly in lost fishing, bur also in fish trading. Since comrol was successfuJly introduced , the region's annua l inco me increased by USS30.5 million aga insr a cost of USS2.09 million spent on biological comrolmeasures.

maintaining water and forest reso urces is perhaps less well known than in agriculture, bur has an imporranr rol e


play. As recognized by ,he CG LAR System Priorities, II'M is key to sustai nable agroecologic.:1' intensifica ti o n in low- and high -po rential areas, and ro rhe sliscai nabic manage ment of warer, land and forest resources.

A co mmon feature of aquatic or forest resources is [hat rhey provid e many goods or services beyo nd a single cro p. In th ese complex ecosyste ms, rhe widespread

use of pesticides may have unacceptable side-effects, while the threat ca used by pests and diseases may be multidimensional. Box 6 demonstrates the multiple impacts of an aquatic pest problem and the ways in which I PM co nrrol has been essential in managing the water resource.

In the Benin case described in Box 6, fishing accoullted for so me 61 % of household income before infestation with water hyaci nth . but importantly. trade

Sourer: Alenr ~I nL (rmdnud)

in fish, wood and food products were all significant contributors to rural livelihoods. All of these activiries suffered from th e impactS of weed infestation. Even more broadl y. clear water resources are essential for providing drinkjng water, electric power generarion and irriga tion , as wel l as conserving biodiversity. In sensitive aquatic habitats

the risks of widespread chemical use may far outweigh the benefits, and IPM may be the only viable option for maintaining rhe wide range of essential services supplied by wate r resources. In thi s case, the biological co ntrol of water hyaci nth impacted on rural producti viry via a multitude of

pathways, directly relevant to both MDG I and MDG 7.

Capacity development A key parr of meeting the MDGs lies in building capacity to manage co mplex agroecosystems. production and marke tin g systems. Organi1..:1 tions involved in developing

I PM techniques have a key role to play, not on ly in carryin g o ut resea rch into the science of pest management, but also in sharing that knowledge through both academic scienrific

Water hyacinlh infestation affected fishermen 's livelihoods as well

as Irade in fish, wood and food products.


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

trainin g and lea rning processes with fa rme rs and



This key role in meeting the M D Cs is recogni zed by the CC IAR priorities highlighted in Table 5, in particular [he need for capaciry building in knowledge-intensive in sritutio ns and [he need for mechanisms ro stre ng th e n producers' organi zatio ns and panici parory research.

Building farmers' capacity lPM ca nn Ot be put into practice w ithou t farmers and rural land manager. U ltimately it is farmers w ho need to understand how pestS affect their crops. how to ma nage rhe threal and how ro adapt syste ms [Q changin g circlIlllstances. l1,e central position of farmers in I PM is reAected in the italicized elements of the SP- I PM 's guiding principles, shown in Box 7.

IPM is know ledge inte nsive: f.1rmers need access nor only to information about rhe pests rhat affect their crops, but also to knowledge and underStanding of how to react appropriately to th e circumstances. Farmers inte rv iewed

for ,he EI Ca rei, i peSticide Study described in Box 5, and

Box 7. The SP-IPM's guiding principles • IPM research is inrer-disciplinary and pursues a holistic app roach to managemenr of agricu ltu ra l an d natural ecosystems. • IPM maintains a.nd biodiversiry as the natural foundation for pesl management in the context of 5U5[3jnable agricu ltural development.

IPM cannot be put into practice without farmers.

• IPM d~v~/op1lJ~1If is guid~d by form~r participlltion. from problem diagnosis. throllgh componmt r~search. to on-jilrm validation.

who had no knowledge of appropriate pest management practices, reli ed on sta ndard prescriptions for peSticide spraying provided by chemical com pany salesmen. These suppliers advocated that farmers should apply products

• IPM adoption d,p"'ds on th, ability offirm"" to make illjornU'd decisioTlS. based 011 an understanding ofecological lIntl ~collomic principles. Fanner empowennmt is achieved through pllrticipatory r~search and trllining methods thar ~"collmge the inugration oftraditiollal and 'science-based' knowledge.

regula rl y "'juSt in case" pests shou ld appear. To imp lemem (PM , f.1.rmers need to understand and

combine knowledge of ecological and biological processes

Success in implemenring IPM is conringenr on a favorable publi c policy environment.

w ith the ir own experie nces and indigenous knowl edge.

Only by understanding the processes at work can farmers


IPM Research Brief No.5

b~ ~rtipuwt:i'cJ to analyze [he situarion, make appropriare

Box 8. Vietnam's FFS experience

decis ions and follow through o n their own initiative. This represents an enormous challe nge for many

In (he ea rly 1990s. (he Government of Vi ern am launched a nationallPM program [0 raclde [he [win problems of rice pests and overuse of pesticides. The first FFS were piloted in 1993: [he program, sponsored by rhe Plant Protection Division of dle Ministry or Agriculture and supported by GOs, has since reached some 00,000 fanners nationwide. By 2000. some 83% o[Viemam's rice f..'Umers had been involved in a( leas t one FFS. The IPM program also broadened its scope m cover groundnms. soybean. tea. cotmn and several other crops. In 2001. its scope was funher extended in five provinces within Vietnam m take on d,e task of conserving planr generic resources. 111is project aimed m support farmers who had already graduated from FFS in new activities sli ch as varietal selection and seed rehabilitarion. In a funher development, ahom one thollsand 'IPM clubs' have been established around the country. financed frol11 local sou rces. These cover a wider range of study areas and involve more farmers [han [he original FFS program. Soure<: SP-/PM (2005)

farmers who may have littl e or no forma l ed ucat io n and Illay have been accustomed (Q traditi o nal technology rrans fer ap proaches to extension , char e mphas ize following the ex tensio n agem's advice. rather than helping farmers [Q analyze pes t si tuation s and act o n resu lts of their analys is. It is also an enormous opponunity [Q develop farmers' selfreliance and co nc urrently help develop farme r orga ni zat ion s [hat ca n playa wider ro le in production and marketing.

Many of the partner institutions within th e SP-I PM have been, and re main , at rh e forefront of developing innovarive me th ods for farmer capacity building. Farmer

participatory lea rning (FPL) app roaches, such as Farm er Field Schools (FFS), are a form or adulr learning based o n rhe understandin g that people learn better from their own observa tion s and ex perimen tati on than from received wisdom . Learning based o n experi ence enables farmers to

implemen r IPM judiciously and to adapt ir to th eir ow n particular and c hangin g ci rcumstan ces (see Box 8). In a comple mentary step.

fPM researchers use

reduced e nviro nme nrai damage); an d financia l capita l (lower

far mer part ici patory research (F PR) techniques to address

COSts and increased yields). However, rhe benefits of approaches sllch as FFS,

a number of o bjecti ves. In facr the rerm FPR Illea ns many

different things in different contexts. FPR is applied to a wide ran ge of objectives and levels of parti cipatio n, includin g facilitation of farmer experimenrs. farmer

are ge nerall y evaluated in terms of their direcr impact on pesticid e use and yields, which ca n be attributed to training. For example. in a synth es is of 25 impact evaluation s of IPM

participatio n at differenr stages of formal plant breedin g,

FFS, va n den Berg (2004) highlights the sometimes drastic

farmers testing of'bes t bee o ptions generated by researchers, and vari ed approaches invo lving interac tive participation,

act ion-research and social learnin g. As with FPL, all th ese approaches aim to e nable farm e rs to make inform ed

decisio ns and solve location-specific problems, respond to o ppo rtunities. and cope with rapid change.

The impa ct of farmer partic ipatory learning Experiential learn ing approaches in I PM suppOrt th e development of several ' livelihood capitals' inciudjng human capital (improved knowl ed ge, sk ills an d practice); social ca pital (improved abi li ty for organization and coll ective

Farmer Fidel Schools allow farmer"i to le~lrn from their o\\n observations anel experiments.

aerio n); natural ca pital (better use of natural resources and


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

Box 9. Pu hing out push- pull technology tcmborers arc the larval Stages of various species of moths. They are [he major insect pestS of maize in eastern and southern Africa, with losses averaging 20-30% of maize crops, and occasionally rcaching lip to 80%. With funding from lhe Gatsby Charitable Foundation. researchers al the Kenya-based African Insect cicncc for Food and Heailh, formerly known as dle International Cel1lrc oflnsccr Physiology and Ecology (I IPE) began researching control methods in 1994. After screening some 400 wild grass species, researchers setded on Napier grass (Pt'l1nis~tIIm purpu"um) as a 'trap plant' for the slell1borers. NOI only does Napier grass 'pull' stem borers away from nearby mai7.e by providing an attractive environmcm in which ro lay their eggs, the grass itselfis immune to stemborer attack as it secretes a stid.], gum thai traps the borers and prevenrs the insects from completing their life cycle. Furthermore, Napier grass is perennial and is grown widely for livestock fodder, providing a useful product in itself 1he researchers also discovered thai a number of plams, including [he forage legume silverleaf desmodium (D~smodillm tmcinlllum) produce a volarile chemical that repels stemborers, 'pushing' them away. With desmodium intercropped between maize plants, and apier grass planted around the plots, an ingeniolls 'push-pull' IPM system was created that dfeaiveiy reduces sremborer arrack, provides farmers with three products and, as a bonus, also eliminates the parasitic weed, Striga, frol11 the plots. Push-pull has been disseminated in a number of ways. Following a public informacion l11eeling, farmers are asked by the researchers {Q nominate representatives to rest the technology in their own fields. Field days and informal contacts provide some informacion ro other farmers, but more technicians were needed to suppOrt new farmers ro correctly apply the technology. A solurion was [Q recruit respected and experienced farmers as teachers to other farmers. Farlllerteachers who have already successfully managed their own push-pull plot for several years receive an allowance ro help them visit five farmers every rwo weeks. 1l1ey provide advice and guidance to other farmers, while themselves receiving supervision and advice from I IPE rechnicians.

The ingenious 'push-pull' IPM system eftectn e/) reduces stemboff'r ~ltrack5 and eJimm.ltes Singa mfestation.

redu ctio ns in pesdcide use and increases in yields as a res ulr of FFS training. In rice crops, pesticide usage was typically redu ced from 1-3 app lications per season down to 0-2 appiicarions, while in vegetables and corroll, the reduction was from 3-7 applications down to 1-3 per seaso n. In

addition. some swdies reported [he lise of lower doses per application or the use orIess-roxic chemicals. Participatory lea rning practices like FFS can be labor and rime intensive, and costly. l11c lise of farmer trainers call offer a cost-effective way communicating specific I PM techniques ro a wider farmer audience, as in (he push- pull technology outlined in Box 9. Through the work ofSP-IPM members with furmer training. IPM clearly makes a significant conrriburion ro the development of participatory processes, in addicion [Q irs direct co ntribution to improved yields and reduced use of pesticides.


Source Gntsby C"nritnbl. Foundntion (2005)


IPM Research Brief No.5

Developing scielliific capacity

markets, recognized by rhe Science Coun cii in ,he CG lAR

The basis of l l'M is scientific research. II'M draws on, and

System Priorities. This offers a new and c hall enging arena

co ntributes ro , resea rch in a wide ran ge of di sc iplines and

for IPM capacity building. High-value cro p produ cti on and

processes including entOm ology and pathology, plant and animal breedin g. ge netic reso urce co nservatio n and usc,

horticulture are kn owledge intensive and dy namic and this secror de pe nds heav il y o n havin g access ro derailed techni-

soil sciences, agronomy. internat io nal trade and marker

cal know ledge. As this important area is latgely driven by

analys is, and pesticide and biopcsricides analysis, use and

pri vate secror de mands. (raining in IP M needs ro ta rget nor

develop ment.

o nl y public sector NA RS scientists, bur also individ uals from

CG IAR ce llters and orhers within the network of SI'- IPM partnets provide a wide range of scientific capaci ry develo pment rhrough formal tra ining progra ms, specialized

the private sector, in cl uding pestic ide dea lers. pri vate, in creas ingl y se t demanding standards for food

and bench rrai ning. NARS need academic training resources provided by the CG IAR centers and other 5 1'-1I'M

safety, including issues such as pesticide res idu es and food co nral'ninar io n. Furthe rm ore, several pri vate food

members, in parricular ro complement and strengthen rh e

sta nda rds now specify rhat IPM processes sho uld be

myriad of field progtams providing ex peri ential learnin g through FFS and other mechanisms. There is a growi ng emph as is in agr icultutal develop-

conclusion that specia lized scientific tra inin g is needed

Internatio nal trade standards, both public and

imp'l eme nted during prod un ion. 111is leads



ro provide an advanced level of undetstanding specificall y for the horticulture an d high-value producr ma rkets.

me nt of hig h-va lue c rops for intern at io nal and nat io nal

The Way Forward Adapt ing to cl imate change

Th e previo us secrion has highlighted some of rhe ways in w hich IPM ca n co nrribute in general


meed ng

Cl imare change is ide nt ified by the CG IA R Science Council

dl C

CG 1AR System Priorities and rhe MDGs. In practice, how will the SP- IPM rake forward rh e IPM agenda to maxi mize

as a cross-cuning theme rel evant

SP-IPM 's plans as they telare to both th e CG IAR System Priorities and rhe MDGs, highlighting the projects rhat will contribute specificall y to ac hieving each prio ti ry and goal. -Il,e elements o utlined in Table 7 are systemati zed by the SP- IPM und et three planned inter-centet collaborative (Q

all its priorities. Crop

losses from pes t damage are likely [Q in c rease through ma nifestat io ns of cli mate change related (Q in creased Frequency

thi s co ntributi o n? Tab le 7 shows the mai n elcmcms of th e

resea rch o utputs: ada pting (P M


and severi ty of extreme even ts, c hanges in relative humidiry. cloud cove r, precip itat io n and w in d patterns, temperature rise, and el evated carbon dioxide co nce ntrati o ns.

111c majo r

impacts [Q cro p productiviry in clude: • Range expans io n of existing peSTS and invasion by new pestS

• Accele rat io n of pest lifecycles

climate var iabi li ty and

cha nge; man age me nt of co ntaminants in foods , feeds an d th e e nv ironm e nt; and improv in g agroecosystem resili e nce

• In creased abio ti c st ress (hat red uces host toleran ce and resis tance to pes ts • Promo tion of secondary pests ro primary pests brought about by a reductio n in host to le rance, and changes in

for soil , root and plant hea lth . Togerher these aim to ad dress rhe mOSt pressing challenges of IPM , whi le bui lding o n rhe strong linkages berween CG IAR centers and NARS for collabo rar ive resea rch and capaciry building at all levels.

cropping systems and production practi ces • Potential narrowing of IPM o pti o ns.


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

Table 7: Ele me nts of the SP-IPM stra tegy in re la ti o n to the MDGs a nd CG IAR Syste m Prio rit ies SC prioriry areas for CGlAR research: SP-IPM conuibutions

MDG 1. Reduce

1. Sustaining biodiversity for current and futu re generations +


3. Reducing rur.tJ poverty through agricuJrura l divcrsifi· 2. Produci ng more calion and em ergi ng and better food at lower o ppo rtu ni ties for COS I through genetic high-va lue co mmodi ties improvements and p rod uctS ++


Develop slr:ttegies for ada pting hosi-plant resistance to pests under

Develop and p ro mOle II)M systcms to red uce inappropriat e pc:sricide different climatic co ndi- applications • Dl'Vdop and dons d isseminat e new tools • Devclop new technologies to identify 10 :mg lllent lll:ltlagcmclH gcrmpbs m thar is able to o f contaminan ts

povcrryand hunger

4. Promoring poverty a lleviation a nd susrainable m anagcm enr of warer. land and forest re50urcc:s ++ Develop managemcl1l options for thc comrol of impo rta nt soil and plam pesrs in key cro p· ping SYSICIllS

5. Im p roving science a nd techno logy policies and instirutio ns ++

Gener.ttc and publ icize info nmllio n rdt'V:l 1H to IPM policy form ulation and implemenrmio n • D evelop. dissemi natc and promote J PM information • training and decision-support [ools

r<.xiucc mycol'Ox in levels 4 . Reduce child



Develop [lew I,·chno logies 10 identify gCflnpbsm ,-h:1{ is abl e to r<:ducc mycolOxin k'Vcls

:l nd

5. Improve 1ll:l.lcrnai

hea lth 7 . Ensure enviro nmemal susfainab iliry






Broaden the under-

culluml produCiion root and pbnt health

pa rtnership fo r development





Dcvelo p mct hOOo lo· gics to idclHi fy r{'gio ns a nd cropping systems wh ich arc vul nerable [Q incr<:ascd peS t d amage under clirn:tlc ch:tnge co nd itio ns • Id cltlify IPM strategies 10 enhance resilience 10 climate v.triabil ity a nd change across vu lner.tble agroccosyslcms

standing of ccologictl relalionships in agrisystems to improve soil.

8. Develop a global


D evelop and disscminate nl:w tools 10 augment managemcnt o f co ntamin:tms



Promote cx isting and ncw low·cost d etectio n tochnologies fo r r.tpid id enrifietrion and analyses of conramin:l.Il('S impacti ng o n food . feed . hcalth :lnd envi ronmen t :md 10 r:tci lit:m' trade

Faci litatt· joim fi dd progr.tms to sirengthcn IPM education ;mel ca pacity fo r incn:.'as('d uptake of p re- and pOSt· harvl-'St options

+ D eno tes all indirect impact o f th (" CG pdorilies o n mceting the MDGs: ++ Denotcs a d irect impact



increasc IPM advocacy and awaTC n<:ss with sJX"Cial cmphasis on adapmrion (0 climate change, increased food s:tfery and improved agroccosystcm resi lience • Increase inclusive parlncrships by h:trncssing co mplcm en rary co m petencies and comp:tr.trive advanrages of no n-CG IA R srakeholdcr groups • Promote jo im ownersh ip of proc(.'SScs and resul lS t hrough pa rtnership pl:tnning work· shops. techn ical Ill<:ctings/congrcsses and expenise e.'(Ch:UlgC

IPM Research Brief No.5

The inHucnce of climate variabiiiry and change

pest pressure from climate change , how that vulne rab ili ty

could occur (for example. through loss of host resistance. or loss of pesrs' natural enemies for biological cont rol). and the impli ca tion s of increased pest damage o n food security in

o n pest and disease dynamics is already evidenr. C limate

va riabili ry. such as EI Nii\o Oscillario n Events (EN SO) that ca use anomalously dry and wct periods, are a key facror in tri ggeri ng e nde mic and emerging pest o utbreaks. and

vulnerab le production sys tems.

climate change is beginning ro be manifested through an

In a further step. this information will provide the basis for adapting IPM strategies in those vulnerable agro-

in c rease in minimum re mpe rarures [har lead to ex panded pes t over-wintering ranges.

ecosystems to inc rease their res ili e nce to climate change. This step operates at severallevcls. including dcvelopment of new

C hanges are already demonstrated . for example. by the increased outbreaks of brown locust ( Loe/lStflllfl

IPM tech nologies. adaptation planning by policy makers.

pardnlino) in so uthe rn Afri can crop and ran geland during EN SO events. Similarly. during ENSO even ts with wa rmer

guiding natio nal agricu ltural authorities on all ocation of resources for pest surveillance and management, and internat io nally, informin g co llaborative effo rts such as the

temperatures there are increased o utbreaks of rhe wh ite Aies Bemesia [abaci and B. nftr that affect tuber crops in rhe

G lobal Invasive Species Program.

Andea n Region of South America. The multiple impacts of climate change could significantly reduce the effecti ve ness of current IPM

Managing contaminants Throughout this brief. the role of IPM has been emphasized

strategi es. requiring rhe dedication of additio nal resources

in reducing co ntamination of food and th e e nvironment,

into developing new kn owledge systems and new IPM

both of biological origin (for example. mycotox ins). and chemical origin (such as pesticides) . Through its resea rch output focused on food safery. the SP-IPM aims to

technologies to coumer new pests or rhe inrensificacion of ex istin g ones. Po te ntial effects of climate c han ge o n managel'ne lH pranices includ e: • Compromised host res istance ca used by high an"lbient

address these twin concerns under two research elements:

temperatures that trigger deactivation of crop host res istan ce genes. and by hos t ex posure to a grea ter

foods; and IPM systems to reduce inappropriate pesticide applications.

th e management of mycotox in co ntamination in staple

number of pest lifecycles per growing seaso n • Loss of crop wild relatives could red uce the scope for

Mycotoxins produced by fungi that co ntaminate

staple foods during pre-harvest. post-harvest and storage. Recurrence of drought. further induced by climate change.

replenishm ent of new ge nes in host crop resistance

breeding programs

might acce ntuate myco toxin problems in agri culture. Mycotox ins deteriorate food quality, pose seri ous ri sks to

• In c reased seasonal c1imatc var iabi li ty and changes in humidity and tempe rature that co uld disrupt e nemy-

health. c.1 use many deaths in Africa and Asia. and arc subject

pest dynamics importa nt for biological contro l

to no n-tariff barriers reducing agriculrural profitabi lity in

• Loss of soil organic matter and in c reased rates of so il eros io n that co uld red uce microbial regulation of

ex po rting co untries. C ontamination remain s a problem due to poor awa re ness amo ng producers, co nsume rs and po licy

makers. Understanding the problem is essential in order

so ilbo rne pests and diseases

• Reduced effectiveness of pesticides. such as through

to manage crops for reduced contamination levels. which

carbon dioxide-ind uced st imulation of weed root

arc inAuenced by interac tion s between host plant. fungal po pulat io n. enviro nment and farmi ng practices. In the most vulnerable countries selected in Africa,

biomass which reduces herbicide efficacy. -n,e partners of the SP- IPM aim to address the effects of climate change firstly by identifying and understanding

As ia and L1tin America , the initial research emphas is w ill be o n d isseminat ing technologies rhat are already ava il ab le to

whi ch crop ping systems are the most vulnerab le to increased


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

res idu e levels and the impac ts on functional agrobiodiversiry.

Previous SP-IPM research in WeSt Africa has highlighted the fact that pesti cide ty pes, vo lum es and application frequencies in vegetable pose a grave concern. Inre r- institutio nal collaboration is needed to assess similar basel in e dam in agroecosystems targe ted fo r developme nr, partic ularly in relation ro th e promotio n of high-value cro ps. At present, studies o n pes ti cid e fates in targe r agroecosystems are scanL Comprehensive information on use patte rn s an d pesticide fates are needed in o rd e r to advise farmers, governm en ts, the plant protection industry and the public on existing in appropriate pesticid e reg imes whic h undermine health . environm ent and trad e. Farmer participatory research combines farmers' and researchers '

Improved agroecosyslem resilience


risk managemenr, for example, through si mple aAaroxin

1l1e inte nsifica tion of agricultural produccio n in response to in creased population growrh and marke ts has aggravated th e decline in soil fertility and has often resulted in inc reased incidence o f pes ts and diseases. 1l1e role of man y species in the maintenance of natural 'life-s upport' syste ms or in

mon ito ring techniques, breeding less-susceptible cuirivars,

causing production losses is poorly understood and probably

insec, pes, management and post-harvest handling. Finally

under-es tim ated. D epending on rh e species presen t, so il

risk and impact assessment will be deve loped , prioritizing mrger niches of greatest impact o n local. reg ion al and

biota (es pecially arthropods. plant parasitic nematodes and microbes o r pathogens) may be pestS or may be beneficial.

i nrernarional [fade.

providing for example. nitrogen fi xation, Ilutrient recycl ing,

farm and trade syste ms. This component will foclI s on risk com muni(';1r ion [Q all participants in the food chain ; and

In a longer term co mponent, strategic resea rch

and biological control of arthropod peSts and diseases. A better underStanding is needed of the role of

will augment ex istin g mycoroxin manageme nt roo Is. Using existing and rapidly advancing knowledge of host genomes (maize, whea t and gro undnur) and the gcnomes of

biodive rsity in sustainabl e agriculture. Knowl edge is required on how to measure and manage so il components

Aspergillus fin"US and other fungal producers of mycotox ins.

and processes in order to develop sound I PM approaches

new opportunities arise for in corporarion of res istance ge nes inm plants to reduce fungal co lo nization and mxin productio n, and (Q in crease [Qxin degradation. Ultimately

that mitiga te pes t damage. 'Functional agrobiodiversiry' is rooted in rhe conventional inruition [hat th e sustainabili ry of production system s depends 011 retainin g some level of

this element of [he SP- I PM resea rch Strategy will result in

biological di versity.

a significanr reducti o n of myco[Qx ins in staple cereals and legumes, in c reased va lu e of products in m:ukets. significa nt reductions in heaJrh risks to consume rs, and in c reased

1l1e in cautious inte nsification of agriculrure w hich threa te ns narural lifc-s upporr system s will disrupr sustaina ble crop produc don . 1l1e re is a need, therefore. ro unde rstand how ro manage so il biora and above-ground pests and diseases in ways that conserve th e delicate eco logica l balances th at underpin agriculture and, at th e same rime.

national food safety resea rch capacity. The second elemen t of food safety research focuses on the reduction of pesticide applications. reducing both food


IPM Research Brief No.5

enabled to learn IPM concepts, acquire labo rato ry and field skills, and develop new research pro posals on themes

pro tect human and agroecosysrcm hca irh . Resea rch in [h is area will help address cOl11l11uniry needs fo r info rmati o n and appro priate roo Is to manage ecosys tem services, such as bioco nrro l techniques. pollinati o n processes and so il marrer

appro priate ro th eir ho me centers.


In conclusion

-Il,is research will build on prior CG IAR in vestmenrs in this area, including rhe development o f world class biodi versity resource centers (reference co llectio ns), biodi ve rsity mapping and landscape projects, development of indicators of soil agroecosysrcm health , and conserva tion

l1,e MDGs set our a framework for development, providing a focus through whi ch resea rch and development o rga nizatio ns ca n direcr and coordinate rhei r operatio ns. Because the

vast majori ty of undernourished people, targered by MDG I , li ve in ru ral areas and are engaged in fa rming or natural resource use. agricultural and narural resource research o rganiza rio ns have an essential role to play in mee ting rhe M D Gs. Key amo ng th ese o rgan iza ti o ns arc (h e research centers of th e

resea rch (invo lving geographical info rm atio n systems o r

G IS rools). The challenge is to develop strategies to manage hea lthy soils and minimi ze rhe adverse effect o f pest species.

To this end , the SI'- IPM proposes to train a large ,"1d re of young plant production and plant protection

CG IAR and the ir partners among NARS and adva nced research ins[jturio ns. Recognizing rhe ir centra] ro le in rhis cam-

scientists in each a fits o perati o nal zones in [he developing wo rld . 1l1e aim is to suppo rr inn ovative, problem -solvin g resea rch by young scientists with a foclls o n li ving so ils and

paign, the CG IAR System Priorities explicitly aim to ensure that publicly funded research by CG IAR centers contribu tes

rhe functioning of biological di ve rsity for healthy crops.

Diverse I PM research, development and ca pacitybui ldin g acti vities carr ied our by members of the Sl'-IPM

ro mccring rhe M D Gs over rhe nex t seven yea rs.

Scientists currenrly tend to specialize by discip lin e. such as ag rono my, soils o r pesr management, and th erefore ofren lack

and the ir partners are inregral ro th e achievement o f rhe

the tools, models and ex perience to develop technologies for

develo ped to inrroduce scienrists ro resea rch o n eco logical

CG IAR System Priorities and through lhose, the M DGs. Th ro ugh a clear stra tegy focused o n three key IPM areas - climate change, food safety and agroecosystem resilience - the SP- IPM will make an essential contributio n to the

bases and processes of II'M . G roups of scientists will be

achievement o f th ese prioriries.

pesf management in a ho listic manne r. Through inter-center

collaboration, a rigorous, problem-solving program will be


IPM Contributions to the CGIAR System Priorities and the MDGs

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Front cover (left to right): Top row: nematode-damLlged c.1rrots (D .Coyne/IITA ); water hyacinths (F. BeedJIITA ) Middle row: push- pull tcc/mology being used in a maize field (5. Parrott/Green Ink);

slv.lrmirlg locusts (0 ;stockphoto.coml ruvanboshoft) Bottom row; nemMode-damagcd plLlintain plants (D. Coynell/TA ); farmer participatory research (SP-IPM); fie ld visit by M oroccan Minister of Agriculture (/nstitllt national de Iii recherche agronomique (lNRA ), M orocco)

PhOloS: page 7: H.C. Sharma/ICRISAT; page 8: Š nboshoff; page 9: D. Coyne/IITA; page 10, left: C. AddalllTA ; page 10 righl : K. HeIlIllTA; pa ge 18: FAD 22985/1. Baldieri; page 19: F. Bee(VII TA; page 20: ClP; page 21: INRA; page 22: S. l'a rrOIt/G reen Ink; page 26: SP-IPM . Writing, editing, design an d layout: Green Ink Ltd, UK ( Printing: Pragali Offset Pvl. Ltd, India (www.praga ti .com)

SP-IPM members African Insect Science for Food and Health (IClPE) PO Box 30772, Nairobi, Ke nya The World Vegetable Center (AVRDC) PO Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan 741, Taiwan Centro Inlernacio nal de Agricultura Tropical (ClAn AA. 6713, Cali, Colombia Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CiMMYT) Apartado Postal 6·641, 06600 Mexico D.F., Mexico Centro Internacional de la Papa (C IP) Apartado 1558, lima 100, Peru International Center for Agricultural Researc h in the Dry Areas (lCARDA) PO Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria International Crops Research Institute for the Semi·Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Patanche ru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India Internatio nal Institute ofTropical Agriculture (IITA) PMB 5320, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Bioversity International Via dei Tre De nari, 472a, 00057 Maccarese (Rome), Italy International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) PO Box 933, Manila, The Philippines The Africa Rice Center (WARDA) 01 BP 255 1, Bouake, Cote d' ivoire The World Ba nk, Agriculture and Rural Development, Environmentally and Socia lly Sustainable Development Network 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA CABI Bioscience Silwood Park, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, Berkshire, Sl5 7TA, UK FAO Global IPM Facility Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy BioNET INTERNATIONAL Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey, TW20 9TY, UK International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS) NSF Center for IPM, Box 7553, NCSU, Raleigh, NC 27695·7552, USA Pesticide Action Network (PAN)·Africa BP 15938, Daka r·Fann, Senegal CropLife International Avenue louise 143, B· l050 Brussels, Belgium SP·IPM Secretariat International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Ibadan, Nigeria International mailing address: c/o liTA limited Carolyn House 26 Dingwall Road Croydon, CR9 3EE, UK

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