PRESIDENTIAL INITIATIVES ON CASSAVA IN AFRICA: Case studies of Ghana and Nigeria

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PRESIDENTIAL INITIATIVES ON CASSAVA IN AFRICA: Case studies of Ghana and Nigeria

Diakalia 5anogo and Olanrewaju Adetunji April , 2008

NEPAD Pan African Cassava Initiative (NPACI)

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PRESIDENTIAL INITIATIVES ON CASSAVA IN AFRICA: Case studies of Ghalla alld Nigeria

By

Diakalia Sanogo and Olanrewaju Adetunji

NEPAD Pan African Cassava Initiative (NPACI)

April,2008

Corresponding Author Email: dsanogo@cgiar.org ; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture ; PMB 5320 , Ibadan, Nigeria

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ACRONYMS ACFA

Ayensu Cassava Farmers ' Association

ADPs

Agricultural Development Projects

ASCO

Ayensu Starch Company Ltd.

BDS

Business Development Services

BFICN

Bureau of Food Imports Control of Nigeria

CIMIS

Company Management Information System

CAADP

Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Program

CBN

Central Bank of Nigeria

CEAN

Cassava Exporters Association of Nigeria

CEDP

Cassava Enterprise Development Project

CMD

Cassava Mosaic Disease

COVE

Corporate Village Enterprise

CRI

Crops Research Institute

CSDTF

Cassava Sub-Sector Development Task Force

EEG

Export Expansion Grant

FAO

United Nations Funds for Food and Agriculture

FGD

Focus Group Discussion

FGN

Federal Government of Nigeria

FMAWR

Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources

FMCI

Federal Ministry of Commerce And Industries

HQCF

High Quality Cassava Flour

TEC

Information Education Campaign

!FAD

International Funds for Agriculture Development

!ITA

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture

MIS

Market Information System

MOFA

Ministry of Food and Agriculture

NAFDAC

National Agency for Food, Drugs, Administration and Control

NBS

National Bureau of Statistics

NCAM

National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization

NEPAD

New Partnership for Africa's Development

NEPC

Nigeria Export Promotion Council

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NlPC

Nigeria Investment Promotion Council

NPACI

Nepad Pan African Cassava Initiative

NRCRJ

National Root Crops Research Institute

NSPRJ

Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute

PI

Presidential Initiative

PIC

Presidential Initiative on Cassava

PSI

Presidential Special Initiative

RMRDC

Raw Materials Research and Development Council

RTEP

Root and Tuber Expansion Project

RTfMP

Roots and Tubers Improvement and Marketing Program

RTIMP

Tubers Improvement and Marketing Project

RTlP

Roots and Tuber Improvement Project

SON

Standards Organization Of Nigeria

SSA

Sub-Saharan Africa

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Foreword

The NEPAD Pan African Cassava Initiative (NPACI) has adopted the theme "CASSAVA - A Poverty Fighter in Africa" because the goal of the initiative is to tap on the enormous potential of cassava to contribute to food security and income generation in Africa. NP ACI approach is based on a transformation strategy that focuses on developing three interrelated levels comprised of: market research and development, technology generation and development, and competitive production using farmers' collective action.

NPACI philosophy is that production of cassava will be viable and sustainable if it is driven by market forces . Production, technology generation and development are expected to simultaneously respond to the market pull. This will motivate the private sector, regional and national programs to develop viable and sustainable production and technology interventions within various cassava value chains (e.g. starch, animal feed, food , confectionery, ethanol, etc) that address the demands of the markets suitable for their particular circumstances.

NPACI strategy responds to NEPAD Comprehensive African Agricultural Development (CAADP) pillars and will make a significant contribution to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals of alleviating hunger and poverty by 2015.

NPACI is not an implementing organization, rather a facilitating and catalyzing body in support of viable and sustainable national, regional and continental interventions.

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The change strategy adopted is an integrated business approach to providing technology to growers and linking farmers to markets with sustained support from the government and private sector. Increasing the commercialization of cassava is one of the central objectives of the Pan African Cassava Initiative. In this regard, NPACI is delighted to see some African Heads of State launch " Presidential Initiative on Cassava" (PIC).

The presidential initiatives will

provide an enabling environment for cassava sub-sector development as the government political support will promote ownership by various national and regional stakeholders. NPACI Steering COlllillittee (SC) is therefore delighted to have this booklet on PIC published in English, French and Portuguese to the community and policy makers. NPACI SC would like to thank liT A for spollsoring this study and allowing its scientist Dr Diakalia Sanogo and Olanrewaju Adetunji to carry out the study.

The fmancial support from Kellogg Foundation, llT A and I FAD to SUppOlt NPACI Coordination and steering conunittee meetings is much appreciated.

Since its inception and launching in 2004, eminent persons and scientists have contributed to NPACI development, such effort is conunendable and profound gratitude is extended to all of them. Dr. Nzola M Mahungu (NPACI Coordinator) Prof. Richard Mkandawire (NEPAD Secretariat. Agricllltllre) Mr. Boma S. Anga (Chair. NPACI SC)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This report was made possible wit h financial support from Research-forDeve lopment (R4D) activities of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). The authors would like to express their gratitude to Dr. Paula Bramel (Deputy Director General R4D of liT A) for accepting to fund the study. We thank Dr. Nzola Mahungu (IITA-Malawi) for providing necessary background information on the work plan of NEPAD Pan African Cassava Initiative (NPACI) and the expectations from this study. We also wish to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. Boma Anga fro m NPACl's Secretariat in Abuja, Nigeria for providing useful background information on the stakeholders directly invo lved in the implementation of the Pi s and for arranging appointments with key actors of the Presidentia l initiative on cassava (PIC) in Nigeria. We thank Dr. A. Dixo n, G. Tarawali and R. Okechukwu (IITA-lbadan) and the field sta ff of CEDP-IJTA and ADPs in the study States in N igeria for their assistance

in

organizing data

co llection

from

the

primary

PI C

implementing actors. Lastly, we extend our si ncere gratitude to the staff of the PSI on cassava in Ghana, the farmers and farmers' assoc iat ions, the processors and their assoc iations and to all ot her stakeho lders of the Pis fro m the public and private sectors in Ghana and Nigeria (l isted in Appendix) for their patience in providing the required information used to co mplete the study.

DISCLAIMER

The views presented in this book are those a/ the authors and do not necessarily represent oJJicial positions o/NEPAD. IlTA and NPA CI.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The development of the cassava sub-sector is emerging as a key component of a regional strong and diversified economy able to generate employment, contribute to food security and sustain incomes for populations of SSA. To achieve these potentials, however, it is necessary to put in place mechanisms and policies that ensure guaranteed regular supp ly of good quality cassava. To this end , a number of SSA countries, among which, Ghana, Nigeria in West Africa have launched Presidential Initiatives (PIs) on cassava as part of elaborate economic reform programs aimcd at promoting the diversification of foreign exchange earnings base for these countries.

The PI policies were

expected to encourage public-private sector partnership by creating, through well-designed intervention mechanisms, a practical enabling environment for identified competitively advantageous industries with potential for fast growth and demand from export markets.

The Presidential Special Initiative (PS I) on cassava of Ghana began in 2001 , as part of the government's policy of transforming cassava production from its subsistence nature into a commercially viable agribusiness that can generate substantial revenue locally and through exports. The major specific objectives of the PSI on cassava were to: (I) transform the cassava industry into a major growth pole; (2) establish 10 cassava starch processing plants; and (3) generate annual export revenues of 100 million US dollars by the end of 2006. In addition the initiative ambitioned to ensure that 50% of farmers participating in the project are women. Although the government of Ghana is the main sponsor of the PSI , the project was planned to be based on a farmer-ownership scheme called the Corporate Village Enterprise (COVE). The COVE model seeks to bring nlral communities into mainstream economic activity by establishing large-scale export-oriented enterprises, which will be owned by farmers VI

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themselves but managed by professionals with industrial experience who will be engaged on performance contracts. In line with this policy, farmers were encouraged to form cooperatives.

The Nigeria Presidential initiative on cassava (PIC) launched in July 2002, aims specifically to: (I) enhance the productivity and production of cassava by increasing area cultivated to 5 million ha with the hope of harvesting 150 million tons of fresh cassava tubers annually; (2) produce 37.5 million tons of processed cassava products for local and export markets; (3) organize the export of cassava and processed-cassava products as a revenue-generating project; and generate about US$5 billion annually from exporting value-added cassava products. The PIC was planned to be implemented during the period 20022007.

These Presidential Initiatives (PIs) on cassava had generated great excitement, creating new hopes and greater expectations of relevant stakeholders. However, various reports (mainly in the news media in Nigeria) and an impact study published in Ghana (Tonah, 2006) have been highlighting difficulties in their implementation. For example, processors failed to meet the deadline of January 2005 related to govenunent policy on 10% cassava flour inclusion in bread making in Nigeria. In Ghana, Tonah (2006) found that farmers were unhappy with low prices paid by the processors who, in tum, complain about insufficient supply of raw cassava roots.

The perceived challenge at present is that ongoing efforts are not adequate and that cassava sub-sector needs a further push for it to playa front role in the agricultural and economic development of SSA countries. To this end, African leaders made a call, through the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), to accord priority to cassava in the regional agricultural development

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strategies. This led to the creation of the NEPAD Pan African Cassava Initiative (NPACI), which is a strategic institutional arrangement that is aimed at linking national agricultural research and extension systems to regional initiatives on cassava in order to ensure food security and income generation in Africa.

The present study was commissioned by NPACI to carry out a situation analysis of the PIs in Ghana and Nigeria and identify key success factors and lessons learned to examine the applicability of these PI s' models in other countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This section summarizes the major findings of the study.

[n general, the PIs have helped create awareness about the multiple possible uses of cassava to produce value added products such as flour, starch, cassava chips, glucose syrup, animal feed , ethanol, and composite (cassava- wheat) baking flour. Both the public and private sectors have bee n giving increasing attention to the cassava sub-sector. In Nigeria the PIC has stimulated an increase in cassava production and processing by both microprocesso rs and medium scale processo rs. The Ayensu cassava farmers' association (ACFA) and the Densu cassava producers association are two success stories of the PSI in Ghana. These were two dynamic producers ' organizations that contributed significantly to early successes of Ayensu Starch Company Ltd (ASCO). Overall in Ghana and Nigeria, PI-related government's programs aim at improving cassava productivity and production while private-sector initiative is expanding demand sources for cassava and cassava processed products. These strategies can complement each other if the identified bottlenecks are adequately addressed in the specific intervention areas that follow below.

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Implementation strategy of the PIs Nigeria's Presidential initiative on cassava appears to be well focused as its areas of intervention (development of cassava production and processing, expansion of cassava and cassava processed products marketing) were adequately integrated to the cassava value chain development activities of the federal ministries (Agriculture and water reso urces, and Commerce and industries) leading the implementation of the initiative. However, despite the alleged good collaboration between the two ministries, it appears that the implementation of the PIC suffered the lack ofa centra l coordination that would have contributed to avoid or quickly overcome some of the implementation bottlenecks.

In Ghana, the corporate village enterprises (COVE) model adopted by the PSI

was a new concept that most people did not understand. Furthermore, many stakeho lders think that the program set up root in the civil service bureaucracy. These are major bottlenecks to successful implementation of the PSI on cassava.

To achieve the set objectives of the Pis in both countries and possibly in other African countries, we think that a well structured Secretariat of the initiative would provide the kind of stronger and unique institutional support needed to ensure proper implementation and management of such a program. This Secretariat sbould be placed under the administrative authority of the Office of the President. The decisions of the Secretariat would be operationalized by a multi-disciplinary cassava sub-sector development task force (CS DTF). The task force members should come from the relevant line ministries (e.g. Federal Ministry of Food and Water resources in Nigeria, Ministry of Trade and Industry in Ghana). However, the task force shou ld operate under the direct authority of the PI's Secretariat, which should be granted adequate autonomous

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management authority (vis-a-vis the involved line ministries) to avoid unnecessary bureaucratic and political obstacles.

MOllitorillg alld Evaluatioll (M&E)

There were no structured M&E activities during the implementation of the PIs in both countries. In fact, there is practically no data collected by relevant agencies, particularly on cassava processing and marketing. Hence, the stakeholders, especia lly the Pis ' Secretariats were missing a valuable information generating tool that would have enable them to monitor tbe implementation of the initiative, assess progress made and take collective decisio ns and actions to ensure that their respective program were on the right course. Furthermore because there was no systematic M&E, it is now very difficult to eva luate the full progress and impact of the targets and objectives set by the two Pis.

It is only in Nigeria that the Cassava Enterprise Development Project (CEDP) is regularly publishing reliable progress measures of its achievements in the project quarterly and annual reports. This project that was established to support the PIC has identified outcome and impact indicators, based on the specific target objectives, which are being used to collect valuable progress measures of its activities.

It is important to underline that M&E is essential for adequate management of

the PIs like any other project. Hence, efforts are needed to institutionalize M&E, which should be participatory and implemented through learning-by-do ing and feedback mechanisms. All key stakeholders, including researchers, farmers, traders, processors, and policy makers will be involved in M&E to build ownership,

as well

as

individual and collective responsibility.

Their

involvement will help ensure that their perceptions of progress are taken into

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consideration. It is important that all actors be involved in the identification of relevant outcome and impact indicators to monitor the progress towards the program objectives, and evaluate the achievements of the initiatives.

Despite the dearth of information on progress towards achieving the set targets of the Pis, the analysis of data collected from various actors involved in the implementation of the programs generated valuable information and lessons learned that could help to address some difficulties arising from the implementation of the existing Pis as well as to advise countries that are interested in having a similar program.

Cassava productioll

Available data showed that the initial stakeholders' enthusiasm about the PIC in Nigeria contributed to a significant IDcrease in cassava production. But, stakeholders' expectations have now dropped considerably because of the various implementation constraints (e.g. low availability of improved clean cassava planting materials, processing and marketing constraints, poor funding of the initiative). Funding problem was particularly found to be very critical to the successful implementation of the PIs in both countries. This situation has affected the initial positive production trend experienced during the first years

(2001 - 2006) of implementation of the Pis. Efforts are needed for increased local producers' access to appropriate credit sources such as micro-credit schemes.

One of the lessons learned in Nigeria and confirmed in Ghana is that farn1er friendly planting materials distribution is a key factor to the successful dissemination of improved cassava varieties and to increase productivity and production. Therefore, it appears that an initial substantial investment by the government is called for, especially for the production and dissemination of

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sufficient supply of improved planting materials. To this end, the PIs should continue promoting business opportunities in the production and marketing of cassava planting materials to ensure a sustainable raw materials (fresh cassava roots) supply to processors.

With regard to women participation to the Pis, there may be a need for land tenure system reform in some cassava producing communities to help improve women ' s access to land and their involvement in the activities of the Pis in the area of cassava production and processing.

Cassava IItilizatioll alld processillg The Pis have stimulated an expansion in cassava production and this call for an expan sion of utilization, processing and commercialization to provide a range of food , feed and other industrial products from cassava to ensure that the objectives of the initiative are fully achieved . To this end, the following actio ns, among others, are necessary in Nigeria: (i) increased research-For-development efforts and investment in the area of cassava utilization and processing are required ; (ii) initial substantial investment by the government for the establishment of farm gate processing centers ; (iii) joint partnership between Nigerian entrepreneurs and foreign investors for a successful provision and operation of adapted and efficient processing units; (iv) formal legislation required to facilitate the compliance of relevant implementing actors for a successful achievement of some of the objectives of the PIC, such as the inclusion of cassava in baking flour.

In Ghana, future plans by public-private partnerships to establish cassava starch factories should consider the availability of the primary raw materials (fresh cassava roots) as an essential factor in the choice of the sites of the factories . Relevant research organizations should be fi.llly involved and properly funded to

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ensure that new high yielding cassava varieties with desire starch content are developed and disseminated to ensure reliable raw materials supply to cassava starch processing factories. In addition the PSI's Secretariat and its partners will need to develop cost effective and appropriate transport arrangements to preserve the quality of both the raw materials and fmal processed-cassava products.

One of the critical issues facing the PSI in Ghana is tbat the management of ASCO 's farm operations and the factory running as a single economic entity bas proven to be very challenging.

Many actors of the PSI agree that the

management of ASCO's farm operations needs to be separated from the ma~agement

of the factory operations. Furtbermore, farmers should be duly

represented in the company's governing board and empowered to guarantee that legitimate interests of farmers' groups are taken into account for making any fmal decision related to the management of both operational components (farms and factory) of the company. A Company Management Information System

(CIMIS) should be developed to help create a physical, technical, institutional and human environment conducive to the efficient operation ofthe factory.

Ghana appears to have acquired international comparative advantage in the production and market supply of high quality, food grade cassava starch through the COVE approach. Nonetheless, the PSI on cassava should seriously reconsider the possibility of implementing the second option that was identified by the Presidential think tank as an alternative strategy of addressing the vital rural and urban poverty reduction mission. This alternative was based on a mobilization of small scale producers to strengthen their capacity for producing fresh cassava and add value to it. Such model could be used to mcrease econODllc production,

opportunities marketing

through and

sustainable

agro-enterprise

and

competitive

development

In

cassava selected

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communities. There would hence be an expansion of postharvest processing and marketing outlets for cassava products, which could in medium term lead to the development of viable micro-, small, and medium enterprises. This is exactly the model being used by llTA-CEDP in support of the implementation of the PIC in Nigeria.

Cassava marketillg

The Pis on cassava were instrumental in uncovering the pntential export market for products from cassava. However, fmdings of the study show that there are several constraints to both domestic and export marketing of fresh cassava and cassava processed products that need to be sn lved. First of all, there is a pressing need for a well-designed market information system (MIS) tn improve the dissemination of market information to cassava farmers, marketers, and end users in each country. At the regional level, trade and economic cooperation between the producing and processing countries in sub-Saharan Africa must be encouraged to reduce the negative effects of ineffective trade laws on the development of the cassava sub-sector.

Elltreprelleurship motivatioll

Some government stakeholders perceive that the majority of entrepreneurs m Nigeria had a misconception of the PIC, as they were under the illusion that govenunent was to buy back what they produce (tubers, processed products). There is a sense that most of these " businessmen" have yet to develop a businesslike attitude to enterprise. This could be facilitated by providing entrepreneurship development training needs to small and medium scale producers, processors and marketers. Strategies should be developed to encourage specialization of entrepreneurs in specific aspect of the cassava subsector along the value chain and operate either as producer, processor or bulker/marketers.

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communities. There would hence be an expansion of postharvest processing and marketing outlets for cassava products, which could in medium term lead to the development of viable micro-, small, and medium enterprises. This is exactly the model being used by liT A-CEDP in support of the implementation of the PIC in Nigeria.

Cassava marketillg

The PIs on cassava were instrumental in uncovering the potential export market for products from cassava. However, findings of the study show that there are several constraints to both domestic and export marketing of fresh cassava and cassava processed products that need to be so lved. First of all, there is a pressing need for a well-designed market information system (MIS) to improve the dissemination of market information to cassava farmers, marketers, and end users in each country. At the regional level, trade and economic cooperation between the producing and processing countries in sub-Saharan Africa must be encouraged to reduce the negative effects of ineffective trade laws on the development of the cassava sub-sector.

Elltreprelleurship motivatioll

Some government stakeholders perceive that the majority of entrepreneurs

In

Nigeria had a misconception of the PIC, as they were under the illusion that government was to buy back what they produce (tubers, processed products). There is a sense that most of these " businessmen" have yet to develop a businesslike attitude to enterprise. This could be facilitated by providing entrepreneurship development training needs to small and medium scale producers, processors and marketers. Strategies should be developed to encourage specialization of entrepreneurs in specific aspect of the cassava subsector along the value chain and operate either as producer, processor or bulker/marketers.

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Sustail/ability of tire PIs The sustainabi lity of the PIs on cassava depends strongly on the effectiveness of the public-private partnership advocated by these initiatives.

However, it

appears that the majority of the implementing actors are relying essentially on govemment intervention. It is advisab le that government provide an initial adequate funding to SUpp0l1 all activities considered critica l for managing the implementation of the program. After that the primary ro le of the govemment shou ld be to facilitate and promote private sector led strategies to ensure the sustainability of the initiative. To this end, all stakeho lders must commit to the initiative and be involved in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the program. Access to micro-credit needs to be improved for the prinlary actors (e.g. cassava growers, cassava processors. cassava traders, equ ipment fabricators). It is very important that the M&E component of the initiative be reviewed, adapted, and institutionalized.

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Introduction

Cassava has been a strong growth engine for the rural economy in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the cassava belt of the world. Its contribution to the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GOP) is increasing rapidly in most countries of West and Central Africa (WCA) (e.g. 46% in Ghana), which reflects its growing importance as a cash crop and urban food staple (I FAD, 2006). Trends in cassava production in SSA indicate a steady growth over time. For example, over the period 1961-2005 the cumulated annual growth rate of cassava production was 3.85% in Western Africa and 2.60% in Central Africa (IFAD, 2006). In 1998. SSA produced 90 million metric tons, which was over half of the total world production (Johnson et aI. , 2003). In 2004, production of fresh cassava roots amounted to 56 million tons in Western Africa and 28 million tons in Central Africa (IF AD, 2006).

However, the sub-sector of the traditional cassava food products still dominates distribution channels of cassava products. This sub-sector currently provides livelihoods to more than 30 millions processors (often poor rural and women), as well as many equipment manufacturers, wholesale and retail traders, and transporters. In addition, small scale cassava processing has gradually become the main source of non-farm rural employment in many countries. Cassava cultivation is still expanding further from coastal areas to the dry savanna as farmers strive to diversify farm

income generating opportunities. The

introduction of high yielding and disease tolerant varieties and mechanization of certain processing stages has contributed to this expansive trend (IFAD 2006).

Nigeria is the world's largest producer of cassava (Knipscheer et aI., 2007), and its production is concentrated in the hands of smallholders fanners located primarily in the south and central regions of the country (Ezedinma et aI. ,

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2007). In 2005, Nigeria cultivated 3.782 million ha and harvested 41.565 million tons of fresh cassava roots. Ghana is the second largest producer of cassava of Western Africa with about 750,000 ha of harvested area for 9.567 million tons of fresh cassava roots (FAO, 2007). Cassava plays a number of important functions in Nigeria's economic development. Amongst these, cassava is used as rural food staple, urban food staple, cash crop, industrial raw material and livestock feed (Iweke et aI. , 2002; lIT A, 2006; Onabolu and Bokanga, 1998; Johnson et aI. , 2003).

The development of the cassava sub-sector is emerging as a key component of a regional strong and diversified economy able to generate employment, contribute to food security and sustain incomes for populations of SSA, given: (i) the importance of cassava in terms of household food security in rural areas, especially for the rural poor; (ii) the gender dimension of cassava production which sees women taking a leading role in processing and marketing activities; (iii) the strategic dimension of cassava for the future generations of the region - with increasing urbanization rates, cassava products can offer a response to the growing demand for food products which might otherwise require an increase in food imports- ; and (iv) the possibilities offered by the regional and international export markets and the emerging market for industrially processed cassava products. To tap these potentials, however, mechanisms and policies need to be put in place to ensure guaranteed regular supply of good quality cassava. Consequently, since the early 2000s, a number of SSA countries, among which, Ghana, Nigeria in West Africa have launched Presidential Initiatives (PIs) on cassava as part of elaborate economic reform programs aimed at promoting the diversification of foreign exchange earnings base for these countries. The PI policies were expected to encourage public-private sector partnership by

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creating, through well-designed intervention mechanisms, a practical enabling environment for identified competitively advantageous industries with potential for fast growth and demand from export markets. The Pis on cassava were intended to stimulate enterprise creation, productivity and jobs, both in agriculture and in processing.

Presidential initiatives on cassava in Ghana and Nigeria In January 200 I, the Presidential Special Initiative (PSI) on cassava was established in Ghana as part of the govemment's policy of transforming cassava production from its subsistence nature into a commercially viable agribusiness that can generate substantial revenue locally and through exports, while at the same time addressing rural poverty by bringing rural communities into mainstream economic activity (Tonah, 2006).

The specific objectives of the PSI on cassava to be achieved by 2006 were to : (i).

Transform the cassava industry into a major growth pole by the end of2006

(ii).

Establish 10 cassava starch processing plants by the end of2006

(iii).

Generate annual export revenues of 100 million US dollars by the end of2006

(iv).

Ensure that 50% of farmers participating in the project are women.

Although the government of Ghana is the main sponsor of the PSI, the project was planned to be based on a farmer-ownership scheme called the Corporate Village Enterprise (COVE). The COVE model seeks to bring rural communities into mainstream economic activity by establishing large-scale export-oriented enterprises, which will be owned by farmers themselves but managed by professionals with industrial experience who will be engaged on performance

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contract s. [n line with this po licy, fanners were encouraged to fo rm cooperatives. Members o f the coo peratives were expected to grow the crop on their individually-owned farms and then be ass isted by the government to collective ly own a starch process ing plant established by the government to process cassava into starch (Tonah, 2006).

The Go vernment and it s deve lo pment partners were expected to complement the effo rts o f the pri vate entrepreneurs by suppo rting the project w ith infrastructural fac ilities namely (c.g .. co nstruction and upgrading of access roads, pro vis io n of co nUllUnicatio n fac il it ies. adequate power to the process ing plant , and potable water to the factory as we ll as the surro unding co mmunities).

Ad vocacy structures were a lso set using project fi e ld sta ff w ith ass istance o f the Ministry of Food and Agriculture to in form the fa rmers abo ut the impe nding project o n cassava and the ro les expected of farm ers and the governmcnt in the project. They a lso had to co nvince rura l fa rmers about the benefit s of cassava productio n and readiness of produce market.

A year and half after the launching of the PS I o n cassava in G hana, the President o f Nigeri a anno unced in Jul y 2002 an initi ative w hich aims to create awareness amo ng fa rmers about the opportu nit ies that ex ist in the cassava markets and expa nd cassava utilization and primary processing. To this end, actio ns w ill be taken to increased producti vity and expand annual cassava productio n to achieve g lo bal competitive ness. w hile integrating the rura l poo r (especia ll y wo men and youths) into the ma in stream o f Nigeria's natio na l econo my. Furthermo re, new market opportunities wi ll be ident ified and deve lo ped to stimulate increased private sector in vestme nt in the estab lishment o f expo rt o riented cassava industries (FGN O ffi ce o f Public Co mmuni cations, 2005 ; Knipsc heer et aI. , 2007; Ezedinma et aI. , 2007).

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The spec ific objectives of the Nigerian presidential initiative on cassava (PIC) set to be achieved by 2007 include: (i).

Enhance the productivity and production of cassava by increasing area culti vated to 5 million ha with the hope of harvesting 150 million tons of fresh cassava tuber annually

(ii).

Produce 37.5 million tons of processed cassava products (i.e. garri , pellets, chips, starch, and ethanol) for local and expol1 markets

(iii).

Organize the export of cassava and processed-cassava products as a revenue-generating project

(iv).

Earn about US$5 billion annually from exporting va lue-added cassava products.

To achieve these objectives, there was a need to develop the domestic market and create nat ional po lic ies in order to promote cassava development in the country.

NEPAD Pan African Cassava Initiative (NPACI)

The Pis on cassava had generated great excitement, creating new hopes and greater expectations of relevant stakeho lders. However, various reports (ma inl y in the news media in Nigeria) and an impact study published in G hana (Tonah, 2006) have been highlighting difficulties in their implementation. For examp le, processors failed to meet the deadline of January 2005 related to government policy on 10% cassava flour inclusion in bread making in Nigeria. In Ghana, Tonah (2006) found tbat farmers were unhappy with low prices paid by the processors who, in turn, complain about insufficient supply of raw cassava roots.

-,.-=

~!...

,.--r

-

-

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nTA

5


The perceived challenge at present is that ongoing efforts are not adequate and that cassava sub-sector needs a further push for it to playa front role in the agricultural and economic development of SSA countries. To this end, African leaders made a call, through the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) , to accord priority to cassava in the regional agricultural development strategies.

The NEPAD Pan African Cassava Initiative (NPACI) was created as a means to tap on the enormous potential of cassava for food security and income generation in Africa.

NPACI is a strategic institutional arrangement that is

aimed at linking national agricultural research and extension systems to regional initiatives on cassava in order to ensure food security and income generation in Africa. The initiative is in line with the NEPAD Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Program (CAADP), which outlines the main agricultural development pillars.

The specific objectives of NPACI are, among other, to i) accelerate cassava contribution for food, feed and raw material for industry (starch, ethanol etc. ) and income security; ii) promote cassava commercialization and market development; iii) expand local, domestic, regional and international markets for food, feed , starch, ethanol etc. ; and iv) stimulate private sector development to enhance cassava product value and market growth.

To achieve the above objectives, NPACI has designed an activity in its short to medium term work plan (i.e. Activity 3) tbat aimed at assessing the efficiency of various Presidential Initiatives on Cassava (PIC) in place in few countries. Tbe lessons learned from tbese PIs will be used to examine tbeir applicability in

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6


other countries for wider African political and social marketing of NPACI supported interventions at national level.

The objectives of the present study are to: • Carry out a situation analysis of the PIC models using the cases from Nigeria and Ghana, •

Identify key success factors of successful PIC, the lessons learnt and their applicabi lity in other countries.

lake recommendations on communication strategy on policy advocacy and ructure to be used by NPAC I for the promotion (app licabi lity) of successfu l PIC in other African countries depending on cassava production levels and existing national and regional market.

Study methodology and data sources

The study employs both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected in Nigeria through field surveys in three states of the cassava belt (Kwara, Abia and Edo states). These states were se lected from a list of the states that participated in the implementation of the presidential initiative on cassava (P IC) in southwestern and southeastern Nigeria, given their positions that span the cassava belt of the country. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and individual interviews were conducted with potential beneficiaries of the activities of the PIC (cassava growers associations, sma ll and medium sca le cassava processors, bakers, cassava and cassava products traders, fabricators of cassava production and processing equipment, and cassava transporters). The following random samp les were selected: six cassava growers' associations (2 in each state); 15 cassava traders (5 in each state); fifteen cassava processors (5 in each state); six equipment fabricators (2 in each state); six bread bakers (2 in

PARTNERSHIPS IN SUPPORT. 9F",:~DP

UTA

7 NEP A D


each state) and six cassava transporters (2 in each state). Primary data was also collected from the relevant key informants, using structured questionnaires. The stakeholders that were interviewed include the committee members of the presidential initiative on cassava in Nigeria from the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMA WR) and the Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industries (FMC I).

Literature review

0

f relevant publications was used to collect secondary data.

Secondary information was also searched for from relevant government departments that played ancillary roles in the implementation of the PIC, such as the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Nigeria Export Promotion Council (NEPC), Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute (NSPRl), Cassava Exporters Association of Nigeria (CEAN) , Nigeria Investment Promotion Council (NIPC), and the Bureau of food imports control of Nigeria (BFICN).

In Ghana, primary and secondary data were also collected from the Secretariat of the PSI on cassava, the management of the Ayensu Starch Company Limited (ASCO), the Roots and Tubers Improvement and Marketing Program (RTlMP) , Crops Research Institute (CRl), farmer groups (Ayensu Cassava Farmers ' Association - ACFAAssociation

in Awutu-Bawjiase and Densu Cassava Growers

in South Senche), as well as relevant non-governmental

organizations and private sector stakeholders. Data collection in Ghana was conducted, mainly, through key informants ' interviews with relevant public and private sector agencies and focus group discussions with members of the cassava farmers' associations in the regions covered by the PSI on cassava.

Descriptive statistics analysis and qualitative analysis methods were used to assess co Ilected data.

,

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8


Implementation of the Pis on cassava Nigeria Presidential Initiative on Cassava The lack of a commercial approach to cassava production and marketing

111

Nigeria justified a synchronized approach involving several partners in the development of the sub-sector. Hence, the Federal Ministries of Agriculture and Water

Resources, and

Commerce

and

Industries

were

assigned

the

responsibilities to carry out the implementation of the PIC through their relevant departments and so me associated specialized public and private agencies. The various actors involved in the implementation of the initiative are listed below with a brief description of their main roles and responsibilities in the execution of the program.

Government stakeholders

Federal Millistry of Agriculture all(/ Water Resources (FMAWR) The initial design and planning of the stmcture and objectives of the PIC were coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with the Federal Ministry of commerce and Industries. A cassava desk officer is posted at the FMA WR in a role of supervision and coordination of the activities of the departmental agencies involved in the implementation of the program.

Federal Millistry of Commerce alldlndustries (FMCI) In addition to its role in the planning of the PIC, FMC I has been leading the formulation of policies aim at encouraging exportation of cassava products through the export expansion grant (EEG) scheme. EGG is approved to support the development of export crops that have the potential for local value addition.

9


FMC! contributed to tbe implementation of cassava export promotion plan through the following activities: •

Visits abroad (in Africa and Europe) to source for markets for cassava and cassava products produced in Nigeria

Set up of the Cassava Exporters Association of Nigeria (CEAN) to catalyze cassava processing and export awareness,

• Promotion of the establishment of cassava roots bulking centers to further stimulate cassava process ing.

Root alld Tllber Expallsioll Project (RTEP) RTEP, an agency of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, has been contributin g to the mUltiplication of improved cassava planting materials. [t has also helped to carry out adaptive research and extension, and served as reso urcc organization in capacity building of the government's extensio n staff, cassava producers as well as processors, and other actors involved in the execution of the program of the initiative. RTEP has, in co llaboration with the lntcmat ional Lnstitute of Tropical Agriculture (lIT A), ass isted with the establislm1ent of new cassava processing centers and the upgrading of existi ng ones.

Raw Materials Research alld Developmellt COllllcil (RMRDC) This is another agency of the FMA WR in charge of the training of actors of sma ll and medium enterprises (SMEs) in processing cassava into different products (cassava flour, g lucose syrup, and cassava chips). RMRDC has organized workshops and seminars to inform relevant actors of the cassava subsector on new development in the area of cassava process ing.

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10

UTA NEPAD

' -'''--


Nigeriall Stored Products Research Illstitute (NSPRl) NISPRJ was statutorily assigned to oversee the establishment of tbe cassava bulking centres. However, according to the officials from this agency, tbeir organization was neglected and not integrated into the implementation of the PIC because of poor program. Key officials have just managed to participate to exhibitions and to present papers at seminars and workshops organized by the PIC.

Natiollal Celltre for Agricultural Mechallizatioll (NCAM) The mandate of this agency is to promote farm mechanization (commercial cassa va farming) by: •

Encouraging and engaging adaptive and innovative research towards tbe development of indigenous machines for cassava production and processing,

Designing and developing simple and low cost cassava production and processing equipment which can be manufactured with local materials using local skills and facilities,

• Standardizing and certifying (in close collaboration with Standards Organization of Nigeria) cassava farming equipment and engineering practices in use in Nigeria, •

Assisting in the conunercialization of proven machines, tools and techniques used for cassava production and processing

Disseminating information on metbods and programs for achieving speedy cassava agricultural mechanization,

Providing training opportunities through the organization of courses and seminars designed to ensure the best training of manpower for appropriate mechanization of cassava farming,

.---.

-.."

~

.-

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UTA ,

11


•

Promoting cooperation

In

cassava farming mechanization with simi lar

institutions within and outside Nigeria and with international organizat ions connected to agricu ltural mechanization.

Stalldards Orgallizatioll of Nigeria (SON) This agency is responsible for enforcing compliance of flour millers in Nigeria with the PIC policy of inclusion of 10% cassava in bak ing flour.

Celltral Balik of Nigeria (CBN) alld Natiollal Bureau of Statistics (NBS) These two institutions have the mandate to contribute to the implementation of the monitoring and eva luation (M&E) component of the PIC. However, they started collecting data on cassava production and export only in 2006. making it difficult to measure progress made so far in the implementation of the program.

Nigeriall Export Promotioll COIII/cil (NEPC) NEPC is an agency under the authority of the Federal Ministry of commerce and industries with the mandate to co llect and keep records on the exports of agricu ltural commodities and related processed products. However, this agency has yet to deve lop its own database; it has been relying on external databases on cassava export available on the web.

Primary actors of the cassava value chain in Nigeria

Cassava growers' associatiolls Cassava producers' association plays a central role in the implementation design of the PIC. The association is the link institution between farmers and the government stakeholders and other support institutions involved in the implementation of the PIC. Half of the six growers ' associations that

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-

12

I


participated in the study survey were established between 2003 and 2005, as a result of the introduction of the PIC. The major roles that they played include the following: • Provide a platform used to bring technical assistance and training to farmers • Assist members with the marketing of cassava • Facilitate members ' access to micro-credit • Contribute to the distribution of improved cassava varieties to members, and promotion

of

fanner-to-farmer

diffusion

of

improved

production

technologies.

Cassava processors (medium scale alld micro processors) The processors' associations play for their members similar roles that the growers' associations engage in for cassava farmers. A majority of the processors interviewed for this study were established between 2002 and 2006. They are all equipped with modern cassava processing technologies.

The processors are of two types: microprocessors and medium scale processors. Microprocessors in the three study States mostly process cassava into gar,.i and

figu for local consumers and into cassava cakes (semi-processed stage for cassava flour) to supply the medium scale processors. The medium scale processors process cassava into cassava flour to supply the flour millers and into cassava starch to supply the local and international markets.

Equipmellt fabricators The major roles of equipment fabricators in the implementation of PIC include: • Improvement in the design and capacity of some cassava processing machines

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UTA .......

13

._..._N E PAO


Development of manpower in the fabrication of cassava production and processing technologies (non-formal, apprenticeship etc.)

Fabrication of high quality cassava production and process ing technologies

• Provision of opportunity for industrial training of students of tertiary institutions •

Market promotion for cassava production and processing equipments.

Cassava traders Cassava trading is unorganized in a larger part of Nigeria. There are only small scale traders in the business. One major factor that appears to be responsible for this is the fact that cassava is a very highly perishable crop. Unlike yam or other tuber crops, cassava must be processed within a few hours after harvesting to preserve the freshness of the tubers and to ensure that the end product (e.g.

garri, fit/u, and cassava chips) is of good quality. Consequently, the quantity harvested or bought for marketing must not be too excessive as not to be able to sell off within 24 hours. This is compounded by the fact that raw tubers are very bulky to transport and the ratio of raw tubers to end product is quite high in some instances (e.g. 4: I for garri). Most traders of raw tubers only confine themselves to the supply and demand markets in their immediate environment. The traders playa major role in raw cassava marketing under the PIC. The survey results show that very few of them (2 out of the 15 interviewed) also process cassava into fiiftl and garri and market them alongside raw cassava.

Bread bakers The main role of bread bakers was to facilitate the local utilization of cassava in Nigeria through the mandatory incorporation of 10% cassava in the baking flour produced by the flour millers in the country. The survey results reveal that most bakeries are still not using the composite baking flour. Only two (Kaka

,

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UTA

14

_..._.... EPA D


Confectionaries Limited in Umuahia, and Monas bakery and cassava processing center in Arochukwu community, both in Abia state, southeastem Nigeria) of the six baking firms visited were producing and using composite flour that contains 10 and 20% cassava flour, respectively. With the assistance of IlT A, both firms have installed the required machineries that enable them to mill their own composite (wheat-cassava) baking flour.

Cassava trallsporters Transporters are playing a critical role in movlllg harvested cassava to the market and conveying purchased cassava from the market to the point of end use. These transporters also convey other farm and forestry produces. The genera l perception among transporters is that since the beginning of the implementation of the PIC (particularly from 2003), there has been an increased trend in the business of cassava transportation up to 2006. In 2007 cassava transportation recorded a slight decline due to the poor market performance of cassava (unprecedented fluctuations in the market price), and increased transport costs.

Support Institutions

/Iltematiollai/llstilllte of Tropical Agriculture (UTA) Since its foundation in 1967, IITA has worked with the national agricu ltura l research system as well as agricultural development organizations on the improvement cassava and dissemination of improved varieties, and more recently on the expa nsion of cassava enterprise in Nigeria. The implementation of the PIC in Nigeria has built largely on the achievements of !ITA's research activities. The Institute prepared a research report entit led "opportunities in the

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15 NEPAD . -.~--


industrial cassava market in Nigeria" that was made available to the government of Nigeria and other stakeholders in 2002/2003 in support of the PIC. TITA is currently collaborating with national and international agencies to back up the PIC on cassava by promoting innovative technologies for cassava industrial utilization and development in Nigeria.

In addition, the Cassava Enterprise Development Project (CEDP), which is in support of the PIC on cassava, is being implemented through llTA as a lead institution. This project is a public-private partnership between the USAlD and the Shell Petroleum Development Company to support the development of the cassava sector over a period of five years (2004/05 - 2008109), with the global objective of increase economic opportunities through sustainable and competitive cassava production, marketing and agro-enterprise development in selected communities of the South-South and South-East States of Nigeria. Under the CEDP, lIT A strengthened the human and institutional capacity of producers, processors, commodity traders, and fabricators to produce, process and to market cassava efficiently as well as foster increasing private sector investment in the production, processing, storage and marketing of cassava.

NEPAD Pan African Cassava Initiative (NPACI) Secretariat NP ACI 's Secretariat worked with actors of Federal government of Nigeria on the conception and development of the objectives of the PIC. The Secretariat has been collaborating with all relevant partners to ensure the successful implementation of the program. It assists with the organization of workshops and fora for the planning, funds allocation and execution of PIC's activities.

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16


Achievements of the PIC Substantial progress has been made in implementing the PIC to ensure that the objectives and targets of the program are successfully achieved. This section highlights major achievements per intervention area of the initiative.

Institutional development

The two federal ministries (Agriculture and water resources, and Commerce and industries) put in charge of leading the implementation o(the PIC, collaborated very well early on to facilitate the establishment of the National Cassava Development and Technical Committee. In addition, 'state implementation committees were established in seven states covered by the program.

Cassava production

Available data (FAO, 2007) show that cassava production in Nigeria has increased by 44% (34.120 to 45.721 million metric tons) over a period of 7 years from 1999 to 2006. However, Figure I reveals that the increasing trend of the production actually started in 2002 that is the year the PIC was launched. It would then be fair to assert that one of the key successes of the PIC is the increased cassava production reaching about路 46 million tons in 2006 (FAO, 2007/. Nonetheless, it should be noted that this production quantity represents only 33% of the target production of 150 million tons set by the PIC. It should be also noted that local small farmers are responsible for a larger part of this increase compared to the contribution of commercial large-scale producers.

Information obtained from F AOST AT was corroborated to a large extent by Ibe information supplied by Ibe PCV, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, Abuja.

2

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UTA

17


Figure 1: Quantity of cassava produced in Nigeria, 1999-2006 50,000 ~

~ 45,000

o

~ 40,000 a

!? 35,000 ~

ยง

30,000

'B -g"....

25,000 20,000

c.. 15,000

'~"

10,000

c:l'"

5,000

a

Data source: FAOSTAT 2007

There was also a modest but steady increase in cassava-harvested area from 2001 to 2006 (Figure 2). According to FAO 2007 statistics, cassava crop area in 2006 reached 3.810 million ha, which represents about 76% of the set target of 5 million ha the PIC wanted to achieve by the end of its program. Studies have shown that developments such as farmers ' access to and adoption of improved cassava varieties (Oikeh, 1999) and the availability of improved cassava processing technologies (Asinobi et a!., 2005) are sufficient to promote the expansion of cassava crop area in a production region. As a matter of fact, the majority of farmers who participated to the focus group discussions agreed that one of the key changes in cropping systems in their communities since the introduction of the PIC is the withdrawal of land and other resources from cultivating other crops (e.g. cowpea and maize) to grow cassava.

18

PARTNERSHIPS IN SUPPORT OF CAADP N EPAO ._.---


The increases in cassava crop area and production can then be related to the following realizations of the PIC: • Official release of 5 improved cassava varieties selected from 43 varieties screened under the pre-emptive management of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) •

National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) has been planting annually (from 2003 to 2006) 60 ha to produce 24,000 bundles of breeder planting materials stock

RTEP has been planting annually 80 ha to produce 72,000 bundles of foundation cassava planting materials

At the level of states' Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs), 148 ha are planted annually to produce 59,000 bundles of certified cassava planting materials

• Capacity building of extension workers in states covered by the PIC (southwest, southeast and north central states of Nigeria) • Capacity building of local cassava growers through farmers' associations and NO Os assisted by the program. In addition, the focus group discussions in the study States have revealed that the investment in cassava production by growers' associations and their members has increased almost three fold from 2003 to 2006.

,

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Figure 2: Cassava harvested area in Nigeria, 1999-2006 4,000 .. 3,500

-=0 0 0

::...

... ..... -... os os

3,000 2,500 2,000

~

;>

os 1,500

-=os

os 1,000 os 500 U ;>

~ ~

0 p,o, ,,'ll

s;:,<:) 'j,<:l

s;:,":>

s;:,"

~

'j,<:l

Year

Data source: FAOSTAT 2007

Another factor that might have encouraged the increase in cassava production could be the increasing trend of its farm gate price. Data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS 2006) show that cassava farm gate price has increased by about 25% between 1999 and 2005 (Figure 3). The survey results show that there was a slight decrease of 6.5% in the farm gate price of cassava from 1999 to 2000, and thereafter, it increased by a yearly average of 6%. Members of the cassava growers associations in Kwara, Edo and Abia states also attested (during focus group discussions) that the farm gate price of cassava and the net marginlha of harvested cassava have increased during the period 2003- 2005. The results from the FGDs also showed that cassava market price increased by 39.8% from 1999 to 2004.

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20


Figure 3: Trend of cassava farm gate price, t 999- 2005

Average farm gate price of cassava ~ 25.00

-"

.~;

20.00

-

15.00

z

"

.~ 10.00

..

----

.•

..._--

~

~

"

5.00

E ~

"

"-

0.00

Year

Data source: NBS, 2006

The increased availability of clean and disease free planting materials (Figure 4) could also explain the relative increase in cassava harvested area and production in Nigeria. In addition to the above factors relative to the release of disease free varieties and the multiplication and dissemination of cassava planting materials, the key factors to this increased availability of clean planting materials also include the following: •

Establishment of the PIC state's implementation committees that facilitated and coordinated activities at the state level.

Integration of the PIC substructure to ongoing related projects in Nigeria, such as tbe pre-emptive management of the CMD and the roots and tubers expansion projects.

Creation of effective linkages between the relevant collaborating agencies. Particularly, the effective linkage between IITA, RTEP and the States'

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21

._..._NEPAO


Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) assisted immensely in the efficient multiplication and dissemination of improved cassava planting materials. Data obtained from the NBS showed that the quantity of cassava cuttings produced increased by about 14% over the 6-year period from 1999 to 2005. · •

Local growers were able to access good planting materials as 10 improved cassava varieties were deployed by RTEP in 3 years (2005 - 2007) (Table I).

Figure 4: Quantity of cassava planting materials produced in Nigeria, 1999-2005

-;;;- 4500

~ "0

.--

§ 4000

.D

o

8'-'

3500

.--

r--

,--

r--

0-

,--

"0

g 3000

"0

~ 2500 on en .'" 2000

"

'u:5

'">

'"onon

'" 0 .q ;:: ::l '" CI u "-

-

1500 1000 500

J

0

Year Data source: NBS, 2006

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22


Table I: Improved cassava varieties deployed by RTEP for the PIC in Nigeria Variety

Year of release

TMS 97/2205

2005

TMS 98/0505

2005

TMS 98/0581

2005

TME/419

2005

TMS 9810510

2005

NR 87184

2006

TMS 9210057

2006

TMS 9210326

2006

TMS 9810002

2006

TMS 96/ 1632

2007

Data sou rce: RTEP, 2007

Increased private sector investment in cassava processing and diversification in cassava use The Federal Ministry of Agriculture has reported an increase of the private sector investment in the upstream as well as the downstream sector of the cassava industry, as typified by the creation of companies, such as Ekha Agrofarms (Figure 5), Vesa Farms, Nigeria Starch Mills, and a glucose factory in Ogun State, These companies have invested in large-scale cassava plantation. There was also an increase of foreign investment in cassava flour production as typified by the Dutch Trading Company (DATCO) in Benue and Niger States,

It appears then thai the PIC has stimulated an increase in cassava processing by

both microprocesso rs and medium scale processors, as the initiative has helped create awareness about the multiple possible uses of cassava to produce varieties of products like flour, slarch, cassava chips, glucose syrup, animal

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23

.---._-N EP AO


feed, ethanol, and composite (cassava- wheat) baking flour. For example, the glucose factory in Ogun State commissioned in 2006 is a state-of the-art cassava-based glucose syrup processing plant, first of its kind in Nigeria. The factory has an installed annual production capacity of 30,000 metric tons of glucose syrup.

Figure 5: A view of the cassava processing facilities ofEkha Fanns (Photo from IITA-CEDP)

Other achievements related to development of small and medium processing facilities include: •

Establishment of six primary processing centers. These primary processing centers are located in Sepeteri (Oyo State), Makurdi (Senue State), Owerri (Imo State), Akure (Ondo State), Ankpa (Kogi State) and Ilorin (Kwara State)

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24

\\TA N E P AD


Building and installation of micro processing centers for garri and medium scale factories for cassava flour in all states covered by the program. These micro-processing centers for garri and the medium scale processing factories were equipped with improved and modern technologies to serve as model for private individuals that are willing to invest in cassava process mg.

Stakeholders who participated to the study have identified the following reasons as key factors explaining the above successful expansion of investments in cassava transformation activities, particularly with respect to the small and medium processing: •

Capacity building in cassava processing: 7,500 cassava-processing manuals were provided to farmers' organizations and NGOs for training of local cassava processors

Improvement in the design and development of processing equipment by mainstream fabricators as well as institutional fabricators like NCAM and other medium scale fabricators

Ability of local equipment fabricators to produce quality cassava processing teclmo logies; there is less dependence on equipment importation

Monitoring of the equipment fabricators by the National Agency for Food, Dmgs, Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and SON to ensure that high quality materials, such as stainless stee l for examp le, are used in equipment fabrication

llTA (under the umbrella of the integrated cassava project CEDP) and other organizations provided training to stakeholders.

Main raw material (cassava tubers) is readily available in the immediate vicinity of the medium-scale processing units and microprocessors.

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25

UTA N EP AD


•

Microprocessors of gar; and

JUJII

have their markets readily available;

buyers (final consumers, retailers and middlemen) are demanding high quality gar; and

Jllill

processed under high hygiene standards by using

locally fabricated processing equipments (Figure 6). This finding support the perception that the market for cassava products exists nationwide in Nigeria and that demand has increased substantially since the beginning of twentieth century due to increasing urbanization, population increase and significant changes in food culture (Odebode, 2001).

Figures 6: Women process gari andfiifu under high hygiene standards by using locally fabricated processing equipments (photo by courtesy of llTA-CEDP)

Cassava products marketillg (domestic alld exports) The PIC sub-committee in charge of marketing and export proceeds repatriation was able to obtain purchase orders for Nigeria's processed cassava products from China, South Africa, Bostwana, Namibia, Zambia and some EU countries.

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26

._ ... _N EPAD


It has been, however, difficult to fmd data to substantiate this statement, as none

of the agencies involved in the implementation of tbe M&E component of the PIC was able to adequately fulfil its role and duties. The few data presented below in Table 2 were downloaded from tbe Web by NEPC in response to our request for export data.

Table 2: Export of cassava and cassava products from Nigeria (2004 - 2006) Quantity

Income

Export destination

Product

Year

(mt)

(USS '000)

I. Cassava chips

2004

506

III

2005

291

163

2006

315

179

1,112

453

Total

USA, China

2. Cassava starch

2006

163

206

Cote d' Ivoi re

3. Cassava fl our

2004

3,309

709

USA, UK.

2005

1,369

379

Canada, Ireland,

2006

472

430

Italy

5,150

1,514

Total

Data source: NEPC. 2007

Techllological improvemellt The local (mainstream) fabricators have come up with diverse forms of innovation and improvement to enable the processors to overcome some of their limitations. The locally adapted postharvest technologies were introduced by the IlTA-implemented cassava enterprise development project (CEDP) in support of the PIC (Figure 7). These machineries include flash dryers, pulverizers, centrifuges, and plate mills. Other low cost innovations suitable for

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UTA

27

-_..._tJ E P AD


microprocessing include the improvement of the cassava presser from screws to hydraulic mechanism, design of a mobile grater, improvement in cassava sieve, development of a low cost cassava dryer that can use charcoals and kerosene (for drying of cassava chips and pellets), and the integration of cassava grater, cassava press, cassava sieve and garri fryer in a single package.

Figure 7: Improved cassava processing technologies reduced drudgery and facilitated the processing of high quality cassava products (photo: lIT A-CEDP)

Cassava processors particularly perceived that the PIC has improved their access to improved cassava processing technologies that reduce drudgery and facilitate the processing of high quality cassava products. They also believe that these technologies have enhanced their income earning opportunity.

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UTA R-;;'.w~~~

28

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Ellirallced rllrallivelilroods In general, members of cassava growers associations, microprocesso rs and cassava traders claim that there has been an increase in the employment of women and youth in the rura l communities between 2003 and 2006 as a result of the PI C. Furthermore, they perce ive that the initiative has contributed to increasing rural income earning. According to these actors o f the cassava subsector, househo ld li velihoods have impro ved with regard to children education (payment of sc hool fees). feeding. c lothing and general welfare. However, inadequate monitoring and eva luat ion or the PI C by relevant govern ment departments did not make it possibl e to have reliable stat istics to substantiate this c laim.

Ellirallced lIa/iollal food secllrity Cassava continucs to pla ya vit al role in the enhance ment of national food security in Nigeria. There is the perception among the surveyed stakeho lders of the cassava sub-sector that the increased cassava production engendered by the PIC is contributing to national food sccurit y. Cassava is a chief staple crop and cassava-based processed foods such as garr; can be found in the market and is consumed in a ll states of Nigeria. Recorded cassava production data shows that between 200 I and 2006 the annu al product ion grew at an average rate of about 6%. which the double of the about 3% population growth rate of country.

Oll/reaclr (Ic/ivi/ies ill West Aji-iCtl slIb-region Federa l Ministry of Agriculture and water resources reported that the PI C was able to reach out to so me countries in west Africa to prov ide improved cassava planting materia ls (e.g. Senegal), and improved techno logies for cassava processing and capac ity building on cassava process ing (e.g. Sierra Leone). In

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addition, processed cassava (garri) was supplied to Liberia and Sierra Leone as food aid under the sponsorship of the World Food Program (WFP).

Cassava Enterprise Development Project and the PIC Institutional support to the cassava sub-sector in general and the PIC in particular, comes from a number of sources, including the public sector, research centres and the private sector. Support to the implementation of the PIC includes identification of markets, development of new products and development and promotion of processing equipment. In this section, the support provided by the Cassava Enterprise Development Project (CEDP) and its importance are highlighted.

The CEDP is a public-private partnership project between the USAID and the Shell Petroleum Development Company to support the development of the cassava sector in Nigeria over a period of five years. The project is implemented through HT A in support of Nigeria ' s Presidential Cassava Initiative. The objective of the Project is to increase economic opportunities through sustainable and competitive cassava production, marketing and agroenterprise development in selected communities of the South-South and South East States of Nigeria. The Project's activities were designed to contribute to the livelihoods improvement in selected areas with the following expected key intermediate results: (I) increased market-driven employment opportunities, (2) increased agricultural productivity and marketing, and (3) increased commercial viability of micro-, small, and medium enterprises.

CEDP has been contributing to the establishment of micro- and medium scale processing centers and the introduction of improved postharvest technologies aimed at increasing the income from cassava-based products. The creation of

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these processing centers has contributed to new jobs for both rural women and man. CMD resistant cassava varieties are being distributed directly by CEOP and their partners in the project efforts aimed at increasing agricultural productivity. The project has reported an average yield about 25.6 tlha for CMD resistant cassava varieties compared to 12t/ha for the local varieties in farmers' fields. It has been also reported that an increasing number of farmers are adopting the new improved varieties.

An important component of the CEOP is capacity building of the established

micro, small, and medium enterprises. Existing enterprises and producers and processors groups are provided business development services (BOS) training by the project. BOS training includes product development, sensitisation and mobilization, advice on building construction, machinery installation, enterprise trainings, including business advice given to processors during visits. The trainings include cessions on Starting a new cassava business, Enterprise management, Book and record keeping and marketing, Equipment and general factory maintenance and hygiene, and Product diversification and development.

Constraints to the implementation ofthe PIC in Nigeria Some of the challenges that appeared during the implementation of the PIC are as follows:

II/sufficiel/t supply of improved cassava plal/til/g materials In spite of the efforts by the PIC partners (e.g. CEOP, RTEP, ADPs, and

farmers ' associations) in the multiplication and distribution of improved cassava varieties, many actors have pointed out the insufficient supply of planting

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materials as a major constraint to the successful implementation of the initiative.

Cassava processillg, marketillg alld trallsportatioll There was a positive response to the program by rural farmers and urban entrepreneurs as manjfested in the steady increase in cassava crop area planted that followed the launching of the PIC. The challenge from this development was then how to quickly mop up and process the resulting increased cassava tubers production. This challenge has exposed the inadequacies of the processing facilities nationwide.

The issue of inadequate market access was also reported by the majority of the stakeholders we met. In fact , there appears to be a dearth of information to cassava farmers, processors and end users. Consequently, farmers do not have required information on existing market demand, while cassava end users are short of information on the existing sources of raw materials. Most of the stakeholders perceive that this situation accounts, to a large extent, for the cassava sub-sector actors ' perception of an apparent fresh roots production "glut" in some parts of the country. In addition, there is the problem of lack of access roads to local markets by both growers and processors.

A few microprocessors complained about problems of non-regular payment for their supplies of semi-processed cassava products to the medium scale processors. However, this situation is a fallout of difficulties that the medium scale processors themselves are having with the flour millers, and the problems include high inventory/unsold stock in the warehouse because most flour millers do not appear to be incorporating any amount of cassava flour (whether 5% of 10%) in the baking flour that they are producing. Another constraint

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faced by the medium scale processors is that they usually produce below their factory installed capacity, a situation which entails the same cost of production as if they were producing at full capacity because of the fixed factory overheads. Furthermore, the majority of the medium scale processors have very limited access to distant industrial users of their products in the neighboring states due to the high cost of transportation resulting from the lack of adequate road infrastructures and high fuel cost.

In an attempt to cope with these myriad problems, some of the medium scale processors have had to stop production and temporarily lay of'fworkers in order to prevent the erosion of their working capital. Some of them have tried to obtain short to medium term credits from the microprocessors (that supplies semi-processed raw materials) to them. Unfortunately, it is the inability of the microprocessors to withstand the fmancial stress of these short/medium term credit arrangements that is threatening the very foundation of cassava microprocessing enterprises.

In the three study States, only one (a medium scale enterprise in Abia State) out of the fifteen cassava processors that were surveyed is engaged in cassava products export. TillS company was established in 2006, year during which it operated its first and only export of "garri flour". The total value of the exported products was US$47,000. The major problem encountered by the enterprise is the prohibitive freight rate to the United States of America (export destination) , as well as the

"corruption of government officials and

bureaucratic ineffectiveness" that cost to the enterprise so much resources (time and money) before it could ship the first consignment offulished products to the USA.

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The quality of raw materials is also considered by some actors as a constraint to cassava processing and marketing. The cassava growers associations pointed out that some of the improved varieties (e.g. popularly branded "agric

cassava ") promoted and disseminated under the PIC are less acceptable in the local market because of their high moisture content, which affects their market pnce.

The high cost of local cassava processing (engendered by the poor supply of electricity and high fuel cost) as well as the high transportation cost to the market (local and international markets) are affecting the market pricing, and consequently the level of market competitiveness of the cassava products processed in Nigeria. Because of the pervasive energy crisis in Nigeria, a vast majority of the medium scale processors are currently operating at a loss. Cassava transporters too perceived that this energy crisis is having negative effects on transport fares leading to increasing cost of transportation. The constraint emerging from this situation is that transports alone have to bear most of the added cost, which cannot be passed on totally to cassava producers, processors and marketers.

Finally, the high cost of improved processing technologies represents another critical constraint to cassava processing. The vast majority of the rural poor farmers and organizations are unable to raise the required capital to afford the modern processing facilities.

Poor market price of cassava and cassava products in the last 1 years The market price of cassava and cassava products started falling in 2005. The results from the FGDs showed that price of fresh cassava roots fell in the surveyed states by about 25% from 2004 to 2005 and about 2% between 2005

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and 2006. Many growers have not yet harvested the cassava planted in 2005 as a result of the poor market price. It is likely that the wide scale non-harvesting of cassava planted in 2005 prevented further drastic falls in market price m 2006. However, the unharvested cassava has in some cases rotten or

IS

experiencing unavoidable significant quality deterioration in most fields. This has made it difficult for many farmers in the three study states to recoup their investment in cassava planting in 2005 and 2006. Many of them did not plant cassava in 2007.

Cassava processors, traders and transporters also perceived the poor state of cassava and cassava products market, and the subsequent low profit margin within the last 2 years to be a major inadequacy of the implementation of this Presidential initiative.

Cassava utilizatioll It is very doubtful that the flour millers are incorporating cassava flour (whether

5% or 10%) in the production of baking flour and this is particularly stalling the achievements of the objectives of the PIC. During a visit to a flour Mill the study team was shown a stock of cassava flour that was referred to as the unutilized flour supply being use for the composite baking flour. However, there was no material evidence (e.g. stock of produced cassava-wheat flour) to confirm that the company was indeed processing the composite flour. The cassava flour processors which are holding important stock on unsold cassava flour (because of very little or no demand for it) suspect that each of the flour millers have only made an initial order for cassava flour, which they have gone ahead to stockpile in their warehouse. Such stock is then presented to visitors and/or government officials making enquiries on the incorporation of cassava flour in baking flour. The cassava flour processors would like to see a stricter

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monitoring of the flour millers by NAFDAC and SON to enforce the policy on the utilization of cassava in the baking flour production .

Institutional challenges to the successful implementation of the PIC

The imp lementation of the PI C was expected to run from 2003 to 2007. However. imp lementation of some of the critica l activities stal1ed only in 2004 and the rev ised program completion date was pushed to 2009. The stakeholders reported a number of constraints to the timely starting of the PI C's activities and their successful implementation.

POOl' coordillatioll

Despite statement by so me goverrUllent stakeho lders referring to commendab le co llaboration between the two federal ministries leading the implementation of the PI C, it appears that many of the above listed constraints were not adeq uately addressed due to the lac k of centra l coordination to oversee the g loba l implementation of the initiative . It is o ur understanding that NPAC I 's Chairman in Nigeria was to play the role of Coo rdinator of the PIC Secretariat, as he had coordinated a ll planning studies. He was to deliver a monthl y briefing to the Pres ident of N igeria on the PI C implementation progress. However. the eva luation team was not given any document to substa ntiate the existence of an operat iona l PI C coordination Secretariat. It appea rs that this gap was left to be filled by the two federal ministries (FMA WR and FMCI) that shared the superv isory role (through appo inted PI C desk officers) w ith co nsequent ineffic iency.

The lack of spec ial izat ion of various stakeho lders a long the cassava va lue chai n was perceived as an important constraint to the successfu l implementation of

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the program. This is reflected by the following statement by one of the participants to the survey: 'Evelybody seems to be doing evelything at the same

time; e.g., same entrepreneurs wanl

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plalll cassava, process and market; this

has led to confusion ill the chain' '.

blsllfficient fllnding To date, the government has released less than 5%

eN 130 million) of the W5.4

billion initially proposed for the fi.mding of the PIC. Many implementing states also did not pay-up their counterpart funds.

In addition, there is a lack of affordable credit facilities for producers as well as processors. Almost all the actors (cassava growers, processors and traders, equipment fabricators, bakers, and transporters) operating in the cassava value chain in the country, agree that the lack of access to micro-credit (from formal credit sources) is a major limiting factor to from the successful implementation of the PIC.

The survey results showed that the lack of access to micro-credit is a limiting factor to the expansion of various activities such as cassava growing, processing, utilization, transportation and marketing as well as the fabrication of the production and processing equipment. This fmding corroborates the observation by Sanni et a!. (2007) on the collective deleterious effects of the lack of access to micro-credit facilities by stakeholders of the cassava sub-sector in Nigeria.

Poor monitoring and evaillation It appears that there have been no structured M&E activities since the start of the inlplementation of the initiative. There is practically no data collected by

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relevant agencies on cassava processing and marketing in Nigeria. Hence, it is very difficult to evaluate the filii progress and impact of the targets and objectives set by the PIC. According to some of the key stockholders an M&E system was designed at the inception of the initiative. However. there no designated body in charge of this component that is instrumental to the success of any development project.

The only reliable and regularly published progress measures are provided in the quarterly reports ofCEDP. The project has identified outcomelimpact indicators based on the specific target objectives as follow s: •

Income from cassava-based products Total gross income from the functional mobile grater, micro- processing and smalVmedium-scale enterprises

Increased Market-Driven Employment Opportunities Job creation data (number of persons employed disaggregated - male, female, youth)

Increased Agricultural Productivity and Marketing Sales of agricultura l commodities/products (garri. fufu, flour, high quality cassava flour, cassava chips, and starch.) Area under sustainable management: This is the total land area farmed in targeted States, using at least one improved practice. Productivity of selected commodities/products Clients using improved technologies Number of farmers provided with number of bund les of improved cassava varieties

Increased commercia l viabi lity of micro, small, and medium enterprises Number of enterprises benefiting from Business Development Services (BDS)

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Lessons learned and the way forward for the PIC on cassava

Implemelltation strategy Nigeria's Presidential initiative on cassava appears to be well focused as its areas of intervention (development of cassava production and processing, expansion of cassava and cassava processed products marketing) were adequately integrated to the cassava va lue chain development activities of the federal ministries (Agriculture and water resources, and Commerce and industries) leading the implementation of the initiative. However, despite the alleged good collaboration between the two ministries, it appears that the implementation of the PIC suffered the lack ofa central coordination that would have contributed to avoid or quickly overcome some of the constraints described above.

We believe that a Secretariat of the PIC could provide a stronger and unique institutional support to ensure proper implementation and management of the program. This Secretariat should be placed under the administrative authority of the Office of the President. The decisions of the Secretariat would be operationalized by a multi-disciplinary cassava sub-sector development task force (CSDTF). The task force members should come from the line federal ministries of Food and Water resources and Commerce and Industries. However, the task force will operate under the direct authority of the PIC 's Secretariat. Efforts should be made to provide autonomous management authority to the Secretariat to avoid unnecessary bureaucratic and political obstacles.

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MOllitorillg alld E,'aillatioll (M&E) M&E is essential for adequate management of the PIC. Efforts are needed to institutionalize M&E, which should be participatory and implemented through learning-by-doing and feedback mechanisms. All key stakeholders, including researchers, farmers, traders, processors, and policy makers will be involved in M&E to build ownership, as well as individual and collective responsibility. Their involvement will help ensure that their perceptions of progress are taken into consideration. It is important that all the implementation actors be involved in the identification of relevant outcome and impact indicators to monitor the progress towards the program objectives, and evaluate the impact of the achievements. M&E reports will be disseminated to create awareness among all stakeholders involved in the program.

Cassava prodllctioll Available data showed that the initial stakeholders' enthusiasm about the PIC contributed to a significant increase in cassava production. But, stakeholders' expectations have dropped considerably because of the above implementation constraints (i.e. low availability of improved clean cassava planting materials, processing and marketing constraints, poor funding of the initiative) . This situation has affected the inilial positive production experienced during the first full three years (2003 - 2005) of implementation of the PIC.

It appears that an initial substantial investment by the government is called for,

especially for the production and dissemination of sufficient supply of improved planting materials. To this end, the program needs to put more emphasis on a nationwide promotion of community-based multiplication and marketing of good, true-to-type cassava planting materials. It is also necessary to improve producers' access to farm inputs by creating adequate linkage between cassava growers and inputs suppliers.

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Cassava processing and utilization The PIC has stimulated an expansion in cassava production and this call for an expansion of utilization, processing and commercialization to provide a range of food, feed and other industrial products from cassava to ensure that the objectives of the initiative are fully achieved. To this end, the following actions are necessary: Increased research-for-development efforts and investment in the area of cassava utilization and processing are required Initial substantial investment by the government for the establishment of farm gate processing centers Joint partnership between Nigerian entrepreneurs and foreign investors for a successful provision and operation of adapted and efficient processing units Formal legislation required to facilitate the compliance of relevant implementing actors for a successfu l achievement of some of the objectives of the PIC, such as the inclusion of cassava in baking flour.

Cassava marketing The PIC was instrumental

ill

uncovenng the potential export market for

products from cassava. However, findings of the study show that there are several constraints to both domestic and export marketing of fresh cassava and cassava processed products that need to be solved. First of ali, there is a pressing need for a well-designed market information system (M1S) to improve the dissemination of market information to cassava farmers, marketers, and end users. Second, there is the need to reduce export tax on cassava products and adjust some of the stringent export laws to make export of cassava products attractive to processors] This could help stimulate the entry of nascent Nigerian A medium scale processing company in Umuahia, Abia state (Aquada Nigeria Limited) gave a vivid account of the experience of the company on exportation of processed garri flour to USA

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companies into the cassava international market. Third, concerted policy measures must be taken to stabilize cassava market price and prevent the almost yearly recurrent cassava supply glut from June to November, when cassava market price is usually low due the abundance on the market of several staple food substitutes to cassava. Finally, regional trade and economic cooperation between the producing and processing countries in sub-Saharan Africa must be encouraged to reduce the collective deleterious effects of the ineffective trade laws on the development of the cassava sub-sector.

Entrepreneurship motivation Some government stakeholders perceive that the majority of entrepreneurs had a misconception of the PIC, as they were under the illusion that government was to buy back what they produce (tubers, processed products). There is a sense that most of these .. businessmen" have yet to develop a businesslike attitude to enterprise. This could be facilitated by providing entrepreneurship development training needs to small and medium scale producers, processors and marketers. Strategies should be developed to encourage specialization of entrepreneurs in specific aspect of the cassava sub-sector along the value chain and operate either as producer, processor or bulker/marketers.

Sustain ability of ti,e PIC The sustainability of the PIC depends strongly on the effectiveness of the public-private partnership advocated by the program. However, it appears that the majority of the implementing actors are relying essentially on government intervention. As proposed above, we think that government should provide an initial adequate funding to support all activities considered critical for managing the implementation of the program. After that the primary role of the in 2006. Amongst the problems encountered by the company are high export tariff, official corruption and bureaucratic bottlenecks.

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government should be to facilitate and promote private sector led strategies to ensure the sustainability of the initiative. To this end, all stakeholders must commit to the initiative and be involved in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the program. Access to micro -credit needs to be improved for the primary actors (e.g. cassava growers, cassava processors, cassava traders, equipment fabricators). It is very important that the M&E component of the initiative be reviewed, adapted, and institutionalized.

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Ghana Presidential Special I nitiative on cassava The presidential Think Tank that initiated the PSI on cassava has identified the establishment of the corporate village enterprises (COVE) - under a farmers' ownership model-

as the best strategy to address poverty reduction problem in

both rural and urban communities. Starch was identified as the product with higher value. Hence, plans were made to harness the best technology to produce best starch in the region. The COVEs were to establish cassava starch factories that would then serve as the fulcrum of activities on the development of the cassava sub-sector. The expectation was that the provider of the processing technology would facilitate the starch market entry to the established factories.

The implementation of the initiative was devolved to the secretariat of the PSI on cassava under the President Office and the direct supervision of the Ministry of Trade and Industries. The various actors involved in the implementation of the PSI on cassava in Ghana are listed below with a brief description of their main roles and responsibilities in the execution of the program.

Government stakeholders

Secretariat of the PSI 011 cassava The secretariat of the PSI on cassava coordinates all aspects of the design, planning and implementation of the PSI on cassava. It was mandated to coordinate the establishment of three pilot cassava-starch processing factories. To date, only one of the factories, the Ayensu Starch Company Limited, has been established. Other practical tasks of the Secretariat included: Coordination of the provision of planting materials to farmers Facilitating the organization of farmers into enterprise groups

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Sourcing for market for cassava starch in the domestic and export markets Providing training for the technical personnel Facilitating the development of social infrastructures (roads,

electricit~,

water supply etc) in the project communities Sourcing for fmancial support to the PSI on cassava, to help the establishment of the cassava starch factories.

Millistry of Food alld Agriculture (MOFA) MOFA collaborates with numerous primary stakeholders on the implementation of the PSI on cassava in order to ensure the success of program implementation. It collaborated with the secretariat of the PSI on cassava (on project design and

planning, sourcing for funding and establishment of ASCO), the Roots and Tuber Improvement Network (on the production and distribution of good planting materials to local producers), and with Crops Research Institute (on the selection and multiplication of the most appropriate cassava varieties to suit the objectives of the initiative).

Crops Research Illstitute (CRl), Kumasi CRI is assisting in the development of food and industrial crops in Ghana. To that end, the institute had been working to help with the conservation of all ' cassava germplasm even prior to the introduction of the PSI on cassava. With the launching of the initiative, CRI took on new responsibilities and played key roles in the implementation of the PSI on cassava. It contributed to the release of four improved cassava varieties in 2005 and to the supply of adequate quantity of the foundation stocks of high quality planting materials to farmers. A researcher from the institute was seconded to the established pilot starch factory for technical backstopping of the management team of the company.

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The Roots and Tuber Improvement Project (RTIP) This agency was recently reorganized and is now known as the Roots and Tubers Improvement and Marketing Project (RTIMP). It has collaborated with other agencies such as CRI to help provide good planting materials to farmers. RTIP has also provided counterpart funding for the initiative to cover for the lack of direct funding by the central government, as its objectives were complementary to the goal of the PSI on cassava. RTlP in collaboration with CRI also promoted the development of community-based cassava multiplication scheme to improve the access of local producers to superior planting materials.

Primary actors of the cassava value chain in Ghana

Cassava growers associations Some of the growers associations have up to 10, 000 members (e.g. Ayensu cassava farmers' association). Their major roles in the implementation of the PSI include: ensuring adequate linkages between the local cassava producers and the cassava starch factory, supplying raw materials (i.e. fresh cassava roots) to the starch factory, assisting members to expand cassava production. These associations were also meant to contribute to the creation of more rural employment through cassava production, to assist members for improved access the local market, and work with relevant government structures to ensure the successful establishment of the cassava starch processing factories as planned by the program.

Ayensu Starch Company limited (ASCO) The frrst public-private partnership enterprise, ASCO was established in 200 I, but it began production only in 2003. It has an installed capacity to produce 3 tons of cassava starch per hour (or to process 300 tons of raw cassava per day).

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The expected contribution of the ASCO factory to the implementation of the PSI on cassava includes: Value addition to cassava through the processing of high quality and food grade cassava starch Wealth creation for farmers in the catchments areas of the factory (nine contiguous districts to the factory) through job creation Increased marketing of cassava starch on domestic, regional and international markets Acceleration of economic growth in the non-traditional export sector.

Organized private sector This comprises the privately founded companies prior to the PSI on cassava and new emerging enterprises thanks to earlier achievements of the PSI on cassava. These enterprises are making efforts to harness private capital to establish and/or up路grade processing plants to process diverse cassava products (e.g. CALTECH on cassava ethanol), hence increasing the contribution of the private sector to the successful implementation of the government's initiative on cassava. The organized private sector is expected to provide employment opportunities in the cassava sub-sector (through the engagement of the contract growers and other factory workers), and lay the foundation for the sustainability of the PSI on cassava.

Support institutions

The Intemational Institute of Tropical Agriculture (/ITA), Ibadan The implementation of the PSI on cassava in Ghana had also built greatly on the cassava improvement research at liT A: The three major cassava varieties with good starch content (Afisiafi, Doku Duade and Agbelefia) deployed on the implementation of the PSI on cassava were all developed at IlTA, Ibadan.

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IITA's links with national systems are of great importance for the realization of common goals. I IT A has been active in maintaining and further improving linkages between the cassava program and the national root crops programs in Ghana and other African countries.

NOIl-govertlmellfal orgallizatiolls (NGOs) The roles performed by some of the NGOs, such as the Farmers' Organization Network of Ghana (FONG) , include the multiplication and distribution of cassava planting materials to farmers (in collaboration with RTlMP) , capacity strengthening of loca l processors to produce cassava starch using traditional processing technologies, and the coordination and technical backstopping of farmers ' groups. These NGOs also provide training to farmers on the best agronomic and crop management practices. They have played advocacy role to ensure guaranteed adequate producer prices to cassava farmers' groups.

Achievements of Ghana PSI on Cassava

The PSI on Cassava has made some progress (although this was below expectation) towards the Ghanaian government's goal of adding value to cassava to tap in the potential of the cassava sub-sector. The major achievements are highlighted below per intervention area of the initiative.

Illstitutiollal developmellt Several key ministries were put in charge of handling various aspects of the implementation of the PSI. The Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) and the Ministry of Finance are in charge of the estab lishment of the cassava starch factories. The Ministry of Works and Housing was leading the provision of

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infrastructures (road, potable water supply system) in the communities where factories were to be located. The Ministry of Energy was in charge of ensuring correct provision of electricity, while the Ministry of Communication was in charge of provision of telephone and other telecommunications services to the factories and the surrounding communities. The Secretariat of the PSI on cassava (Figure 8) was successful in coordinating the activities by these various ministries to establish the ASCO factory. The philosophy behind the PSI on cassava could have greatly enhanced rural transformation in Ghana if the government and its partners had succeeded in establishing the planned 10 cassava starch factories.

Figure 8: Office oflbe Secretariat oflbe PSI on cassava in Accra, Ghana

Cassava production

Farmers were organized into vibrant well-structured groups; this qualified them to benefit from government assistance program for cassava production. The creation of farmers ' organizations was facilitated by the Secretariat of the PSI on cassava and few active NGOs in the targeted project areas. The program helped significantly to improve farmers ' access to good quality cassava planting

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materials of 3 varieties (ajilsiaji, tek and abasaJeta) . Between 200 I and 2004, RTiP cultivated a total of 11 ,969ha to produce improved cassava planting materials. Furthermore, a total of 11 ,563 community-based planting materials production units were established between 200 I and 2003.

The initial well-elaborated launching and sensitization campaIgn by the Secretariat of the PSI was instrumental in creating awareness on the potential economic profitability of cassava enterprise. Activities were undertaken to enhance capacities of farmers and farmers ' groups and facilitate best practice in cassava production, and to help in the development of agri-business ventures and related entrepreneurial skills.

The market condition was favorable to farmers from 2001 to 2003 and cassava production increased during that period. Results showed that in 200 I, cassava land area in Ghana was 0.726 million ha while production quantity was 8.97 million tons (FAO, 2007). By 2003 the cassava land area increased by about II % while production quantity increased by 14%.

The key factors of this increase in cassava production include the fo llowing: Initial successful coordination work performed by the PSI ' s Secretariat through a system of Cassava Desk Officers that were posted in all the implementation districts in Ghana. The desk officers contributed to the implementation of the program by providing required back-stopping to various relevant actors involved in the program. Increased farmers ' access to good quality planting materials of disease resistant and high yielding cassava varieties. This resulted partially from the establishment of a proper network for the multiplication of planting materials through a network that includes: (i) MOFA (providing and managing primary multiplication sites); (ii) the contract growers (providing

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and managmg secondary multiplication sites); and (iii) the individual farmers (providing and managing tertiary multiplication sites). Extensive collaboration between Crop Research Institute (CRl) and Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Program (RTIMP) to ensure provision of technical support to the PSI. RTIMP had also on ground a multidisciplinary inspection team to certifY planting materials before coppicing and distribution to local producers. The farmer-to-farmer diffusion approach enables the rapid dissemination of quality planting materials. The strong commitment of the government extension agency to mobilize farmers through a participatory information and education campaign. The district assemblies joined efforts with the PSI on cassava and farmers ' organizations (e.g., ACF A) to multiply planting materials and to produce cassava as raw materials for the anticipated starch factories.

Unfortunately, the above emerging cassava production success was only for a very short period. The study [mdings presented in figures 9 and 10 show that from 2004 both cassava land area and production quantity began to fall. Cassava land area fell by 2.9% in 2004 and 4.3% in 2005. Production quantity also fell in 2004 by nearly 5% and by about 2% in 2005. In 2006, there was a little upward swing (of about 5%) in cassava land area, but the production quantity barely changed.

Farmers groups in the focus group discussions confirmed this fluctuating trend in cassava production in Ghana. It is explained in part by the inability of the government to fi.lI1d the initiative and contribute to establishment of the other nine planned cassava starch-processing factories. The inefficient functioning of the only cassava starch factory (ASCO) established through the program has also negatively affected farmers ' production activities.

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Figure 9: Quantity of cassava produced in Ghana, 2001-2006

'"

12000

'"

E 10000

0 0 0

"--'

-u'"

8000

.S

"0

.",

...

0-

';>-"

'"'"'" U'"

6000 4000 2000 0

s:::.'

",,1::5

Year Data source: FAOSTAT 2007

Figure 10: Cassava cultivated area in Ghana, 2001-2006

..

800

~

.c 700 Q Q

E

600

...:::..

500

'"~

::: 400

...>

~ 300

..'"'" "

> 200

U

100 0

s:i'

",<:5

Data source: FAOSTAT 2007

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Cassava starch processillg To date, only one out of the planned ten factories has been established under the PSI on cassava. The Ayensu Starch Company limited (ASCO) was created. This state-of-the art cassava processing factory (Figure II) was commissioned in February 2004 by the Ghanaian President. The necessary infrastructures (telephone, roads, potable water, electricity etc) that were supposed to go with the factory (to rural the community) were also provided.

Figure 11 : ACFA's President and ASCO gatekeeper pausing in the factory

ASCO was producing a high-standard and food grade cassava starch thanks its ultra-modem equipment required for high quality cassava starch processing. Another factor that enabled ASCO to produce such a quality starch has to do with the improved availability and access to high-grade cassava varieties (e.g.

Ajisiaji -- TMS 30572--, Doku Duade and Agbele/ia) suitable for the production of cassava starch (Table 3). Hence, Ghana established a comparative advantage in the international market in the area of production of high standard (food grade) cassava starch, but the ASCO factory was operational for only a very short period (2003-2006) and the program was not successfi.1l in establishing any other company as previously planned.

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Table 3: Improved cassava varieties deployed by RTIP for the PSI on cassava in Ghana Variety

Year of

Characteristics

release Afisiafi (TMS

1991

30572)

High yielding (27 - 30 t/ha), disease resistant, high dry matter content

Abasafihaa

199 1

High yielding

Tekballl.y e

1994

High yielding and can be pounded

Agbelefia

2005

High starch content

Doku Duade

2005

High starch content

Data source: RTfMP, 2007

Cassava starch (domestic and exports) marketing

The demand of the cassava starch produced in Ghana has been high on both domestic and export markets. The cassava starch produced by ASCO was appreciated in the regional (West African) market as well as the European market. In the first year of the factory operation, finn starch orders exceeded market supply by ASCO. From 2003 to 2006, ASCO exported a total of 3206 tons of cassava starch to Cote d' lvoire and Denmark. Furthennore, the price of cassava starch increased by 105.9% between 2003 and 2006 (Table 4). Stakeholders we have met admitted that efforts by the Secretariat of the PSI significantly contributed to the success of the cassava starch made in Ghana on local and export markets. Unfortunately, production has been interrupted since December 2006 due to fmancial and other management difficulties.

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Increase private sector investment A number of private enterprises are investing in cassava production, processing and utilization in Ghana. Examples are CALTECH, Amantin Village Company, and Brong Ahafo regional company. These enterprises are targeting the production of various processed cassava products such as ethanol for biofuel, high quality cassava flour and feed . Caltech Ventures Ghana Limited has established a plantation of 162 ha of improved cassava. This company has also organized a scheme of cassava outgrowers to provide the needed raw materials for take-off of its ethanol production scheduled to start in 2008. It is planning to produce annually six million liters of ethanol, 60% of which would be exported.

It appears that the current increase in investment by most of these private sector initiatives directed to the processing and marketing of new cassava products (e.g. biofuel, chip, high quality flour and starch) stemmed from the awareness created by the PSI on the economic importance of cassava, the initial increased cassava production and the successful debut of ASCO.

Constraints to the implementation ofthe PSI on cassava A significant numbers of technical and operational constraints have held back the correct and full implementation of the PSI on cassava.

ASCO factory location, inefficient operations and "nfavorable operating environment Although the ASCO factory is not located in the major cassava belt of Ghana, the company has planned that 70% of cassava roots to be processed would be supplied by local farmers (members of Ayensu cassava farmers' association) , while the remaining 30% is provided by the factory's own plantation. This

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situation affected seriously the adequate supply of raw materials to the factory and subsequently its efficient operation. Factory workers we met during the study admitted that the factory was never able to operate at its full installed capacity of processing 300 tons of cassava/day (or production of 3 tons of starch!hour).

Furthermore, because of the low level of cassava production in Awutu-Bawjiase (i.e. actual location of the factory) , ASCO has competed over the years with the local cassava users in the district as well as local users, from neighboring communities of Togo Republic, who attend the local market regularly to buy cassava. The effective operational cost of the factory was too high due to its operation below factory installed capacity. This considerably affected the company' s profitability, as well as its ability to pay good salaries and maintain good working conditions for its staff.

The lack of adequate road infrastructure has made very difficult for the suppliers to bring in raw materials to the ASCO factory from locations out of the company ' s surrounding districts. It appears that the PSI strategy favored a shift of the burden of transport from individual farmers or farmers ' group to the established COVE. Farmers were selling fields of ripe cassava instead of harvested produce to ASCO. The company then harvest amount of roots that could be easily transported by trucks to the factory. Unfortunately, due to poor funding of the company' s activities, ASCO has been unable to ensure a regular supply of fresh cassava roots to the factory.

The financing problem has also affected the ability of the factory to raise the needed working capital required for its operations and the ability of the management to pay for raw material supply on time. Initial funds for the implementation of the PSI on cassava (including the establishment of ASCO)

56

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were borrowed from commercial banks, and were to be reimbursed when the government would bring promised money to carry out the initiative. However, the banks that were providing this initial financial support eventually backed-up when they realized that their investment to the PSI venture has not been yie lding the expected returns.

ASCO has not been able to satisfy the market demand for its products. The lack of technical expertise in some areas (such as export marketing) affected the competitiveness of the company o n the international market. The company exported 1600 metric tons of cassava starch in 2003, but the export volume recorded a dramatic fall to the very low figure of just II metric tons in 2006 (Table 4). Some stakeholders attributed this failure to poor management and various marketing constraints, such as discriminatory importing laws in some potential buyer countries (e.g. Nigeria banned the importation of cassava products from other African countries to ensure the success of its own PIC). The ASCO factory stopped operating in 2006 and the plant had not yet resumed production when the evaluation team visited company in December 2007.

Table 4: Export of cassava starch by ASCO, 2003 - 2006 Year

Export quantity (mt)

Price per ton ($)

Total export value ($)

Export destination

2003

1600

170

272000

Denmark

2004

1100

200

220000

Denmark

2005

495

320

158400

Cote d' lvoi re

2006

II

350

3850

Cote d ' lvoire

Total

3,206

654,250

Data source: ASCO. 2007

This disruption in the starch producing activities has affected the ability of the company to meet its obligations to its contract growers. Because the factory has

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not been buying raw materials, farmers cannot harvest the cassava that they were contracted to grow in 2005. Some of them, particularly members of the Ayensu Cassava Farmers Association (ACFA) and Densu cassava growers association, are getting concerned that unharvested cassava is loosing starch content because the ripen roots have remained too long in the soil. The most popular cassava variety grown by members of these farmer groups is ajisiaji (TMS 30572), and only the starch processing factory would accept it because of its high starch content. The local market demand for such variety is very low because it is not good for the production of local foods (e.g. fitfu and gari) . The suspension of ASCO's starch factory production activities has also led to a slight fall in the market price of cassava in 2006/2007. This situation

tS

seriously compromising the prospect of success of the PSI on cassava.

Figure 12: An ACFA member's unharvested

Figure 13: A view of the FGD session with

cassava field located at about 5 km from tl,e

members of the Densu cassava producers

Ayensu starch factory in the district of Awutu-

association of South Senchi vi llage,

Bawjiase, Central Gbana.

Asuogyaman district in Eastern Ghana

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Poor fUlldillg The lack of the promised government financial support to the initiative was a major limiting factor to the implementation of the PSI. ASCO could not support the high operational cost of the factory, as well as raw material supply prices that farmers were asking for. The coordinating secretariat then opted for borrowing from the private financial institutions in order to be able to carry out relevant activities at both farm and factory levels. But, private credit sources were starting to be reluctant to funding fresh cassava production activities and the starch factory.

Low availability of raw materials (fresh cassava roots) supply From 2003 to 2006 when ASCO starch factory was still running, the small scale farmers (especially members of ACFA) on which the company depended for the supply of fresh cassava roots were unable to meet the factory's demand of raw materials. The program then tried unsuccessfully to bring in commercial farming to grow cassava for the factory. Most of the targeted richer agricultural producers did not fmd the activity as an attractive investment, and they would rather invest in the production of crops such as pineapple that has a better recognized economic status in Ghana.

Womell participatioll It has not been possible to achieve one of the primary objectives of the PSI on

cassava that was to have women representing 50% of farmers involved in the program. However, women have traditionally been involved in the local microprocessing of cassava (e.g., garri,fufu, flour, chip and starch) to meet the needs of local consumers. In 1999 a study by FAO found that about 40 percent of chip processors were women in some key cassava producing areas in Ghana. Now that there is a greater awareness about路 the high potential benefit of cassava

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enterprises and the fact that cassava is fully integrated into the cropping system, opportunities exist to bring women in cassava growing activity if there is no problem of access to land and labour cost is kept at a reasonable level.

Institutional challenges to the successful implementation of the PSI

Weak stakeholder Iillkages It appears that there were no well established linkages between the principal

actors involved in the implementation of the PSI on cassava. For example there was no memorandum of understanding between the Secretariat of the PSI and farmers/farmers ' associations. This has negatively affected the commercial relationships between the program and farmers, making it very difficult to overcome various implementation problems.

Prior to the PSI, there were number of projects such as the IF AD-funded initiatives that were supporting the development of the cassava sub-sector in Ghana. Sasakawa Africa Foundation has completed a project that disseminated cassava-processing equipment, especially to women 's groups. Lessons learnt from another important development initiative (the Village Infrastructure Project) by the Ghana Government would have helped in the implementation of the PSI on cassava. This project contributed to the development of village-tofarm tracks that were complemented by the introduction of intermediate means of transport to replace carrying loads on the head. Such transport arrangements could have facilitated the movement of cassava and help to strengthen the linkages between cassava farming and the non-farm sector (the starch factory).

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However, there was no effort to link the implementation of the PSI on cassava to the outcomes of these past projects. Hence, potential useful lessons were not drawn from past and/or on-going activities in the cassava sub-sector. In addition, a number of relevant research institutes (e.g. CR! , RTlP, Food Research Institute, Natural Resources Institute) were not fully involved at the planning stage of the initiative. Representatives of the PSI ' s Secretariat do not think that RTIP was supporting the initiative in a specific way. International Research institutions operating in the region, such as liT A, were completely out of the picture.

Lastly, it appears that the NEPAD Pan African Cassava Initiative Secretariat (NPACI) has not significantly contributed to the implementation of the PSI on cassava in Ghana. The Secretariat of the PSI on cassava would have benefited tremendously from the NPACI's support.

Lack of a fitllctiollillg M&E system Like in the case of the PIC in Nigeria, there was no operational M&E system to assess the progress towards the objectives of the PSI on cassava. The stakeholders, particularly the PSI Secretariat was therefore lacking a valuable information generating tool that could enable them to monitor and assess progress and take collective decisions and actions to ensure that the program is on the right course.

Political rivalry According to some major actors, political opposition failed to see the PSI on cassava as a program that was targeted at rural development in Ghana. Members of some opposition parties saw it as a propaganda instrument of the incumbent governing party, and they were willing to see the initiative thwarted. Some of

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them even try to create disagreement between some local stakeholders (particu larly farmers supplying the raw materials) and ASCO and its management.

Lessons learned and the way forward for the PSI on cassava Implementation strategy The corporate village enterprises (COVE) model was a new concept that most people did not understand. Furthermore, the PSI set up root in the eivil service bureaucracy. These were the major bottlenecks to successful implementation of the PSI on cassava.

To achieve the set objectives of the initiative, the Secretariat of the PSI should provide a strong institutional support to ensure proper implementation and management of the program. This could be done through a design simi lar to the one described above for the PIC in Nigeria.

The PSI was successful in the creation of farmers' organizations. The Ayensu cassava fanners ' association and the Densu cassava producers association are two success stories of the PSI. These were two dynamic producers ' organizations that contributed significant ly to early successes of ASCO. Unfortunately, farmers are loosing the enthusiasm that was generated by the launching of the initiative. There is today a need to remobilize farmers and fully involve all other relevant partners (espec ially research institutions, development agencies and NGOs) and a ll major political wings in PSI related program planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

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The participatory Information Education Campaign (IEC) at the beginning of the PSI contributed to the successful creation of fanners' organizations and the establishment of the ASCO factory. The lack of information and misinformation of stakeholders are currently among the chief implementation constraints of the PSI's activities. The task force that would be fonned should develop a cOlTununicationiadvocacy

system

aimed

at

.

.

Improvlllg

information

dissemination, favouring participatory and informed debate related to the implementation and monitoring and evaluation of the program.

MOllitorillg ami Evaillatioll (M&E) M&E is essential for adequate management of a program such as the PSI. Efforts are needed to institutionalize M&E, which should be participatory and implemented through learning-by-doing and feedback mechanisms. All key stakeholders, including researchers, farmers, traders, processors, and policy makers will be involved in M&E to build ownership, as well as individual and collective responsibility. Their involvement will help ensure that their perceptions of progress are taken into consideration. M&E reports will be disseminated to create awareness among all stakeholders involved in the program.

Cassava prodllctioll One lesson learnt in this area is that farmer friendly planting materials distribution is a key factor to the successful dissemination of improved cassava varieties and to increase productivity and production. Therefore, the program should continue the promotion of business oppOltunities in the production and marketing of cassava planting materials to ensure a sustainable raw materials (fresh cassava roots) supply to processors. The PSI should make efforts in building farmers ' capacity on best practices for the production of cassava planting materials as well as fresh cassava roots.

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Funding problem was also found to be very critical to the successful implementation of the PSI. Efforts are needed for increased local producers' access to proper credit sources such as micro-credit schemes.

Finally, there may be a need for land tenure system reform in some cassava producing communities to help improve women's access to land and their involvement in the activities of the PSI.

Cassava starch processi"g Future plans by public-private partnerships to establish cassava starch factories should consider the availability of the primary raw materials (fresh cassava roots) as an essential factor in the choice of the sites of cassava starch factories. Raw cassava is bulky to transport, and the ratio (in tons) of some of the available varieties to finished product (cassava starch) is too wide (5.5:1). The bulk and perishability of fresh cassava mean that demand for transport is high. PSI's Secretariat and partners will need to develop cost effective and appropriate transport arrangements to preserve the quality of both the raw materials and fmal processed-cassava products.

The management of ASCO 's farm operations and the factory running as a single economic entity has proven to be very challenging and this contributed in part to current inoperative status of the PSI on cassava. Many actors of the PSI agree that the management of ASCO's farm operations need to be separated from the management of the factory operations. Furthermore, farmers should be duly represented in the company' s governing board and empowered to guarantee that legitimate interests of farmers ' groups are taken into account for making any final decision related to the management of both operational

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components (farms and factory) of the company. A Cumpany Management Information System (C/MIS) should be developed to help create a physical, technical, institutional and human environment conducive to the efficient operation of the factory.

The Secretariat of the PSI and the CSDTF will regularly review the results achieved by the company and take appropriate necessary actions to ensure the sustainability of the venture. In addition, the task force should, on the basis of identified training needs of stakeholders (farmers, traders/processors) , provide tailor-made training programs with a view to promoting stakeholders participation in effective execution ofthe company's activities.

Critical technical and financial assistance through proper affordable credit sources is required to help ASCO factory to resume production at optimum capacity and prevent an irremediable shutdown of the company.

Relevant research organization should be fully involved and properly funded to ensure that new high yielding cassava varieties, with desire starch content, are developed and disseminated to ensure reliable raw materials supply to cassava starch processing factories.

The government should catalyze the public-private sector partnership by providing the enabling environment (through legal, policy and institutional reforms) to help build more cassava starch processing factories. Ghana appears to have acquired international comparative advantage in the productio n and market supply of high quality, food grade cassava starch.

The PSI on cassava should seriously reconsider the possibility of implementing the second option that was identified by the Presidential think tank as an

~" \\T~

65


alternative strategy of addressing the vital rural and urban poverty reduction mission. This alternative was based on a mobilization of small scale producers to strengthen their capacity for producing fresh cassava and add value to it. Such model could be used to increase economic opportunities through sustainable and competitive cassava production, marketing and agro-enterprise development in selected communities. There would hence be an expansion of postharvest processing and marketing outlets for cassava products, which could in medium term lead to the development of viable micro-, small, and medium enterprises. This is exactly the model being used by IlTA-CEDP in support of the implementation of the PIC in Nigeria.

Conclusion The Nigerian Presidential initiative on cassava and the Presidential Special Initiative on cassava of Ghana have adopted two different approaches to promote cassava production, processing and marketing to tap on the enormous potential of cassava for food security and income generation in both rural and urban communities. In Nigeria the PIC's strategy was to increase economic opportunities

through

sustainable

and

competitive

cassava

production,

marketing, and micro-, small- and medium-scale agro-enterprise development. The Ghanaian approach is based on a farmer-ownership Corporate Village Enterprises (COVE) model, which seeks to bring rural communities into mainstream economic activity by establishing large-scale export-oriented enterprises. Despite the difference in approach, both countries are facing similar problems in the implementation of their respective program. The major constraints include institutional challenges (poor coordination of program implementation,

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poor funding and access to credit, lack of an operational M&E system, cassava production constraints (e.g .. low availability of improved planting materials), and processing and marketing constraints (e.g. management difficulties of established processing enterprises, inadequate market access due to lack performing market information system). Nonetheless, the PIs have helped create awareness about the multiple possible uses of cassava to produce value added products such as flour, starch, cassava chips, glucose syrup, animal feed , ethanol, and composite (cassava-wheat) baking flour. Both the public and private sectors have been giving increasing attention to the cassava sub-sector. In Nigeria the PIC has stimulated an mcrease in cassava production and processing by both microprocessors and medium scale processors. In general, government programs are aimed at improving productivity and production, while the private-sector initiative is

expanding demand sources in Ghana and Nigeria. These strategies can complement each other if the identified bottlenecks are adequately addressed. For example, a coordinating Secretariat of programs such as the PIs would provide a stronger and unique institutional support for proper implementation of the programs. This Secretariat should be under the direct authority of the Office of the President. It should operate with a multi-disciplinary cassava sub-sector development task force , which members will come from the relevant line ministries (e.g. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ministry of Commerce and Industry). Strong linkages between different actors including the Secretariat of the

PI,

public

producers/processors

and

private

associations

key are

implementing essential

for

institutions, the

and

successful

implementation of a program such as a PIon cassava. Institutional support from national public services such as research institutions and external institutions such as liT A would significantly contribute to the "

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, .,


growth of the private sector initiatives aimed at the development of the cassava sub-sector. As a matter of fact, the Integrated Action Program for Cassava Starch Production and Export in Ghana and then the PIC in Nigeria were respectively launched following successes of the cassava research-fordevelopment by liT A and partners in sub-Saharan Africa.

The findings of the present study fall short of giving a detail account on the progress of the specific objectives of the Pis on cassava in the study countries. Because of the lack of an operational M&E system, there is limited awareness of the actual impact of the PIs and progress towards their set objectives. This situation poses basic questions about the effectiveness and efficiency of targeted interventions and whether they have achieved the intended benefits. There is little or no documentation of the outcomes of the Pis' activities in both study countries.

Nonetheless, findings of the study on the lessons learned could help NPACI to assist the current Pis and countries planning to have their own initiative in designing programs and subsequent implementation plans that would help to successfully achieve the set objectives.

It is especially important to develop techniques generating data on regular basis

to carry out actual data collection and analysis for M&E in partnership with stakeholders. Such participatory M&E will document, store, and share PI implementation processes, outcomes, impact and lessons learned using a range of mechanisms, including regular bulletins, annual review and stakeholders work planning meetings, monitoring visits, PI progress reports. On the basis of the results

0

f the M&E activities, actions will be taken with a view to ensure

that the goals and objectives of the initiative are being or will be achieved.

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References A.G.O. Dixon and G. Tarawali. 2007. Cassava Enterprise Development Project (CEDP). Quarter and Annual ReportReporting Period: Jul. - Sept. 2007 & Oct. 2006 - Sept. 2007. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (liT A), Ibadan, Nigeria. AI-Hassan R. and I. Egyir. 1999. The potential for farmlnon-farm linkages in the cassava sub-sector in Ghana. FAO. Available on the Web: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/00Sly4383E/y4383e07.pdt:

Asinobi, C. 0., B. Ndirnantang and C.U. Nwajuiba (2005). Cassava production, processing trends and constraints in Ohaji-Egberna LGA oflmo state, Nigeria. Retrieved on 16 October 2007 from httpllwww.csus.edulorg/capcr/documents/archives/200SIConferenceProceed ings/Asino bi. Biopact team (2007). Caltech Ventures to produce ethanol from cassava in Ghana.Retrieved on 2 November from http://www.modernghana.comlGhanaHomelN ewsArchive/news details. asp ?menu id=l&id=VFZSUkIFMXFVVFU9. Daily Trust (2007). Nigeria: Flour Millers Accused of Frustrating Cassava Production. Daily Trust Newspaper edition of21 September 2007. Ezedinma, c., L. Sanni, and R. Okechukwu (2007). Socio-economic studies on selected cassava markets in Nigeria. lIT A, Ibadan. FAO, 2007. FAO Database: Crops production. Retrieved on 19 July 2007 from http://www.faostat.fao.orgl. FGN Office of Public Communication (2005). Cassava Initiatives in Nigeria. Retrieved on 27 July from http://wwwnigeriafirst.org/article 430l.shtml. liT A (2006). Annual Report, 2006. liT A, [badan.

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Ikechukwu, Ezekwe Esq. (undated) Impact of population growth on the attainment of the millennium development goals in Nigeria - evidence submitted by African foundation for population and development, Abuja, http: //www .appgNigeria. Downloaded from the Web at: popdevrh.org.uklPublicationslPopulation%20HearingsiEvidencel AFPODE V%20evidence.doc. Iweke, F.l., Spencer, D.S.C and Lynam, J.K (2002). The cassava transfonnation: Africa's best-kept secret. Michigan: Michigan State University Press . Johnson, N.L., V.M. Manyong, A.G.O. Dixon, and D. Pachico (2003). The impact of IARC genetic improvement programs on cassava. Pages 337 354 in R.E.Evenson and D. Collin (eds) Crop variety improvement and its effect on productivity Wallingford: CAB I. Knipscheer, H; C. Ezedinma, P. Konnawa, G. Azumugha, K. Makinde, R. Okechukwu and A. Dixon (2007). Opportunities in the industrial cassava market in Nigeria. lITA,lbadan . Odebode, S.O. (200 I). Rural women cassava processors: technology and acumen for marketing in Nigeria. Pages 96-100 in M.O. Akoroda (eds.) Root crops: the small processor and development of local food industries for market economy. Proceeedings of the 8th Triennial Symposium of the ISRRC-AB, lIT A, Ibadan, 12- 16 November. Oikeh, S.O. (1999). IITA resource and crop management technologies: A synopsis. Ibadan: lIT A. Onabolu, A.O. and M. Bokanga (1998). The promotion of cassava as : commodity for the food industry. A case study in Nigeria. Pages 293 - 29, in M.O. Akoroda and 1.J. Ekanayake (eds). Food Crops and Poverty Alleviation. Proceedings of the 6th Triennial Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops - Africa Branch, Cotonou, Benin Republic: ISTRe-Africa branch, Ibadan.

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Sanni, L., B. Maziya-Dixon, A.E. Okoruwa, B. Arowosafe, 1. Lemchi, F. Ogbe, C. Ezedinma, R. Okechukwu, M. Akoroda, E. Okoro, P. Ilona, T. Babaleye and A. Dixon (2007) . Cassava post-harvest needs assessment survey in Nigeria. liT A, Ibadan, Nigeria. Spencer, D.S.C. (1994). Infrastructure and technology constraints to agricultural development in the humid and sub-humid tropics of Africa. IFPRl: EPTD Discussion Paper No.3 . Tonah, S. (2006). The Presidential Special Initiative on cassava: A bane or blessing to Ghana ' s smallholder farmers . Ghana 10urnal of Development studies, 3( I): 66- 84. World Bank . 2000. World Development Report 20001200 I, Attacking Poverty.

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Appendix List of interviewees Name

Country

Address

Nigeria

Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Area II, Garki, Abuja Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Area II , Garki. Abuja Roots and Tubers Expansion Project, Federal Department of Agriculture, Ijebu-Ife Roots and Tubers Expansion Proj ect, Federal Department of Agriculture, Ijebu-Ife Nigerian Export Promotion Council Export House. Block 312. Kumba street, Wuse Zone 2, Abuja Nigerian Export Promotion Council Export House, Block 312, Kumba street, Wuse Zone 2, Abuja Cassava Agro Industries Services Limited, The Cassava House, House 32,351 Road, Off3'" Avenue, Gwarinpa, Abuja Federal Ministry of Commerce, Garki, Abuja Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Abuja Raw materials Research and Development Council, 17 Agunyi Ironsi Street, Maitama District, P.M.B. 232 Garki, Abuja Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, Km 3 Asa Dam Road, P.M.B. 1489, lIorin National Centre for Agricultural

Mr L. A. Fashola Dr. S. Nagedu

Nigeria

Dr. A. Adenij i

Nigeria

Alhaji limoh

Nigeria

Mr. William Ezeagu

Nigeria

Mr. Anthony Ajuruchi

Nigeria

Mr. Boma Anga

Nigeria

Mr A. Madu

Nigeria

Mr. Timothy Onyenankeya Mr. Tunde Aluko

Nigeria

Dr. A.a. Oyebanji

Nigeria

Professor ani

Nigeria

Nigeria

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Telephone / Email 0805 961 0052 0802 337 0646

08032727759

08032727759

0803 588 0345

0803 303 1097

0804 215 4569 08033944144 08033025064

08033908094

08033649168

72 A

._..._NEPAO


Mr. Sola Ogunjirin

Nigeria

Mr. Abiola Komolafe Mr. Kwaku Bonsu

Nigeria

Mr. Papa Kow Bartels

Ghana

Mr. Osei Owusu Agyeman

Ghana

Mr. Amoah King-David

Ghana

Mr. Akwasi Adjei Adjekum

Ghana

Mr. Samuel Dodo Dr. J.J. Afuakwa Dr. J. AduMensai

Ghana

Mechanization, Ajasepo Road, lIorin National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization, Ajasepo Road, lIorin Standards Organization of Nigeria, Lagos President's Special Initiative, Office of the President, State House. P.O. Box 46, Accra President's Special Initiative, Office of the President, State House. P.O. Box 46, Accra President's Special Initiative, Office of the President , State House. P.O. Box 46, Accra FONG. P.O.Box MD 772, Madina Haatsol Atomic Road Bus stop, Accra Root and Tuber Improvement and Marketing Programme, P.O.Box , 7728, Kumasi, Ghana ACTA, P.O. Box 40, AwutuBawjiase, Central Region, Ghana Crops Research Institute, Kumasi Crops Research Institute, Kumasi

Ghana

-

Ghana Ghana

,

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PARTNERSHIPS IN SUPPORT OF CAADP

08033649168

+ 233 21 665442

+23 321 502673

+2335 133159

0244576008

73

UTA N8.PAO

"-----


\TA_ Couor "'" ClodIToy TM ChIouw. IITA _


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