Page 24, TH I SDAY, Vol. 16, No. 6070
Tuesday, Dfiembe r 6, 2011
FEATURES EonUR: R OLAND O GBONNAYA "
Climate Change Mitigation: What Prior to the on-going Climate Change Conference in Durban, South Africa, Nigeria lreld a series of preCOP 17 deliberations that would decide the countn/s official position at the global forum. St"akeholders from all strata of the society in Nigeria met to pu t a final seal on the National Climate Change POliClJ and fine-tune Nigeria's position where nearly 200 govem"ments are meeting to negotiatefurther action to addres!; climate change. Against the background of failed promises by the rich countrie.; in the past, what prospects does tire COP 17 in Durban hold for developing "countries to get afairer deal this time around in mitigating effects of the phenomenon? Godwin Haruna writes
the unfortunate inciden t of the bomb blas t at the UN House in Nigeria regrettably slowed down progress achieved in the for· mulation process. However. he u;pressed the happiness that the goal of having I final document \I\'U achieved at the session in Abuja. !-Ie promised adequate representation at COP 17 in Durban 50 that the counuy's position could be effectively pre. sellled . Two major issudl will stand out for Nigeria and other de\'CI· oping na tions attending the United Nations Climate Change Summit IlfId these are the Green C limate Fund (GCF) and the Kyoto Protocol (Kp). However, 1$ the negotiators continue their horse trading at the ongoing conferenc:e, lntemotional lnstitute for Environment and Development o utlined three steps to ensure developed cou ntries meet their agreed commi tments to help poorer nations aIlljN to climate change. It will be m:alled that five key promises have already bee n made by rich countriC$ but unfor· tunately, these nations have yet to show how they can meet these commitments. In 2009, developed nat ions promised USS30 billion between 2010 and 20 12, and USS IOO billion a year by 2020 to enable developing nations to adapt ta climate change and reduce thtir emissions af greenhouse gases. A t las t year's UN climate change conference in Cancun. Mexico, nations reiterated the.se pledgC$ and specified that funding for adaptation should be adequate, fairti shared between donors. balanced with funding fOf mitigation. WXeted on a needs basil. and sovemed well . But the new ana lysis by the International Insti tute for Environment and Develo pment shows thai these promises are DOt being met - and these melllU poor countries will find it hanSer la adapt 10 climate c.hIJ1ge . In the light of the failed promises in the past, negotiators in Durban have been ulled by the Institute to correct this situ.a.tion with three ways: adojNing a transparent. centn.Ilsed acc;:ounling limate Changl~ issues have dominated public disc:curse system: establishing funding sources based on internati onal mostly in !he: past one week because o f the ongoi ng tmde; and defining annu al targets to scale up the total funding Dulban conference on !be subject matter, where. nearly for adaptation . 200 go\'ernrIl!:nts are being represented to proffer IOlu· "M oney bas yet to flow 10 meet even the ITIOIt ullent adaptions to die j:roblems thrown up by the phenomenon . Wian nteds ar the Least Develaped Countries." u id IUthor Here in Nigeria. before the conference began last week, David Ciplet of Brown University in the United SlateS. who several udkshops .... ere organised by the Special Climate added: HWithout adeq uate aDd predietable funding. devcloping Change Uni t of die F-!deral M inisuy o f the environment on the .coun tries "!ost vulnerable to clima.te. c,!ange ,~annot .respo~d subject. II is the me;.sure of imponance IUtached to the issue , ; effective ly. AU of the tal k about' ·!ldaptatiorl ~tn .caocun Will that academic! . tivil .;OC:iely organisations, technoaats from all rriean liltle unless reliabl e fundirig iourob are eslllblished in tiers of SO\'emment a i well a5 media practitioners were brought Durban.· together to formu lat·! a common position for the country It E\'Cn 1$ the argumen t ~es at tile. international level over COP 17. commitme nt o f the indUStnalised world towards funding for Speaking in one of the sessions in Abuja, Head of the mitigatian mcuwes. Nigeria lacks an institutionalised frame· C limale Change Unit. Federal M inislI)' of the Environment. Dr, work that supparts a domestic climate finance regime. The Firsl Samuel Adejuwon . said C limate Otange encompassed vinual· National Comm unications under the UNFCCC lasl prepared in . Iyall areas of our Ji ve.s Ind therefore. it wu imperative that 2003 provides some form of guide on national circurnsllnte.s there is a policy framework to guide intervention measu~ by on climate changt, minus the financial needs assessment of all the ]e\'els of government in the cou ntry. Adejuwon said ,Ii what is required to addres.s the s.ituation. Though sevcral cli· the \-arious stakeholders have been working towards achieving mate change initiatives are beinS proposed . includin g the set· the goal of the Nati'ID:J1 Policy Documents. He said without ting up of I C limate Change Trust Fund . most of such initia· having I II the seeton represented in the documenl. the desired ti\'es seem not widlin the context of any policy and are indted obj ective might nol te achieved and dlat was why the preparayet to materiaJise. lion wu staned in 2( 09 . Speaking on the issue of funding, Mr. Peter Tarfa of the He said initiall y. the activities of the group were funded by Climate Chl nge Unit of the Ministry of the En\'ironmenl said the United Nat ions [1e\'Clopment Program~ (UNDP), before the key requirement for access ing international funding is the the go\'Cmment toc.k ovtr formall y last year. He s~ that
ability for recipient counlI)' to demorn;lnlte financial mana· gerial integrity, with strong institutional and Itgal capacity ta roonitar aDd track funds in the implementation of projects and programmes. These condition pm:edents ha\"e fully come to pilY in the operations af funds like the Adap18tion Fund and the World Bank's Climate Investment Funds. thereby underlying the role of strong nationa l insti tutions forciimate governance . Tarfa eAplained furthc:r thaI adaptation fund5 are meant ta finance concrete lWiaptation projects and progr.unme.s in de\'eloping countries. He said a project is financed from the share of proceeds (2'io) on die clean development mecha· nism project activities and other SOU~ ar funding . He added that invited developed countries to provide funding. which will be Idditional ta the shru-e of procteds and shall be operated and managed by an entity entrusted with the operation af the (jnancial mechanism of the Con\'ention under the Suidance by CMP. According to him. there must be justification for the project. which woold be endorsed by the government through its de.signated authority. He added that the project/programme should suppon concrete adap tation actions to I!:.;ist the country in addressing the adverse effects of climale change and build in climale change resi lience. Tufa explained that the cbosen project must be cost· effecti\'e in com parison to other possible in terventions. It should also provide economic. social and environmental benefits. with panicular re ference to the moSt vu lnerable communities, including gender considerations . Ibe project I programme must be consisten t wi th natian' al sustainable development strategies. national de\'Clopment plans, poven y reduction strategies. national communica· tions or adaptat ion programmes of action. and other relevant instnunents. The project Iprogramme meets the relevant national techn ical standards: EIA, building codes." he added. ther requirements, Taxfa pointed out is that the proj· ect docs not duplicate or a\-erlap with activities runded through odler fundi ng sources: it hu a learrung and knawledge management component 10 capture and feedback lessons; it hu been developed through, a consl!hative proce.ss involvi ng all Slake· holders . including Vulnerable communities and women . He added that the requested project funding must be wi thin the cap of the cou ntry, which is currently SIOm and that the. implementing entity management fee must be at Of below 8..!5 per cent of the. totll projectf programme budgel before the fee . Furthermore, the projecllprogramme eJ:CCU' tion costs musl be al or below 9.5 per cent of the total project! prognunme budget before the fee . Also speaJting on the theme: 'Enhancing climate finance: : undtntanding the direct acte.S5 moda liry and the role or the fiduciary standanis in emerging climate finance discourse' . Mr. Huri !\ishelia of the ministry said only Kyoto Protocol panie.s are eligible far the Adaptation Fund. However, Mshelia said cenain conditions musl be met before approvals are gh·tn. These include financial and management integrity. which he said is the ability to accurately and regularly ~rd transactions and balances 10 an appropriate standards as attested by a competent body: abi l·
Tuesd ay, Dt.'Celllber 6, 2011
THISDAY, Vol. 16, No. 6070, Page 25
EATURES It- is now realised that human-induced climate~ chimge ~ould be the most important global environmelltal challenges facing humanity with implications for food security, natural ecosystems, freshwater supply, health etc
" Prospects from- Durban Conference? ity to safe guud. manage and disburse funds effectively to recipients on ~ ti meJy basis; com~ lency 10 produce forwllJ'd· Iook.i n! plans anti bl.dgeu antl legal SllItus to contract with the AF and 3rt! pa,1 its. nolher. he sa d. is requisile insti tutional capacity and it re lalts 10 the: procurement procedures Ihat provides for uansparelll com~lilion includin~ effective means o f redress: cap::city 10 undenake monitoring and evaluation: abil it), ·0 identify. de\elop and appraise projects and compe te ICY 10 manage and oversee projects execution. 11k:: last on': is tlansparency and ~ If.i nvesti!ath·e powers and anti~OfTUption measures. which is the freedom to whislle blow on issues o f fn.ud and gross mismanagement; and objec· tive policies for sel '-regulation, these capabilities. he added. musl be demOnstnlled by the eOlity and noc outsourccd. He added that climate governance policy refonn is imperative for guverrunents to provide the sophistica tion demanded by the e merging climatt' finance regimes and appropriate policy 10 overcome national C:lpacity constraints, To avoid buJiot'ss 85 usual. Mshelia urge!.! Afriau CQUulries to dC\'elop appropria:e national capacities to set up their NIEs and dcvc:lop an exit strategy for MIE activity wilhin recipient nations, He said the! should urgemly re\'iew/evaluate institutions to dctenlline which can meet Fi nancial StandanI.s. He suggested that Arrican .'OIlnrries must adopt "learning by peen" method where the acCfed ited African NJEs provide lessons for the otheB, Also speaking on the proposal for Nigeria Slrlltt'gic Climate Change Trust fund ill one of the sessions in Abuja .a consultAr1t 10 UNDP. Prof. Enur.anuel L:adipo, said the phenomenon is currently enjoying pan;';ular attcnuon as Ihe primary environmentnl and de\'elopmenl threat of the 2 15t century. He said it is now on, the global politi( al agenda as ne\'er bdo~ because. after years of Skepticism, it is now realised that human·induced cli' mate change could be the moSI impol tant global en\'ironmental challenges facing humanilY wi th implicatiol1lll for food security. natural ecosystems, freshwa er supply, health etc, "AU evidence poiut to the fae;! that climate change is aggnvating the environnental issues of deforesllltioo and land dt'gradatioo, freshwater shortllge, rood 5et:urity and air and waler poll ution, The. is expected to exacerbate the impacn of deforestation and olher economic pressures leading 10 further wa ter shortllSc, land degradation and desertification in a positive feedback mccha lis m that encournges the ~inforcement of negath'e climate cha 1ge impacts :' Wipo said. He said climate ctange is II serious threat to pove rty eradication and sustainable de ve lopment in Nigeria. "This is because the country has I laJ,!I;C runll population directly depending on climate-sensitive e<X nomic and dc\'elopment secton (agricul. IU~ and flSherles) ard natural resources (such as water, biox1ivenity, gras5 land) for their subsistence and Ih'Clihood~, In addition, the adaptive capacilY of the rural majority to climate change impacts is very low. Unfortunately, most culTCnt develupment strategies in the country tend to overlook climate change riSQ. The COSts of nol addn:ssing climate changc or to adapt 10 it are very uncertai n, but their welfare COIlSeqllCJK'CS are c111CCted to be enormous," he sllIted.,
In Nigeria. Ladipo said ensuring sustainable financin$ of adaptation anq to some extent mitigation measures and actions could constilute II major constraint in the country 's effons 10 cope with the impact of climate change , He sttused Ihat the government has taken the path o f addressing squazely the issues of dimale change in a coherenl manner that will reduce the country 's vuln erability and enhance its resilience 10 the impact of climate change. UFully awm o f the seriousness and urgency of climate change and with a deep sense of respoll5ibllity for the longtenn de~'elopmen t of mankind . Nigeria is finnl y comOOned 10 sus tainable development that tt\kes cogniz.ance of the need to mainSln:am climate change into in development process and plans. includins lhe 7-Poinl Agenda o f the ~n t administra· tion and the VlSion 20:2020. which is to POSition the country 10 become one of the top 20 economies in the world by 2020,~ he said . He said since the signin g of the United Nations Framework Convcntion on Climate Change and iu; Kyoto Protocol . Nigeria has been actively involved in international activ ities for their implementation, Ladipo posited that tackling the impact or climate change to prevent it from becoming a development cataStrophe requires
cooperntion and joint efforts by the international comm un ity,ls well as undertaking concre te national iniliatives. He said since Nigeria is oot a major emitter of greenhouse IlSCS (GHGs) that m the major contributors to global wanninl, the country's focus would be more in adaptation. Howcvu, he lidded that there is also the need for lhe country 10 undertake serious vul· nernbility analysis in order to ha\'C evidence-based infonn3ti on for planning against climate change·induced ntgati\'e develop. ment consequences. MOl'CQvt'r, it is also imperative for Ihe cou ntry to cond uct proper inventory of its oil and gas sector. which COl15ti tutes the main sources or i\S contribu tion to global GHGs. To do all these effcctively, Ladipo said the cou ntry would require a lot: of resources beyond what go\'Crnments al al l 1e\'Cls could provide. This. he said, u the rationale for 10vernmc.nCs decu ion to esLablish I Strategic Climate Change Trusl Fund thai would be contribu ted and used by all stakeholders in the country to address Io::y di· mate change problems or challcnges, as well as ex plore the opponunities for de"elopment while rombating climate change in the country, According to him, the advanlllges of having this Trust Fund wou ld include, among others: Mechanism ror the coordination of many stn:ams of financing that the country may attract from the Ilobal pool of resources. This will avoid fragmentation and invisible impacts: Alignmenl of funding allocatiol15 to national climate strategies: Leveraging and catalyzing low carbon investments beyond the trust fund by working with sectoral ministries, it can acl 10 calalyse their own sectoral funding to invest into low carbon de,":elopment pathways. In this w~y. low carbon options will not be a " pilot" bul becomes I mainstream investment option in the relevant sccton. thers aze encouraging broad·based panicipation of al l stakeholders. including CSOs and the private seclor, rO£ innOYlltive and qu ick impact initiatives: Enabling the country to align to the: cUlTCnt trend of international negotiations , which is moving away from project-byproject fund ing to benchmark-based financing ror national Stnltt'gy; Coordinated monitoring and communications nationaUy and sJobally: The !rUst fund of a larae sile and magnitude can potentially produce huge impaclS, pulling Nigeria a globaJleader in punu!nl high-growth low carbon developmenl pathways . 1be p~nt initi.ti\·e of putting in place a Natiooally Strategic Climate Change Trust Fund is a response to the need to broaden the scope o f national inter.entions for impact at all levt'ls of governance through strntegic allianCe! among development partners and mobilization of additional resources for suuainability of activities to check the climate chaos. The Fund's niche will consist of parmenh.ip building, fungible programme componenlS, extens1ve stakeholder panicipalion. cog~ nate technical expertise and broad range of contribution from tnditional and non-tradilional sources. The Fund will be designed with a view to t.ackling climate change impacts to reduce the vulnerability 'B nd increase the resilicnce of the ~ple. as well as improvi ng the O\'enlll well· being of people hving in the very vulnerable areas of the coun· try. The vulnerable segmenu; of the population in panicular will be provIded with enhanced opportunities to manage their natu· raI resoun::es for sustainable livelihoods and poveny reduction in the face or climate change consequences," Ladipo said. The panicipants agreed that beyond COP 11 and any other international engagement, Nigeria must effectively address the challenges that climale chan~e poses to different scctcm of the society, Policies that are cnticaJ must be initiated, including appropriate mitigation action plans, National Adaptation Stnttgies and Plan of Action (NASPA), Tcchnology Needs Assessment, Funding Needs Assessment, and regular National Communications (NCs),
liThe Fund will be designed with a view to tackling climate change impacts to reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience of the people, as well as improving the overall well-being of people living in the very vulnerable areas of the country"